Volume 63 - Number 4 - Winter 1997

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

63:40616 Canton, Erik; Meijdam, Lex. Altruism and the macroeconomic effects of demographic changes. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1997. 317-34 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper we show that the macroeconomic effects of demographic changes strongly depend on the degree of altruism and on the specification of the intertemporal utility function. We allow for agents either to be altruistic in the sense of Barro (1974) or non-altruistic. In the latter case, generations are heterogeneous like in the `unloved children' model of Weil (1989). In the former case, where the model is a standard Ramsey model with identical agents, we distinguish a Millian and a Benthamite intertemporal utility function. For each of these models, we study the effects of an anticipated and unanticipated permanent decline in population growth as well as the consequences of a baby-boom/baby-bust scenario."
Correspondence: L. Meijdam, Tilburg University, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. E-mail: a.c.meijdam@kub.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40617 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. Population and the world economy: the new Pacific factor. [La population et l'économie mondiale: une nouvelle donne pacifique.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. 1997. 563-84 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The progress of the world's most populous countries toward socioeconomic development since 1950 is first described. Next, the author outlines the main points in the debate about the relationship between population growth and development, as well as the implications for development planning. Finally, he considers how the division of the world into major economic areas for the purposes of analysis needs to be reconsidered in the light of recent changes, particularly the rise to prominence of Asian economies.
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40618 Sadik, Nafis. Population and development linkages: new research priorities after the Cairo and Beijing conferences. NIDI Hofstee Lecture Series, No. 3, 1996. 25 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is the text of a lecture presented in 1996 as part of the NIDI Hofstee lecture series. "The lecture addresses research priorities in the field of population and sustainable development. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), and the Programme of Action which was agreed upon at that conference, form the background of these research needs and priorities which are outlined, as well as the outcomes of other international conferences....The comment stresses, amongst others, the relevance of population issues within an integrated approach to development and calls attention to short term needs vis-à-vis long term objectives." A comment by P. Burkman is included (pp. 19-23).
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40619 Strulik, Holger. Learning-by-doing, population pressure, and the theory of demographic transition. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1997. 285-98 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The present paper discusses the long-run effects of two interdependent relations between economic and population growth. According to a frequently used formulation of the population-push hypothesis, learning-by-doing effects in production lead to increasing returns to scale and, therefore, to a positive correlation between economic and population growth. In accordance to the theory of demographic transition the population growth rate initially increases with rising income levels and then declines. Regarding this relationship, the existence and stability of a low-income equilibrium and a high-income equilibrium will be shown in a neoclassical growth model....The result yields a meaningful interpretation of the population push hypothesis, which is consistent with the empirical findings on the correlation between economic and population growth."
Correspondence: H. Strulik, University of Hamburg, Department of Economics, Von Melle Park 5, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. E-mail: strulik@hermes1.econ.uni-hamburg.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

63:40620 Chazit, André; Cohen, Roger; Coupat, Katy; Delaulle, Bernard; Fresnois, Michel; Gonnet, Michel; Hérique, Monique; Journet, Pierre-Henri; Lescel, François; Mottet, Gérard; Mutin, Georges; Nicolas, Jean-Louis; d'Olier, Jean; Pellon, Gérard. Water, demography and development in the Maghreb. [Eau, démographie et développement au Maghreb.] Athéna, No. 1-2, 1996. 225-61 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors focus on analyzing the interrelations between water supply and the demographic situation in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia from a French perspective. After several sections on various aspects of the water supply in the region, the demographic development of northern Africa is addressed. There are brief sections on recent demographic trends, urban-rural differences, education, employment, housing, and the food supply. Questions concerning the water supply and health issues are also examined. In their conclusions, the authors discuss the interdependence of the developing and developed Mediterranean countries, and suggest how the industrialized nations and particularly France might address some of the issues raised.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40621 Cincotta, Richard P.; Engelman, Robert. Economics and rapid change: the influence of population growth. Population Action International Occasional Paper, No. 3, Oct 1997. 30 pp. Population Action International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Some recent findings concerning the relationship between population growth and economic change are summarized in this report. The authors conclude that recent data make clear that, during the 1980s, on average, population growth dampened the growth of per capita gross domestic product, particularly in the poorest countries. "More positively, declines in human fertility in the 1970s and 1980s almost certainly helped fuel explosive economic growth during the 1980s and early 1990s in such East Asian countries as South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, the former Hong Kong Territory, Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia."
Correspondence: Population Action International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40622 Cuthbertson, Sandy; Cole, Rodney. Population growth in the South Pacific island states: implications for Australia. Pub. Order No. 94 3045 4. ISBN 0-644-27086-1. 1995. xiv, 54 pp. Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia; Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
Future population trends in the South Pacific islands are analyzed, and the prospects for major problems with regard to rapid population growth, poor economic performance, and environmental damage, which would lead to increased demand for immigration to Australia, are assessed. The authors reject the doomsday scenario; they suggest that economic and social systems are adjusting to the continuing pressures, and that rates of population growth will probably decline to manageable levels with successful economic development and the growth of the practice of family planning. The role of emigration and remittances in island economies is examined. The authors conclude that, although the need for Australian assistance with development aid and family planning continues, it is not necessary to change Australia's immigration policy in response to conditions in the South Pacific island countries.
Correspondence: Bureau of Immigration Research, P.O. Box 659, South Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia. Location: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI.

