Volume 63 - Number 4 - Winter 1997

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

63:40724 Arum, Gilbert; Shah, Wahida P. Towards a comprehensive population policy: a review of population policies in Kenya. KENGO Policy Study Series. Occasional Paper, No. 2, ISBN 99-6684-113-X. LC 94-983329. Jan 1994. v, 50 pp. Kenya Energy and Environment Organizations, Policy and Planning Department: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
This is a study on "Kenyan population policies which is expected to provide an evaluative critique of the impact of national population policies in Kenya upon grassroots populations, and especially upon women and the environment....The overall purpose is to identify a number of the major constraints in the population control policy by focusing on the linkages between demographic factors and socio-economic realities."
Correspondence: Kenya Energy and Environment Organizations, Policy and Planning Department, P.O. Box 48197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40725 Chasteland, Jean-Claude. From the end of World War II to the Cairo conference: the international community facing the problem of world population growth. [De la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale à la conférence du Caire: la communauté internationale face au problème de la croissance de la population mondiale.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. 1997. 585-617 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The global shift from the view that governments should not try to influence demographic trends to a general belief that they can and should intervene in such matters is examined. The author describes how a group of population activists worked toward creating an international conference that would legitimize government intervention in population matters, and how this goal was gradually achieved over the course of the conferences held in Belgrade, Bucharest, Mexico City, and Cairo. The role of these activists in getting the United Nations involved in population activities is also described.
Correspondence: J.-C. Chasteland, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40726 Cohen, Joel E. Why should more United States tax money be used to pay for development assistance in poor countries? Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Sep 1997. 579-84 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author briefly discusses the question "why should more United States tax money be used to pay for development assistance, including population assistance, in poor countries?...My question then breaks into two questions. First, how would American interests be advanced by more rapid development or harmed by less rapid development in poor countries? Second, why is taxing me to pay for U.S. government development programs a more effective way to promote development in poor countries than alternatives?"
Correspondence: J. E. Cohen, Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Population, New York, NY 10021-6399. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40727 Cross, Máire; Perry, Sheila. Population and social policy in France. ISBN 1-85567-393-2. LC 96-45999. 1997. xviii, 222 pp. Pinter: Herndon, Virginia/London, England. In Eng.
This volume arose from the proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association for the Study of Modern and Contemporary France held at the University of Northumbria in Newcastle, England, in September 1995. "Population growth and related issues have long been on the political agenda in France in a way which distinguishes her from her European neighbours and particularly from Britain. This book explores the latest developments in population studies and the policies which spring from them. It particularly focuses on subject areas which are often ignored, such as women, birth and motherhood. Using both feminist and ecological perspectives, the contributors re-evaluate some of the standard conclusions drawn by policy-makers and re-establish the genuinely political dimension of population studies....Topics covered include: French natalist policy, French feminists and population control, in-vitro fertilization, demographic concerns and policy-making towards women, work and childcare, female migrants, mixed marriages, labour shortages in the next century, changing working practices, social welfare systems, government policy and higher education."
Correspondence: Pinter, Wellington House, 125 Strand, London WC2R 0BB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40728 Hailemariam, Assefa. Population policies and programmes. Population Education Monograph, LC 95-982148. 1994. ii, 39 pp. Ministry of Education, Institute for Curriculum Development and Research: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
"This monograph is one of the five Population Education Monographs produced [on Ethiopia] for use by teachers at primary and secondary schools and the instructors of [teacher training institutes] who may use it as reference material...." Chapters are included on a typology of population policy, factors influencing national policy, polices in developed and developing countries, and population policy in Ethiopia.
Correspondence: Institute for Curriculum Development and Research, Ministry of Education, P.O. Box 2346, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40729 Kaiden, Douglas. Examining male roles in population policies and family planning programs. Einstein Quarterly Journal of Biology and Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1996. 134-41 pp. Bronx, New York. In Eng.
"This paper will discuss the following: why population policies and programs have traditionally focused on women; what the limitations of current male contraceptives are and why research into new methods [has] proved unfruitful; and why these policies and programs would be more productive if they were to direct more attention toward men."
Correspondence: D. Kaiden, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40730 Kerr, Duncan. The Australian labor party's views on population policy. People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1997. 13-8 pp. Victoria, Australia. In Eng.
