Volume 63 - Number 4 - Winter 1997

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration.

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

63:40428 Battistella, Graziano; Paganoni, Anthony. Asian women in migration. ISBN 971-8789-06-5. 1996. vii, 191 pp. Scalabrini Migration Center: Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
This collection of nine papers by various authors is the result of a conference held in Manila in October 1995 on Asian women in migration. The table of contents is as follows: Issues in research on women, international migration and labor, by Sharon M. Lee. International labor migration of Asian women: distinctive characteristics and policy concerns, by Lin Lean Lim and Nana Oishi. A contribution of the Asian female immigration into the Canadian population, by Margaret Michalowski. Foreign domestic workers in Singapore, by Diana Wong. Migrant women domestic workers in Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan: a comparative analysis, by Shu-ju Ada Cheng. For wedded bliss: satisfaction of migrant partners of Australian residents, by Pamela Matthews Brown. Forward to a better life: the situation of Asian women married to Japanese men in Japan in the 1990s, by Yuka Ishii. International protections for migrant women as a human rights issue, by Pamela Goldberg. Asian women in migration in the light of the Beijing conference, by Carmela Torres.
Correspondence: Scalabrini Migration Center, 4 13th Street, New Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40429 Chaliand, Gérard; Jan, Michel; Rageau, Jean-Pierre; Petit, Catherine. A historical atlas of migration. [Atlas historique des migrations.] ISBN 2-02-013223-0. Oct 1994. 140 pp. Editions du Seuil: Paris, France. In Fre.
This book contains a series of maps illustrating migration patterns over the course of human history. There are chapters on antiquity, the Roman Empire up to the end of the Middle Ages, the rest of the world during the same period, the modern era, transatlantic migrations during the nineteenth century, migrations in Asia, twentieth-century migration, current trends, and future prospects.
Correspondence: Editions du Seuil, 27 rue Jacob, 75006 Paris, France. Location: University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia, PA.

63:40430 Dilger, Andreas; Hartwig, Uwe; Herr, Thomas; Lutz, Georg; Parsdorfer, Christine; Sikora, Ute; Später, Jörg; Sträter, Frank; Strigl, Hildis; Wlassitschau, Regine. Here today, gone tomorrow: migration, racism, and the (dis)order of the global economy. [Heute hier--morgen fort: Migration, Rassismus und die (Un)Ordnung des Weltmarkts.] ISBN 3-92226-312-7. 1993. 205 pp. Verlag Informationszentrum Dritte Welt: Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany. In Ger.
This is a collection of essays from the perspective of the German political left on migration, migrants, and xenophobia/racism, especially in Europe and particularly in Germany. The contributions are grouped into four chapters. The first, on migration and the debate surrounding it, gives general overviews of the global migration and refugee situation as well as the issues surrounding migration policy. The second, on migration, racism, and the state, contains discussions of how nationalism and racism are linked, and on the globalization of the economy and subsequent international division of labor. The third discusses several specific manifestations of the global labor market. The fourth is a collection of discussions and documents about particular anti-racist initiatives in Germany and Europe.
Correspondence: Verlag Informationszentrum Dritte Welt, Kronenstraße 16 HH, Postfach 5328, 79020 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany. Location: New York University, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, New York, NY.

63:40431 Guilmoto, Christophe Z. Migrations and institutions in Senegal: scale effects and determinants. [Migrations et institutions au Sénégal: effects d'échelle et déterminants.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 46, ISBN 2-87762-102-2. Jun 1997. 42 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of migration in the Senegal River valley is presented using data from fieldwork undertaken in 1992-1993. "The present analysis borrows some of its basic concepts from the new institutional economics so [as] to better describe the complexity of social exchanges in rural societies. We will show for example that the two types of migration observed respond similarly to common structural and family conditions, but they appear to differ mainly when individual variables are taken into account. This feature underlines the crucial opposition between, on the one hand, individual determinants and, on the other, structural factors determined by economic or family characteristics."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40432 Locher, Uli. Migration and environmental change in Costa Rica since 1950. In: Demographic diversity and change in the Central American Isthmus, edited by Anne R. Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby. 1997. 667-705 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
Migration patterns in Costa Rica are examined in the context of the economic developments that have occurred since 1927. Particular attention is given to how large-scale deforestation, the development of foreign-owned banana plantations, and urbanization have affected migration. Data are taken primarily from the census.
Correspondence: U. Locher, McGill University, Department of Sociology, 855 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T7, Canada. E-mail: IND6@MUSICB.MCGILL.CA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40433 Morokvasic, Mirjana; Rudolph, Hedwig. Migration area Europe. People and borders in motion. [Wanderungsraum Europa. Menschen und Grenzen in Bewegung.] ISBN 3-89404-140-4. 1994. 288 pp. Edition Sigma: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
This is a collection of essays that grew out of an international colloquium on New Mobilities held in Berlin, Germany, in April 1993. It is intended to provide both general overviews and specific case studies of migration in Europe, articulating the perspectives of both receiving (West European) and sending (East and South European) countries. The 15 papers, by various authors, are grouped under the following topics: New mobility in Europe as a challenge for research and politics; The (re-)construction of Europe as a field of migration; and East-West migration in the context of the new international division of labor. There are articles on immigration controls and xenophobia, integration, migration policy, immigrants in urban areas, current migration flows in Europe, the Ukraine as sending and receiving country, Polish international commuters, mail-order brides, finding employment in Austria, Czechs crossing into Bavaria, ethnic Germans returning to Germany, and highly educated immigrants from the former Soviet Union in France.
Correspondence: Edition Sigma, Heimstraße 14, 10965 Berlin, Germany. Location: Columbia University Library, New York, NY.

63:40434 Skeldon, Ronald. The challenge facing migration research: a case for greater awareness. Progress in Human Geography, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1995. 91-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author critically examines an article by Keith Halfacree and Paul Boyle, in which the authors made a case for a biographical approach to migration research. "My point of contention--incredulous disbelief might be more accurate--stems from their conclusion that the biographical approach should be the `new' methodological base for an improved paradigm in migration studies."
For the article by Halfacree and Boyle, published in 1993, see 60:10498.
Correspondence: R. Skeldon, University of Hong Kong, Department of Geography and Geology, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40435 Spain. Instituto Nacional de Estadística [INE] (Madrid, Spain). Survey of the Active Population. Migration Survey, 1996. [Encuesta de Población Activa. Encuesta de Migraciones, 1996.] ISBN 84-260-3174-9. 1997. 161 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Results are presented from an annual survey on migration in Spain carried out as part of the national Survey of the Active Population. The data are for 1996 and concern migrant characteristics, internal migration, the economic activity of migrants, and the characteristics of foreigners resident in Spain.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Paseo de la Castellana 183, 28071 Madrid 16, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

63:40436 Al-Haj, Majid. Attitudes and orientation of Soviet immigrants: the emergence of a new ethnic group in Israel. [Attitudes et manières de se situer des immigrants soviétiques: l'émergence d'un nouveau groupe ethnique en Israël.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1996. 139-52 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper deals with the attitudes of Jewish immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union. It delineates the adjustment strategy Soviet immigrants have adopted and attempts to explore their ethnic orientation....While it is too early to draw conclusions regarding the ethnic identity of Soviet immigrants in Israel, our findings indicate a strong tendency for these immigrants to manifest and sustain a unique `Russian identity'. Taking into consideration the cultural and socio-demographic characteristics of Soviet immigrants, we may hypothesize that we [will] witness the emergence of a new ethnic group in Israel."
Correspondence: M. Al-Haj, University of Haifa, Eshkol Tower, 25th Floor, Room 2516, Haifa 31905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40437 Ambrosini, Maurizio. Documented foreign immigrants in Italy: ethnic ties and insertion into the labor force. [Les immigrés réguliers en Italie: liens ethniques et modes d'insertion dans le monde du travail.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1997. 95-124 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa; Ita.
"The text presents an analysis of immigrants' insertion within the Italian labour market....Two main sectors of activities have provided them with...opportunities of insertion: domestic work, mainly concentrated in the metropolis, and work industries, mostly widespread in Lombardia and the Italian North-Eastern regions. The second part of the paper presents the results of some empirical surveys which focus [on] three aspects: integration in the industrial sector; `subordinated' integration, concerning domestic work; [and] entrepreneurial integration...."
Correspondence: M. Ambrosini, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Department of Sociology and Labor, Largo A. Gemelli 1, 20123 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40438 Angenendt, Steffen. Migration and asylum: challenges and strategies for Germany, Europe, and the international community. [Migration und Flucht: Aufgaben und Strategien für Deutschland, Europa und die internationale Gemeinschaft.] Schriftenreihe, No. 342, ISBN 3-89331-272-2. 1997. 320 pp. Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung: Bonn, Germany. Distributed by R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Rosenheimer Strasse 145, 81671 Munich, Germany. In Ger.
Migration and migration policy are discussed in 25 papers by various authors, with the main focus being on Europe, and on Germany in particular. The contributions are grouped into chapters on the history of migration, the potential for immigration from the European Union's neighboring countries, internal policy aspects of immigration, the external policy aspects of German immigration policy, comparing the migration policies of countries in the European Union, problematic issues in European and international migration policy, and prospects for international cooperation. There is also a final contribution by the editor on the future of Germany's migration policy.
Correspondence: Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung, Berliner Freiheit 7, 53111 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40439 Anteby, Lisa; Berthomière, William; Simon, Gildas. New faces of immigration in Israel. [Les nouveaux visages de l'immigration en Israël.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 3, ISBN 2-911627-01-6. 1996. 215 pp. Université de Poitiers: Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This special issue contains 11 articles on various aspects of recent immigration in Israel. The focus is on the assimilation of immigrants from different cultures into Israeli society, with particular reference to immigrants from Ethiopia and the former USSR.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Université de Poitiers, 99 avenue du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40440 Badie, Bertrand; Wihtol de Wenden, Catherine. The migration challenge: international relations issues. [Le défi migratoire: questions de relations internationales.] Le Temps Mondial, ISBN 2-7246-0650-7. 1994. 185 pp. Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques: Paris, France. In Fre.
In this collective work, eight researchers from France and North America examine contemporary international migration trends from various interdisciplinary perspectives. The table of contents is as follows: Migration changes and international relations, by Bertrand Badie. An image of the world: international migration in historical perspective, by Aristide R. Zolberg. Between the law and the market, by James F. Hollifield. Between theory and practice: the economic future of migration, by Marc Termote. Nationality, migration, and international relations, by Alain Prujiner. Migration and social conceptions: the experience of the Gulf War, by Rémy Leveau. Between territories and networks, by Marie-Françoise Durand. Migration and human rights, by Catherine Wihtol de Wenden.
Correspondence: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, 44 rue du Four, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.

