Volume 64 - Number 1 - Spring 1998

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications.

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

64:10095 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. Issues of data quality in assessing mortality trends and levels in the New Independent States. In: Premature death in the New Independent States, edited by José L. Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell. 1997. 120-55 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter addresses issues of data quality that affect the interpretation of reported mortality levels and trends in the New Independent States (NIS). It presents an overview of data quality issues for readers who are not necessarily specialists in demography or familiar with the quality and types of data that are available from this part of the world. We examine data from selected regions and dates, while drawing the reader's attention to broader issues and the existing literature on the quality of data from the former Soviet Union....The purpose of the analysis is to identify ways of improving data collection in the NIS, especially Central Asia, so that policies and interventions related to health and mortality can be more effectively developed and targeted."
Correspondence: B. A. Anderson, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10096 Bobadilla, José L.; Costello, Christine A.; Mitchell, Faith. Premature death in the New Independent States. ISBN 0-309-05734-5. LC 97-67217. 1997. x, 404 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The Workshop on Mortality and Disability in the New Independent States [formed following the collapse of the Soviet Union] and the Workshop on Adult Health Priorities and Policies in the New Independent States were held in September and November 1994, respectively. This volume includes an overview and revised versions of 13 of the papers that were presented; the workshop agendas are presented as appendices....The volume is organized in two parts....The first deals with the magnitude, trends, and causes of premature death, while the second addresses the proximate determinants of the diseases and injuries that cause the greatest number of premature deaths and measures for their reduction."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10097 Bobadilla, José L.; Costello, Christine A. Premature death in the New Independent States: overview. In: Premature death in the New Independent States, edited by José L. Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell. 1997. 1-33 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors briefly outline the papers presented in this volume. "Chapters 2 through 6 examine the evidence for declining life expectancy in the NIS [New Independent States of the former Soviet Union] to determine the magnitude of the decline and the extent to which it is attributable to statistical rather than substantive issues....Chapters 7 through 14 examine possible causes for the large number of excess deaths in the NIS. They focus on three key health behaviors--alcohol consumption, tobacco consumption, and diet--and describe preventive health interventions in these three areas that have proven effective in other industrialized countries."
Correspondence: C. A. Costello, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10098 Brui, B.; Zbarskaya, I.; Volkov, A. On the present and future state of mortality in the Russian Federation. [O sovremennom sostoyanii i prognoze smertnosti naseleniya Rossiiskoi Federatsii.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 3, 1997. 54-8 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Recent mortality trends in the Russian Federation are analyzed using data from official sources. Most of the data presented concern the period 1960-1996. Data are included on the mortality of the economically active population and on infant mortality and the causes of infant deaths. Consideration is given to probable future trends in mortality.
Correspondence: B. Brui, Goskomstat Rossii, Izmailovskoe Shosse 44, 105679 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10099 Capocaccia, Riccardo; Farchi, Gino; Barcherini, Sabrina; Verdecchia, Arduino; Mariotti, Sergio; Scipione, Riccardo; Feola, Giuseppe; Cariani, Giovanni. Mortality in Italy in 1992. [La mortalità in Italia nell'anno 1992.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 97-32, 1997. ii, 60 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanità [ISTISAN]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Data for mortality in Italy in 1992 are presented by age group and cause of death. Regional totals are also included. The data are taken from official sources.
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10100 Chen, Michael C.; Lee, Mei-lin. Marital status and life expectancy. Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, Jun 1997. 19-38 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"[Many] researchers [have] used RMR (Relative Mortality Rate) to study marital status and mortality trying to reveal the selection and protection effects of marriage on death. This study instead employs life table technique to analyze their effects on life expectancy. Although this study does not intend to differentiate the relative importance between selection and protection effects,...modeling various hypothetical cohort's marital experiences in [the] life course allows us to control all [factors other] than the sole effect of marital status."
Correspondence: M. C. Chen, National Chung-Cheng University, Institute of Social Welfare, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10101 Kingkade, W. Ward; Arriaga, Eduardo E. Mortality in the New Independent States: patterns and impacts. In: Premature death in the New Independent States, edited by José L. Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell. 1997. 156-83 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors review mortality patterns in the countries of the former Soviet Union. They first "review data and measurement issues, respectively, that are encountered in examining mortality patterns in the NIS countries. Next we present results for mortality levels and cause of death. We then briefly examine mortality trends during the 10-year period, 1979-1989, preceding the breakup of the Soviet Union. The final section presents a discussion of the results."
Correspondence: W. W. Kingkade, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Soviet Branch, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10102 Martens, W. J. M. Climate change, thermal stress and mortality changes. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 3, Feb 1998. 331-44 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"One of the potential effects of an anthropogenically induced climate change is a change in mortality related to thermal stress. In this paper, existing literature on the relationship between average temperatures and mortality is evaluated. By means of a simple meta-analysis an aggregated effect of a change in temperature on mortality is estimated for total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. These effect estimates are combined with projections of changes in baseline climate conditions of 20 cities [around the world], according to climate change scenarios of three General Circulation Models (GCMs). The results indicate that for most of the cities, included, global climate change is likely to lead to a reduction in mortality rates due to decreasing winter mortality."
Correspondence: W. J. M. Martens, Maastricht University, Department of Mathematics, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10103 Murray, Christopher J. L.; Bobadilla, José L. Epidemiological transitions in the Formerly Socialist Economies: divergent patterns of mortality and causes of death. In: Premature death in the New Independent States, edited by José L. Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell. 1997. 184-219 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine levels, trends, and patterns of causes of death in the Formerly Socialist Economies, a region consisting of Eastern Europe and the New Independent States. The focus is on "identifying the patterns that may explain [the region's] unusual mortality experience....[One section] presents results of the analysis with respect to mortality patterns and years of life lost. This is followed by discussion of the unique mortality trends and cause-of-death patterns in the region of the Formerly Socialist Economies that includes the northern European former Soviet republics. The final section presents conclusions."
Correspondence: C. J. L. Murray, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10104 Palamuleni, Martin E. Mortality level, trends and differentials in Malawi. Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1994. 68-74 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This article examines the levels, and trends and differentials in mortality in Malawi....The study has shown that (i) the level of mortality is very high in Malawi; (ii) mortality has declined during the period under review; (iii) there was reduction in the rate of mortality decline in the seventies; and (iv) [there are] interesting differences in mortality in terms of rural-urban localities, regions and age-sex differentials. The observed levels, trends and differentials in mortality are however consistent with the level of social and economic development in the country."
Correspondence: M. E. Palamuleni, Chancellor College, Demographic Unit, P.O. Box 280, Zomba, Malawi. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:10105 Palloni, Alberto; Hill, Kenneth. The effects of economic changes on mortality by age and cause: Latin America, 1950-90. In: Demographic responses to economic adjustment in Latin America, edited by Georges Tapinos, Andrew Mason, and Jorge Bravo. 1997. 75-128 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The question that we attempt to answer in this paper concerns the association between economic fluctuations and mortality changes [by age and cause] in Latin American countries during the period 1955-90. We are interested in elucidating the existence, magnitude, direction, and trends of linkages during a period that witnessed both sustained (but not continuous) economic prosperity--basically the years between 1949 and 1965--as well as severe economic recession--the period after 1975. We are also interested in determining whether the association between economic oscillations and mortality varies across countries in ways that are consistent with the conjecture that adjudicates similarities between `poor' Third World countries and pre-industrial Europe, on the one hand, and `richer' Third World countries and contemporaneous developed countries, on the other...."
Correspondence: A. Palloni, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10106 Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.; Meslé, France; Vallin, Jacques. Recent trends in life expectancy and causes of death in Russia, 1970-1993. In: Premature death in the New Independent States, edited by José L. Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell. 1997. 34-65 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper has presented an analysis of the trends in Russian mortality during 1970-1993 by specific causes and the effects on life expectancy, differentiated by both age and sex. It has also focused on trends in certain specific causes, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and alcohol and violence. The findings presented help elucidate the cause components and patterns that contribute to the distinctive picture of Russian mortality during this period."
Correspondence: V. M. Shkolnikov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Forecasting the National Economy, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10107 Tabeau, Ewa. Mortality in Poland since 1950. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1996/1997: selected current issues, edited by Hans van den Brekel and Fred Deven. 1997. 101-40 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this contribution, mortality in Poland is investigated and evaluated in comparison with other developed and less-developed countries. The intention of this article was to evaluate mortality statistics produced for Poland in the past, make necessary corrections of the officially published indicators, and finally use the recalculated statistics in the analysis of mortality trends and patterns since 1950....The paper consists of five parts: Infant mortality problems, the quality of existing life tables for Poland, trends in overall mortality and cause-of-death components of mortality, and finally, mortality in the transition years 1989-1993 evaluated from the perspective of past trends."
Correspondence: E. Tabeau, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10108 Vassin, Sergei A.; Costello, Christine A. Spatial, age, and cause-of-death patterns of mortality in Russia, 1988-1989. In: Premature death in the New Independent States, edited by José L. Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell. 1997. 66-119 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors analyze mortality trends in Russia by spatial differentials, age, and causes of death for the years 1988-1989. They examine "the variation in mortality levels in Russia in 1988-1989 by selected causes of death: injuries, cardiovascular disease, and neoplasms....Differences in underlying age patterns of mortality are then investigated....Next, the chapter compares the Russian mortality patterns with Coale-Demeny model life tables, other standard mortality patterns, and other European and U.S. patterns."
Correspondence: S. A. Vassin, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Forecasting the National Economy, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10109 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health (Copenhagen, Denmark); United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe (Geneva, Switzerland); Statistics Netherlands (Amsterdam, Netherlands); National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (Amsterdam, Netherlands). Atlas of mortality in Europe: subnational patterns, 1980/1981 and 1990/1991. WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 75, ISBN 92-890-1339-7. 1997. xi, 245 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
This atlas documents geographical patterns of death in Europe in a series of maps. "The Atlas does more than give national averages for all the main causes of death in the WHO European Region; it gives data on regions within countries and shows changes in mortality at this level between 1980/1981 and 1990/1991. Finally, it literally draws pictures of health in Europe, presenting the data collected in vivid and informative maps and bar charts."
Correspondence: WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Scherfigsvej 8, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology, and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion. Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

64:10110 Hoyert, Donna L. Cigarettes and fetal mortality as reported in 1990 vital statistics. American Journal of Health Behavior, Vol. 20, No. 3, May-Jun 1996. 77-82 pp. Star City, West Virginia. In Eng.
"This study uses [U.S.] vital statistics data for 39 states and the District of Columbia to examine the association of fetal mortality with cigarette use during pregnancy. Smokers are at increased risk of experiencing a fetal loss, without considering other factors that may differ between smokers and nonsmokers. Moreover, this association persists when race, age, and education are controlled but is attenuated when alcohol use is controlled. The difference in risk for experiencing a fetal loss is greater for women who smoke 11-20 cigarettes daily than for those women who smoke 1-10 cigarettes daily during pregnancy when background factors are controlled."
Correspondence: D. L. Hoyert, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Mortality Statistics Branch, Division of Vital Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 840, Hyattsville, MD 20782. E-mail: DLH7@NCH08A.EM.CDC.GOV. Location: New York University, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, New York, NY.