"Duncan Kerr, Labor Shadow Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs [in Australia], outlines his party's current thinking about population policy and immigration issues."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40731 Khan, Ayesha. Policy-making in Pakistan's population programme. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 11, No. 1, Mar 1996. 30-51 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper explores the policy-making process which shaped the [population control] programme in Pakistan in terms of the political considerations of the various military and civilian regimes, the role of religion in politics, the influences of Western donors (particularly USAID), and the effect of international development ideology. The resulting instability of the population programmes is analyzed in terms of: (a) the rivalry between the separate population and health programmes within government; (b) the politically charged problem of over-centralized federal control over population; (c) the unresolved and uneasy working relationship between government and non-government organizations. The paper concludes that the conflicts in these areas are directly related to the larger policy context in which they have evolved, and without addressing the latter, the population programme will remain victim to deep-rooted structural problems."
Correspondence: A. Khan, #8, St. 8, F-8/3 Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40732 Liagin, Elizabeth. Excessive force: power, politics, and population control. ISBN 1-886719-15-2. 1996. viii, 348 pp. Information Project for Africa: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This book provides a brief history of the U.S. foreign aid program with an emphasis on its objectives and consequences for the emerging nations of the Southern Hemisphere. It then reviews opinion about the importance of population change presented over the past fifty years by an assortment of scientists, academics, expert panels, military officials, and political leaders." The author suggests that today's U.S. program of overseas population assistance, "based in large part on intelligence assessments by the CIA, has assumed the characteristics and magnitude of the most aggressive political warfare campaigns of the 1950s--complete with the clandestine establishment of `indigenous' fronts, secret payments to affect political decisions, recruitment of `in-place' agents, infiltration of academia, systematic intimidation of opponents, falsely attributed communications, penetration of the news media, threats, targets, and ultimatums." The book includes two appendixes. The first provides the full text of the Options for Population Policy final report for USAID prepared by the Futures Group in 1992. The second is a compilation of USAID-funded population policy development projects.
Correspondence: Information Project for Africa, P.O. Box 43345, Washington, D.C. 20010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40733 Rowland, Donald T. Approaches to population policy in Australia. Working Papers in Demography, No. 70, 1997. 51 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"If Australia were to adopt a population policy, what would it be like? This paper compares proposed answers to this question with reference to the concept of a population policy. The demographic outlook for the future is then examined and an alternative approach to policy development is suggested, taking account of problems inherent in recent proposals. The alternative calls for the management of overall population growth with reference to an agreed limit on the growth rate. The paper also proposes a regional population projections bulletin as a key means of improving demographic sources for planning and population policy decisions."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40734 Ruddock, Philip. Coalition government views on population policy. People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1997. 6-13 pp. Victoria, Australia. In Eng.
"Philip Ruddock, Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs in the [Australian] Coalition Government provides for the first time a statement of Coalition Government policy on population planning issues."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

63:40735 Blangiardo, Gian C.; Golini, Antonio; De Sandre, Paolo; Palomba, Rossella; Ambrosini, Maurizio; Rossi Sciumè, Giovanna; Saraceno, Chiara; Marchese, Carla. Population policies for Italy. [Politiche per la popolazione in Italia.] Studi e Ricerche, ISBN 88-7860-083-0. 1994. viii, 89 pp. Edizioni della Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli: Turin, Italy. In Ita.
This is a collection of studies by various authors on aspects of current fertility trends in Italy. The focus is on the reasons why Italy has one of the lowest fertility rates in the modern world, and on the policy changes that need to be made if this situation is to be changed. There are chapters on population policy in general, attitudes toward population policies in Italy, female employment outside the home and family policy, social policy designed to reduce gender inequalities and achieve social welfare goals, and the relation between public expenditure and reproductive decisionmaking.
Correspondence: Edizioni della Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli, via Giacosa 38, 10125 Turin, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40736 Information Project for Africa (Washington, D.C.). Excessive force: power, politics, and population control. An essay on the benevolent superpower, sustainable development, and other contemporary myths. ISBN 1-886719-04-7. LC 96-187390. 1995. v, 318 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The following pages offer a brief history of the [U.S.] foreign aid program with an emphasis on its objectives and consequences for the emerging nations of the south. It then reviews opinion about the importance of population change presented over the past half century by an assortment of scientists, academics, expert panels, military officials, and political leaders....This text then looks beyond the theories and political analysis to the actual implementation of population programs....It examines the all-too-prevalent view held by many in the west that other people ought to limit their fertility because they are different in culture, class, religious affiliation, lifestyle, or political identity from the Anglo-Saxon `ideal'. And, even more importantly, it explores the frightening consequences of extending this concept of `group superiority' into the arena of global politics where it becomes an instrument of power or even of conquest."