63:40441 Baker, Susan G.; Cushing, Robert G.; Haynes, Charles W. Fiscal impacts of Mexican migration to the United States. In: At the crossroads: Mexican migration and U.S. policy, edited by Frank D. Bean et al. 1997. 145-76 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter critically assesses the methodology and findings of 15 recent studies of the fiscal impact of immigration to the United States. With important exceptions, the literature concludes that the net effect of immigrants and immigration is negative. Yet, wide disparities exist among estimates of the magnitude of the impact." The authors conclude that since it is difficult to gain an accurate assessment, the policy debate surrounding immigration is likely to continue.
Correspondence: S. G. Baker, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40442 Battistella, Graziano. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal. Vol. 6, No. 1, 1997. 134 pp. Scalabrini Migration Center: Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This issue...includes a few articles selected from papers presented at the Expert Group Meeting on Violence Against Women Migrant Workers convened by the United Nations in 1996....The papers...contribute to the understanding of the fact that migration presents potential situations of violence for migrant women because they are women and because they are migrants."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Scalabrini Migration Center, P.O. Box 10541 Broadway Centrum, 1113 Quezon City, Philippines. E-mail: smc@mnl.sequel.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40443 Bean, Frank D.; de la Garza, Rodolfo O.; Roberts, Bryan R.; Weintraub, Sidney. At the crossroads: Mexican migration and U.S. policy. ISBN 0-8476-8391-5. LC 96-50203. 1997. viii, 322 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The 10 chapters in this book by various authors examine aspects of the migration flow between Mexico and the United States and weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the various policy options open to both governments that might influence this migration.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40444 Beaujot, Roderic. The demographic behavior and socioeconomic status of immigrants to Canada. [Comportements démographiques et statut socio-économique des immigrants canadiens.] In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 147-63 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study analyzes the demographic and socioeconomic behavior of various ethnic groups migrating to Canada. The demographic contribution of immigration both to overall population growth and to the population's spatial distribution is described. In terms of language and demographic behavior, most immigrants have assimilated into the Canadian population relatively well. As for socioeconomic factors, immigrants arriving since 1975 have found it much more difficult to achieve levels of income similar to native-born Canadians, particularly if they come from elsewhere than Europe or the United States.
Correspondence: R. Beaujot, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40445 Beck, Roy. Immigration-fueled U.S. population growth is "spoiler" in economic, social and environmental efforts. Population and Environment, Vol. 18, No. 5, May 1997. 483-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Since 1970, more than 30 million foreign citizens and their descendants have been added to local communities and labor pools in the United States....Research converges to show that the new volume of immigration has played an important `spoiler' role in efforts to reach at least four of America's goals." These goals, according to the author, are a middle-class society, equal opportunity for the descendants of slaves, harmonious and safe communities, and a restored and protected natural environment.
Correspondence: R. Beck, 1126 N. Frederick Street, Arlington, VA 22205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40446 Benhabib, Jess. On the political economy of immigration. European Economic Review, Vol. 40, No. 9, Dec 1996. 1,737-43 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author discusses "how immigration policies that impose capital and skill requirements would be determined under majority voting when native agents differ in their wealth holdings and vote to maximize their income". The results of the model calculations indicate that "the native population will be polarized between those who would like an immigration policy to maximize the domestic capital-labor ratio and those who would like an immigration policy that would minimize it."
Correspondence: J. Benhabib, New York University, Department of Economics, 269 Mercer Street, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:40447 Berthomière, William. From Aliya to immigration, or the reading of a migratory continuum. [De l'Aliya à l'immigration, ou la lecture d'un continuum migratoire.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1996. 33-60 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author aims "to redraw the migratory trajectories which followed one another from the birth of the State [of Israel] until now....[He reads] these mobilities with the idea of [investigating] the migratory continuum in which the dialectic `centre-periphery' has with time become more complicated and more diversified. [The] reading presents the main periods of this continuum through a description of the Jewish mobilities and their impacts on the edification of the Israeli national ethos....[The author analyzes] the transformation in the `Israel-Diaspora' relations and [identifies] post-Zionist Jewish territoriality."
Correspondence: W. Berthomière, Université de Poitiers, 95 avenue du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40448 Blaschke, Jochen. Migration--a report on the status of research, with special emphasis on international publications concerning labor migration since 1991. [Migration--ein Bericht über den Forschungsstand unter besonderer Berücksichtigung internationaler Publikationen zur Arbeitsmigration seit 1991.] Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, No. 28, 1997. 93 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
This is a discussion of current issues and a bibliography of publications on the subject of global migration. The main focus is on recent labor migration into Europe.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40449 Bodega Fernández, M. Isabel; Cebrián de Miguel, Juan A. An economic interpretation of some contemporary migrations. The case of Spain. [Una lectura económica de algunas migraciones contemporáneas. El caso de España.] Estudios Geográficos, Vol. 57, No. 221, Oct-Dec 1995. 665-94 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Current international migration flows affecting Spain are analyzed from an economic perspective. The main economic causes of international migration in general are first outlined. Trends in Spain over the past 20 years are then analyzed, with particular reference to the problems of regularizing immigrant laborers. The extent of remittances from Spain to Morocco is assessed. The study concludes by summarizing Spanish immigration policies.
Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

63:40450 Böhning, W. R. Do integration, assimilation or multicultural policies work? In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 93-105 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This paper is concerned with the integration of labor migrants from overseas into the developed Anglo-Saxon and European countries. The focus is on the extent to which policies designed to assist the process of immigrant assimilation can be judged to have succeeded. No distinction is made among long-term temporary migrants, those intending to settle permanently, and immigrants from different ethnic groups from the population in the host country. The author concludes that the socioeconomic success of immigrants is more important than any contribution that policy can make to their successful integration.
Correspondence: W. R. Böhning, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Source: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40451 Boyd, Monica. Immigrant minorities, language and economic integration in Canada. In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 165-85 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
"This paper reports the results of an investigation in which the economic integration of immigrants in Canada is examined for groups defined by language proficiency, race/ethnicity, nativity (Canadian born/foreign born) and gender. The analysis illustrates that although language proficiency, race/ethnicity, gender and nativity separately influence economic indicators of integration, in combination they also have important cumulative consequences." The data are from the 1991 Canadian census Public Use Micro-data Files (PUMF).
Correspondence: M. Boyd, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, R/93, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40452 Bustamante, Jorge A. Mexico-United States labour migration: some theoretical and methodological innovations and research findings. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 45-92 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This paper attempts to bridge the gap between the approaches taken by U.S. and Mexican scholars to the study of illegal, or undocumented, migration between Mexico and the United States. "Toward this purpose this paper is divided in three parts. The first part consists of a historical approach to the cultural and economic meaning of the Mexican migration to the United States. The second part consists of some recent findings from a research project designed to monitor the undocumented migratory flows from Mexico to the United States. The third part consists of a policy proposal derived from the theoretical approach discussed in the first two parts."
Correspondence: J. A. Bustamante, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Blvd. Abelardo L. Rodriguez, Zona del Rio, Tijuana, Baja California 22320, Mexico. E-mail: colefccicese.mx. Source: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40453 Chirwa, Wiseman C. "No TEBA...forget TEBA": the plight of Malawian ex-migrant workers to South Africa, 1988-1994. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 3, Fall 1997. 628-54 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article is about the process of socioeconomic transformation in rural Malawi. It examines the survival strategies and enterprising spirit of Malawian migrant workers and their households. It argues that the strategies of these people often went beyond survival in the provision of basic necessities....In March 1988, the South African Chamber of Mines stopped a century-old tradition of recruiting migrant workers from Malawi. This has arrested and put to a halt a process of accumulation taking place in the households of the returned migrant workers in the rural economy. Thus, the effects of the retrenchment of the workers will spread from the migrant and his family through the economic and social wellspring of all sectors of rural communities and their commercial lives."
Correspondence: W. C. Chirwa, University of Malawi, Chancellor College, Demographic Unit, Zomba, Malawi. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40454 Clark, W. A. V.; Schultz, Freya. Evaluating the local impacts of recent immigration to California: realism versus racism. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 5, Oct 1997. 475-91 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The following analysis is designed to examine the impacts of international migration in California and at specific local scales. It is also designed to put the recent very large scale migration into a larger context of the changes in post-industrial societies in general....The research also confronts the tension between those who argue for continuing immigration and those who counsel stopping or severely limiting immigration....The paper briefly examines the context of recent migration before analyzing the local impacts of recent migration on skill levels, education, welfare, and health and economic well-being."
Correspondence: W. A. V. Clark, University of California, Department of Geography, 405 Hilgard Avenue, 1255 Bunche Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1524. E-mail: wclark@geog.ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40455 Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Connolly, Marie D. The worldwide market for skilled migrants: can Australia compete? International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 3, Fall 1997. 670-93 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to...[analyze] the relative importance of internal and external factors on the demand for skilled immigration visas to Australia. Our objectives are to determine how the size of the pool of potential migrants is influenced by factors such as relative economic conditions and U.S. and Canadian immigration policies and to determine what implications these factors have on the relative quality (skill level) of potential migrants to Australia. Our results indicate that the demand for skilled immigration visas to Australia is related to the number of immigrants accepted by the United States and Canada as well as employment possibilities in Australia. We do not find a relationship between U.S. and Canadian policy and the relative quality of the applicant pool."
Correspondence: D. A. Cobb-Clark, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61761-6901. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40456 Coleman, David A. International migration: a long-term challenge for the industrialized world and Europe in particular. [La migration internationale: un défi à long terme pour le monde industrialisé et en particulier l'Europe.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. 1997. 497-517 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general review of international migration from the perspective of the developed Western countries. The author first notes that the developed countries in North America and Oceania favor controlled levels of immigration as contributing to their development, whereas those in Europe are basically opposed to immigration in principle although they have permitted considerable numbers of individuals to immigrate. Only Japan has, with some difficulty, remained opposed to large-scale immigration in both principle and practice. Recent and current levels of immigration are outlined, and the characteristics of immigrant populations are described. The main roots of immigrants are also examined, distinguishing among labor migrants, family reunifications, asylum seekers, and illegal migrants. The paper ends with a review of some of the problems facing European countries in developing future immigration policies.
Correspondence: D. A. Coleman, University of Oxford, Department of Applied Social Studies and Social Research, Barnett House, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2ER, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40457 Cox, David. The vulnerability of Asian women migrant workers to a lack of protection and to violence. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1997. 59-75 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The paper argues that women moving abroad as domestic workers are, in many instances, unprepared, unprotected, and therefore open to exploitation and violent treatment. It suggests that the factors resulting in this common outcome are clear, and that an examination of the situation and the relevant factors leads us to a set of intervention strategies which are feasible. Six areas of intervention are identified: conventions, legislation, government control of processes, supervision, preparation and empowerment of the women, and support NGOs [nongovernmental organizations] including self-help groups."
Correspondence: D. Cox, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40458 Damian, Natalia; Rosenbaum-Tamari, Yehudit. Jewish identity and immigration to Israel: an ongoing survey among the current wave of Russian immigrants. [Identité juive et immigration en Israël: une enquête en cours sur l'actuelle vague d'immigrants russes.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1996. 123-38 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper aims to supply information on the factors that motivated large masses of Jews to leave the former Soviet Union and settle in Israel during the last few years. Also investigated is the relationship between Jewish identity and the decision to immigrate to Israel. Finally, the study examines the connection between immigrants' Jewish and Israeli identity and their predisposition to stay in Israel or to re-emigrate elsewhere. The findings indicate that the current Jewish emigration from the former USSR has, to a significant extent, the character of free choice, and that the decision to come to Israel is highly correlated with the respondents' commitment to their Jewishness and to the Jewish people."
Correspondence: N. Damian, Ministry of Immigration and Absorption, Planning and Research Division, Hakirya, 2 Kaplan Street, 91905 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40459 Day, Lincoln H.; Içduygu, Ahmet. The consequences of international migration for the status of women: a Turkish study. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1997. 337-71 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"As part of a larger inquiry into the consequences of international migration for those who remain in the country of origin, 234 adults in four Turkish provinces were interviewed concerning matters (mostly opinions) pertaining to the status of women....Some of the considerable diversity of viewpoints...are doubtless causally associated with the experience of migration, whether direct or indirect. But there is also evidence here of a society in the process of rapid change; and it is these more general social changes, not migration as such, that would appear to be more likely to affect the status of women."
Correspondence: A. Içduygu, Bilkent University, 06533 Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40460 Della Pergola, Sergio. The world system of Jewish migration in historical perspective. [Le système mondial de migration juive en perspective historique.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1996. 9-31 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article examines the main tendencies of international Jewish migration during the last century. An [effort has been made] to reconstruct the global volume of these migrations from all departure places to all destinations. The intensity of the major trends [has] been evaluated...[to] distinguish the variable weight of migrations towards the major Western countries and towards the State of Israel (and before its creation, of Palestine). The migratory waves towards Israel are subject to a more detailed analysis through which we attempt to understand better the various levels of emigration from the different countries, the context of these migrations, and their main causes."
Correspondence: S. Della Pergola, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Gaster Building, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40461 Di Comite, Luigi. North African migrations: proceedings of the meeting on Migration in the Maghreb. [Le migrazioni Maghrebine: atti del convegno su "La Migration au Maghreb"] 1995. 400 pp. Cacucci Editore: Bari, Italy. In Fre; Ita.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Bari, Italy, October 8-9, 1993 on aspects of migration from Northern Africa to Europe. The 21 papers, which are in French or Italian, examine various aspects of this migration, focusing on emigration from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia to France, Italy, and Spain. The aspects of migration analyzed include both the assimilation of immigrants and the issues related to return migration and resettlement in the country of origin. Issues of migration policy are also covered.
Correspondence: Cacucci Editore, Via Nicolai 17, 70122 Bari, Italy. Location: New York University, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, New York, NY.