63:40623 Gill, Kanwaljit K. Population growth, family size and economic development. ISBN 81-7100-711-2. LC 95-905847. 1995. ix, 172 pp. Deep and Deep Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the relationships among population growth, family size, and economic development in India, with the focus on the situation in the Punjab for the period 1961-1981. The analysis is undertaken at the district level, and consideration is given to differences in fertility behavior by social class.
Correspondence: Deep and Deep Publications, F-159 Rajouri Garden, New Delhi 110 027, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40624 Mahadevan, Kuttan; Tuan, Chi-Hsien; Yu, Jingyuan; Krishnan, P.; Sumangala, M. Differential development and demographic dilemma: perspectives from China and India. ISBN 81-7018-816-4. LC 94-906753. 1994. xxiv, 416 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This book focuses on the relationship between population and development, and particularly on the similarities and differences between China and India, the two most populous countries in the world. It contains 21 chapters by various authors, organized under four major topics: population policies and programs; population characteristics, fertility, and mortality; development and the demographic dilemma; and a profile of UNFPA's Executive Director, Nafis Sadik.
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing, D. K. Publishers Distributors (P), A-6 Nimri Community Centre, Ashok Vihar, Phase IV, Delhi 110 052, India. Location: New York University Library, New York, NY.

63:40625 Okore, Augustine; Gule, Gugulethu. Issues in the demography of Swaziland. LC 93-982620. 1993. vii, 196 pp. University of Swaziland, Department of Statistics and Demography: Kwaluseni, Swaziland. In Eng.
The aim of this book is "to enhance knowledge and understanding of the population of Swaziland and its interrelationships with development variables....[It is] aimed at presenting what might be referred to as [a] `state-of-the-art' report on different aspects of the demography of Swaziland for the attention of government officials, planners, parliamentarians, policymakers, researchers and the general readership." Chapters are included on the population problem in Swaziland; fertility, mortality, and migration; social and economic features; population projections; development; family planning; women and youth; and the migration labor system.
Correspondence: University of Swaziland, Department of Statistics and Demography, Private Bag 4, Kwaluseni, Swaziland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40626 Valdivia, Luis. Population and economic growth in Colombia, 1900-1990. [Población y crecimiento económico en Colombia, 1900-1990.] ISBN 958-670-026-7. LC 96-110932. 1995. 185 pp. Universidad del Valle, Facultad de Humanidades, Departamento de Geografía: Cali, Colombia. In Spa.
The relationship between population developments and economic growth in Colombia over the course of the twentieth century is analyzed. The study examines how economic developments such as the growth of a peasant economy, the development of commercial agriculture, industrialization, and the regional concentration of economic growth have affected population trends. Consideration is given to changes in fertility and mortality, as well as to natural increase and the demographic transition, age and sex distribution, and migration.
Correspondence: Universidad del Valle, Ciudad Universitaria, Meléndez, Apdo Aéreo 25360, Apdo Nacional 439, Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40627 Wei, Huilan; Bai, Jianming. Poverty relief and development by way of out-immigration: new opportunities for women's participation in development. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1997. 25-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Women's participation in development [in China] is an issue of great social significance. A great deal of attention should be paid to women's participation in the out-migration project with the aim of eradicating poverty, which is an important part of the general poverty relief strategy in Gansu Province....It is highly necessary to analyze the status of women in areas that are the origins and destinations of...organized migration, study their participation and role in the migration process, discuss existing problems, and raise proposals according to their participation in migration."
Correspondence: H. Wei, Lanzhou University, Demographic Research Institute, 78 Tianshui Road, 730000 Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

63:40628 Beenstock, Michael; Fisher, Jeffrey. The macroeconomic effects of immigration: Israel in the 1990s. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv/Review of World Economics, Vol. 133, No. 2, 1997. 330-57 pp. Tübingen, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper we try to quantify the contribution of immigration to the Israeli economy during the early 1990s. In doing so we consider the effects of immigration on key macroeconomic variables such as GDP, investment, consumption, the labor market, imports, exports and the housing market....A base-run simulation is prepared for 1990-1994 assuming actual immigration. Thereafter a counterfactual simulation is prepared assuming a reduction in immigration; the difference between the two simulations estimates the contribution of immigration to the relevant endogenous variables."
Correspondence: M. Beenstock, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Economics, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:40629 Ben-Porath, Yoram. The entwined growth of population and product, 1922-1982. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 15, No. 1, Part 2, Jan 1997. [18] pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This article "discusses aggregate-level interactions between Jewish immigration and economic growth both in the Jewish sector of Mandatory Palestine and in Israel". The reciprocal effects of population and economic growth are discussed in two sections on population as an engine of growth and the size of the population and its relation to the economy. The author concludes that "causality between population and [gross national] product runs both ways....For the whole period 1922-1982, it is very clear that immigration pushed the rate of increase of capital stock. For the period from 1954 on, immigration responded to the growth rate of per capita income or consumption."
Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

63:40630 Blotevogel, Hans H.; King, Russell. European economic restructuring: demographic responses and feedbacks. European Urban and Regional Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1996. 133-59 pp. Essex, England. In Eng.