64:10111 Winbo, Ingrid G. B.; Serenius, Fredrik H.; Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Källen, Bengt A. J. A computer-based method for cause of death classification in stillbirths and neonatal deaths. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 6, Dec 1997. 1,298-306 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A computer-based method is presented for determination of the cause of death in stillbirths and in neonatal deaths....The study comprises 6,044 dead infants born in Sweden from 1983-1990....Specificity and sensitivity for each basic characteristic varied, but for the modified Wigglesworth cause of death classification the concordance was 88%. The weakest data refer to intrauterine deaths, where pertinent information was often missing in the medical registries."
Correspondence: I. G. B. Winbo, Umeå University Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

64:10112 Agdestein, Sjur. Perinatal and infant mortality: trends and risk factors in Norway 1967-90. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 73, Suppl., No. 160, 1994. 1-30 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of perinatal and infant mortality in Norway for 1967 through 1990. The effect and trends of factors influencing perinatal and infant mortality are discussed with emphasis on prevention. Strategies for perinatal and infant care toward the year 2000 are outlined....First, the rank of Norway among the OECD nations over time is discussed. Second, comparisons are made of trends in perinatal and infant [mortality] in Norway, Sweden, the USA, and Japan. Third, the 1988 mortality rates of the Scandinavian countries and Japan are discussed. Finally, the preventable fraction of perinatal and infant deaths in Norway is assessed."
Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

64:10113 Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y.; Khan, Moslem U.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S. Determinants of under-five mortality in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1997. 31-6 pp. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In Eng.
"The study objectives were to find out factors associated with infant and child mortality in Saudi Arabia using the 1987 Saudi National Child Health Survey data....The infant mortality rate (IMR) and child mortality rate (CMR) for the year 1985 were 55 and 63 for males and 50 and 58 for females." Other factors considered include geographic region, rural or urban area, maternal age, parity, reproductive behaviors, parents' education, and father's occupation.
Correspondence: Y. Y. Al-Mazrou, Ministry of Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, Riyadh 11176, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10114 Al-Saadi, Abbas F. Infant mortality and the economic embargo in Iraq. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 44, 1996. 45-66 pp. Amman, Jordan. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to shed light on infant mortality rates in Iraq, including how they differ from place to place, and to identify the variables behind such differences. It also aims at showing the causes of change in the trend since 1991 when the allied forces launched a war against the country and imposed an economic embargo on it....Infant mortality rates can be divided into two main categories: a higher category near the eastern border, probably, owing in part to the Iran-Iraq war, and a lower category in the western part of the country (with the exception of An Najaf) and the extreme north."
Correspondence: A. F. Al-Saadi, University of Baghdad, Geographic Section, Baghdad, Iraq. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10115 Baya, Banza. Parents' education and child survival in Burkina Faso: the case of Bobo-Dioulasso. [Instruction des parents et survie de l'enfant au Burkina Faso: cas de Bobo-Dioulasso.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 48, ISBN 2-87762-111-1. Jan 1998. 27 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of father's education on child survival is analyzed using data from the Enquête sur la Mortalité Infantile dans le Sahel (EMIS), which was carried out in the early 1980s in Burkina Faso. "Based on an analysis of data from EMIS/Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso), the effect of mother's education on child survival between 1 and 23 months becomes non-significant when one controls for certain exogenous variables, in particular father's education. There is a significant, independent, positive impact of father's education on child survival. The results obtained question the universality of the relation between mother's education and child survival, and point out the necessity to take into account father's characteristics when studying child survival."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Author's E-mail: baya@uerd.uerd.bf. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10116 Dong, Qing; Zhao, Yashuang; Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Wenping; Yang, Lixue; Liu, Lijie; Wang, Lixia; Cui, Jihong. A study on the trend of infant mortality in the urban portion of Daowai District, Harbin City. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1997. 187-92 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study [investigates]...the trend of infant mortality [in Harbin City, China, and evaluates] the result of public health endeavors and the population's reproductive health. It provides a scientific basis for formulating public health policies and programs and helps with research on infant mortality in other Chinese cities, particularly the major metropolises." The study is based on data for selected years from 1953 to 1994.
Correspondence: Q. Dong, Harbin Medical University, Institute of Medicine and Population, Harbin, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10117 Gerylovová, Anna; Holcík, Jan. Infant mortality in the Czech Republic during 1980-1993 from a regional view. [Kojenecká úmrtnost v Ceské republice v letech 1980-1993 v regionálním pohledu.] Demografie, Vol. 39, No. 3, 1997. 173-8 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"This article deals with the evolution of infant mortality and its components--postneonatal mortality and the stage after the postneonatal mortality in the Czech Republic as a whole and [by] regions and districts during the eighties....These three indicators revealed a significant declining trend....In all eight regions the infant mortality revealed a declining tendency as well...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10118 Gortmaker, Steven L.; Wise, Paul H. The first injustice: socioeconomic disparities, health services technology, and infant mortality. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 23, 1997. 147-70 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"Infant mortality has long been viewed as a synoptic indicator of the health and social condition of a population. In this article we examine critically the structure of this reflective capacity with a particular emphasis on how new health care technologies may have altered traditional pathways of social influence....Current patterns of infant mortality in the United States provide a useful illustration of the dynamic interaction of underlying social forces and technological innovation in determining trends in health outcomes. We review the implications of this perspective for [future] sociological research into disparate infant mortality...."
Correspondence: S. L. Gortmaker, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Health and Social Behavior, 665 Huntington Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10119 Hoa, D. P.; Höjer, B.; Persson, L. Å. Are there social inequities in child morbidity and mortality in rural Vietnam? Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Vol. 43, No. 4, Aug 1997. 226-31 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between various socio-economic factors, and child morbidity and mortality during a period of rapid social change in Vietnam. [1,132] rural mothers with children under 5 years of age were interviewed....Fifty-seven per cent of the children were reported to have suffered from some illness during the preceding 2 weeks. Acute respiratory infection (ARI) (46 per cent of all children) was most common....Eighty-one children under 5 years of age had died during the 10-year period 1982-1992. Two-thirds of these deaths occurred in infancy, most of them were related to prematurity, asphyxia or tetanus."
Correspondence: D. P. Hoa, c/o Lars Å Persson, Umeå University, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10120 Khawaja, Khalid Z. Infant and child mortality in Palestinian camps in Lebanon. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 44, 1996. 3-28 pp. Amman, Jordan. In Eng.
"This study aims at producing acceptable estimates of a number of indicators of infant and child mortality in Palestinian camps in Lebanon by using the Brass technique. The study utilized data provided by two comprehensive surveys...carried out in 1979 and 1989." Results are provided on the decline in infant mortality between 1977 and 1989; the reduction in the probability of dying between ages one and five; life expectancy at birth; sex differences in infant mortality; and changes in death rates and life expectancy by mother's educational level.
Correspondence: K. Z. Khawaja, Arab Institute for Training and Research in Statistics, Baghdad, Iraq. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10121 Majumder, Abul K.; May, Marian; Pant, Prakash D. Infant and child mortality determinants in Bangladesh: are they changing? Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 4, Oct 1997. 385-99 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"From the data of the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey, aggregate deaths reported at ages 0-12 and 13-60 months are used to estimate infant and child mortality. Multivariate analysis shows that the preceding birth interval length, followed by survival status of the immediately preceding child, are the most important factors associated with differential infant and child mortality risks; sex of the index child and mother's and father's education are also significant. Demographic factors are influential during infancy as well as childhood, but social factors, particularly mother's and father's education, now emerge as significant predictors of infant mortality risks. This indicates a change in the role of socioeconomic factors, since the earlier Bangladesh Fertility Survey in 1975."
Correspondence: A. K. Majumder, Australian Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 10, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10122 Marindo, Ravai; Hill, Kenneth. Trends and differentials in child mortality: Zimbabwe, 1970-1994. Zimbabwe Further Analysis, Oct 1997. iii, 16 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This paper presents findings of analyses that use data from the 1994 and 1988 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys to examine time trends in mortality in young children as well as differences in mortality risk among population subgroups in Zimbabwe.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10123 Mason, William M.; Lavely, William; Ono, Hiromi; Chan, Angelique. The decline of infant mortality in China: Sichuan, 1949-1988. In: Social differentiation and social inequality: essays in honor of John Pock, edited by James N. Baron, David B. Grusky, and Donald J. Treiman. ISBN 0-8133-8883-X. 1996. 153-207 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we examine the role played by education and other sociodemographic characteristics of individuals and families in the decline of infant mortality [in China]. We also use information we have been able to glean from official compendia on changes in the public health infrastructure and the production of food....We are [also] able to examine the relationship between aggregate income and infant mortality. The second section of this chapter briefly reviews the literature and discusses the data to be used. As preparation for analysis of the decline of infant mortality, the third section explores cross-sectional and temporal aspects of a single body of data--the Sichuan component of the 1988 National Survey of Fertility and Contraception (NSFC). Using the results of these explorations, in the fourth section we examine possible correlates of the decline of infant mortality, including changes in sociodemographic composition, income, public health activity, and food production. "