63:40462 Di Comite, Luigi; Moreno, José L. The use of shipping registers to analyze Italian emigration to the Americas: the role of the family in trans-Atlantic migration. [Le liste di bordo per lo studio dell'emigrazione italiana verso le Americhe: il ruolo della famiglia nelle migrazioni transoceaniche.] Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 23, 1995. 59-69 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
The extent to which shipping records can be used to analyze migration from Italy to the Americas, and in particular to study the role that the family played in this migration, is examined.
Correspondence: L. Di Comite, Università di Bari, Dipartimento per lo Studio delle Società Mediterranee, Palazzo Ateneo, 70121 Bari, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40463 Dinkel, Reiner H.; Lebok, Uwe. External migration and population trends in Germany. [Außenwanderungen und Bevölkerungsentwicklung in Deutschland.] Geographische Rundschau, Vol. 46, No. 3, 1994. 128-35 pp. Brunswick, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Since 1945 immigration has become the most important demographic parameter [affecting population trends in Germany]. The relevance of migration for the population development of Germany...is not only pointed out by the annual migration balance sheet, but even more by the age structure and the gender composition of the migrants. Since immigrants are usually rather young, this group possesses a particular demographic dynamic which influences the population development considerably." The authors suggest that not only the number of migrants but also their age structure be taken into account by people who create social policy and do regional planning or other activities with a demographic component.
Correspondence: R. H. Dinkel, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg, Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Feldkirchenstraße 21, 96052 Bamberg, Germany. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