The relationship between economic restructuring in Europe and various aspects of demographic change, such as demographic aging and fertility decline, is examined. The focus is on changes in the labor market. "Changing employment conditions--the growth of the secondary labour market, the flexibilization of labour demand and increasingly also of supply, growing female labour force participation rates, generally high ethnic minority unemployment--reflect different aspects of the transition from the Fordist to the postFordist regime as well as changing demographic and life-style influences. Together they have deeply transformed the European landscape of employment and unemployment. The specific role of international migration is also analysed and it is seen to have fundamentally altered between the Fordist and postFordist eras. Less clear to interpret are changing internal migration patterns: has counterurbanization stopped in response to restructuring and integration and is a new postFordist population map unfolding? The paper concludes by evaluating the nature of the relationship between economic restructuring and population trends and identifying pointers for future research."
Correspondence: H. H. Blotevogel, Gerhard-Mercator-Universität, Gesamthochschule Duisburg, Lotharstraße 65, 47057 Duisburg, Germany. Location: Columbia University Library, New York, NY.

63:40631 Brunia, N.; Kok, L. Demography and social security. [Demografie en sociale zekerheid.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 7, Jul 1997. 26-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Demographic developments have a great impact on developments in social security....The [Netherlands] Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment recently started the development of some new econometric models to project the number of benefits in the labour market-related social security acts. The demographic forecasts, macro-economic developments and intended policy measures are the starting points of the projections with the new models. The purpose of the models is to gain more insight in the relations between population, economy and policy measures."
Correspondence: N. Brunia, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Economische Faculteit, Broerstraat 5, P.O. Box 72, 9700 AB Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40632 Compagnie, P. Public pensions and demographic aging in a small open economy. [Pensions publiques et vieillissement démographique dans une petit économie ouverte.] Cahiers Economiques de Bruxelles, No. 147, 1995. 267-94 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
Using the example of Belgium, the impact of the two main causes of demographic aging--fertility decline and increase in life expectancy--on the financing of pensions and on the economic behavior of individuals is analyzed. The results show that the economic behavior of individuals is influenced to a far greater degree by increases in life expectancy than by declines in fertility. In the long term, the author suggests that it makes more sense to develop a system in which the retired rather than the economically active bear the additional financial costs of aging.
Correspondence: P. Compagnie, Université de Liège, CREPP, Place du 20-Août 7, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:40633 Disney, Richard. Can we afford to grow older? A perspective on the economics of aging. ISBN 0-262-04157-X. 1996. x, 344 pp. MIT Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
This book is concerned with the economic consequences of the dramatic current and prospective demographic changes that are occurring in Western industrialized countries. There are chapters on the dependency burden aspects of Social Security programs and intergenerational redistribution; overlapping-generations models, feasible pension schemes, and aging populations; Social Security: paying for past pension promises; private pension plans in the demographic transition; productivity, wages, and educational attainment: the impact of workforce aging; retirement: the labor supply of older workers in an aging society; consumption and saving: life-cycle behavior and population aging; financing health care; and a public-choice perspective.
Correspondence: MIT Press, 55 Hayward Street, Cambridge, MA 02142. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:40634 Inoue, Shunichi. The population of Japan: a reverse trend and demographic aging. [La population du Japon: reflux et vieillissement.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. 1997. 225-43 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general review of current demographic trends in Japan and some of the problems they pose. Issues examined include a projected decline in total population size beginning around the year 2011, a shift in the age composition of the population away from those of working age, and the stabilization of fertility at below replacement levels. Particular attention is given to the factors that have influenced changes in nuptiality. These include the effect of the oil crisis on incomes, the increase in female education and employment, the decline of the traditional family, and the mortality decline. The paper concludes with an examination of the consequences of demographic aging for the country.
Correspondence: S. Inoue, Nihon University, 1-16-21 Kakinokizaka, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40635 Rodríguez Sumaza, Carmen. Demographic cycles: a socioeconomic perspective. [Ciclos demográficos: una perspectiva socioeconómica.] Sociología, No. 3, ISBN 84-7762-437-2. LC 96-115660. 1994. 246 pp. Universidad de Valladolid, Secretariado de Publicaciones: Valladolid, Spain. In Spa.
This study examines the fertility cycles that occur in modern developed economies and their relationships with economic changes and changes in the age structure of the population, on the lines developed by Richard Easterlin. In particular, the author uses an interdisciplinary approach to apply these concepts to the situation in Spain in the second half of the twentieth century. She concludes that the changes in fertility observed are directly related to changes in the economic status of individuals, which in turn are related to changes in the age structure. The extent to which the results can be used to predict future trends in fertility in Spain is examined.
Correspondence: Universidad de Valladolid, Secretariado de Publicaciones, Plaza de Santa Cruz 8, 47002 Valladolid, Spain. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40636 Stilwell, Frank. Australia's population: is stability uneconomic? People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1997. 1-6 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"A review of the interlinkages between population growth and its economic, social and environmental consequences [suggests that] a range of advantages across all three dimensions would follow from the stabilisation of Australia's population....[The article reflects] on connections between economic performance and population policy which suggest the need for a more balanced perspective."