Correspondence: W. M. Mason, University of California, Department of Sociology and Statistics, Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10124 Morelos, José B. State of Mexico: analysis of some determinants of infant mortality in the municipal area, 1990. [Estado de México: análisis de algunos determinantes de la mortalidad infantil en el ámbito municipal, 1990.] Estudios Sociológicos, Vol. 14, No. 41, May-Aug 1996. 417-34 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author analyzes determinants of infant mortality in 1990 in the municipal area of the state of Mexico. Aspects considered include mother's educational level, availability of health services, running water in the home, and income. Results indicate that mother's educational level is the strongest determinant of infant mortality.
Correspondence: J. B. Morelos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10125 Muhuri, Pradip K.; Menken, Jane. Adverse effects of next birth, gender, and family composition on child survival in rural Bangladesh. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 3, Nov 1997. 279-94 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Child survival from ages one to five in Matlab, Bangladesh is related to the length of the birth-to-subsequent conception interval (BCI), family composition, health and family planning interventions, and socioeconomic conditions. The BCI relationship consists of short-term effects (related to the mother's pregnancy or the presence of a very young sibling) and long-term effects (associated with having a 6-18 month old younger sibling). Their impact is apparent at longer intervals than previously thought. Girls with at least one sister are especially vulnerable and all girls have greater risks when the next child comes along. We conclude that the health and family planning programme improves life chances of children, especially girls, directly through provision of care, and indirectly through prevention of unwanted births and longer child spacing. The differential allocation of resources to children, indicated by the strong relationship of child survival to the composition of the older sibling set, may indicate previously unrecognized receptivity to family planning."
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: P. K. Muhuri, Cosmos Corporation, Bethesda, MD. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10126 Noymer, Andrew. Estimates of under-five mortality in Botswana and Namibia: levels and trends. IIASA Interim Report, No. IR-98-005, Jan 1998. iv, 22 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"Census data from 1991 from Botswana and Namibia were analyzed using the `children ever born technique' to estimate child mortality. The method used is reviewed briefly, with emphasis on aspects not covered by the standard UN reference on mortality estimation, Manual X. The census data appear to be of very high quality for use with the children ever born technique. Between the mid-1970s and the early 1990s, both Botswana and Namibia experienced spectacular declines in under-five mortality....Rural areas have higher mortality rates than urban areas, but both rural and urban areas experienced similar declines. Plausible reasons for the dramatic decline in mortality are discussed, and prospects for the future are assessed." The full text is available on the World Wide Web at www.iiasa.ac.at.
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. E-mail: info@iiasa.ac.at. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10127 Reichman, Nancy E.; Pagnini, Deanna L. Maternal age and birth outcomes: data from New Jersey. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1997. 268-72, 295 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The effects of maternal age on low birth weight, newborns' hospital costs and infant mortality were estimated based on individual 1989 and 1990 vital statistics records from New Jersey that were linked with uniform billing hospital discharge records. Results of multivariate analyses show a U-shaped relationship between maternal age and low birth weight among whites, with the youngest (younger than 15) and oldest (aged 40 and older) mothers being at higher risk than 25-29-year-olds; older teenagers were not at any significantly increased risk. Among blacks, however, 15-19-year-olds faced significantly lower risks of delivering low-birth-weight babies than did black women aged 25-29. Both black and white mothers in their 30s were significantly more likely to deliver a low-birth-weight baby than women aged 25-29 of the same race. The multivariate analysis also showed that newborn hospitalization costs increased with maternal age among both blacks and whites."
Correspondence: N. E. Reichman, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10128 Reichman, Nancy E.; Pagnini, Deanna L. The complicated relation between maternal age and birth outcomes. OPR Working Paper, No. 96-4, Sep 1996. 14, [6] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"We estimate the effects of maternal age on prenatal care, birthweight, infant mortality, and newborn hospital costs [in New Jersey]....The poorer birth outcomes of teenage mothers (except those under 15) are largely explained by their adverse social and economic circumstances, and not by young maternal age per se. Women 30 and over appear to be at greater risk for poor birth outcomes than teens of the same race, but have other offsetting factors that mask this risk."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10129 Robles González, Elena; Pozzi, Lucia. Infant mortality in the transition years: a reflection of the Italian and Spanish experiences. [La mortalidad infantil en los años de la transición: una reflexión desde las experiencias italiana y española.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1997. 165-99 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The first part of this article deals with the main characteristics of the Italian and Spanish infant mortality transition. Both experiences are placed within the European context and a study of mortality by age and cause of death is carried out. The second part intends to define a framework for the analysis of the different factors involved in the decline of infant mortality."
Correspondence: E. Robles González, Universidad de Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, 03690 Alicante, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10130 Root, Graham. Population density and spatial differentials in child mortality in Zimbabwe. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 3, Feb 1997. 413-21 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In Zimbabwe, the `Ndebele provinces'--Matabeleland North and South--have significantly lower levels of under-five mortality than the other (`Shona') provinces. This regional differential is explored using the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey and census data. Factors other than population density that may contribute to the differential are examined....The possibility that regional variations in health care provision and/or cultural factors contribute to the mortality differential is...examined and rejected. Population densities in the Ndebele provinces are of a far lower order than in the Shona provinces. The main causes of child mortality in Zimbabwe in the time period under consideration were diarrhoea, ALRI [acute lower respiratory tract infections], measles and malaria. How population density may affect the transmission of these infections and, hence, mortality is discussed."
Correspondence: G. Root, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Population Unit, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10131 Sastry, Narayan. Family-level clustering of childhood mortality risk in Northeast Brazil. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 3, Nov 1997. 245-61 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The clustering of childhood mortality risk by family in Northeast Brazil is investigated. The extent of family clustering is estimated before and after controlling for observed child and family demographic, reproductive, and socioeconomic characteristics and unobserved community characteristics. The study also investigates the extent to which the coefficient estimates and standard errors are altered with better controls for unobserved heterogeneity at the family level and at the community level....The variance of family frailty is overstated by a factor of four when unobserved community effects are omitted. The family-level variance is not statistically significant in the multilevel model, although it is highly significant in the model that includes only the family frailty effect. Furthermore, ignoring the full design effects results in systematic bias in parameter estimates and standard errors."
Correspondence: N. Sastry, RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10132 Shen, Ce; Williamson, John B. Child mortality, women's status, economic dependency, and state strength: a cross-national study of less developed countries. Social Forces, Vol. 76, No. 2, Dec 1997. 667-700 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Many cross-national studies of child mortality emphasize predictors linked to industrialism theory; a smaller number consider those linked to dependency theory. This study introduces two new perspectives to the analysis of cross-national differences in child mortality rates: developmental state theory and gender stratification theory. Panel regression (1960 to 1991) and LISREL models are used with a sample of 86 less developed countries. We find that foreign investment and debt dependency have adverse indirect effects on child mortality. These effects are mediated by variables linked to industrialism theory and gender stratification theory. Women's education, health, and reproductive autonomy all play roles as mediating variables as does rate of economic growth. State strength has a substantial beneficial direct effect on child mortality rate."
Correspondence: J. B. Williamson, Boston College, Department of Sociology, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167. E-mail: john.williamson@bc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10133 Swenson, Ingrid E.; Thang, Nguyen Minh; San, Phan Bich; Nhan, Vu Qui; Man, Vu Duy. Early childhood survivorship in Viet Nam. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 98, 1995. 204-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The effects on early childhood mortality [in Viet Nam] of birth order, age of the mother at the time of the child's birth, mother's education, as well as infant mortality risk in the province, urban/rural residence, the presence of schools and other facilities and health care services, were examined....Rural children in birth orders five and higher had the greatest risk of early childhood death, birth order one an intermediate risk and orders 2-4 the lowest risk of early childhood death. Rural children residing in communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants were at significantly greater risk of early childhood death than children from larger communes. Neither age nor education of the mother, nor gender of the child, had a significant impact on early childhood survivorship independent of other variables."
Correspondence: I. E. Swenson, University of North Carolina, Carrington Hall, CB 7460, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7460. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10134 van de Mheen, Hendrike; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Mackenbach, Johan P. Socioeconomic inequalities in perinatal and infant mortality from 1854 to 1990 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1996. 166-74 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Trends in socioeconomic differences in infant and perinatal mortality in Amsterdam were studied for the period 1854-1990, using published and unpublished material, at the aggregate and at the individual level....The results show a decrease of the absolute differences in both infant and perinatal mortality. For infant mortality, this is mainly due to the overall decline of the infant mortality rate. Relative differences in infant mortality did not decrease during the study period....It is concluded that although SEMD [socioeconomic mortality differences] in infant and perinatal mortality have declined in an absolute sense, they still exist and that the relative position of deprived groups concerning infant mortality was not ameliorated during the study period."
Correspondence: H. van de Mheen, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