63:40464 Doomernik, Jeroen. Current migration to Europe. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 88, No. 3, 1997. 284-90 pp. Utrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this...article, we concentrate our attention on migration from the Mediterranean region and Sub-Saharan Africa (South-North migration) and from Central and Eastern Europe (East-West migration)....After briefly discussing history and causes of these migration flows, we will address where European immigration stands to date. In conclusion we discuss what is likely to happen within the Europe-centred migration system in the foreseeable future."
Correspondence: J. Doomernik, University of Amsterdam, Department of Environmental Sciences, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40465 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Fix, Michael; Zimmermann, Wendy; Corbett, Thomas. Immigration and social policy: new interest in an old issue. Focus, Vol. 18, No. 2, Fall-Winter 1996-1997. 1-10 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This...article reviews the historical context of the immigration debate [in the United States], explores recent changes in public and political attitudes toward immigration, and considers some legal and equity aspects of the legislative changes made in the summer of 1996."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. E-mail: tje@opr.princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40466 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Belanger, Maryann. U.S. public perceptions and reactions to Mexican migration. In: At the crossroads: Mexican migration and U.S. policy, edited by Frank D. Bean et al. 1997. 227-61 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to explore what is known about attitudes and reactions toward Mexican migration to the United States....The opinion results presented in this chapter are based on data from the Public Opinion Location Library (POLL) database, a comprehensive on-line retrieval system for polling data provided by Dialog Information Services....We will argue that the results support two broad conclusions. First, when given a choice, the American public prefers European immigrants to those from Asia or Latin America....Second, whereas the American public is concerned about illegal U.S. immigration, they are generally willing to support only the mildest measures to try to control it."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40467 Frejka, Tomas; Okolski, Marek; Pyrozhkov, Serhyi; Sipaviciene, Audra. Economic and social consequences of international population movements in central and eastern Europe in the early 1990s. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 7-20 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The results of three in-depth surveys of international migration concerning Lithuania, Poland, and the Ukraine in the period 1993-1996 are presented. The focus is on the consequences of migration for the migrants, their families, their communities, and the countries concerned. "It appears fair to conclude that on balance the migrants, their families, their communities and the countries concerned reaped meaningful gains as a result of the activities undertaken by the international migrants. That this was often under difficult circumstances and entailed unforeseen as well as undesirable consequences comes as no surprise."
Correspondence: T. Frejka, UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais de Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Source: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40468 Fuglerud, Øivind. "Foreign worker", "refugee", "asylum-seeker" ["Fremmedarbeider", "flyktning", "asylsøker"] Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning, Vol. 37, No. 4, Aug 1996. 485-504 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
"How should one explain the fact that within one group of immigrants to Norway, Sri Lankan Tamils, very different conceptions of Norway are found? In general, the attitude toward Norwegian society is more positive among the early migrant workers, whereas asylum-seekers who have arrived later are more negative in their conception. The author argues that...such internal differentiation is difficult to approach analytically...It is argued that we need a concept of `discourse' to take into account the fact that in Norway a structure of public signification has been constructed in later years which systematically marginalizes the category of migrants conceptualized as asylum-seekers."
Correspondence: Ø. Fuglerud, Oslo University, Department of Social Anthropology, P.O. Box 1091, Blindern, 0317 Oslo 3, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40469 Glytsos, Nicholas P. Greek immigrants in Australia: demographic developments and economic integration. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1997. 421-49 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purpose of this article is to present and analyse the migration, economic standing and economic performance of Greeks in Australia and to make a comparative assessment with the Australian population. The demographic and education characteristics of Greek immigrants, and to some extent second generation ethnic Greeks, and their bearing on immigrant employment and income are investigated. Intertemporal developments and intergenerational and interethnic changes are explored in order to identify and explain similarities and differences, or inequalities, between Greek immigrants and the total Australian population."
Correspondence: N. P. Glytsos, Centre for Planning and Economic Research, Athens, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40470 Grosfoguel, Ramón. Colonial Caribbean migrations to France, the Netherlands, Great Britain and the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jul 1997. 594-612 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article attempts to understand the peculiarities of the migration processes of colonial Caribbean migrations to the metropoles. Specifically, it compares the migration processes and labour market incorporation of Puerto Ricans to the United States, Martinicans/Guadaloupeans to France, Surinamese/Dutch Antilleans to the Netherlands, and West Indians to England." The author discusses "differences in the emigration processes between the independent and non-independent Caribbean [and offers] the theoretical and historical rationale to distinguish analytically migrations from Caribbean nation-states from colonial Caribbean migrations."
Correspondence: R. Grosfoguel, Binghamton University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40471 Hillmann, Felicitas; Rudolph, Hedwig. Beyond the "brain drain": mobility of Western experts and managers to Poland. [Au-delà de la "fuite des cerveaux": la mobilité des personnes hautement qualifiées de l'ouest vers la Pologne.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1997. 71-94 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa; Ger.
The authors investigate the impact of the migration of skilled employees of multinational companies to local branches. "Case studies from the food and the telecommunication sectors in Poland demonstrate that the integration of this country into a world-wide market is already taking place through the use of highly qualified personnel from the West...."
Correspondence: F. Hillmann, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, Reichpietschufer 50, 10785 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40472 Holzer, Werner; Münz, Rainer. Xenophobia in Austria? Attitudes toward migration, foreign population, and the state's policy on foreigners. [Fremdenfeindlichkeit in Österreich? Einstellungen zu Migration, ausländischer Bevölkerung und staatlicher Ausländerpolitik.] Demographische Informationen, 1995-1996. 45-53, 162 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"At present some 700,000 foreigners (almost 9% of the total population) are living in Austria, about 280,000 of which are in the labor market. A representative sample of Austrians between 20 and 54 years [of age] were asked about their attitudes toward foreign population and migration policy." The findings indicate that various degrees of higher tolerance were correlated with being young, male, urban, living in a province with a high foreign population, and high socioeconomic status. "Stepping up the integration of the foreign population...is supported by a minority of Austrians only; as for the education of the children of immigrants, the Austrian attitude is a more generous one."
Correspondence: W. Holzer, Österreichisches Statistisches Zentralamt, Hintere Zollamtsstraße 2b, Postfach 9000, 1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40473 Husson, Laurence. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia for worship and work. [Les Indonésiens en Arabie Saoudite pour la foi et le travail.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1997. 125-47 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article is intended to make a first assessment of the consequences of Indonesian immigration in Saudi Arabia, in particular during the first half of the 20th century, and to describe the evolution over time of certain striking aspects of the close relation between the pilgrimage to Mecca and Indonesian migrants looking for work....This paper considers the methods of hiring labour, the networks involved in recruiting it, the organization of travel, as well as the increasing indebtedness of the migrants through intermediaries who, more and more professionally, arrange these attempts to live abroad...."
Correspondence: L. Husson, 9 rue Pinel, 93200 Saint-Denis, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40474 Kee, Pookong. Immigrant minorities in Australia: a social and economic assessment. In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 187-209 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
Overall trends in immigration to Australia and changes in immigration policy over time are first outlined. Next, the author describes the characteristics of the immigrant population and how these also are changing. The process of immigrant assimilation is then analyzed, with attention given to social factors such as religion, patterns of residence, educational attainment, and language usage; and to economic factors such as labor force participation, employment, occupations, income, and home ownership.
Correspondence: P. Kee, Victoria University of Technology, Centre for Asia-Pacific Studies, Ballarat Road, Footscray, P.O. Box 14428, MMC, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40475 Komatina, Slavica. Exodus of trained professional personnel from Yugoslavia. [Odliv strucnjaka iz Jugoslavije.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 35, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1997. 25-46 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses the brain drain from Yugoslavia in recent years. "This paper...displays the results of...studies of the [brain drain] as well as some estimates. Data on employment and unemployment in the country can also be used to indirectly determine the scope of emigration of skilled labor."
Correspondence: S. Komatina, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Ekonomski Fakultet, Studentski trg 1, 11001 Belgrade 6, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40476 Koser, Khalid. Social networks and the asylum cycle: the case of Iranians in the Netherlands. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 3, Fall 1997. 591-611 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the traditional distinction between the migration of refugees and labor migrants in the context of Iranian asylum seekers in the Netherlands. The empirical strategy adopted is to apply a framework designed specifically to explain labor migration to the case of asylum migration, and the social networks approach is identified as the most appropriate. This paper examines the role of social networks through the asylum cycle, focusing on the decision to migrate, the choice of destination, and adaptation in the host society. The key conclusion is that the validity of the distinction between refugee and labor migration varies through the asylum cycle even for the same individual."
Correspondence: K. Koser, University of Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 8, P.O. Box 80.125, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40477 Layton-Henry, Zig. Britain: the would-be zero-immigration country. In: Controlling immigration: a global perspective, edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Philip L. Martin, and James F. Hollifield. 1994. 273-95 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
This chapter reviews British policy concerning immigration over the course of the twentieth century. The author notes that this policy has been determined by a mixture of economic and political imperatives, and that the British experience has differed from that of most other countries in that the authorities have been able to set targets for numbers of immigrants and to stick to them. The reasons for this apparent achievement are discussed. The author concludes that the success in controlling immigration is due in part to Britain's parliamentary government, which is more responsive to xenophobic public opinion; a greater willingness to discriminate against third-world immigrants is also seen as a factor. Nonetheless, it is noted that legal immigration has continued, albeit at modest levels, and that the level of illegal immigration may be higher than normally estimated.
Correspondence: Z. Layton-Henry, University of Warwick, ESRC Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:40478 Li, F. L. N.; Findlay, A. M. Placing identity: interviews with Hong Kong Chinese immigrants in Britain and Canada. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 4, Dec 1996. 361-77 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper explores the `borderline community of migration'....The placing of migrant identities is examined in the context of Hong Kong immigrants in Britain and Canada. Changes in identity and the meaning of the multiplicity of migrant identities are explored through interview material. The tensions between the multiple facets of migrants' identities reflect the sociopolitical relationships within and between places. The resolution of these tensions is partially revealed in the hybridity and fluidity of migrants' articulation of their identities, whilst maintaining a primary identification with their culture of origin."
Correspondence: F. L. N. Li, University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Centre for Applied Population Research, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40479 Liu, Xiao-Feng; Norcliffe, Glen. Closed windows, open doors: geopolitics and post-1949 mainland Chinese immigration to Canada. Canadian Geographer/Géographe Canadien, Vol. 40, No. 4, Winter 1996. 306-18 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Since 1949 there have been dramatic changes in the flow of migrants from Mainland China to Canada....Even though Canada in theory opened a window for family reunification in the postwar era by removing long-standing discriminatory clauses blocking Chinese immigration, in practice cold war geopolitics led the Chinese to shut that window, blocking nearly all emigration. Changing geopolitical circumstances led China to develop an open-door policy between 1973 and 1989, leading to increasing flows of migrants to Canada. The political response in Canada to the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 was to allow all Chinese students and workers in Canada to stay, if they so wished....The result was a large inflow making MCIs [mainland Chinese immigrants] the third-largest group of immigrants to Canada in the early 1990s."
Correspondence: X.-F. Liu, York University, Department of Geography, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40480 Liu, Xiao-feng. Refugee flow or brain-drain? The humanitarian policy and post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigration to Canada. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 1, Mar 1997. 15-29 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"The humanitarian policy that the Canadian government implemented in response to the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown changed a migration system primarily based on personal networks into a brain drain. Post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigrants (MCIs) were better educated than those arriving in Canada previously. Among the post-Tiananmen MCIs, those who landed under the policy were better educated than those landing in other categories. The analysis suggests that post-Tiananmen MCIs represented a brain-drain rather than a refugee flow, that the humanitarian policy implicitly contained ideological and human capital concerns in addition to humanitarian concerns, and that Canada benefited from the policy by obtaining human capital as well as satisfying its humanitarian obligations and ideological aspirations."
Correspondence: X.-f. Liu, York University, Department of Geography, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40481 Menjivar, Cecilia. Immigrant kinship networks: Vietnamese, Salvadoreans and Mexicans in comparative perspective. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring 1997. 1-24 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This is a comparative analysis of differences in the effectiveness of kinship networks among various immigrant groups in San Francisco, California. "Based on 80 intensive interviews and ethnographic observations, this article seeks to explain instances of network breakdown among Salvadoreans through a comparison with the experiences of Vietnamese and Mexicans, among whom kinship networks do not break down in the same manner as they do among Salvadoreans. The analysis in this study suggests that macro-structural forces in the receiving context shape network dynamics among immigrants in significant ways. The forces in the receiving context include immigration policies, the oscillations of the local economy, and the characteristics of the immigrant community such as its resources and its migratory history."
Correspondence: C. Menjivar, University of California, Graduate School of Education, Division of Social and Cultural Studies, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40482 Morris, Lydia. Globalization, migration and the nation-state: the path to a post-national Europe? British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jun 1997. 192-209 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper begins by noting a number of recent trends which challenge the self-contained autonomy of the nation-state, and the recent conceptualization of such trends in terms of `globalization'....[It is] a preliminary exploration of the issues raised by international population flows and policy responses in the context of the European Union (EU). Minimally, it proffers an account of the global/national tension noted in much of the globalization literature and apparent in the policy and politics of migration. More critically, this account attempts an assessment of quite how `post-national' Europe really is, and whether `globalization' offers any help in unravelling the complexity of empirical evidence."
Correspondence: L. Morris, University of Essex, Department of Sociology, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40483 Moya, José. Social history, the nominative method, and the study of migration. [La historia social, el método nominativo y el estudio de las migraciones.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 11, No. 33, Aug 1996. 287-301 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The aspiration to recover the daily experiences of ordinary people drove social historians to the use of the nominative method; but it was the personal computer that made the analysis of nominative data at all possible. The author conducted research on Spanish immigration in Buenos Aires on the basis of data collected from census manuscripts for Buenos Aires (1855, 1869, 1895); police files of suspected anarchists and membership records of voluntary association (railway workers' union and several ethnic associations). Baptism and marriage records in Buenos Aires churches were used. Data were then checked with personal interviews."
Correspondence: J. Moya, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40484 Neyer, Gerda. Austrian emigration from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. [Auswanderungen aus Österreich von der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zur Gegenwart.] Demographische Informationen, 1995-1996. 60-70, 162 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This is the result of an interdisciplinary study on emigration from Austria. Before the early 19th century, migratory movements were...in large part politically and religiously motivated. Between 1876 and 1910, due to economic changes and disparities, some 5 million people (i.e. about 10% of the population) left the Austro-Hungarian [Empire], the vast majority...heading overseas. Until the outbreak of World War I, emigration continued to increase, becoming a political means for containing the economic crisis and unemployment between the wars. Following the political unrest of 1934, several thousand political activists had to leave the country. After the `Anschluss' the systematic expulsion of the Jewish population set in. After World War II emigration went up again, the Austrians' main immigration countries being Germany and Switzerland, while the classical immigration countries (USA, Canada) received [fewer and fewer] Austrian citizens."
Correspondence: G. Neyer, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut für Demographie, Hintere Zollamtsstraße 2b, 1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40485 Poiret, Christian. Attention, un cycle migratoire peut en cacher un autre! [Beware, one migration cycle can hide another!] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1997. 177-89 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre.
The author examines some problems concerning the data collected on immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa in the official French survey on geographical mobility and social integration being conducted jointly by INED and INSEE. The issue concerns the allocation of immigrants to the appropriate ethnic group and the differences between the problems faced by the children of immigrants born in France and those facing the more recent immigrants who may be from the same ethnic group. The author concludes that the survey will probably be more relevant to the study of the latest wave of migrants from Africa than to the study of earlier migrations.
Correspondence: C. Poiret, Université de Paris 7, Unité de Recherche Migrations et Société, casier 7027, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05, France. E-mail: URMIS@paris7.JUSSIEU.FR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40486 Pongsapich, Amara. Recent trends in international migration in Asia. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 137, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1551. 1995. x, 56 pp. UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Recent international migration trends in Asia are analyzed in this report. The emphasis is on temporary contract workers, temporary professional transients, and clandestine or illegal labor migrants. Where possible, male and female migrants are considered separately. There are chapters on migration to the Middle East, intraregional migration in East and Southeast Asia, the brain drain and undocumented migration, and economic and social impacts. The concluding chapter focuses on policy perspectives.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40487 Prskawetz, Alexia. Economic aspects of migration: remittances by migrant workers. [Ökonomische Aspekte von Migration: der Kapitaltransfer ausländischer Arbeitskräfte.] Demographische Informationen, 1995-1996. 54-9, 162 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Worldwide annual remittances...by migrant workers to their home countries amount to some 70 billion U.S. dollars, exceeded by oil export earnings only....The amount of remittances depends on the income of both the migrants and their family members....Remittances meant for investment at home are determined by interest rates, foreign exchange regulations, exchange rates, monetary stability etc. in the immigration and emigration countries. Home remittances and saving habits of emigrants also depend on whether or not they expect to return to their home countries and the prospects of family reunification, all of which is directly linked to the (immigration) policy and economic conditions of both the countries of origin and residence." The factors influencing remittances flowing into and out of Austria are analyzed using data from the Austrian National Bank.
Correspondence: A. Prskawetz, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut für Demographie, Hintere Zollamtsstraße 2b, 1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40488 Reichman, Shalom; Katz, Yossi; Paz, Yair. The absorptive capacity of Palestine, 1882-1948. Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 33, No. 2, Apr 1997. 338-61 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article will shed light on the question of Palestine's absorptive capacity as a geographic, economic and political issue from the time that Zionism took in interest in the subject until the establishment of the State of Israel. It will examine the methods that were employed to evaluate the question, the problems attendant upon these methods and how these methods were modified over the course of time."
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