Correspondence: F. Stilwell, University of Sydney, Department of Economics, NSW 2006, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40637 van Hoorn, W.; de Beer, J. Increase in labor force participation can reduce the impact of aging. [Stijging arbeidsdeelname kan lasten van vergrijzing beperken.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 8, Aug 1997. 6-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The number of persons aged 65 years or over [in the Netherlands] will double until 2040. The impact of ageing can be reduced if labour force participation rates increase. In a scenario assuming high economic growth, the labour force can be expected to increase nearly as much as the number of elderly persons until 2010. After 2010 the increase of the number of people aged 65 years or over is so large, that only under rather extreme assumptions [could] the relationship between the number of elderly people and the labour force...be kept almost constant...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

63:40638 Bilsborrow, Richard E.; Stupp, Paul. Demographic processes, land, and the environment in Guatemala. In: Demographic diversity and change in the Central American Isthmus, edited by Anne R. Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby. 1997. 581-623 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
This article identifies the mechanisms by which population growth and redistribution in Guatemala affect the use of available land and agriculture through patterns of internal migration and environmental degradation. Census data are used to analyze trends in population and land use since 1950; the authors then predict what is likely to happen up to the year 2030. Information is given on deforestation, urbanization of agricultural land, and the increase in land subject to erosion or flooding.
Correspondence: R. E. Bilsborrow, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. E-mail: richard_bilsborrow@unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40639 Cartledge, Bryan. Population and the environment: the Linacre Lectures 1993-4. ISBN 0-19-854842-7. LC 96-133283. 1995. 191 pp. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The main concern of this book and the series of lectures from which it derives is the impact of population growth upon the environment. The topic is approached from many different angles in the eight chapters in this monograph. The book includes: John Clarke's discussion of the relationship between the terms "population" and "environment"; Geoffrey Harrison's description of population growth from an evolutionary perspective; Brian Heap's consideration of how genetic engineering could provide food security and thereby help halt population growth; Martin Parry's analysis of the potential effects of global warming on world food supply; Pramilla Senanayake's view that sustainable development can only be ensured when women and gender issues are treated with the highest priority; Richard Harries's look at population and birth control from an Anglican perspective; John Jukes's analysis of population growth, family planning, and the environment from the point of view of the Catholic Church; and Murray Feshbach's description of population, health, and environmental crises in the former Soviet Union.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40640 Clarke, John. Population and the environment: complex interrelationships. In: Population and the environment: the Linacre Lectures 1993-4, edited by Bryan Cartledge. 1995. 6-31 pp. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author points out that global or national population figures can be misleading and lead to oversimplifications of the population-environment relationship. He stresses the importance of recognizing that "the interrelationships between population and environment are two way, that they vary greatly over time and space, and that they are modified by a number of intervening factors, such as the level and type of economic activities and technological development, cultural systems, social welfare, political units, and political decision-making. Too often the relationship between population growth and environmental change has been portrayed over-simplistically as a one-way process. There is a complex web of direct and indirect interactions between diverse populations and environments at local level which have varied aggregative effects at global level."
Correspondence: J. Clarke, University of Durham, Department of Geography, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40641 Collomb, Philippe. Population, resources, the environment, and development. [La population, les ressources, l'environnement et le développement.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. 1997. 535-61 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general review of the global relations among population, the availability of natural resources, the environment, and socioeconomic development. The author notes that, however much fertility continues to decline, the world's population will almost certainly double its present size, and that the demand for food will increase along with rising standards of living. He concludes that potential problems can be solved through effective international cooperation, together with changes in the international division of labor and some redistribution of wealth from rich to poor countries.
Correspondence: P. Collomb, Comité International de Coopération dans les Recherches Nationales en Démographie, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40642 Cronshaw, Mark B.; Requate, Till. Population size and environmental quality. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1997. 299-316 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper presents a simple general equilibrium analysis of first best allocations in an economy where a consumption good is produced using labor. Production results in pollution, which is a public bad. Pollution abatement can be achieved either by restricting production or by using additional labor. We consider how the first best allocation and Pigouvian tax vary with population size. Consumers are unambiguously worse off when the population is larger, but not necessarily due to increased pollution. In fact, optimal policy on how pollution and labor should vary with population size is very sensitive to preferences and technology. The best response to an increase in population size might be either to increase or to decrease emissions and/or labor, depending on functional forms and parameters. However, given separable preferences and some convexity, the optimal emissions tax increases, and the first best level of per-capita consumption decreases with population size."
Correspondence: M. B. Cronshaw, Institute of Behavioral Science, Environment and Behavior Program, 1030 13th Street, Boulder, CO 80302. E-mail: cronshaw@colorado.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40643 Ferrer Regales, Manuel; Peláez López, Antonio. Population, ecology, and the environment. [Población, ecología y medio ambiente.] ISBN 84-313-1437-0. 1996. 285 pp. Ediciones Universidad de Navarra [EUNSA]: Pamplona, Spain. In Spa.
This is a general study of global population dynamics, with particular emphasis given to the ecological and environmental consequences of rapid population growth and the accompanying socioeconomic development. There are chapters on the ecological and socioeconomic aspects; the components of population growth; the theory of demographic transition; the causes of fertility decline; demographic aging; future population prospects at the continental and regional level; science, politics, and ideology; the population of Spain; resources and development; natural resources and sources of energy; development in the third world, including inequalities and the impact of economic activities on the environment; regional and urban problems; urbanization and cities; global warming and climate changes; the ozone layer; biodiversity and species extinction; sustainable development; and ecology for the individual.