Correspondence: Information Project for Africa, P.O. Box 43345, Washington, D.C. 20010. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40737 King, Maurice; Elliott, Charles; Hellberg, Hakan; Lilford, Richard; Martin, Jean; Rock, Edwin; Mwenda, Jason. Does demographic entrapment challenge the two-child paradigm? Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 10, No. 4, Dec 1995. 376-83 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Local demographic entrapment has been discussed informally for many years, but is taboo to the UN agencies and to much of academia. There are also indications that the world as a whole may be demographically trapped in that global per capita grain production is falling. Arguments for and against recognizing entrapment are discussed. Policy implications of entrapment are outlined in the light of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The case for a one-child world is argued."
Correspondence: M. King, University of Leeds, Institute of Epidemiology and Health Services Research, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40738 Li, Jianxin. Easterlin's fertility theory and population adjustment and regulation in rural China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1997. 45-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines some approaches and methods that may be utilized to solve China's rural population problems through integrating Easterlin's fertility theory and specific characteristics of changes in China's rural population fertility. The settlement of China's rural population problems not only depends on effective family planning policies, but more importantly, attention should be paid to the impact of nonpolicy factors on fertility changes. To this end, this article provides several revealing empirical cases."
Correspondence: J. Li, Beijing University, Institute of Sociology and Anthropology, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40739 Makinwa-Adebusoye, Paulina. Population policy and fertility in Nigeria, 1974-1994. [Politique démographique et fécondité au Nigeria, 1974-1994.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. 1997. 259-79 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The change in Nigerian population policy objectives from a pronatalist policy in the 1960s to a national family planning policy in the 1990s is described. The first part of the chapter introduces the economic and demographic situation in Nigeria, including a description of the 1991 census. The following section deals with family planning and fertility trends from 1974 to 1994, and includes consideration of fertility differentials and determinants. A final paragraph discusses the possible effect of the most recent economic crisis on fertility.
Correspondence: P. Makinwa-Adebusoye, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, PMB 5 University Post Office, Oyo Road, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40740 Olowu, Folarin. Why not use Nigeria's agricultural extension system to increase access to family planning? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 3, Sep 1997. 134-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Innovative strategies are needed if the objectives of Nigeria's national population policy are to be achieved....The challenge...is to extend family planning services in rural areas such as Delta State and Plateau State. What is needed is an appropriate but cost-effective method of raising family planning awareness and distributing contraceptive commodities in these areas....The agricultural extension system has agents in all rural areas of the country. Thus, wider coverage of family planning services might be achieved by means of this system, using agricultural extension agents."
Correspondence: F. Olowu, United Nations Population Fund, Ministry of Health, Family Planning Unit, Department of Primary Health Care, Plateau State, Jos, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40741 Rasevic, Mirjana; Petrovic, Mina. Case studies in population policy concerning demographic problems in Serbia. [Iskustva populacione politike u svetu relevantna za odgovor na demografske probleme Srbije.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 35, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1997. 47-65 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"Attention has been given to the direction and type of measures to be taken [in Serbia] in the immediate future dealing with fertility, mortality, migration policies and problem of population ageing. A major portion of the article is devoted to the policy [on] fertility and aims to contribute to the research of experiences in implementation of population policy across the world."
Correspondence: M. Rasevic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istracivanja, Narodnog fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40742 Thomas, Neil; Price, Neil. The evolution of population policy in rural China. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 11, No. 1, Mar 1996. 21-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Fertility declined rapidly in China in the 1970s, to slightly above replacement level by 1978....However, the decollectivization of agriculture, also initiated in the late 1970s, weakened collective institutions, thereby undermining birth planning administration and family planning services. The consequent stall in fertility was succeeded in 1987 by a sudden and pronounced decline, to a total fertility rate of 1.8 in 1992. This paper is an attempt to explain this recent decline in terms of falling demand for children, the provision of more accessible family planning services, and the operation of restrictive population policy. The major emphasis is on the formulation and implementation of birth control policies in rural areas."