63:40489 Renaud, Jean; Piché, Victor; Gingras, Lucie. Immigration and economic integration in Montreal: might national origin be discriminatory? [Immigration et intégration économique à Montréal: l'origine nationale serait-elle discriminatoire?] In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 89-111 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The integration of foreign immigrants into the labor force in Canada is examined using the example of Montreal. The focus is on differences in the economic success of immigrants by country of origin. Data are from a survey conducted in 1990-1992 of about 1,000 recent immigrants.
Correspondence: J. Renaud, Université de Montréal, Département de Sociologie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40490 Roberts, Bryan R.; Escobar Latapi, Augustin. Mexican social and economic policy and emigration. In: At the crossroads: Mexican migration and U.S. policy, edited by Frank D. Bean et al. 1997. 47-78 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we will examine the general impact of Mexican social and economic policies on international migration. While international migration from Mexico to the United States is the focus of increasingly intense debate within the United States, that process is only one effect of the drastic redistribution of the Mexican population during this century. The social and economic policies that shaped internal migration during Mexico's period of rapid urbanization and industrialization also affected international migration. Likewise, current social and economic policies are changing the character of both internal and international migration."
Correspondence: B. R. Roberts, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40491 Rosen, Haïm. From fedj to social worker: the metamorphosis of a traditional role among Ethiopian immigrants in Israel. Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1996. 61-76 pp. Poitiers, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper looks at the current efforts of key individuals within the Ethiopian Jewish community in Israel to assist in the adjustment and integration of new immigrants....A central finding of the research is that a transformation can be said to have taken place, whereby the kinds of expectations once held of a person who served in a traditional role known as fedj, representing people and handling their affairs for them, have been placed upon certain individuals who are working in the area of social services. A case study is made of the `metamorphosis' of one individual in particular who managed to go from acting in a fedj-like manner...to becoming a certified social worker in charge of a large staff and organizer of a program to train a new generation of local people to serve their community like a good fedj."
Correspondence: H. Rosen, Israel Ministry of Immigrant Absorption, Planning and Research Division, Hakirya, 2 Kaplan Street, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40492 Rosenfeld, Michael J.; Tienda, Marta. Labor market implications of Mexican migration: economies of scale, innovation, and entrepreneurship. In: At the crossroads: Mexican migration and U.S. policy, edited by Frank D. Bean et al. 1997. 177-200 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter addresses what is known about the impacts of immigrants on the U.S. economy, with special focus on Mexican immigrants....We focus...on the channels of influence that derive from economies of scale, and the special contributions that immigrants may make through their inventiveness, motivation, and self-selection for willingness to work hard in order to improve their lot in life."
Correspondence: M. J. Rosenfeld, University of Chicago, Department of Sociology, Chicago, IL 60637-2799. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40493 Sakkeus, Luule. Scientific personnel in Estonia during the transition period. Rahvastiku-Uuringud/Population Studies Series B, No. 28, ISBN 9985-820-29-0. 1996. 58 pp. Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre: Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng.
This is the first report arising from a project aimed at studying the scientific brain drain since the collapse of the Soviet system. Two standardized surveys were undertaken in Estonia to examine the restructuring of scientific research and its effects on the population of scientists. The first survey included 1,066 scientists who had left scientific institutions from 1989 to 1994; the second covered 700 scientists still employed in 1995. The first part of the report gives background information on the economic and demographic situation and the restructuring of scientific research in Estonia. The second analyzes the scope and patterns of the migration that has already occurred among scientists, and the third concentrates on the potential for further scientific brain drain.
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40494 Salt, John; Clarke, James A. European migration report. New Community, Vol. 22, No. 3, Jul 1996. 513-29 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This report uses available statistics to describe the contemporary trends and patterns of international migration involving Central and Eastern Europe. It focuses on the former Warsaw Pact countries, excluding the former Soviet Union..., and also omits former Yugoslavia." The authors conclude that "substantial emigration to the West continues, much of it unrecorded. What is perhaps more surprising is that the region has emerged as one of substantial immigration. This reflects two main forces. First, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have become stepping stones on the way to the lotus lands of Western Europe....Second, some of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe...have become honeypots in their own right."
Correspondence: J. Salt, University College London, Migration Research Unit, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40495 Shah, Nasra M.; Menon, Indu. Violence against women migrant workers: issues, data and partial solutions. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1997. 5-30 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Despite the creation of specific norms, procedures, and institutions to protect women migrant workers, serious gaps remain. Statistics for measuring violence are not compiled comprehensively or regularly. Two occupations that increase the risk of violence are domestic service and entertainment-related services. Migration through illegal channels and trafficking also increase the risk. This article suggests a list of indicators to measure violence of three major types: (1) economic, (2) social/psychological, and (3) physical/sexual. Evidence from several countries to document instances of violence is reviewed. Major policy issues for the sending and receiving countries are outlined, and some recommendations for addressing such violations are made."
Correspondence: N. M. Shah, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, 13060 Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40496 Sicron, P. Moshe; Paltiel, Ari; Tal, Dorith. Immigration from the former Soviet Union since 1990: the main statistical sources in Israel. [L'immigration d'ex-URSS depuis 1990: les principales sources statistiques en Israël.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1996. 195-203 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre.
The main sources for data on immigration to Israel are described, with particular reference to recent immigration from the former Soviet Union. The sources include the census and special surveys on immigrants.
Correspondence: P. M. Sicron, Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya Romema, P.O. Box 13015, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40497 Simmons, Alan B. International migration and the transformation of the Americas: impacts on migrant sending countries in the late 20th century. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 21-41 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impacts of migration on origin countries in the Americas. It concludes that many origin countries experience large impacts, due to a large volume of international movement, selectivity of emigration, the fact that most movement is from poorer to more developed nations, and the significance of temporary labour `circulation'. Many specific impacts are noted, including: `brain drain', and shifts in unemployment, wage levels, incomes, consumption, social inequality, farm production and cultural values. The impacts also vary from one country to another, and from one pattern of migration to another. Globalization of production and related trends, such as export-led development policies and economic adjustments to new trade patterns, tend to promote both `brain drain' and temporary `circulation', both of which lead to particular kinds of impacts."
Correspondence: A. B. Simmons, York University, 240 York Lanes, Toronto, Canada M3J 1P3. E-mail: asimmons@yorku.ca. Source: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40498 Skeldon, Ronald. Hong Kong communities overseas. In: Hong Kong's transitions, 1842-1997, edited by Judith M. Brown and Rosemary Foot. ISBN 0-312-17420-9. LC 96-46509. 1997. 121-48 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In the lead-up to the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, emigration has been a major concern....One of the difficulties in assessing the significance of earlier emigration in the initial period was that very little was known about what was going on: no information on the number of emigrants, let alone their characteristics, was collected by the government or any other institution. More recently, mechanisms have been introduced to estimate the number of leavers and to generate a profile of their characteristics....This chapter will attempt to summarise what we do know about the recent movement out of the colony, drawing on...earlier studies, and then raise what seem to be the main questions still to be resolved."
Correspondence: St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40499 Skeldon, Ronald. Immigration and emigration: current trends, dilemmas and policies. In: The other Hong Kong report: 1994, edited by Donald H. McMillen and Man Si-wai. ISBN 962-201-633-2. 1994. 165-86 pp. Chinese University Press: Hong Kong. In Eng.
The author analyzes recent trends in emigration and immigration in Hong Kong. He considers return movements; the fear of a "tidal wave" of immigration from China and the impact on policy; Vietnamese migrants; and problems related to passports and residence.
Correspondence: R. Skeldon, University of Hong Kong, Department of Geography and Geology, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40500 Skeldon, Ronald. Immigration and population issues. In: The other Hong Kong report: 1995, edited by Stephen Y. L. Cheung and Stephen M. H. Sze. ISBN 962-201-681-2. 1995. 303-16 pp. Chinese University Press: Hong Kong. In Eng.
"Population trends and issues of employment and the labour market are intimately related and this chapter will attempt to review the linkages" with a focus on Hong Kong immigration and emigration. The author examines legal migration from China, legal migration of foreign professionals and skilled labor, labor importation schemes, illegal migration, and return migration. Trends in emigration from Hong Kong and its consequences are discussed.
Correspondence: R. Skeldon, University of Hong Kong, Department of Geography and Geology, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40501 Skeldon, Ronald. Migrants on a global stage: the Chinese. In: Pacific Rim development: integration and globalization in the Asia-Pacific economy, edited by P. J. Rimmer. 1997. 222-39 pp. Allen and Unwin: St. Leonards, Australia. In Eng.
"This chapter surveys Chinese migration and assesses its economic and political implications....The sensitivity over the Chinese outside China is not a question of numbers but of their economic wealth, and the extent and persistence of their linkages across national borders. This provides them with a power and influence that is often seen as a potential political threat, even if it is an economic asset to their countries of residence."
Correspondence: R. Skeldon, University of Hong Kong, Department of Geography and Geology, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40502 Smith, Peter H. NAFTA and Mexican migration. In: At the crossroads: Mexican migration and U.S. policy, edited by Frank D. Bean et al. 1997. 263-81 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
After some introductory material on past U.S. migration policy and NAFTA [North American Free Trade Agreement], the author poses the questions: "What has happened so far? Has NAFTA exerted any discernible impact on migration from Mexico?" Though the data seem inconclusive, the author suggests that NAFTA has had little effect on Mexican-U.S. migration. He concludes by making several policy recommendations.
Correspondence: P. H. Smith, University of California, Department of Political Science, La Jolla, CA 92093. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40503 Stasiulis, Daiva K.; Bakan, Abigail B. Regulation and resistance: strategies of migrant domestic workers in Canada and internationally. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1997. 31-57 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
This article "is divided into three parts. The first part locates the Canadian migrant domestic/live-in caregiver program in the global context of domestic worker migration, and provides data on its scope. The second part addresses the obstacles to protection of domestic worker rights in the regulatory scheme composed of policies and laws of sending and receiving societies. The third part discusses some of the strategies employed by migrant domestic workers and their advocates to resist exploitation, and to attempt to provide meaningful rather than merely symbolic rights for migrant domestics."
Correspondence: D. K. Stasiulis, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40504 Swain, Ashok. Environmental migration and conflict dynamics: focus on developing regions. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 5, Dec 1996. 959-73 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes population migration due to environmental destruction, with a focus on the resulting conflicts between sending and receiving developing countries. Sections are included on population growth and environmental stress; environmental change and loss of place and/or source of subsistence; defining "environmental migrants"; and state vs. state and state vs. group conflicts.
Correspondence: A. Swain, Uppsala University, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Box 514, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