Correspondence: Ediciones Universidad de Navarra, Plaza de los Sauces 1 y 2, 31010 Barañáin, Navarre, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40644 Feshbach, Murray. Population, health, and environmental crises in the former Soviet Union. In: Population and the environment: the Linacre Lectures 1993-4, edited by Bryan Cartledge. 1995. 165-84 pp. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author describes environmental neglect and degradation in the former Soviet Union. He shows how atmospheric and water pollution, combined with the near-collapse of public health services, have helped both to reduce life expectancy--now down to 59 years for Russian men--and to increase infant mortality, giving Russia a negative rate of population growth for the first time in this century.
Correspondence: M. Feshbach, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40645 Grigg, David B. The world's hunger: a review 1930-1990. Geography, Vol. 82, No. 3, Jul 1997. 197-206 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
The changing patterns of world hunger between 1930 and 1990 are described using data from a number of sources, including the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). "This article traces the changing pattern of world hunger....FAO has estimated the numbers suffering from chronic under-nutrition in 1961-63, 1975, 1980 and 1990, but for regions only. Calorie supplies per capita are available for all countries from the 1930s, and can be compared with estimates of requirements per capita. Protein under-nutrition is most common among children under five; estimates are available for regions from 1975 and 1990....These various sources show that the proportion under-nourished has been in decline since the 1960s and that the absolute number has also declined in recent years. Most improvement has come in Latin America, North Africa and parts of Asia. Africa is now the most severely affected region."
Correspondence: D. B. Grigg, University of Sheffield, Department of Geography, Winter Street, Sheffield S10 2TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40646 Harrison, Geoffrey. Population and environment--our nature and our fate: an evolutionary perspective. In: Population and the environment: the Linacre Lectures 1993-4, edited by Bryan Cartledge. 1995. 32-47 pp. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Our biological nature is particularly pro-natalist and the availability of technologies which decouple sexual behaviour from reproduction are not likely in themselves to stabilize population growth. Further, improvements in the quality of biological life, such as better nutrition and less disease, are likely to improve fecundity, decrease mortality, and exacerbate the population condition....Such hope as there is lies in the cultivation of some other aspects of our nature, such as environmental awareness and co-operative behaviour at every level of social and political organization. Such co-operative behaviour is surely a prerequisite of truly sustainable development. Clearly, education has a critical role to play here."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40647 Hayashi, Kenji; Gao, Jianquan. Demographic impact on environment: a case study in China focusing on CO2 emission. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 9-16 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The authors discuss the impact of demographic factors on carbon dioxide emissions in China from 1982 to 1990. The contribution of economic developments and energy efficiency on the level of such emissions is considered.
Correspondence: K. Hayashi, National Institute of Public Health, Department of Demography and Health Statistics, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40648 Heap, Brian. Genetic engineering: progress, promises, and precepts. In: Population and the environment: the Linacre Lectures 1993-4, edited by Bryan Cartledge. 1995. 48-73 pp. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The impact of the growth rate in the human population on the environment is far outstripping the recovery potential of the Earth, and expectations have been raised that biotechnology, of which genetic engineering is but one component, offers hope for the future....Adopting biotechnology may offer future options for escaping the Malthusian trap which, put simply, postulates that the universal tendency for the population of a country to grow at a geometric rate with food supplies expanding at a roughly arithmetic rate results in poor nations that are unable to rise above their subsistence level per capita income unless they check their population growth....We are faced with inventing a future that includes genetic engineering which could enlarge the options for the spacing of pregnancy, for enhanced food security, and for reduced environmental damage."
Correspondence: B. Heap, Biotechnology and Biological Science Research Council, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics Research, Babraham, Cambridge, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40649 Hempel, Lamont C. Population in context: a typology of environmental driving forces. Population and Environment, Vol. 18, No. 5, May 1997. 439-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents a typology and qualitative model of causation for use in assessing the relative contributions of population growth to problems of pollution, lost biodiversity, and natural resource depletion. Population growth is placed `in context' as one of eight key driving forces that shape environmental quality today. It is treated primarily as an impact `amplifier', along with technology. Root causes are traced to paradigmatic beliefs--especially anthropocentrism and contempocentrism--which find expression in unsustainable consumption patterns and designs of political economy."
Correspondence: L. C. Hempel, Claremont Graduate School, Center for Politics and Economics, Claremont, CA 91711-6163. E-mail: hempelm@cgs.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40650 Imai, Hiroyuki. The effect of urbanization on energy consumption. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 1-8 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"After an overview on the relative importance of increases in population and energy consumption per capita...the significant relationship between the proportional size of the urban population and energy consumption per capita is shown....The energy consumption of the country with the largest population, China, is analyzed with special attention being paid to three large cities."
Correspondence: H. Imai, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Department of International Research and Cooperation, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40651 Ingman, Stanley R.; Pei, Xiaomei; Ekstrom, Carl D.; Friedsam, Hiram J.; Bartlett, Kristy R. An aging population, an aging planet, and a sustainable future. Series in Social Policy, Community and Regional Development, ISBN 1-885196-07-5. LC 96-157058. 1995. vii, 326 pp. Center for Texas Studies: Denton, Texas. In Eng.
"The volume is the product of a conference, An Aging Population, an Aging Planet, and a Sustainable Future: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally, held on February 26-28, 1995, at the University of North Texas in Denton, Texas. The basic purpose of the conference was to examine the relation between population aging and ecological development in order to explore the ways in which older people can help societies meet the ecological and social challenges facing our world....The twenty articles...have been divided into six sections. The first two sections offer broader, essentially global perspectives while the next two are devoted to regional concerns. The fifth section addresses basic value issues that population growth and aging raise for a sustainable future; the final section is devoted to papers that suggest steps to be taken in facing those issues."