64:10135 Cockerham, William C. The social determinants of the decline of life expectancy in Russia and Eastern Europe: a lifestyle explanation. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 38, No. 2, Jun 1997. 117-30 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the social origins of the rise in adult mortality in Russia and selected Eastern European countries. Three explanations for this trend are considered: (1) Soviet health policy, (2) social stress, and (3) health lifestyles....Although more research is needed, the suggestion is made that poor health lifestyles--reflected especially in heavy alcohol consumption, and also in smoking, lack of exercise, and high-fat diets--are the major social determinant of the upturn in deaths."
Correspondence: W. C. Cockerham, University of Alabama, Department of Sociology, 237 Ullman, 1212 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294-3350. E-mail: bcockerh@sbs.sbs.uab.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

64:10136 Mullin, Charles; Philipson, Tomas. The future of old-age longevity: competitive pricing of mortality contingent claims. NBER Working Paper, No. 6042, May 1997. 25, [14] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper argues that the competitive market prices of mortality contingent claims, such as annuities and life insurance, contain information [that allows] one to infer the opinion of the market regarding the pace of the continued increase in old-age longevity. The paper develops methods to identify and estimate the mortality implicit in the market prices of such claims by identifying survival functions from prices of contracts that differ in their duration. Utilizing these methods, we provide estimates using cohort-specific prices of U.S. term life insurance contracts in 1990-96 for individuals aged 60 in each calendar year. Our main finding is that the mortality patterns inferred from these prices indicate a continued decline in cohort-specific mortality at rates equal to or greater than recent historical trends; about a 5 percent reduction in relative terms in the mortality hazards per successive cohort."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Second author's E-mail: t-philipson@uchicago.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10137 van Doorn, Carol; Kasl, Stanislav V. Can parental longevity and self-rated life expectancy predict mortality among older persons? Results from an Australian cohort. Journals of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 53, No. 1, Jan 1998. 28-45 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examined the effects of parental longevity and self-rated life expectancy on mortality, building upon the established model of self-rated health predicting mortality. A community sample of Australians aged 70 and over was surveyed in 1992 and 1995. The associations of interest were examined separately by sex using weighted multiple logistic regression. Parental ages at death were not associated with mortality for either men or women. In multivariate models, self-rated life expectancy had an independent effect on men's mortality and did not reduce the effect of self-rated health on mortality. Our findings from Australia are consistent with results from many countries; the effect of self-rated health [and self-rated life expectancy] on mortality is stronger for men than for women."
Correspondence: C. van Doorn, Yale University School of Medicine, 60 College Street, P.O. Box 3333, New Haven, CT 06510. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

64:10138 Vaupel, James W. Trajectories of mortality at advanced ages. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity, edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Caleb E. Finch. 1997. 17-37 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter summarizes the key research findings that pertain to the trajectory of mortality at advanced ages. The basic finding is that mortality decelerates at older ages. For some species, such as humans, death rates keep on going up with age up to advanced ages but the rate of increase slows down. For other species, such as medflies, death rates reach a plateau and then fall dramatically. Why mortality decelerates at older ages, in all the species for which large, careful studies have been conducted, is a puzzle. The chapter concludes with an explanation of why this is a puzzle and what might be the key to an answer. The research reported here is based on collaborative efforts by scientists from different backgrounds."
Correspondence: J. W. Vaupel, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