63:40505 Tolts, Mark. The interrelationship between emigration and the socio-demographic profile of Russian Jewry. In: Russian Jews on three continents: migration and resettlement, edited by Noah Lewin-Epstein, Yaacov Ro'i, and Paul Ritterband. 1997. 147-76 pp. Frank Cass: London, England. In Eng.
"From 1989 onwards the great exodus [from the former Soviet Union] became decisive in the fate of Russian Jewry....The interrelationship between the recent emigration and the population profile is very complex. The great exodus strongly exacerbated the demographic erosion of the Jewish population. However, the composition of any population is not merely the result of previous processes, but also the predictor of future dynamics. Hence, analysis of Russian Jewry's socio-demographic composition will help clarify future prospects for emigration. We now have statistics for the five years of the great exodus (1989-93), and examination of these figures will shed more light on the problem under consideration."
Correspondence: M. Tolts, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40506 Tomaszewski, Jerzy. International migrations connected with national conflicts in East-Central Europe in the first half of the twentieth century. [Migracje miedzynarodowe spowodowane konfliktami narodowymi w Europie Srodkowo-Wschodniej w pierwszej polowie XX wieku.] Przeglad Polonijny, Vol. 2-3, No. 68-69, 1993. 5-23; 5-22 pp. Wroclaw, Poland. In Pol.
This article is in two parts. In the first part, the author examines major migrations in East and Central Europe over the period from 1900 to 1950. The focus is on the refugee migrations associated with war, including the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 and World War I. In the second part, the author examines Jewish migrations over this period and migrations occurring before, during, and after World War II.
Correspondence: J. Tomaszewski, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26-28, 00-325 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40507 Trlin, Andrew D.; Spoonley, Paul. New Zealand and international migration: a digest and bibliography, Number 3. ISBN 0-9583625-1-3. 1997. iv, 180 pp. Massey University, Department of Sociology: Palmerston North, New Zealand. In Eng.
This is a resource for the study of international migration affecting New Zealand. It consists of five essays and an unannotated bibliography of work published in the period 1990-1994. The five chapters are as follows: For the promotion of economic growth and prosperity: New Zealand's immigration policy, 1991-1995, by Andrew D. Trlin. Arrivals, departures and net migration 1984/85-1995/96, by Richard Bedford, and Jacqueline Lidgard. East Asian migrants in New Zealand: adaptation and employment, by Elsie Ho, Jacqueline Lidgard, Richard Bedford, and Paul Spoonley. Ethnic minority writing in multicultural Aotearoa/New Zealand, by Nina Nola. Immigrants and language in New Zealand, by Mary Roberts.
Correspondence: Massey University, Department of Sociology, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40508 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division (New York, New York). International migration and development: the concise report. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/164, Pub. Order No. E.97.XIII.4. ISBN 92-1-151311-1. 1997. vi, 63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The introduction reviews how international migration issues have been examined in the three major United Nations conferences dealing with population....Chapter I discusses the relationship between international migration and population dynamics, including issues related to definitions, data sources and measurement, the role of international migration in population growth, and levels, trends and characteristics of foreign stock. Chapter II examines Governments' views on international migration and how these views have changed over time....Chapters III, IV and V review specific issues related, respectively, to documented migrants, undocumented migrants and refugees and asylum-seekers. Chapter VI considers international labour migration. International migration and gender issues are discussed in Chapter VII. Finally, Chapter VIII discusses the complex interrelationships between international migration and development...."
Correspondence: UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, 2 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40509 Vishnevskii, Anatolii. Is the return inevitable? Russian Politics and Law, Vol. 33, May-Jun 1995. 34-54 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
"The political events in the eastern part of Europe during the late 1980s and early 1990s altered the geopolitical picture of this continent no less than did the two world wars of the twentieth century." The author considers the possibilities for the return of the Russian-speaking population from areas outside of Russia. Advantages to Russia and economic effects are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40510 Weintraub, Sidney. U.S. foreign policy and Mexican immigration. In: At the crossroads: Mexican migration and U.S. policy, edited by Frank D. Bean et al. 1997. 283-98 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"The discussion...tries to place the migration issue into its proper foreign/domestic policy context. It is an issue over which both countries have been ambivalent, at times encouraging migration and at others seeking to curtail it. There are competing national, regional, and sectoral interests in each nation." The author isolates some recurring patterns in U.S. policy and Mexican responses to them, and briefly discusses the history of the Mexican-U.S. relationship. He concludes by making some observations and policy recommendations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40511 Williams, Allan M.; King, Russell; Warnes, Tony. A place in the sun: international retirement migration from northern to southern Europe. European Urban and Regional Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jan 1997. 115-34 pp. Harlow, England. In Eng.
"This article considers four aspects of IRM [international retirement migration]. The first considers the limited literature on this...topic and identifies the distinctiveness of both its international and European features. The second reviews the existing statistical data for north-south IRM in Europe, particularly from the UK to Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain; it establishes both the scale and the geography of these migrations. In the third section we investigate some of the major influences on both the volume and the spatial pattern of IRM. Finally, in the fourth section, a brief review is presented of the economic, social and cultural implications of IRM for both the emigrants and their host communities."
Correspondence: A. M. Williams, University of Exeter, Department of Geography, Armory Building, Rennes Drive, Exeter EX4 4RJ, England. E-mail: A.M.Williams@exeter.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40512 Winckler, Onn. Syrian migration to the Arab oil-producing countries. Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 33, No. 1, Jan 1997. 107-18 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The objectives of this article are, first, to identify the scale of the migration from Syria to the oil-producing countries of the Middle East....The article also examines the consequences of the migration of workers on the Syrian economy. Another focus of this research is to identify the policy of the Syrian authorities toward the migration of Syrian workers....Did the Syrian authorities encourage the migration of workers to the oil-producing countries, and if they did, what were the reasons? Perhaps they enforced limitations on those who wanted to migrate, and if they did, why? The final objective of this study is to examine the influences of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait...on the extent of the foreign populations in the GCC [Gulf Cooperation Council] countries, particularly as related to the Syrian migrants."
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