Correspondence: University of North Texas, Texas Institute for Research and Education on Aging, Center for Texas Studies, Denton, TX 76203-3826. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40652 Japan. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (Tokyo, Japan). Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Research Series, No. 290, Mar 3, 1997. 368 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The present volume is the second output of a research project, `Interrelationship between Population Growth in Developing Countries and Global Environment'. This project has been conducted for [the] three fiscal years of 1994, 1995, and 1996, [in a collaborative effort involving] many scientists from China, Thailand and Japan. The final symposium of the project was held on 18 and 19 October 1996 in Tokyo....Many papers included in this volume are revised versions of papers presented at the symposium....We have selected demographic transition and urbanization as important phases of population and development, and undertaken research on their connection to the environmental problems, especially to global warming."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40653 Kojima, Hiroshi. Environmental determinants of demographic and health behaviours in Asian countries. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 17-35 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This study aims to clarify the effects of environmental factors, particularly the environmental health and the urban environment on fertility, morbidity and mortality in six Asian countries (Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Turkey) for which the DHS data are available....In addition, we will introduce urban-rural residence as an environmental variable and conduct separate analyses for each area because it is considered to represent, in a way, an aggregation of environmental factors. For urban residents, we will introduce migrant status as an additional environmental variable because it can represent different neighborhoods within the same urban area."
Correspondence: H. Kojima, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Department of International Research and Cooperation, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40654 Lutz, Wolfgang. Challenges for studying population-environment interactions in the Arab region. IIASA Working Paper, No. 96-100, Aug 1996. vii, 16 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The author analyzes interrelations among population, development, and environment in the Arab region. "We will first look at different degrees of aridity and how they affect human settlement patterns, with empirical [observations made] in...19 Arab countries. Next, we will summarize our present understanding about likely future trends in population growth and climatic change in the Arab region. Finally, we will propose a strategy of how to study the complex population environment interactions in a more comprehensive and systematic way."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. E-mail: info@iiasa.ac.at. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40655 Parry, Martin. The potential effects of climate change on world food supply. In: Population and the environment: the Linacre Lectures 1993-4, edited by Bryan Cartledge. 1995. 74-98 pp. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter reports the findings of a major study undertaken by the Environmental Change Unit at Oxford, in conjunction with Columbia University in New York City....There are two main components to this study: the estimation of potential changes in crop yield [resulting from potential climate changes], and the estimation of world food trade responses." The results indicate that "the effects on crop yields in mid- and high-latitude regions appear to be less adverse than those in low-latitude regions....When the economic implications of these changes in crop yields are explored in a world food trade model, the relative ability of the world food system to absorb impacts decreases with the magnitude of the impact. Regional differences in effects remain noticeable: developed countries are expected to be less affected by climate change than developing economies....However, all the scenarios of future climate adopted in this study increase the estimates of the number of people at risk from hunger."
Correspondence: M. Parry, University College London, Department of Environmental Management, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40656 Pimentel, David; Huang, Xuewen; Cordova, Ana; Pimentel, Marcia. Impact of population growth on food supplies and environment. Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 1, Sep 1997. 9-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss the effects of population growth on "the resources that support human lives", with a focus on food supply, fertile cropland, water, diseases, malnutrition, fossil fuels, and food production systems. They conclude by pointing out that "several studies have confirmed that to maintain a relatively high standard of living, the optimum population should be less than 200 million for the United States and less than 2 billion for the world...."
Correspondence: D. Pimentel, Cornell University, 5126 Comstock Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-0901. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40657 Rodríguez, Jorge. Population and relevant issues of the present social agenda. [Población y temas relevantes de la actual agenda social.] Notas de Población, Vol. 24, No. 64, Dec 1996. 105-54 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Various mechanisms are involved in the interaction between population and the environment, and they involve different demographic variables (for example, population size, growth and its spatial distribution). The theoretical effects--positive or negative, temporary or durable, causal or circumstantial--are diverse. The different measures adopted to deal with the critical relationships between the population and the environment will depend on the prevalent approach. There are instruments, based on specific theoretical standpoints, used to identify the environmental impacts of demographic changes. The use of these instruments, with some precautions, should allow the effective integration of the population variables in environmental management."
Correspondence: J. Rodríguez, UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40658 Satoh, Tetsuo. An overview of population and environmental change in Thailand. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 37-53 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper presents a report on the trend of energy consumption and CO2 emission in Thailand during the 1980s, when the country experienced rapid economic growth....The analysis...reveals the importance of modern economic activity as a determinant factor that basically regulates the environmental loads....It is certain that industrialization promotes the increase of fossil energy consumption, but at the same time, it is expected to decelerate deforestation caused by the expansion of farmland."
Correspondence: T. Satoh, Komazawa University, Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, 1-23-1 Komazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40659 Shrestha, Nanda R.; Conway, Dennis. Ecopolitical battles at the Tarai frontier of Nepal: an emerging human and environmental crisis. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 4, Dec 1996. 313-31 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"In Nepal, the drama of human and environmental ills is increasingly being played out in the form of peasants' ecopolitical battles over common land access and control, such as in the Tarai frontier, a region bordering the Gangetic Plain of India. This is a complex battle, pitting peasants' day-to-day survival against environmental security on one front, and against the Nepalese State and its dominant class interests on the other. This article critically dissects this raging battle to gain a clear understanding of its complexities as well as its diverse roots."