Correspondence: N. Thomas, University of Wales, Department of City and Regional Planning, P.O. Box 906, Cardiff CF1 3YN, Wales. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40743 Women's Health Project (Johannesburg, South Africa). Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act 1996: Republic of South Africa. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 116-20 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In November 1996, the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Bill was enacted by the South African Parliament. Substantive parts of the text of the new law are reproduced here, together with a commentary on its contents." A commentary by Marion Stevens and Makhosazana Xaba (pp. 119-20) "argues that, particularly for disadvantaged women and teenagers, access to abortion services will be a critical aspect of implementation. It also describes both problematic and progressive amendments to the Bill...."
Correspondence: Women's Health Project, c/o SAIMR, P.O. Box 1038, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40744 Yan, Meifu; Shi, Renbing. The role of different modes of rural marriage in the process of fertility decline in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1997. 55-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Empirical investigations have shown that different modes of marriage in China's rural areas may either stimulate or impede fertility. The current study confirms previous findings and reveals the complete process and innate mechanism of how the zhaozhui-style marriage--a marriage whereby the bridegroom goes to live with the bride's family and the couple's children carry on their mother's family name--leads to the decline of fertility and how the jiaqu-style marriage--a marriage whereby the bride goes to live with the bridegroom's family and the couple's children carry on the father's family name--leads to the rise of fertility. The paper proposes that a viable strategy in population control for China at the turn of the century is to force down high fertility in rural China by way of changing the mode of marriage and suggests feasible ways to bring about the change in marriage mode within a short period of time."
Correspondence: M. Yan, Hubei University, Department of Education, Hubei Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40745 Yang, Kuifu. A thought on the integration of poverty relief with family planning. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1997. 19-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper discusses, from a demographic point of view, the relationship between poverty and population [in China]. Overpopulation is a serious problem particularly conspicuous in poor areas, and it in turn constitutes a major hindrance for eliminating poverty and the overall development in poor areas; thus overpopulation and poverty form a vicious circle. Therefore, economic development and population control are keys to the elimination of poverty. Poverty elimination and population control should be integrated. Some specific measures have been described in this article."
Correspondence: K. Yang, State Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

63:40746 Betts, Katharine. Recent developments in population policy in Australia: the demographic setting. People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1997. 1-6 pp. Victoria, Australia. In Eng.
"The major parties [in Australia] are moving away from an exclusive pre-occupation with immigration to a broader focus on population policy and the Minister for Immigration has expressed an implicit preference for a population of 23 million. The contributions in this section of People and Place document his concerns together with those of the shadow Minister. They also provide demographic analyses which show that the Minister's goal will be hard to achieve. This is largely because of the exceptionally high migration of the Hawke years."
Correspondence: K. Betts, Swinburne University of Technology, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 28, Hawthorne, Victoria 3122, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40747 Bonvin, Jean-Michel. The Swiss responses to migration. [Les réponses suisses au phénomène migratoire.] L'Année Sociologique, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1996. 449-73 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Swiss migration policy is determined primarily by the manpower needs of the country. Immigrants coming from traditional territories of recruitment (mainly Italy, Spain and Portugal) satisfy these needs. Beside this immigration possibility depending on economic expectations, there is another opening, very narrow, for the political refugees. In order to guarantee the narrowness of this opening, Swiss authorities do not question the legitimacy of concepts such as `foreign overpopulation' or `excessive cultural differences', the meaning of which is, to say the least, very unclear. In case of economic crisis, the reduction of manpower needs combines with the xenophobe pressure to prevent any generous impetus and reinforce the tendency to close the frontiers. In Switzerland the migration policy is elaborated without taking account of the immigrants' situation."
Correspondence: J.-M. Bonvin, Université de Genève, Département de Sociologie, 3 Place de l'Université, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40748 Farrag, Mayar. Managing international migration in developing countries. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1997. 315-36 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
The International Organization for Migration's "research project on emigration dynamics in developing countries, launched in 1993, brought together teams of researchers in four regions of the developing world: Sub-Saharan Africa; South Asia; the Arab region; and Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. The article reports the findings of team members as reported to, and discussed by, 180 participants....A central objective of the research was to try and measure interaction between the variables in specific country and subregional situations and, as far as possible, provide results that could assist policymakers in both developing and developed countries."