63:40513 Antolin, Pablo; Bover, Olympia. Regional migration in Spain: the effect of personal characteristics and of unemployment, wage and house price differentials using pooled cross-sections. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 59, No. 2, May 1997. 215-35 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to identify which regional economic factors influence male migration decisions [in Spain], taking into account personal characteristics....[We present] evidence on the importance...of the person's situation, in particular: (i) family characteristics, such as being married to a working woman, having children, or living with relatives (ii) personal factors such as education or age, and (iii) own employment situation such as being registered as unemployed as opposed to non-registered, or being self-employed." Data are from the Spanish Labor Force Surveys of 1987-1991.
Correspondence: P. Antolin, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. E-mail: pablo.antolin@oecd.org. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:40514 Baccaïni, Brigitte; Courgeau, Daniel. The spatial mobility of two generations of young adults in Norway. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 4, Dec 1996. 333-59 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This article presents results from a longitudinal study using data from the Norwegian population register, combined with data from the 1970 and 1980 censuses. For two generations, those born in 1948 and 1958, successive migrations are considered and the effects of various sociodemographic characteristics on migratory behaviour are explored....Event-history analysis is used to examine the duration of stay at the place reached at age 22, and the effects of individual characteristics on this duration. Since a distinction is made between intra- and inter-regional migration, it has been possible to show that these effects vary significantly depending on whether we are dealing with short- or long-distance migration."
Correspondence: B. Baccaïni, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue de Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40515 Bigsten, Arne. The circular migration of smallholders in Kenya. Journal of African Economies, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1996. 1-20 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We analyze migration from farm households in Kenya, and argue that many migration decisions should be regarded, not as individual decisions but rather as household decisions, in which, within the constraints given, the household decides to allocate its labour force among activities in such a way as to maximize household utility. The resulting migration tends to be circular....Our empirical analysis suggests that the pull of high urban wages is much more important for migration decisions than the push of land scarcity....We have also found that networks of personal contacts are highly significant determinants of migration."
Correspondence: A. Bigsten, Göteborgs Universitet, Vasaparken, 411 24 Göteborg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:40516 Birg, Herwig; Flöthmann, E.-Jürgen; Heins, Frank; Reiter, Iris. Migration analysis: empirical longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses on the basis of micro and macro models for Germany. [Migrationsanalyse: empirische Längsschnitt- und Querschnittanalysen auf der Grundlage von Mikro- und Makromodellen für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland.] Forschungen zur Raumentwicklung, No. 22, 1993. 148 pp. Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landeskunde und Raumordnung: Bonn, Germany. In Ger.
The aim of the project described in this report was to analyze migrations among the approximately 320 urban and rural districts of Germany, examine their causes, and use the results to improve regional population projections. The main emphasis is on labor migration. The data combine official migration statistics, including age and regional distributions, with the results of a detailed biographical survey conducted in the 1980s, which collected information on education and occupations, union formation and dissolution, births, and residence histories. The analysis includes a discussion of conditions and motivations for migration in the context of the life course.
Correspondence: Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landeskunde und Raumordnung, Außenstelle Berlin, Scharrenstraße 2-3, 0-1026 Berlin, Germany. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40517 Boyer, George R.; Hatton, Timothy J. Migration and labour market integration in late nineteenth-century England and Wales. Economic History Review, Vol. 50, No. 4, Nov 1997. 697-734 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study examines aspects of internal labor migration in late nineteenth-century Britain. "In section I a simple framework is set out which stresses the links between migration and labour market integration. In section II the evidence on the character of migration flows, their magnitude and direction is examined. Section III focuses on the determinants of migration flows at the county level, particularly from rural southern counties. This is followed, in section IV, with an examination of the effect of rural-urban migration on agricultural wage rates. Section V considers the evidence on regional labour market integration, and is followed by a brief conclusion summarising the results."
Correspondence: G. R. Boyer, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40518 Bures, Regina M. Migration and the life course: is there a retirement transition? International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jun 1997. 109-19 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on pre-elderly (ages 55-64) net migration in the United States for the period 1980-90, to explore the hypothesis that there exists a `retirement transition' that characterizes pre-elderly migration....This research uses ordinary least squares regression to compare the effects of demographic, economic, and amenity factors on county-level net migration rates for five age groups: the young (25-44), the middle-aged (45-54), the pre-elderly (55-64), the young-old (65-74), and the old-old (75+). Pre-elderly migration patterns emerge as distinct from those of both younger and older age groups. Their net migration patterns are not fully shaped by labour force considerations. At the same time, pre-elderly migration appears to be driven by factors beyond retirement. These findings are discussed in the context of life-course change and their implications for the ageing baby-boom cohorts [considered]."
Correspondence: R. M. Bures, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40519 Frey, William H. Immigration, welfare magnets and the geography of child poverty in the United States. Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 1, Sep 1997. 53-86 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study presents a detailed look at the immigration and internal migration dynamics of child poverty for U.S. States based on the 1990 U.S. census. It assesses the impact of two policy-relevant factors on the migration of poor children across States: (1) the role of high immigration levels as a potential `push' for native-born and longer-term resident poor children whose parents may be reacting to the economic competition or social costs in high immigration States; and (2) the role of State AFDC benefits as a potential `pull' for poor children who migrate with their parents to States with higher benefit levels. The results make plain that the interstate migration patterns of poverty children differ from those of nonpoverty children, especially among whites and blacks. Female-headed households show different inter-state migration patterns than those in married-couple households."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40520 Haas, William H.; Serow, William J. Retirement migration decision making: life course mobility, sequencing of events, social ties and alternatives. Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1997. 116-30 pp. Omaha, Nebraska. In Eng.
The authors analyze post-retirement migration trends and the decision-making processes that determine this behavior. "We will deal here with issues which indicate not only who among pre-retirees are likely to relocate upon retirement, but also when in the pre-retirement phase decisions about the move are made and the role which individuals' ties to specific places and the characteristics of places themselves play in the decision-making process." Data are from a pilot study conducted in North Carolina in 1992.
Correspondence: W. H. Haas, University of North Carolina, Department of Sociology, One University Heights, Asheville, NC 28804-3299. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40521 Husson, Laurence. Eight centuries of Madurese migration to East Java. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1997. 77-102 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Over the past eight centuries in Indonesia, a substantial and ceaseless stream of out-migration has been flowing from the tiny island of Madura, poor and overpopulated, to the slightly better-off, but just as overpopulated...island of Java. This out-migration to East Java of the Madurese--Indonesia's third largest ethnic group--is one of the group's most notable features. Over the centuries, this out-migration has taken diverse forms as it has responded to varied impetus and reflects Indonesia's diverse migratory currents, past and present. This article, which is the first to be done on the subject, explores a little known aspect of Madurese history and society."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40522 Kimura, Shigeru. Patterns of migration in rural areas of northern Thailand. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 111-25 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"Migration is regarded as a means for rural people to adapt to uneven economic growth during the process of industrialization or urbanization. Although there are variations in migration patterns between various regions of Thailand, this paper focuses on the Northern region....This paper will show the changes in rural areas during periods of rapid economic growth, and the positions of Bangkok as well as Chiang Mai are designated as regional urban centers after an analysis of migration including commuting."
Correspondence: S. Kimura, Komazawa University, Institute for Applied Geography, 1-23-1 Komazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40523 Li, Si-Ming; Siu, Yat-Ming. A comparative study of permanent and temporary migration in China: the case of Dongguan and Meizhou, Guangdong Province. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 1, Mar 1997. 63-82 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports the findings of a field survey conducted in Dongguan and Meizhou, two cities in Guangdong Province with contrasting economic characteristics. The data clearly demonstrate that the permanent migrants and the temporary migrants belong to two very different segments of the population. Striking similarities are revealed for the permanent migrants in very different settings. However, there are signs that even in this tightly controlled sector, economics will soon take precedence over politics as the main driving force underlying migration."
Correspondence: S.-M. Li, Hong Kong Baptist University, Department of Geography, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40524 Mohanty, Jyotirmaya. Emerging industrial centres and impact on migration: a study in Orissa. LC 96-901813. 1996. xvi, 303 pp. Classical Publishing: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of this study is to assess the impact of industrial development on internal migration in [the state of Orissa, India]. This study examines the case of two developing industrial centres [Choudwar and Sunabeda] with the following specific objectives: (i) to ascertain the nature and extent of internal migration in the State from the available secondary data; (ii) to compare the demographic, social and economic characteristics of the migrating and the non-migrating people staying at the selected industrial centres; (iii) to determine the patterns of migration and the post-migration experiences of the migrants; (iv) to find out the living conditions and the problems of social infrastructure at the selected industrial centres; (v) to assess the relationship between the places of in-migration and out-migration; (vi) to prepare the comparative statement of the two industrial centres from each and every point of view; and (vii) on the basis of the above findings, to suggest appropriate policy measures in order to check undesirable migration or to mitigate the undesirable impact of migration."
Correspondence: Classical Publishing, 28 Shopping Centre, Karampura, New Delhi 110 015, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40525 Nakagawa, Satoshi. Residents in a suburban area of Bangkok Metropolis: classification by migratory and social characteristics. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 127-44 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"We...conducted a field survey in a suburban residential district of Bangkok metropolis [Thailand] in October 1994, with the intention of clarifying the migratory and social characteristics of the suburban residents and the process of suburbanization in developing countries....This study will focus on the social structure of the suburban residents based on that field survey, with the intention of discussing the developing process in suburban areas, in particular the role of the middle class population in the suburbanization process."
Correspondence: S. Nakagawa, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Department of Population Structure Research, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40526 Nogle, June M. Internal migration patterns for U.S. foreign-born, 1985-1990. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 1, Mar 1997. 1-13 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Using 1990 census data, this paper calculates the flow [of the foreign-born population in the United States] between states and from abroad; also, a multinomial logistic regression model of destination choice is estimated for resettlers and for migrants from abroad. There are three major findings. Firstly, Florida and California are the largest recipients of foreign-born resettlers; New York is the biggest loser of secondary migrants. Secondly, the presence of large communities of Mexicans in California and Cubans in Florida are very attractive to both resettlers and migrants from abroad. Thirdly, immigrants that are most in need of ethnic support networks (i.e. new arrivals or immigrants with low human capital resources) are most likely to choose one of the traditional immigration states as a destination."
Correspondence: J. M. Nogle, University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 221 Matherly Hall, P.O. Box 117145, Gainesville, FL 32611-7145. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40527 Pandey, Himanshu. Modelling an out-migration system: a probabilistic approach. Nüfusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 17-18, 1995-1996. 55-60 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"Under...certain assumptions, the present work deals with the development of a probability model describing the variation in the number of rural out-migration systems at [the] micro-level....[I presents a model that includes two] types of migration patterns and study the suitability of the probability model through observed demographic data [for villages in India]."
Correspondence: H. Pandey, Gorakhpur University, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh 273 009, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40528 Rao, M. Koteswara. Urbanization, migration and economic development. ISBN 81-7391-081-2. LC 95-906326. 1995. xviii, 394 pp. Kanishka Publishers Distributors: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The volume consists of 20 original research papers focusing attention on theoretical issues and empirical findings of urbanization and migration in the state of Andhra Pradesh [India]. It is divided into three sections. Section I deals with an economic analysis of urban growth in Andhra Pradesh. This section depicts the survey of literature on urban growth and urbanization along with empirical results in Andhra Pradesh....Section II analyses the trends, patterns and determinants of migration in Andhra Pradesh based on both primary and secondary sources of data....Section III provides the analysis of patterns of urban growth and industrial growth in various Class I cities of Andhra Pradesh....This section broadly explains population growth, migration, urbanization, industrialization and their patterns, occupational structure, economic base and the spatial patterns of the industrial workforce...."
Correspondence: Kanishka Publishers, 4697/5-21 A, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40529 Rogerson, Peter A.; Burr, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Ge. Changes in geographic proximity between parents and their adult children. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jun 1997. 121-36 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"We examine how characteristics of both parents and their adult children condition the changes in intergenerational geographic proximity. Using panel data from the U.S. National Survey of Families and Households, we employ multinomial logistic regression techniques to examine the impact of the joint effects of each generation's structural characteristics on the likelihood of changes in distance between the target persons. Our results show that an increase in functional limitations is the most consistent predictor of geographic convergence between elderly parents and their adult children. The onset of widowhood during the observation period leads to a greater likelihood of living with an adult child. Furthermore, our analyses show that the economic status and marital status of adult children is associated with changes in geographic proximity."
Correspondence: P. A. Rogerson, State University of New York, Department of Geography, Wilkeson Hall, Buffalo, NY 14261. E-mail: rogerson@acsu.buffalo.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40530 van Imhoff, Evert; van der Gaag, Nicole; van Wissen, Leo; Rees, Phil. The selection of internal migration models for European regions. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jun 1997. 137-59 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"A full multiregional projection model requires migration data that are simultaneously classified by age and gender and region of origin and region of destination. Except for a very small number of regions, these data requirements are so high that aggregation of the data (which is equivalent to simplification of the model) is called for. This paper investigates the extent to which the full internal migration matrix can be simplified without seriously affecting the performance of the resulting multiregional model. Using IPF (iterative proportional fitting) methods, a log-linear analysis of alternative model specifications is made, using data for Italy, the Netherlands and the UK....A reasonable balance between goodness-of-fit and parsimony is found for the model in which time interacts with the main effects only (i.e. with age/sex, with origin and with destination)."
Correspondence: E. van Imhoff, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: imhoff@nidi.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40531 Wei, Jinsheng. Research on rural population mobility in China. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 217-36 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The author investigates population mobility in China, including permanent migration with official permission, temporary floating migration without permission, and internal transfer of rural laborers from agricultural to nonagricultural sectors. Determinants of rural population mobility since the 1980s are analyzed, and the consequences of this mobility are assessed. Policy implications and options are considered.
Correspondence: J. Wei, China Population Information and Research Center, P.O. Box 2444, Beijing 100081, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40532 Yang, Xiushi. The new economic policy and permanent migration in Zhejiang Province, China. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1997. 103-34 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article examines the impact of economic reforms on the volume and characteristics of permanent migration in Zhejiang Province, China. The data suggest that the new economic policy induced a surge in permanent migration during the post-reform years. Such positive impact of the reform on permanent migration has started to fade away in 1985, as government relaxed its control over residence. Moreover, market mechanisms started playing a more important role in employment, exchange, and consumption. The data also suggest that the new economic policy has particularly favored the better educated, and thereby increased educational differentials between permanent migrants and nonmigrants. For all other characteristics examined, the results show consistently that post-reform migrants are less differentiated from nonmigrants than their pre-reform counterparts."
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: X. Yang, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