Correspondence: N. R. Shrestha, Florida A&M University, School of Business and Industry, Tallahassee, FL 32307-5200. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40660 Smil, Vaclav. Global population and the nitrogen cycle. Scientific American, Vol. 277, No. 1, Jul 1997. 76-81 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author makes the case that feeding the rapidly increasing global population over the course of the twentieth century has been possible only as a result of the invention of the Haber-Bosch ammonia synthesis process in the early part of the century, which made possible the synthetic production of nitrogen fertilizer. About one-third of the protein nourishing today's population is based on this source, and the author concludes that virtually all the protein required to feed the additional two billion people projected during the next two generations will be based on synthetic nitrogen fertilizer as well. The consequences of this increasing chemical dependency, including environmental degradation, are discussed, and alternative options are briefly reviewed.
Correspondence: V. Smil, University of Manitoba, Department of Geography, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

63:40661 Tian, Xueyuan. Population, environment and sustainable growth. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 179-88 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The author discusses the interrelations among population, environment, and sustainable development worldwide. Various methods of achieving sustainable growth are explored and factors contributing to environmental pollution are described. The situation in China is reviewed.
Correspondence: X. Tian, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population Studies, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40662 Wexler, Lee. Decomposing models of demographic impact on the environment. IIASA Working Paper, No. 96-85, Jul 1996. v, 18 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"Demographic Impact (DI) models are multiplicative identities used to decompose environmental impacts into components due to population, economic and technological change....This paper locates two distinct approaches to DI model decomposition: The annual growth rate decomposition and the multiplicative decomposition. Stable indices are provided for each approach. Finally, the Divisia Index--a common price index used by economists--is suggested as an appropriate method to aggregate DI model results."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. E-mail: info@iiasa.ac.at. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40663 Wexler, Lee. Improving population assumptions in greenhouse gas emissions models. IIASA Working Paper, No. 96-99, Aug 1996. vii, 28 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This paper surveys the population assumptions in several important models of global warming in the 1990s, including energy models, integrated emissions models, and economic policy models. Choice of population inputs, the role of population variables in model equations, sensitivity analyses, and consideration of population policy are all described."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. E-mail: info@iiasa.ac.at. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

63:40664 Baker, Michael; Benjamin, Dwayne. The role of the family in immigrants' labor-market activity: an evaluation of alternative explanations. American Economic Review, Vol. 87, No. 4, Sep 1997. 705-27 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"We evaluate some explanations of immigrants' family labor-supply behavior [in Canada]. Upon arrival, immigrant husbands work less than natives, but immigrant wives work more. A conventional labor-supply model uses wage assimilation to explain these differences but is not supported by the data. More favorable results are obtained for the `family investment model', in which wives in immigrant families take on `dead-end' jobs to finance their husbands' investments in human capital. We conclude that family composition is an important correlate of immigrants' assimilation, and the family investment model can account for many of the patterns in the data."
Correspondence: M. Baker, University of Toronto, Department of Economics, 150 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:40665 Brown, Sarah; Sessions, John G. A profile of UK unemployment: regional versus demographic influences. Regional Studies, Vol. 31, No. 4, Jun 1997. 351-66 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This paper profiles the incidence of unemployment in the [United Kingdom] over the period 1985-91 using data derived from the British Social Attitudes Survey. The approach of the paper is to quantify the differential probabilities of unemployment faced by particular groups within the population, focusing in particular on the relative effects of demographic and regional influences. Our results indicate that, even after controlling for a plethora of demographic characteristics, regional disparities in unemployment risk are prevalent, with individuals in Northern Ireland, Wales, the North and West Midlands of England facing a higher chance of unemployment ceteris paribus."
Correspondence: S. Brown, Loughborough University, Department of Economics, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:40666 Cai, Fang. Population and surplus labor in rural China. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 163-77 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The author "provides an analysis of the extent of labor underemployment in agriculture [in China]....We also briefly describe the imperfections in the labor market. Secondary data are used to examine the difference between available work days in the rural population versus the number of days required to produce given levels of farm and other outputs."
Correspondence: F. Cai, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40667 Colard, A.; Marissal, P.; Vandermotten, C.; Van Hamme, G. General census of population and housing as of March 1, 1991: employment and regional socioeconomic structures. [Recensement général de la population et des logements au 1er mars 1991: emploi et structures socio-économiques régionales.] Monographie, No. 6, 1997. 190 pp. Institut National de Statistique: Brussels, Belgium; Services Fédéraux des Affaires Scientifiques, Techniques et Culturelles: Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is one in a planned series of 11 monographs presenting analyses of data from the 1991 census of Belgium. In this report, the authors analyze trends in employment over the course of the 1980s, with particular attention given to the spatial organization of economic activity and its evolution.