Correspondence: M. Farrag, International Organization for Migration, 17 route des Morillons, Case Postale 71, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40749 Freeman, Gary P.; Bean, Frank D. Mexico and U.S. worldwide immigration policy. In: At the crossroads: Mexican migration and U.S. policy, edited by Frank D. Bean et al. 1997. 21-45 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter seeks to provide background and context for examining how Mexico has fit into U.S. immigration law and practice in the past and rethinking what the U.S.-Mexico relationship might be in the future."
Correspondence: G. P. Freeman, University of Texas, Government Department, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40750 Hamilton, Kimberly A. Europe, Africa, and international migration: an uncomfortable triangle of interests. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 97-02, May 1997. 41 pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper challenges policy makers and analysts to understand international migration between Africa and Europe as a result of receiving and sending states' sometimes competing interests and the way these interests are cross-cut by those of immigrant communities themselves....This paper turns first to various theories regarding the state and migration and highlights the lack of attention paid to sending state interests. It then provides an overview of emerging migration patterns between Africa and Europe with a special focus on Italy and France. After comparing sending and receiving state interests, the paper concludes with a discussion of the limits of state-centered policy when dealing with migration."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Author's E-mail: hamilton@gilman.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40751 Li, Tana. Peasants on the move: rural-urban migration in the Hanoi region. Occasional Paper, No. 91, ISBN 981-3055-07-3. LC 96-945608. 1996. 80 pp. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies [ISEAS], Indochina Programme: Singapore. In Eng.
"The study seeks to estimate the main trends, directions and patterns of the population movement [from rural to urban areas] in the Red River delta. It will examine the basic institutional changes in the countryside since Vietnam's formally endorsed market reforms, known as doi moi, began in 1986; and the new changes such as the improved transportation system and lodging houses for migrants, all of which are relevant to labour force movement. Within this context, the study will analyse Vietnamese Government policy on voluntary migration, and its possible consequences."
Correspondence: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Heng Mui Keng Terrace, Pasir Panjang, Singapore 119596. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40752 Papademetriou, Demetrios G.; Hamilton, Kimberly A. Managing uncertainty: regulating immigration flows in advanced industrial countries. International Migration Policy Program, No. 1, 1995. viii, 36 pp. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors set forth the conceptual problems and principal issues involved in developing contemporary immigration policy. They present a selective overview of the undercurrents and tensions behind this task and describe how key OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries are responding to them. They also briefly analyze the history of immigration policy, summarize what some countries have learned from their experiences, and examine whether and under what circumstances that knowledge is transferable. The essay concludes with a few thoughts on constructing and implementing immigration policies in an increasingly interdependent world; the point is made that to be effective and durable, international cooperation on immigration issues must be tempered by national goals and priorities.
Correspondence: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Program for Immigration and U.S. Foreign Policy, 11 Dupont Circle, Washington, D.C. 20036-1207. Location: State University of New York Library, Albany, NY.

63:40753 Sayah, Jamil. The fight against clandestine immigration. [Lutte contre l'immigration clandestine.] Cahiers de l'Orient, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1995. 151-68 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The history of recent French legislation on immigration is discussed. The author examines the consequences of stricter immigration laws, suggesting that they force more people into illegality and thus increase public suspicion of and action against foreigners.
Correspondence: J. Sayah, Université de Grenoble II (Université Pierre Mendès-France), B.P. 47X, 38040 Grenoble Cedex, France. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40754 Tirtosudarmo, Riwanto. From emigratie to transmigrasi: continuity and change in migration policies in Indonesia. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 97-05, Jun 1997. 25 pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"A review of state migration policies (transmigration) in Indonesia from the turn of the century to the mids-1990s shows that the relationship between migration and demographic, social, and economic aims has occupied policy-makers since colonial times. Following independence, as the military gained a larger political role, transmigration policy emphasized explicit security and political goals. In the mid-1960s, the New Order government revived the link between economic development and transmigration. Yet, competing interests between economist-technocrats and the political-bureaucrats close to the military distorted the planning and implementation of the transmigration program. This paper suggests that, as a result of the long standing perception of transmigration as a multi-purpose state instrument, the program has become mystified as a universal panacea for a variety of social and economic ills."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. E-mail: Population_Studies@brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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