63:40533 Angoustures, Aline; Legoux, Luc. Recent recognition of family ties in assessing the priority of refugees. [Les liens familiaux dans les reconnaissances récentes de la qualité de réfugié.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1997. 37-49 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Recently in France, in accordance with the jurisprudence developed by the Refugees Claims Commission, the Council of State has admitted as a general principle of law that when asylum is granted to an individual, the same right may be extended to his close family members. In fact, this `family unity' clause allowing `family reunification' brings [a right to] asylum to spouse as well as children. In statistical records, these family members have accounted for almost two thirds of the asylums granted in France, during the nine first months [of 1995]."
Correspondence: A. Angoustures, Commission des Recours des Réfugiés, 94138 Fontenay-sous-Bois Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40534 Bocquérat, Gilles. The flows of refugees in India. [Les flux de réfugiés en Inde.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1997. 289-300 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses changes over time in India's policy on refugees and their impact on the country. "From the early seventies, refugees are more and more perceived as a destabilizing factor, with a potential for exacerbating internal ethnic conflicts, competing with indigenous people for scarce resources, or even threatening...law and order. Consequently, the policy of the Indian government, once its strategic objectives have been fulfilled, is to work towards a satisfactory repatriation of the displaced populations [to] their native lands."
Correspondence: G. Bocquérat, 48 avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92320 Châtillon, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40535 Brachet, Olivier. The impossible organization chart of asylum in France. The development of standby asylum. [L'impossible organigramme de l'asile en France. Le développement de l'asile au noir.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1997. 7-36 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author discusses "the growing complexity of French asylum admission procedures, due to the diversity of recently adopted laws....[This] is due to the unceasing implementation of regulations and practices developed by the relevant administrative organizations while asylum applications are lengthily examined....As a result, clandestine asylum tends to increase, meaning that more and more people who are not [eligible] to stay [in] French territory are in fact [able] to do so."
Correspondence: O. Brachet, Groupe de Recherche Informel et Scientifique sur l'Asile, IDUP, 22 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40536 De Koninck, Rodolphe; Tran, Dac Dan; Roche, Yann; Lundqvist, Olivier. The pioneer fronts of central Vietnam: demographic evolution and a toponymic impression. [Les fronts pionniers du centre du Viêt-nam: évolution démographique et empreinte toponymique.] Annales de Géographie, Vol. 105, No. 590, Jul-Aug 1996. 395-412 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The process of agricultural settlement in frontier areas in Viet Nam is examined. The authors note that this process accelerated following reunification in 1975, particularly in the Central Highlands provinces. This region was formerly inhabited primarily by ethnic minorities, and the rapid penetration by Viet peoples is having a major impact both on land use and on the characteristics of the population. The study of place names gives an indication of the place of origin of the new settlers.
Correspondence: R. De Koninck, Université Laval, Département de Géographie, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40537 Kordan, Bohdan. Making borders stick: population transfer and resettlement in the trans-Curzon territories, 1944-1949. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 3, Fall 1997. 704-20 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Designed in 1919-20 by the British mediator Lord Curzon as an armistice proposal between the then warring powers Poland and Soviet Russia, the Curzon Line served to identify the maximum territorial reach of Soviet political influence in Europe....[The author discusses] a program of resettlement which would target communities on both sides of the new border, a policy eventually affecting some 1.4 million individuals...." The implementation and impact of this population exchange are described.
Correspondence: B. Kordan, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0W0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40538 Matkovic, Gordana. Future plans and durable solutions for war affected population in FR of Yugoslavia. Stanovnistvo, Vol. 35, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1997. 7-23 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng. with sum. in Scr.
"In order to get an insight into the future plans of...war affected persons living in Yugoslavia, the census included a question regarding their plans on repatriation, on whether they intend to stay in Yugoslavia or whether they plan on moving to other regions....This paper shows the future plans of the war affected persons as seen according to the responses given during the census and during a separate survey which was conducted. The paper also includes the proposals for [a] special programme for the permanent integration of the war affected persons."
Correspondence: G. Matkovic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Ekonomski Fakultet, Studentski trg 1, 11001 Belgrade 6, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40539 Pain, Marc. Population policy in Indonesia: transmigration and spontaneous migration at the center of the debate. [Politique de peuplement en Indonésie: transmigration et migrations spontanées au centre des débats.] Revue Belge de Géographie, Vol. 119, No. 1-2, 1995. 255-72 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Indonesia has undertaken the most significant programme of agricultural settlement ever attempted in tropical regions from the colonial era. Since 1969, nearly 2 million families have been transferred out of Java, while spontaneous migrations were multiplying to an exceptional extent. The official programme was often critised and the uncontrolled settlers were accused of causing serious damage to the environment. Nevertheless one must recognise that those migrations, whether or not state-organised, have taken a key role in the development of the Indonesian countryside."
Correspondence: M. Pain, Université de Paris X, 200 avenue de la République, 92001 Nanterre Cedex, France. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

63:40540 Parini, Lorena. "Switzerland, country of political asylum": a myth challenged by history. ["La Suisse terre d'asile": un mythe ébranlé par l'histoire.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1997. 51-69 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"`Switzerland, country of political asylum', is one of the myths on which the Swiss national identity is based. If we analyze the relationships between this country and political refugees throughout history...we come to the conclusion that this myth has been quite inconsistent....We [describe] conditions that have been enacted from the seventies and then the restrictions which have progressively been imposed on the right of sanctuary during the eighties. Both confirm the ambiguous policies, varying from an open to a closed system, which Switzerland has had with regard to political refugees."
Correspondence: L. Parini, Université de Genève, Faculté de Sciences Economiques et Sociales, Etudes Femmes/Genre, Case Postale, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. E-mail: parini@ibm.unige.ch. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

63:40541 Akkerman, Abraham. Diurnal population cycle and metropolitan commuter exchange: a formal investigation of an urban pattern. Canadian Journal of Urban Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec 1995. 249-70 pp. Winnipeg, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Diurnal population change in subareas of metropolitan regions is of increasing importance to urban geographers...and planners....The urban context of daytime populations is that of commuting. Commuting, in turn, has been investigated almost exclusively within the setting of empirical economic research....The purpose of the present study is to continue some recent attempts to find an alternative to the empirical economic approach to commuting, in advancing a formal demographic and spatial concept of diurnal population cycle." Data from the 1991 census of Canada are used.
Correspondence: A. Akkerman, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Geography, Saskaton, Saskatchewan S7N 0W0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

63:40542 Ahsan, Rosie M. Migration of female construction labourers to Dhaka City, Bangladesh. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 1, Mar 1997. 49-61 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes migration patterns and processes of female construction workers in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, and considers the impact of this migration. "Interviews...reveal that the major goal of these female migrants, whose mobility and employment have traditionally been restricted, is to take responsibility in the struggle for livelihood....Success of many migrations is linked with participation in construction work in the city. Employment in such activities is largely by women from male-headed households, indicating male support in the work, followed by females heading their own households."
Correspondence: R. M. Ahsan, University of Dhaka, Department of Geography, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40543 Landy, Frédéric; Racine, Jean-Luc. Urban growth and rural roots in India. [Croissance urbaine et enracinement villageois en Inde.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1997. 173-84 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Though India has now more than 220 million town-dwellers, 74% of its population are yet rural. Rather than emphasizing rural exodus and Indian ways of urbanisation this article deals more with other strategies of mobility implemented by rural people and with village retention still in force. Finally some factors explaining the relative weakness of urbanisation are brought out thanks to a comparison with tropical Africa."
Correspondence: F. Landy, Université de Paris X, Département de Géographie, 200 avenue de la République, 92001 Nanterre Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40544 Shen, Jianfa. Rural development and rural to urban migration in China 1978-1990. Geoforum, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1995. 395-409 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Economic reforms since the late 1970s have brought about significant changes in rural China. A large number of surplus rural labourers have been released from the agricultural sector and there has been a massive transition of rural residents from agricultural to non-agricultural employment. These changes will be analyzed by examining the changes in the employment structure of rural residents....It is found that town and country populations tended to move to towns at the intra-provincial level, but to cities at the interprovincial level. Out-migrants from cities tended to move to cities at both the intra- and inter-provincial levels."
Correspondence: J. Shen, University of Wales, Department of Geography, Migration Unit, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

63:40545 Sun, Changmin; Zhang, Henian; Hu, Suyun. China's rural-urban mobility: its effect on Shanghai's economic transformation. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 289-302 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The authors investigate rural migration trends in Shanghai, China, and their impact on economic development. Factors affecting rural-urban migration are discussed, including fertility decline, job opportunities, income disparities, and migration policy. The effects of factors such as informal sector employment, low-cost labor, gains from human capital, and consumption groups are considered.
Correspondence: C. Sun, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population and Development Studies, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40546 Traoré, Sadio. Professional integration in a West African urban environment. [L'insertion professionnelle en milieu urbain ouest-africain.] In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 251-65 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study examines how migrants integrate themselves into city life in West Africa. The focus is on differences between migrants to the city and those already living there as regards entry into the labor force. Data are from surveys carried out in Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal in 1993. Consideration is given to factors such as age, sex, and educational status.
Correspondence: S. Traoré, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur la Population pour le Développement, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40547 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Trends, patterns and implications of rural-urban migration in India, Nepal and Thailand. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 138, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1572. 1995. xii, 243 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The results are presented of three studies on rural-urban migration undertaken in India, Nepal, and Thailand as part of an ESCAP project. Data are used from the 1990-1991 census round. In consistency with other migration research, the studies find that rural-urban migrants are concentrated in the 15-29 age bracket, and, on average, are better educated than the general rural population. Most males moved for reasons of employment, while females moved mostly for marriage or because their families moved.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40548 Wu, Harry X.; Zhou, Li. Rural-to-urban migration in China. Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, Vol. 10, No. 2, Nov 1996. 54-67 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"One consequence of economic reform in China has been the greatly accelerated migration of labour from rural areas to cities. Estimates suggest an annual migrant labour flow of around 50-60 million people, of whom 10-15 million have settled permanently in cities. This article surveys the information that has become available from a number of population and labour surveys. It covers the volume, spatial and temporal dimension of rural-to-urban migration, the characteristics of migrant labourers, the determinants of migration and the impact of migration on China's rural and urban economy."
Correspondence: H. X. Wu, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).


Copyright © 1997-1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.