Correspondence: Institut National de Statistique, 44 rue de Louvain, 8e étage, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40668 Dayan, Jean-Louis; Echardour, Annick; Glaude, Michel. The professional career of immigrants in France: a longitudinal analysis. [Le parcours professionnel des immigrés en France: une analyse longitudinale.] In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 113-46 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The effect of country of origin on the professional development and social mobility of immigrants in France is examined using data from a 1992 survey on the geographical mobility and social integration of immigrants. The authors conclude that many of the barriers to upward mobility faced by immigrants--due to their low socioeconomic status in the country of origin and their lack of qualifications--are less significant for their children raised in France. However, important barriers to obtaining any kind of work persist for second-generation immigrants from some countries, such as Algeria.
Correspondence: J.-L. Dayan, Ministère du Travail et des Affaires Sociales, Direction de l'Animation de la Recherche, des Etudes et des Statistiques, 20 bis rue d'Estrées, 75700 Paris 07 SP, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40669 Diserens, Marc-Etienne; Briant, Henri; Boruvka, Jan. Production and reproduction: women between spouse, children, and professional activity. [Production et reproduction: la femme entre conjoint, enfants et activité professionelle.] Statistique de la Suisse, ISBN 3-303-03066-9. 1996. 260 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Ger.
This volume contains two separate analyses. The first focuses on women's role in the labor force and the family in Switzerland from 1970-1990, using data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 censuses. The relation between the economic activity of women and the number of children is examined, and the indirect costs of a child are calculated by determining the income reduction associated with dependent children of various ages. The second part uses data from the 1990 census to examine the economic activity of men and women in households with and without children; the extent to which women's economic activity is dependent on their family situation is discussed.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40670 Enchautegui, María E. Immigration and county employment growth. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 5, Oct 1997. 493-511 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper I compare the effects of natives and immigrants on county employment [in the United States]. Results show that the overall immigrant population contributes more to increases in employment than the overall native population. Recent immigrants and recent internal in-movers have similar effects on employment growth. The net contribution of immigrants to employment growth is confined to nonmanufacturing employment."
Correspondence: M. E. Enchautegui, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40671 Fleury, Stéphane; Weygold, Serge-Alexandre; Ballin, GianNicola; Schneiter, Antony; Boruvka, Jan. 1990 federal population census. The population at work: socio-demographic and regional differences. [Recensement fédéral de la population 1990. La population face au travail: disparités socio-démographiques et régionales.] Statistique de la Suisse, ISBN 3-303-03080-4. 1997. 308 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Ger.
This study is in two parts. The first part analyzes the sociodemographic and regional characteristics of the non-economically active population in Switzerland, and considers the reasons why both men and women do not work. The second part examines the structure of employment in Switzerland, as well as the occupations of the employed and their professional status. Both parts are based on data from the 1990 census, and examine changes since 1970.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40672 Hawthorne, Lesleyanne. The question of discrimination: skilled migrants' access to Australian employment. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1997. 395-419 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Following a decade of increasing non English-speaking background (NESB) migration to Australia, including the migration of unprecedented levels of NESB professionals, this article examines two recent studies which report cases of direct and indirect labour market discrimination....key findings include a growing trend to federal government intervention (in alliance with the medical professional bodies) to limit the entry and registration of migrant doctors, as well as the potential for English language ability to negatively impact on pre-registration examination outcomes."
Correspondence: L. Hawthorne, University of Melbourne, Centre for Cultural Studies in Health, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40673 Puur, Allan. Changes in economic activity of the population: case of Estonia. Rahvastiku-Uuringud/Population Studies Series B, No. 31, ISBN 9985-820-31-2. 1997. 35 pp. Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre: Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng.
"Based on the first round of the national labour force survey [in Estonia], this paper tries to outline the main [employment] trends and place them into the comparative perspective of similar developments in Central and Eastern European countries. Compared to earlier analyses on [the] Estonian labour market which have drawn their evidence from administrative sources, establishment surveys and small-scale surveys, the paper's contribution lies with the newly-available individual-level data, allowing for the application of internationally recommended statistical definitions to [a] nationally representative sample."
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40674 Vernières, Michel. The economically active population, employment, and training: increasing problems. [Population active, emploi, formation: des difficultés croissantes.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. 1997. 519-34 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Issues surrounding the global labor force in light of current demographic trends are examined. In particular, the author analyzes the potential effect of declining population growth on job provision and training.
Correspondence: M. Vernières, Université de Paris I, Laboratoire d'Economie Sociale, Unité de Recherche Associée au CNRS No. 941, 90 rue de Tolbiac, 75634 Paris Cedex 13, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40675 Wakabayashi, Keiko. Mobilization of farmers and decreasing farmland/food problem: an essay on the population and the environment in China. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 355-68 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The author discusses the problem of surplus labor in China, with a focus on workers formerly employed in the agricultural sector and their migration to more urban areas. The shortage of agricultural workers and resources, and the simultaneous increase in population size, are considered, and the future impact on food supply and demand is analyzed.
Correspondence: K. Wakabayashi, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Department of Population Structure Research, Migration and Distribution Studies Section, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40676 Won, Jongwook. Factors determining the labor participation rates of married women of different income groups. Health and Social Welfare Review, Vol. 17, No. 1, Summer 1997. 29-39 pp. Seoul, Republic of Korea. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper examines the factors that determine married women's labor force participation. The main purpose of analysis is to compare various factors including uncompensated wage effect and income effect among low-income, middle-income, and high-income families....The analysis shows that child-care is the main factor...deterring labor participation of married women of low-income families....For married women of high-income families, [size] of household [has] a strong negative effect on probability of labor-participation."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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