64:10139 Boleslawski, Lech. Life tables and mortality by cause in 1996. [Trwanie zycia i umieralnosc wedlug przyczyn w 1996 r.] Informacje i Opracowania Statystyczne/Information and Statistical Papers, 1997. 48 pp. Glowny Urzad Statystyczny: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
This report presents an analysis of recent trends in mortality and causes of death in Poland and provides life tables by sex for 1996.
Correspondence: Glowny Urzad Statystyczny, Al. Niepodleglosci 208, 00-925 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10140 Lun, K. C. Mortality analyses of the 1990 Singapore population: I. General life tables. Annals Academy of Medicine, Singapore, Vol. 24, No. 3, May 1995. 382-92 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"General life tables for the 1990 Singapore resident population are given in this paper. Analyses were carried out separately for males and females for all ethnic groups as well as for Chinese, Malays and Indians." Tabular data are included on age- and sex-specific death rates and on life expectancy by sex and ethnic group.
Correspondence: K. C. Lun, National University Hospital, Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 0511. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

64:10141 Mitra, S. An adjustment to Brass's logit model of the probabilities of survival. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1997. 9-18 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Brass proposed the logit transformation of the life table survivorship function in formulating his linear model....Some of the deficiencies of the model resulting from its failure to meet a boundary condition [have] been noted in later studies....In this paper, a theoretical justification has been provided to support the logit transformation which together with the boundary condition mentioned before have given rise to important and interesting modification of Brass's model."
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10142 Mitra, S. Another look at the logit transformation of the survivorship function. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1996. 147-63 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to show that although a linear relationship (if it is so) between the logit of 1-l(x) and x guarantees linearity between the logits of any two life tables, it is by no means a necessary condition....An attempt will be made...to develop a justification for the logit transformation of the survivorship function from another perspective. Thereafter, the mathematical functional form describing its relationship with age will be derived by taking into account certain limiting conditions."
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10143 Tallis, G. M.; Leppard, P. Is length of life predictable? Human Biology, Vol. 69, No. 6, Dec 1997. 873-86 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"A random sample of death records of adult males from the period 1967 to 1970 was chosen from the South Australian Registry of Births, Deaths, and Marriages....We analyze the association between sons and their parents in length of life and report the statistically useful correlations that were found. These correlations enable the calculation of a life table for a male conditional on his current age and the lifetimes of his parents. Comparisons are made with the uniformed population life table based solely on sex and year of birth."
Correspondence: G. M. Tallis, University of Adelaide, Department of Statistics, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

64:10144 Barnett, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Donna L.; Casper, Michele L. Social class and premature mortality among men: a method for state-based surveillance. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 9, Sep 1997. 1,521-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines trends in mortality by social class for Black and White men aged 35 through 54 years in North Carolina, for 1984 through 1993, using an inexpensive, newly developed state-based surveillance method....Premature mortality was inversely associated with social class for both Blacks and Whites. Blacks were at least twice as likely to die as Whites within each social class."
Correspondence: E. Barnett, West Virginia University, Prevention Research Center, P.O. Box 9005, 3847 Health Sciences South, Morgantown, WV 26506-9005. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10145 Bender, Ralf; Trautner, Christoph; Spraul, Maximillian; Berger, Michael. Assessment of excess mortality in obesity. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 147, No. 1, Jan 1, 1998. 42-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The relationship between obesity and mortality is examined using data on 6,193 obese patients recruited from 1961 to 1994 in Düsseldorf, Germany. "In addition to age, sex, and BMI [body mass index], Cox proportional hazards models revealed systolic blood pressure, glucose intolerance, diabetes, and smoking as significant independent mortality risk factors, whereas cholesterol was not significant. In this prospective study of a large cohort of obese persons, morbid obesity...was a strong predictor of premature death. Excess mortality risks associated with gross obesity...were considerably lower than hitherto assumed; moderate degrees of obesity...were not significantly associated with excess mortality."
Correspondence: M. Berger, Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf, Department of Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, P.O. Box 101007, 40001 Düsseldorf, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10146 Borrell, Carme; Plasència, Antoni; Pasarin, Isabel; Ortún, Vicente. Widening social inequalities in mortality: the case of Barcelona, a southern European city. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 6, Dec 1997. 659-67 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "analyse trends in mortality inequalities in Barcelona [Spain] between 1983 and 1994 by comparing rates in [selected] electoral wards with a low socioeconomic level and rates in the remaining wards....Rates of premature mortality increased from 5,691.2 years of potential life lost per 100,000 inhabitants aged 1 to 70 years in 1983 to 7,606.2 in 1994 in the low socioeconomic level wards, and from 3,731.2 to 4,236.9 in the other wards, showing an increase in inequalities over the 12 years, mostly due to AIDS and drug overdose as causes of death. Conversely, cerebrovascular disease showed a reduction in inequality over the same period. Overall mortality in the 15-44 age groups widened the gap between both groups of wards."
Correspondence: C. Borrell, Municipal Institute of Health, Pl. Lesseps 1, 08023 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10147 Congdon, P.; Shouls, S.; Curtis, S. A multi-level perspective on small-area health and mortality: a case study of England and Wales. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 3, Sep 1997. 243-63 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper considers morbidity and mortality variations at the small-area level in England and Wales and their relation to socio-economic factors. Separate affluence and deprivation effects on illness and mortality are identified from a single-level analysis, both exceeding the influence of social class, urbanity or ethnicity. A multi-level perspective is then adopted to explore ecological associations operating both at micro-area and higher level spatial scales. Contextual effects (higher level variability in the impacts of ward level variables) are identified in the effects of small area deprivation on mortality and illness, as well as cross-level interactions; thus the impact of small area social structure on health is partly defined by the wider regional and district setting."
Correspondence: S. Curtis, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Department of Geography, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10148 Courteau, Jean-Pierre; Trempe, Normand. Variations in mortality by poverty level in urban Outaouais and all of urban Quebec. [Variations de la mortalité selon le taux de pauvreté en Outaouais urbain et dans l'ensemble du Québec urbain.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 25, No. 2, Autumn 1996. 211-40 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This study looks at variations in mortality by poverty level in the Quebec portion of the Ottawa-Hull census metropolitan area (urban Outaouais) and in all of Quebec's six major urban areas (CMAs), using an ecological approach based on census tracts....The findings show that the gradient of male mortality rates from the wealthiest to the poorest census tracts is steeper in urban Outaouais than in all of urban Quebec. Death rates are also higher in census tracts in urban Outaouais than in tracts of comparable wealth in urban Quebec. In general, the excess mortality observed in urban Outaouais is consistent with its relative poverty within the Ottawa-Hull CMA, even though the average income in this area is higher than the Quebec average."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10149 Das Gupta, Monica; Bhat, P. N. Mari. Fertility decline and increased manifestation of sex bias in India. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 3, Nov 1997. 307-15 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The net effect of fertility decline on excess mortality of girls relative to that of boys in India is influenced by two countervailing forces: the reduction in the number of higher-parity births which reduces net excess mortality, and the intensification of parity-specific discrimination, which increases it. Rising sex ratios of children between 1981 and 1991 indicate that the net effect of these forces was an increase in the excess mortality of girls during this period. An estimated one million or more were added to the excess deaths, through sex-selective abortion or infanticide. For each of these deaths, an estimated four excess deaths of girls took place after birth during 1981-91, bringing the total excess mortality resulting from discrimination to almost five per cent of female live births. The pre-existing regional differences in sex bias persist, with the Northern States showing a greater increase in excess mortality, although the pace of fertility decline has been more rapid in the South."
Correspondence: M. Das Gupta, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10150 Davey Smith, George; Frankel, Stephen; Yarnell, John. Sex and death: are they related? Findings from the Caerphilly cohort study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 315, No. 7123, Dec 20-27, 1997. 1,641-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between sexual activity and mortality is examined using data on 918 men aged 45-59 in Caerphilly, Wales, and five adjacent villages, who were followed up over a 10-year period starting in 1979-1983. The results indicate that "mortality risk was 50% lower in the group with high orgasmic frequency, with evidence of a dose-response relation across the groups....Death from coronary heart disease and from other causes showed similar associations with frequency of orgasm, although the gradient was most marked for deaths from coronary heart disease....[The authors conclude that] sexual activity seems to have a protective effect on men's health."
Correspondence: G. Davey Smith, University of Bristol, Department of Social Medicine, Bristol BS8 2PR, England. E-mail: zetkin@bristol.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10151 Doll, Richard. One for the heart. British Medical Journal, Vol. 315, No. 7123, Dec 20-27, 1997. 1,664-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The literature on the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality is reviewed. The author summarizes the findings of the research on this relationship. He makes four main points, which are that "the consumption of small and moderate amounts of alcohol reduced mortality from vascular disease by about a third; the effect on a person's risk of death depends on the relative risks of vascular disease and of the causes of death that are aggravated by alcohol; in middle aged and elderly men in Britain the beneficial effects on total mortality outweigh the harmful effects up to at least four units a day, in women up to somewhat less; [and] the beneficial effect is due to the content of ethanol, not to the characteristics of any particular type of drink."
Correspondence: R. Doll, Radcliffe Infirmary, Clinical Trial Service Unit, Oxford OX2 6HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10152 Dorling, Daniel. Death in Britain. How local mortality rates have changed: 1950s-1990s. ISBN 1-85935-031-3. Jul 1997. 68 pp. Joseph Rowntree Foundation: York, England. In Eng.
This report "details how people's chances of dying, or mortality rates, have been changing for a constant set of local areas [in the United Kingdom] since World War II. Breaking the population down into age and sex groups, it compares improvement and deterioration between areas. The study finds that although crude death rates have fallen for most areas, they have done so slower in some areas than in others--with the result that there is a growing divergence between local areas, despite the National Health Service being set up at the start of this period. The report finds that inequality has been growing since the early 1960s, and the death rate for the tenth of the population living in areas with the highest death rate is higher than that experienced by people living in the best areas twenty years earlier."
Correspondence: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, The Homestead, 40 Water End, York YO3 6LP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10153 Dorn, Joan M.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Winkelstein, Warren; Trevisan, Maurizio. Body mass index and mortality in a general population sample of men and women: the Buffalo Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 11, Dec 1, 1997. 919-31 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The objective of this research was to investigate the long-term relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality from all causes and from specific causes in the general population. A 29-year follow-up study was conducted in a random sample of white men (n=611) and women (n=697) aged 20-96 years who were residents of Buffalo, New York, in 1960....During the follow-up period, 295 (48.3 percent) men and 281 (40.3 percent) women died....A significant linear association was found between BMI and all-cause mortality in men less than age 65 years at baseline...but not in women....BMI was most strongly related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease mortality in women and younger men. No such associations were observed in older men."
Correspondence: J. M. Dorn, State University of New York, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, 270 Farber Hall, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214-3000. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10154 Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón; McGee, Daniel; Li, Zhaohai; Cooper, Richard. Establishing the nadir of the body mass index-mortality relationship: a case study. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 92, No. 440, Dec 1997. 1,312-9 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The relationship between body weight and mortality is examined using U.S. data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study concerning 13,242 individuals. The emphasis is on identifying the body mass index associated with the lowest levels of mortality. Factors such as smoking status, sex, race, and age are taken into consideration. The results suggest that only the interaction between race and body mass index is significant.
Correspondence: R. Durazo-Arvizu, Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

64:10155 Faresjö, Tomas; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Tibblin, Gösta. The concept of status incongruence revisited: a 22-year follow-up of mortality for middle-aged men. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1997. 28-32 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationships between status incongruency and mortality. From the concept of status incongruence two incongruent groups were defined, those with high education and low social position (socially downward drifters) and those with low education and high social position (socially upstarters). A cohort of middle-aged men (n=855), all born in 1913 and living in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden, were followed during a period of 22 years. The socially downward drifters had a significantly increased risk for: non-cause specific (overall) mortality, more potential years of life lost and mortality caused by coronary heart disease. These differences were still evident after taking other risk factors into account. The socially upstarters had, on the other hand, lower mortality risks and win years. Imbalance between educational level and attained social position appears to affect survival in a long term follow-up."
Correspondence: T. Faresjö, Linköping University, Department of Family Medicine, 58183 Linköping, Sweden. Location: Columbia University Library, New York, NY.

64:10156 Fei, Peng; Wanner, Philippe; Cotter, Stephane. A dynamic approach to the study of differences in life expectancy by sex in Switzerland from 1910-1911 to 1988-1993. An application of the decomposition methods developed by Pollard and Arriaga. [Approche dynamique de la différence d'espérance de vie entre hommes et femmes en Suisse, entre 1910/11 et 1988/93. Une application des méthodes de décomposition de Pollard et d'Arriaga.] Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Revue Suisse d'Economie Politique et de Statistique/Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 133, No. 4, 1997. 741-54 pp. Zurich, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger.
Reasons for the differences in life expectancy by sex in Switzerland, which have increased over the course of the twentieth century, are examined. "The purpose of this study is to estimate, on the basis of two demographic methods, which ages contributed to the differences in life expectancy by gender during the course of the century. While infant mortality explained the majority of these differences between the genders in 1910/11, this is no longer the case nowadays. Excess male mortality among members of the working-age population, and especially in the older age groups, explains both the differences in average longevity between the sexes and how these differences develop. Seen from another angle, the causes of death which contribute most to these gender disparities, ranked in order of importance, are cancers, violent deaths and ischaemic cardiac disorders."
Correspondence: P. Wanner, Bundesamt für Statistik, Section de l'Evolution de la Population, Schwarztorstrasse 53, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. E-mail: Philippe.Wanner@bfs.admin.ch. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10157 Fiscella, Kevin; Franks, Peter. Does psychological distress contribute to racial and socioeconomic disparities in mortality? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 12, Dec 1997. 1,805-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I) and the NHANES I Epidemiological Follow-up Survey are used to test the hypothesis that psychological distress contributes to racial and socioeconomic differentials in mortality in the United States. "Both black race and lower family income were associated with significantly higher psychological distress as measured at the time of the initial survey by reports of hopelessness, depression, and life dissatisfaction. Black race and low income in addition to each of the measures of psychological distress were associated with higher mortality at follow-up. In a series of Cox proportional hazards models that controlled for the effects of age and gender, additional adjustment for hopelessness, depression, or life dissatisfaction had little effect on the relationship between either African American race or family income and subsequent all-cause mortality. We conclude that the effects of both race and income on mortality are largely independent of psychological distress."
Correspondence: K. Fiscella, University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Family Medicine, Family Medicine Center, 885 South Avenue, Rochester, NY 14620-2399. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10158 Gjonça, Arjan; Bobak, Martin. Albanian paradox, another example of protective effect of Mediterranean lifestyle? Lancet, Vol. 350, No. 9094, Dec 20-27, 1997. 1,815-7 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Data from Albania, which are available from the 1950s to the end of the 1980s, are used to determine whether a Mediterranean diet that involves low consumption of total energy, meat, and milk products but high consumption of fruit, vegetables, and carbohydrates is associated with high adult life expectancy even in a country with very low income levels. The results show that, although Albania has one of the highest infant mortality rates in Europe, adult mortality, including mortality from cardiovascular diseases, is similar to that in other Mediterranean countries.
Correspondence: A. Gjonça, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Social Policy and Administration, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. E-mail: a.gjonca@lse.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10159 Gravelle, Hugh. How much of the relation between population mortality and unequal distribution of income is a statistical artefact? British Medical Journal, Vol. 316, No. 7128, Jan 31, 1998. 382-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The extent to which the distribution of income in a society affects an individual's risk of mortality is examined. The author suggests that "associations between unequal income distribution and population health may be a statistical artefact resulting from the use of aggregate rather than individual data....The spurious or artefactual correlation at population level between population mortality and income dispersion will always occur if the effect of individual income on the individual risk of mortality is smaller at higher incomes than at lower incomes. This will be so even if there is no underlying relation between the distribution of income and the risk of mortality at the level of the individual."
Correspondence: H. Gravelle, University of York, National Primary Care Research Development Centre, Heslington, York YO1 5DD, England. E-mail: hg8@york.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10160 Gregorio, David I.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Paturzo, Deborah. The effects of occupation-based social position on mortality in a large American cohort. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 9, Sep 1997. 1,472-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Four occupation-based measures were used to derive estimates of social position's effect on all-cause mortality among men and women in a large [U.S.] cohort....Risk of death was consistently elevated among persons at lower positions in the social hierarchy. Estimates comparing lowest with highest categories varied within a narrow range....Our analysis complements previous finding and supports, with few qualifications, the interchangeability of occupation-based measures of social position in mortality studies. Explanations for why relative risk estimates were modified by sex are offered."
Correspondence: D. I. Gregorio, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Health Care, Farmington, CT 06030-1910. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10161 Hahn, Robert A.; Eaker, Elaine D.; Barker, Nancy D.; Teutsch, Steven M.; Sosniak, Waldemar A.; Krieger, Nancy. Poverty and death in the United States. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1996. 673-90 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
"The authors conducted a survival analysis to determine the effect of poverty on mortality in a national [U.S.] sample of blacks and whites, 25 to 74 years of age....We first assessed the overall association of poverty and mortality and determined whether this association differed by age, black and white race/ethnicity, and gender. On the basis of these factors, we estimated the proportion of U.S. mortality attributable to poverty among black and white men and women during the 1971-1984 study period and in 1991. Finally, to determine the characteristics of poverty that contribute to its effect, we assessed behavioral and physical risk factors that might either confound the association of poverty and mortality or result from poverty and lead to mortality."
Correspondence: R. A. Hahn, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Epidemiology Program Office D-01, Statistics and Epidemiology Branch, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10162 Hogg, Robert S. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality in rural Australia. Human Organization, Vol. 54, No. 2, 1995. 214-21 pp. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. In Eng.
"This article evaluates how Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality patterns differ at a community level. Relying on data from two communities in western New South Wales, the author examines differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality regimes over a recent 10-year period. Results from this analysis clearly show that Aborigines have appallingly high rates of death and that this pattern of Aboriginal mortality is an anomaly that does not adhere closely with classical epidemiologic transition theory. Potential reasons for existence of such a unique pattern of mortality are discussed."
Correspondence: R. S. Hogg, British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, 613-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6Z 1Y6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10163 James, William H. The validity of inferences of sex-selective infanticide, abortion and neglect from unusual reported sex ratios at birth. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1997. 213-7 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author suggests that "it is impossible to infer present-day sex-related infanticide or induced abortion from present unanalysed reported birth sex ratios in any society. This is so because present sex ratios at birth are almost certainly dependent on past sex prejudice--and that is unquantifiable." The primary geographical focus of the study is on China, India, and South Korea. The author also suggests that "an analogous argument in respect of `missing boys' in Zambia is spurious."
Correspondence: W. H. James, University College London, Galton Laboratory, Wolfson House, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10164 Kawachi, Ichiro; Kennedy, Bruce P.; Lochner, Kimberly; Prothrow-Stith, Deborah. Social capital, income inequality, and mortality. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 9, Sep 1997. 1,491-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Recent studies have demonstrated that income inequality is related to mortality rates. It was hypothesized, in this study, that income inequality is related to reduction in social cohesion and that disinvestment in social capital is in turn associated with increased mortality [in the United States]....Income inequality was strongly correlated with both per capita group membership...and lack of social trust....In turn, both social trust and group membership were associated with total mortality, as well as rates of death from coronary heart disease, malignant neoplasms, and infant mortality."
Correspondence: I. Kawachi, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Health and Social Behavior, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10165 McDonough, Peggy; Duncan, Greg J.; Williams, David; House, James. Income dynamics and adult mortality in the United States, 1972 through 1989. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 9, Sep 1997. 1,476-83 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The aim of this study was to examine relationships between income and mortality [in the United States], focusing on the predictive utility of single-year and multiyear measures of income, the shape of the income gradient in mortality, trends in this gradient over time, the impact of income change on mortality, and the joint effects of income and age, race, and sex on mortality risk....Income level was a strong predictor of mortality, especially for persons under the age of 65 years. Persistent low income was particularly consequential for mortality. Income instability was also important among middle-income individuals. Single-year and multiyear income measures had comparable predictive power. All effects persisted after adjustment for education and initial health status."
Correspondence: P. McDonough, York University, Department of Sociology, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10166 Partridge, Linda. Evolutionary biology and age-related mortality. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity, edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Caleb E. Finch. 1997. 78-95 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Analysis and interpretation of age-specific death rates are of considerable interest to both biodemographers and evolutionary biologists. Of special concern to both groups is the age-related decline in survival probability later in life, characteristic of many organisms including humans. This decline is generally taken to be indicative of a decline in intrinsic state, known as aging or senescence. The exact form of the survival curve differs considerably among human populations living in different areas and at different times...and we want to understand these differences and to produce a predictive theory of how mortality rates would change with age in different environments and behave in populations of different composition. Such a theory would be especially useful if it could also help predict patterns of age-related morbidity and cause of death....The following sections briefly summarize [the main determinants of age-specific death rates and their interaction with each other] and point to some areas where further work could be profitable. In addition, the broader implications of evolutionary ideas for the aging process are discussed."
Correspondence: L. Partridge, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10167 Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Pamuk, Elsie R.; Williamson, David F.; Thun, Michael J.; Wood, Joy L. The effect of age on the association between body-mass index and mortality. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 338, No. 1, Jan 1, 1998. 1-7 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The effect of age on the relationship between weight and mortality is examined using data from the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study on 62,116 men and 262,019 women for the period 1960-1972. The results suggest that "excess body weight increases the risk of death from any cause and from cardiovascular disease in adults between 30 and 74 years of age. The relative risk associated with greater body weight is higher among younger subjects."
Correspondence: J. Stevens, University of North Carolina, Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, CB 7400, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10168 Sundquist, Jan; Johansson, Sven-Erik. Indicators of socio-economic position and their relation to mortality in Sweden. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 12, Dec 1997. 1,757-66 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper estimates the effects on mortality of some indicators of socio-economic position such as employment status (SEI), education and housing tenure. The data from 32,853 persons aged 25-64 were collected from seven independent samples of the Swedish population in 1979-1985. The study was designed as a longitudinal follow-up study ranging from day of interview to December 1993....The data were analysed by a proportional hazard model. Being a low educated female or renting a flat was associated with increased mortality when tested simultaneously for all independent variables. The excess mortality among unskilled persons and skilled labourers/lower level employees (males) disappeared in successive models when one variable at a time was included in the main models. Sickness pension for males and females, long-term unemployment for males, and ethnicity were also related to increased mortality."
Correspondence: J. Sundquist, University of Lund, Department of Community Health Sciences Dalby/Lund, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10169 Thun, Michael J.; Peto, Richard; Lopez, Alan D.; Monaco, Jane H.; Henley, S. Jane; Heath, Clark W.; Doll, Richard. Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. adults. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 337, No. 24, Dec 11, 1997. 1,705-14 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We calculated death rates according to self-reported alcohol consumption in half a million U.S. adults 30 years old or older who provided information on alcohol consumption, smoking, and other behavior in 1982 and who were followed prospectively through 1991. We had three aims: to quantify the relation between drinking at base line and specific causes of death thought to be increased or decreased by the consumption of alcohol, while controlling for smoking; to determine how age, sex, and background risk of cardiovascular disease modify the relation of drinking to total mortality; and to compare alcohol and cigarette smoking as risk factors for death in middle age." The authors conclude that "in this middle-aged and elderly population, moderate alcohol consumption slightly reduced overall mortality. The benefit depended in part on age and background cardiovascular risk and was far smaller than the large increase in risk produced by tobacco."
Correspondence: M. J. Thun, American Cancer Society, Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, 1599 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329-4251. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10170 Trovato, Frank; Lalu, N. M. Causes of death responsible for the changing sex differential in life expectancy between 1970 and 1990 in thirty industrialized nations. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1996. 99-126 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"We execute a decomposition analysis of sex differences in life expectancy at birth for thirty [developed] nations between 1970 and 1990. Our results indicate that although there are substantial variations by country with respect to magnitude of cause contribution, the most important cause-of-death components contributing to sex differences in overall survival between 1970 and 1990 are heart disease (largest effect), accidents and violence excluding suicide, and lung cancer. In countries where there has been a narrowing of the sex gap, in comparison to women, men have tended to make larger improvements over time....In the closing section of this study we discuss what the future might hold for the sex differential in life expectancy in the industrialized world."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: F. Trovato, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10171 Voges, W. Unequal requirements for longevity--social determinants of mortality in longitudinal perspective. [Ungleiche Voraussetzungen für Langlebigkeit--Bestimmungsgründe für Mortalität im zeitlichen Verlauf.] Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1996. 18-22 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Longitudinal data of the German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP) offer new possibilities to identify the determinants for longevity, [or] mortality risk. A panel probit model shows that beyond the cohort effects, a low income...and a low educational level are determinants which increase the mortality risk dramatically. Widowhood and small family size also [increase] mortality for men, while [a] marital status of single (unmarried, separated, divorced) has [a] shortening effect on a woman's life expectancy. Reduced societal participation creates conditions which increase the mortality risk."
Correspondence: W. Voges, Universität Bremen, Zentrum für Sozialpolitik, Parkallee 39, 28209 Bremen, Germany. E-mail: wvoges@zes.uni-bremen.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10172 Voges, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Christian. Situations that cost lives--on the relations over time among socioeconomic status, chronic illness, and mortality. [Lebenslagen, die Lebenszeit kosten--zum Zusammenhang von sozialer Lage, chronischer Erkrankung und Mortalität im zeitlichen Verlauf.] In: Lebenslagen im Wandel: Sozialberichterstattung im Längsschnitt, edited by Wolfgang Zapf, Jürgen Schupp, and Roland Habich. 1996. 379-401 pp. Campus Verlag: New York, New York/Frankfurt, Germany. In Ger.
On the basis of data from the German Socio-Economic Panel study (SOEP) for 1984-1993, this article aims to analyze mortality risk or chance of survival along the two five-year intervals 1983-1988 and 1988-1993 in connection with income and family status indicators. Factors such as age, sex, and the existence of chronic health problems are held constant to avoid creating a false correlation between life situation and mortality. After a brief review of selected literature on the subject, there is a section describing the data and variables, and then a section presenting the results. For both time intervals, low household income was significantly correlated with increased mortality risk; the correlation had become more acute in the later interval.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10173 Yu, Mei-Yu; Sarri, Rosemary. Women's health status and gender inequality in China. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 12, Dec 1997. 1,885-98 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the health status of women in China by reviewing levels and trends of female mortality at several phases of a women's life cycle focusing on infancy, girlhood, childbearing and old age. The mortality rates of Chinese women and men are compared for the period 1950-1990 as are comparisons with women in selected countries. The cause-specific death rate, expressed as a percentage of all deaths, and the burden of disease, measured in terms of the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), are used to reflect the changing patterns of female diseases and causes of deaths. Significant improvement in the health status of Chinese women since 1950 is widely acknowledged as a major achievement for a developing country with the largest population in the world, but the differentials in women's health by region and urban/rural areas are considerable."
Correspondence: M.-Y. Yu, University of Michigan, School of Nursing, Center for Nursing Research, Room 3248, 400 N. Ingalls, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0482. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

64:10174 Akalin, Murat Z.; Maine, Deborah; de Francisco, Andres; Vaughan, Roger. Why perinatal mortality cannot be a proxy for maternal mortality. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 4, Dec 1997. 330-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In recent years, the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) has been proposed as a proxy measure of maternal mortality, because perinatal deaths are more frequent and potentially more easily measured. This report assesses evidence for an association between these two statistics. This study, based upon data from Matlab, Bangladesh, shows that the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and the PNMR do not vary together over time, and that the PNMR does not reliably indicate either the magnitude or the direction of change in the MMR from year to year....An examination of the major causes of maternal and perinatal deaths indicates that the two measures cannot be expected to vary together."
Correspondence: M. Z. Akalin, 19 Sunset Street, Roxbury, MA 02120. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10175 Anker, Martha. The effect of misclassification error on reported cause-specific mortality fractions from verbal autopsy. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 5, Oct 1997. 1,090-6 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper explores the effects of misclassification errors on the results of verbal autopsy [VA] studies, and recommends ways to take misclassification errors into account in the interpretation of results....There can be substantial errors in the estimates of the cause-specific mortality fraction derived from VA studies. The cause-specific mortality fraction itself has an important influence on the size of the error for given levels of sensitivity and specificity, and when the cause-specific mortality fraction is small, the size of the error depends more on specificity than on sensitivity."
Correspondence: M. Anker, World Health Organization, Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10176 Bah, Sulaiman M. Modelling the relationship between cause-of-death structure and overall mortality: the case of Mauritius. Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, Jun 1997. 99-114 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"This paper aims to model the relationship between cause-of-death structure and overall mortality in the Island of Mauritius [for the period 1969-1986]....During this period, Mauritian mortality for both males and females underwent a transition from predominance of infectious diseases to that of degenerative diseases....The paper concludes that in the indirect estimation of cause-of-death structure, information on overall mortality alone will not suffice; supplementary information on the epidemiologic transition is needed especially where the mortality pattern is undergoing a rapid change."
Correspondence: S. M. Bah, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10177 Castilla, Jesús; Martínez de Aragón, M. Victoria; Gutiérrez, Angeles; Llácer, Alicia; Belza, M. José; Ruiz, Cristina; Pérez de la Paz, Julio; Noguer, Isabel. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on mortality among young men and women in Spain. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 6, Dec 1997. 1,346-51 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality among young adults in Spain with specific reference to other causes of death....In 1993, HIV/AIDS was the leading cause of death among men aged 25-44 years (21.8% of all deaths) and the second leading cause of death among women (14.9%), exceeded only by cancer. Since 1982, the trend in the overall standardized mortality rate for men in the 25-44 age group has been reversed, showing a progressive increase. Similarly, since 1984 there has been a halt in the decline in female mortality. For both sexes, maintenance of these trends in mortality was largely ascribable to the effect of HIV/AIDS deaths which registered a marked rise, a rise far sharper than that witnessed for variations in all other causes studied."
Correspondence: J. Castilla, Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10178 Donaldson, G. C.; Tchernjavskii, V. E.; Ermakov, S. P.; Bucher, K.; Keatinge, W. R. Winter mortality and cold stress in Yekaterinburg, Russia: interview survey. British Medical Journal, Vol. 316, No. 7130, Feb 14, 1998. 514-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in mortality and protective measures against cold in response to cold temperatures. The authors conducted an interview survey on 1,000 residents of Sverdlovsk Oblast in Russia to determine the amount of clothing worn, the temperature of their living quarters, and the amount of shivering in response to cold. Outdoor cold stress and mortality increased only when the mean daily temperature dropped below 0 degrees Celsius; at higher temperatures, residents were able to compensate for the cold by increasing their clothing and physical activity and maintaining warm houses.
Correspondence: W. R. Keatinge, Russian Ministry of Health, 11 Dobrolubova Steet, Moscow 127254, Russia. E-mail: w.r.keatinge@qmw.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10179 Donaldson, Gavin C.; Keatinge, William R. Early increases in ischaemic heart disease mortality dissociated from and later changes associated with respiratory mortality after cold weather in south east England. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 6, Dec 1997. 643-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors aim to "identify the time courses and magnitude of ischaemic heart (IHD), respiratory (RES), and all cause mortality associated with common 20-30 day patterns of cold weather in order to assess links between cold exposure and mortality...[using data for the] population of south east England, including London, over 50 years of age from 1976-92....Twenty to 30 day patterns of cold weather below 15 [degrees] C were followed: (1) rapidly by IHD deaths, consistent with known trombogenic and reflex consequences of personal cold exposure; and (2) by delayed increases in RES and associated IHD deaths in the range 0 to 15 [degrees] C, which were reversed for a few degrees below 0 [degrees] C, and were probably multifactorial in cause. These patterns provide evidence that personal exposure to cold has a large role in the excess mortality of winter."
Correspondence: W. R. Keatinge, University of London, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Department of Physiology, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10180 Farmer, R. D. T.; Newson, R. B.; MacRae, K.; Lawrenson, R. A.; Tyrer, F. Mortality from venous thromboembolism among young women in Europe: no evidence for any effect of third generation oral contraceptives. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 6, Dec 1997. 630-42 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "investigate whether there has been an increase of venous thromboembolism (VTE) mortality in European countries, concurrent with the replacement of second generation by third generation combined oral contraceptives (COCs)....Data were collected on population and annual VTE mortality in women 15-34 and 35-49 years old, and on second and third generation COC sales, from 1981 to 1994 in 13 European countries....Mortality differences of the size expected from...published studies cannot be measured using annual national VTE mortality and COC sales data alone, because of residual interannual variation in VTE mortality, and possibly confounding between rising third generation market share and total COC use."
Correspondence: R. B. Newson, University of London, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10181 Gaudette, Leslie A.; Silberberger, Carol; Altmayer, Chris A.; Gao, Ru-Nie. Trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality. [Tendances de l'incidence du cancer du sein et de la mortalité par ce cancer.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 8, No. 2, Autumn 1996. 29-37; 31-40 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
The authors present data on breast cancer trends in Canada. "Canadian incidence rates have increased slowly and steadily since 1969, rising most rapidly among women aged 50 and over. Canada's rates are among the highest of any country in the world, ranking second only to those in the United States. After decades of little change, breast cancer mortality rates for all ages combined have declined slightly since 1990. While not dramatic, this decline is statistically significant and is consistent with similar decreases in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia. Breast cancer survival rates are relatively more favourable than those of other forms of cancer. Survival rates are better for younger women and for women whose cancer was detected at an early stage."
Correspondence: L. A. Gaudette, Statistics Canada, Division of Health Statistics, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10182 Gissler, Mika; Kauppila, Riitta; Meriläinen, Jouni; Toukomaa, Henri; Hemminki, Elina. Pregnancy-associated deaths in Finland 1987-1994--definition problems and benefits of record linkage. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 76, No. 7, 1997. 651-7 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"This study had two purposes. First, our aim was to study how completely maternal deaths were recorded in Finland between 1987-1994 by using record linkage of national registers to identify all deaths occurring within a year of a completed pregnancy without a priori definition of the case as a maternal death or not. The second aim was to study the impact of different classification principles on the maternal mortality rate." Results indicate that "the mortality rate was 41 per 100,000 registered ended pregnancies (27 for births, 48 for miscarriages or ectopic pregnancies, and 101 for abortions)....The classification of other than direct maternal deaths was ambiguous, especially in case of late cancers, cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases, and early suicides."
Correspondence: M. Gissler, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Siltasaarenkatu 18, P.O. Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: mika.gissler@stakes.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10183 Guallar Castillón, Pilar; Rodríguez Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas Banegas, José R.; Guallar, Eliseo; del Rey Calero, Juan. Cerebrovascular disease mortality in Spain, 1955-1992: an age-period-cohort analysis. Neuroepidemiology, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1997. 116-23 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to assess the contributions of period and birth cohort effects to changes in cerebrovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Spain over the period 1955-1992....In the period 1955-1975, CVD mortality remained stable. In the period 1975-1992, CVD mortality declined by 54%...in males and 62%...in females. The cohort effect was very small up to the generation born in 1905, moving clearly downward thereafter....Among the possible partial explanations for these effects are the decline in ischemic heart disease and rheumatic fever mortality, the drop in salt and alcohol intake, the reduction in smoking among males and blood pressure among females, and the widespread use of antihypertensive treatments in Spain over the last 20 years."
Correspondence: F. Rodríguez Artalejo, Universidad del País Vasco, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Plaça de la Universidad 7, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10184 Howard, George; Anderson, Roger; Johnson, Norman J.; Sorlie, Paul; Russell, Gregory; Howard, Virginia J. Evaluation of social status as a contributing factor to the stroke belt region of the United States. Stroke, Vol. 28, No. 5, May 1997. 936-40 pp. Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
"The southeastern United States has stroke mortality rates above the national average. The causes of this excess mortality are unknown; however, lower socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for stroke, and the lower SES in the Southeast is a potential cause. In this report we assess the proportion of the excess stroke mortality attributable to SES....A secondary goal of the study is to document the relative stroke risk in the 153-county region we have defined as the stroke belt and compare the results to a more commonly used definition that encompasses at least eight states." Results indicate that "SES does not appear to be a major contributor to the excess mortality in the southeastern United States."
Correspondence: G. Howard, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Department of Public Health Science, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1063. E-mail: ghoward@phs.bgsm.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10185 Jacobsen, Bjarne K.; Nilssen, Steinar; Heuch, Ivar; Kvåle, Gunnar. Does age at natural menopause affect mortality from ischemic heart disease? Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 50, No. 4, 1997. 475-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We examined the relationship between age at natural menopause and mortality of ischemic heart disease in 19,309 Norwegian postmenopausal women. A total of 2,767 fatal infarctions occurred during 29 years of follow up....In summary, the results...indicate an adverse effect of an early menopause on ischemic heart disease mortality, at least in women aged <70 years. This supports the hypothesis that a natural deficit of estrogen promotes atherosclerosis. The effect of early menopause fades away, however, with advancing age and is of minor significance in age groups where the majority of the deaths due to ischemic heart disease occur."
Correspondence: B. K. Jacobsen, University of Tromsø, Institute of Community Medicine, 9037 Tromsø, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10186 Kaufman, J. S.; Asuzu, M. C.; Rotimi, C. N.; Johnson, O. O.; Owoaje, E. E.; Cooper, R. S. The absence of adult mortality data for Sub-Saharan Africa: a practical solution. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, Vol. 75, No. 5, 1997. 389-95 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Information on cause of death among adults in sub-Saharan Africa is essentially nonexistent....In the absence of accurate and comprehensive registries of vital events for the majority of the region's inhabitants, longitudinal studies of defined population-based cohorts represent the only realistic strategy to fill this void in basic public health information....Verbal autopsy has great potential to contribute to understanding about the cause of death among African adults. This method is discussed in the present article, and practical considerations for longitudinal studies using this methodology are reviewed."
Correspondence: J. S. Kaufman, Loyola University Medical Center, Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, 2160 South First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10187 Lopez, Alan D. Mortality from tobacco in the New Independent States. In: Premature death in the New Independent States, edited by José L. Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell. 1997. 262-74 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author investigates mortality due to tobacco use in the New Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union. "Results...indicate that smoking as a cause of cancer is still relatively uncommon among women of the NIS (less than 5 percent of cancer deaths). However, it is a major cause of cancer among men in most of these states, accounting in many states for about one in two cancer deaths...and one in four deaths overall."
Correspondence: A. D. Lopez, World Health Organization, Programme on Substance Abuse, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10188 López, María V.; Híjar Medina, Martha C.; Rascón Pacheco, Ramón A.; Muñoz, Julia B. Mortality by homicide, the fatal consequences of violence. The case of Mexico, 1979-1992. [Muertes por homicidio, consecuencia fatal de la violencia. El caso de México, 1979-1992.] Revista de Saúde Pública/Journal of Public Health, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1996. 46-52 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"A study of homicide in the population of Mexico was undertaken for the purpose of discovering the mortality panorama by this cause during 1979-1992. Homicide mortality trends were analyzed, as well as the main causes by age and sex....Each day 35 persons die in Mexico as a result of homicide. Men were more affected than women....The main cause (56%) was homicide by firearms and explosives. The high relative risk was for those aged from 35 to 39...."
Correspondence: M. V. López, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Escuela de Salud Pública de México, Avenida Universidad 655, Col. Santa María Ahuacatilán 62508, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10189 Maude, Gillian H.; Ross, David A. The effect of different sensitivity, specificity and cause-specific mortality fractions on the estimation of differences in cause-specific mortality rates in children from studies using verbal autopsies. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 5, Oct 1997. 1,097-106 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Verbal autopsies (VA) are increasingly being used in developing countries to determine causes of death, but little attention is generally given to the misclassification effects of the VA. This paper considers the effect of misclassification on the estimation of differences in cause-specific mortality rates between two populations....[Results indicate that] the bias is more extreme as both sensitivity and specificity fall, and is particularly affected even by a small loss of specificity. The bias also increases as the proportion of all deaths due to the cause of interest decreases, and is affected by the size of the true change in mortality due to the cause of interest relative to the change in mortality from other causes."
Correspondence: G. H. Maude, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Tropical Health Epidemiology Unit, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10190 McLaughlin, John R.; Fields, Anthony L. A.; Gentleman, Jane F.; Levy, Isra; Whylie, Barbara; Whittaker, Heather; Riley, Rod; Lee, Judy; Coombs, B. Ann; Guadette, Leslie A. Cancer incidence and mortality, 1997. [Incidence du cancer et mortalité due au cancer, 1997.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 8, No. 4, Spring 1997. 41-51; 43-54 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
The authors present information on trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Canada since the mid-1980s. "In 1997, there will be an estimated 130,800 new cases of cancer and 60,700 deaths from the disease, an increase of one third and one quarter, respectively, over 1987. These increases are due mainly to the growth and aging of the population....In 1997, three types of cancer will account for at least half of all new cases in men and women: prostate, lung and colorectal cancer for men; breast, lung and colorectal cancer for women....Among women, overall trends in age-standardized rates of cancer incidence and mortality have remained relatively stable since 1985, as large increases in the rate of lung cancer have been offset by declining or stable rates for most other forms. Among men, the overall incidence rate is rising slightly as a result of the sharp increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. The mortality rate for men peaked in 1988 and has since declined, because of decreases in the rates for lung, colorectal and some other cancers."
Correspondence: J. R. McLaughlin, University of Toronto, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10191 Northridge, M. E.; Morabia, A.; Ganz, M. L.; Bassett, M. T.; Gemson, D.; Andrews, H.; McCord, C. Contribution of smoking to excess mortality in Harlem. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 147, No. 3, Feb 1, 1998. 250-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The aim of this research was to examine self-reported smoking habits according to measures of socioeconomic status among Harlem men and women, in order to estimate the contribution of tobacco consumption to Harlem's remarkably high excess mortality. During 1992-1994, in-person interviews were conducted among 695 Harlem adults aged 18-65 years who were randomly selected from dwelling unit enumeration lists. The self-reported prevalence of current smoking was strikingly high among both men (48%) and women (41%), even among highly educated men (38%). The 21% of respondents without working telephones reported an even higher prevalence of current smoking (61%), indicating that national and state-based estimates which rely on telephone surveys may seriously underestimate the prevalence of smoking in poor urban communities. Among persons aged 35-64 years, the smoking attributable fractions for selected causes of death were larger in Harlem than in either New York City as a whole or the entire United States for both men and women."
Correspondence: M. E. Northridge, Columbia School of Public Health, Harlem Hospital Center, Harlem Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, New York, NY. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10192 Prescott, Eva; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Per K.; Bjerg, Anders; Hein, Hans O.; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Lange, Peter; Schnohr, Peter; Vestbo, Jørgen. Has risk associated with smoking increased? Results from the Copenhagen Center for Prospective Population Studies. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 6, Dec 1997. 1,214-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this study we wish to determine whether excess all-cause mortality associated with smoking has increased during the last 20-30 years in a study population representative of the general Danish population and whether any such changes relate to changes in smoking behaviour....Male smokers' exposure did not change during the study period whereas female smokers' exposure to tobacco increased in terms of age at smoking onset, quantity smoked and depth of inhalation. During follow-up 5,744 males and 2,900 females died. In males, death rate ratios (comparing continuous smokers with never-smokers) did not change in the study period. In females, ratios increased from 1964-1978 to 1979-1994 by a factor of 1.3...."
Correspondence: E. Prescott, Copenhagen Hospital Corporation, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Kommunehospitalet, 1399 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10193 Pritchard, C.; Evans, B. Population density and cancer mortality by gender and age in England and Wales and the Western world 1963-93. Public Health, Vol. 111, No. 4, Jul 1997. 215-20 pp. Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
"Based upon the premise that increases in the density of population will be coterminous with a worsening of the environment, it is hypothesised that such changes should be reflected in an increase in cancer mortality in general and in elderly populations. By focusing upon changes in the elderly (+75) deaths between two time periods, the study corrects for age factors related to cancer mortality. The study tests this hypothesis via correlations between population density and malignancy death rates in general and elderly age bands over a thirty year period [1963-1993 in England and Wales and the developed world]....It was found that there were positive and significant correlations between population density and malignancy mortality rates in the western world....The findings were not an artefact of longevity, [and] further research is required to give a better understanding of these findings."
Correspondence: C. Pritchard, University of Southampton, Department of Social Work Studies, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10194 Pritchard, Colin; Evans, B. Comparison of cancer deaths in England and Wales and the developed world by age and gender 1973-92, and, new malignancies in England and Wales 1971-88. Public Health, No. 110, 1996. 49-59 pp. Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
"Cancer deaths in England and Wales and the developed world were examined by age and gender between 1973-1992. Whilst over-all mortality levels increased, this was mainly linked to extended longevity, as the rate fell substantially for people under 55 in the majority of countries, possibly as a result of improved treatment and prevention outcomes. Whilst England and Wales had above average reductions in cancer deaths, especially for children, there were considerable rises in new malignancies, 1971-88, particularly amongst women under 35 years, and in certain selected sites."
Correspondence: C. Pritchard, University of Southampton, Department of Social Work Studies, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10195 Reeves, Barnaby C.; Quigley, Maria. A review of data-derived methods for assigning causes of death from verbal autopsy data. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 5, Oct 1997. 1,080-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The objectives of this paper are threefold: first, to identify and describe the main data-derived classification methods that are available for assigning [cause of death] on the basis of VA [verbal autopsy] data; second, to consider factors which may influence the choice of method; third, to discuss issues concerned with the evaluation of classifiers." Results indicate that "four main factors influence the choice of classification method: (a) the purpose for which a classifier is being developed, (b) the number of validated causes of death assigned to each case, (c) the characteristics of the VA data and (d) the need for a classifier to be comprehensible."
Correspondence: B. C. Reeves, University of Bristol, Department of Social Medicine, Canynge Hall, Whiteladies Road, Bristol BS8 2PR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10196 Rodríguez Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L.; Banegas, José R.; del Rey Calero, Juan. Socioeconomic level, sedentary lifestyle, and wine consumption as possible explanations for geographic distribution of cerebrovascular disease mortality in Spain. Stroke, Vol. 28, No. 5, May 1997. 922-8 pp. Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
"This report seeks to identify the socioeconomic and lifestyle factors that most contribute to the geographic pattern of CVD [cerebrovascular disease] mortality in Spain....Only illiteracy, sedentary lifestyle, and wine consumption registered a statistically significant relationship (p<.05) with CVD mortality. Whereas lower consumption of wine showed a negative association with CVD mortality, higher consumption revealed a positive association."
Correspondence: F. Rodríguez Artalejo, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Avenida Arzobispo Morcillo s/n, 28029 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10197 Ronsmans, Carine; Vanneste, Anne M.; Chakraborty, Jyotsnamoy; van Ginneken, Jeroen. Decline in maternal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh: a cautionary tale. Lancet, Vol. 350, No. 9094, Dec 20-27, 1997. 1,810-4 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the problems associated with analyzing the impact of special programs, such as the community-based maternity-care delivery system developed in Matlab, Bangladesh, on obstetric mortality. The data are for the period 1976-1993 and concern both the area that received extensive services in health and family planning and neighboring areas that received no such input. The results indicate that "although the introduction of the maternity-care programme coincided with declining trends in direct obstetric mortality in the areas covered by the programme, a decline also occurred in one of the areas not receiving any such interventions. Caution is required in the interpretation of short-term trends in one indicator in studies designed without random allocation of interventions into treatment and control groups."
Correspondence: C. Ronsmans, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Nationalestraat 155, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium. E-mail: cronsmans@itg.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10198 Salter, Cynthia; Johnston, Heidi B.; Hengen, Nicolene. Care for postabortion complications: saving women's lives. Population Reports, Series L: Issues in World Health, No. 10, Sep 1997. 31 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This report examines maternal mortality in developing countries, focusing on one major cause, complications of unsafe abortion. The report suggests that "providing appropriate medical care immediately could save many thousands of women's lives. Offering family planning could prevent many future unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. E-mail: PopRepts@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10199 Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.; Nemtsov, Alexander. The anti-alcohol campaign and variations in Russian mortality. In: Premature death in the New Independent States, edited by José L. Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell. 1997. 239-61 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors investigate mortality variations in Russia and the anti-alcohol campaign instituted by Gorbachev in 1985. "This study first reviews patterns of alcohol consumption in Russia and describes the anti-alcohol campaign. The next section examines variations in mortality levels during and following the campaign and the number of deaths prevented as a result of it. The following section focuses specifically on male mortality trends and patterns. Finally, we explore the question of whether alcohol abuse alone can explain the large increase in mortality in Russia in 1993."
Correspondence: V. M. Shkolnikov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Forecasting the National Economy, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10200 Simonsen, Lone; Clarke, Matthew J.; Williamson, G. David; Stroup, Donna F.; Arden, Nancy H.; Schonberger, Lawrence B. The impact of influenza epidemics on mortality: introducing a severity index. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 12, Dec 1997. 1,944-50 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of recent influenza epidemics on mortality in the United States and to develop an index for comparing the severity of individual epidemics....A cyclical regression model was applied to weekly national vital statistics from 1972 through 1992 to estimate excesses in pneumonia and influenza mortality and all-cause mortality for each influenza season." The results show that "from 1972 through 1992, influenza epidemics accounted for a total of 426,000 deaths in the United States, many times more than those associated with recent pandemics."
Correspondence: M. J. Clarke, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, MS A-32, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10201 Stanton, Cynthia; Abderrahim, Noureddine; Hill, Kenneth. DHS maternal mortality indicators: an assessment of data quality and implications for data use. DHS Analytical Report, No. 4, Sep 1997. ix, 60 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report is a compilation of the maternal mortality data collected in 14 DHS surveys. The objectives of the report are to document DHS procedures for the use of the maternal mortality module, to assess the quality of the sibling history data used to derive the maternal mortality indicators, to provide standardized analyses of these data and to discuss the appropriate use and interpretation of DHS maternal mortality estimates."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10202 Stephenson, Patricia; Chalmers, Beverley; Kirichenko, Valentina F.; Repina, Margarita A.; Wagner, Marsden. Reducing maternal mortality in St. Petersburg. World Health Forum, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1997. 189-93 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Following the entry of St. Petersburg into Europe's Healthy Cities Project in 1991 it was decided that the highest priority should be given to reducing the city's maternal mortality ratio....Preventing deaths from unsafe, illegal abortion became the main focus of attention....The maternal mortality ratio and the abortion rate have now declined and contraceptive use appears to be increasing."
Correspondence: P. Stephenson, Nyhavn 40, 1051 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10203 Wald, N. J.; Watt, H. C. Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases. British Medical Journal, Vol. 314, No. 7098, Jun 28, 1997. 1,860-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three smoking related diseases--lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease [using data from] a prospective study of 21,520 men [in England] aged 35-64 years....Cigarette smokers who have difficulty in giving up smoking altogether are better off changing to cigars or pipes than continuing to smoke cigarettes. Much of the effect is due to the reduction in the quantity of tobacco smoked, and some is due to inhaling less. Men who switch do not, however, achieve the lower risk of pipe and cigar smokers who have never smoked cigarettes. All pipe and cigar smokers have a greater risk of lung cancer than lifelong non-smokers or former smokers."
Correspondence: N. J. Wald, St. Bartholomew's and Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, BUPA Epidemiological Research Group, London EC1M 6BQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10204 Wanner, Philippe. The impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy of the Swiss population, 1988-1993. [L'impact du tabagisme sur la mortalité des Suisses et sur leur durée de vie en 1988/1993.] Sozial- und Präventivmedizin/Médecine Sociale et Preventive, Vol. 42, 1997. 223-9 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger.
Official data are used to calculate the effect of cigarette smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Switzerland. The results indicate that smoking reduced life expectancy for males by 2.9 years and for females by 0.7 years in the period 1988-1993. The data also show, however, that mortality from smoking has declined for all ages between 35 and 74 since 1960. Smoking is currently responsible for about 16% of deaths and 20% of premature deaths in the Swiss population aged 25-64.
Correspondence: P. Wanner, Bundesamt für Statistik, Section de l'Evolution de la Population, Schwarztorstrasse 53, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. E-mail: Philippe.Wanner@bfs.admin.ch. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10205 Whitman, Steven; Good, Glenn; Donoghue, Edmund R.; Benbow, Nanette; Shou, Wenyuan; Mou, Shanxuan. Mortality in Chicago attributed to the July 1995 heat wave. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 9, Sep 1997. 1,515-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study assessed mortality associated with the mid-July 1995 heat wave in Chicago [Illinois]....Analyses focused on heat-related deaths, as designated by the medical examiner, and on the number of excess deaths....In July 1995, there were 514 heat-related deaths and 696 excess death. People 65 years of age or older were overrepresented and Hispanic people underrepresented....The methods used here provide insight into the great impact of the Chicago heat wave on selected populations, but the lack of methodological standards makes comparisons across geographical areas problematic."
Correspondence: S. Whitman, Chicago Department of Public Health, Epidemiology Program, Room 2136, 333 S. State Street, Chicago, IL 60604. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10206 Wilkins, Kathryn; Wysocki, Marek; Morin, Carole; Wood, Patricia. Multiple causes of death. [Causes multiples de décès.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 9, No. 2, Autumn 1997. 19-29, 21-32 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This article illustrates analytical uses of multiple-cause-of-death data [in Canada], which reflect all causes entered on the death certificate, not only the single, underlying cause. Heart diseases are used as an example....Four-fifths of death certificates contained more than one cause; the maximum was 16. Certain causes such as septicaemia and atherosclerosis contributed to death much more often than they were selected as the underlying cause. Among selected causes, diabetes was most positively associated with the presence of heart diseases."
Correspondence: K. Wilkins, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10207 Yang, Zi Hui. The study of suicides in Chinese cities and rural areas. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1997. 223-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper studies the changes, trends, regularities, and characteristics of suicides committed by Chinese people based on statistical data and some investigative information from the government health department. From a sociological point of view, the author also analyzes the reasons for suicide in China and proposes some methods to reduce the suicide rate or avoid suicide."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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