Volume 63 - Number 4 - Winter 1997

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications. Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

63:40203 Adnan, Shapan. Fertility decline in a situation of extreme poverty: some paradoxical aspects of demographic change in Bangladesh. [Baisse de la fécondité en situation de pauvreté absolue: aspects paradoxaux du changement démographique au Bangladesh.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. 1997. 41-77 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The reasons for the fertility decline in Bangladesh during the past ten years among a population in extreme poverty are examined. The author assesses the impact on fertility of some significant concomitant demographic changes, including increases in age at marriage, declines in mortality, and crisis-driven migration. The continuation and even increase of inequalities among the population are noted. Some factors that may have contributed to the fertility decline are then discussed, including an increase in female literacy and education, improvements in the status of women and in the value of girl babies, and a decline in the importance of the family, particularly as a unit of production.
Correspondence: S. Adnan, Shomabesh Institute, P.O. Box 7335 Dilkusha, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40204 Agyei-Mensah, S. New perspective on the fertility situation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift/Norwegian Journal of Geography, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jun 1996. 101-12 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"Until the late 1980s, Sub-Saharan Africa was the only major region in the world where fertility was not declining. This viewpoint is gradually changing. There are now some hopeful signs suggesting that changes are occurring, particularly in Kenya, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Western Nigeria and recently Ghana. This article examines this new evidence on Africa's fertility change, and the various strands of argument which have emerged on this issue. It is suggested that we pay special attention to the uniqueness of the African cultural setting in our quest for seeking explanations for the recent fertility change."
Correspondence: S. Agyei-Mensah, University of Trondheim, Department of Geography, 7055 Dragvoll, Norway. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40205 Bulatao, Rodolfo A.; Richardson, Gail. Fertility and family planning in Iran. Middle East and North Africa Discussion Paper Series, No. 13, Nov 1994. xii, 43 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Per.
"The report will describe population growth in Iran, examine the role of fertility and its immediate determinants, sketch the socioeconomic factors likely to underlie fertility trends, review Government policies and programs that affect fertility, describe aspects of current contraceptive use, and consider what policies and programs are appropriate for further modification of fertility behavior."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia, PA.

63:40206 Burch, Thomas K. Fertility decline: toward a synthetic model. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 97-1, ISBN 0-7714-1992-9. Jan 1997. 17 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper is a first step toward a comprehensive model of fertility decline....Its core is a synthesis of the basic socio-economic theory of marital fertility due to Easterlin...with the diffusion model of Rosero-Bixby and Casterline....A snythetic model is presented, graphically and in the difference-equation language of Professional Dynamo Plus. Illustrative output is given for Taiwan (1957-63)...."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40207 Cáceres Henríquez, José M.; Grummer-Strawn, Lawrence; Stupp, Paul; Araya, José D.; Salguero, Juan C. Trends and differences in fertility, use of contraceptives and maternal and child health services in El Salvador: 1988-1993. In: Demographic diversity and change in the Central American Isthmus, edited by Anne R. Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby. 1997. 327-65 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
Trends in fertility, contraceptive usage, and maternal and child health in El Salvador are analyzed using data from surveys carried out in 1988 and 1993. The authors note that the total fertility rate declined from 4.17 to 3.83, and that fertility decreased the most among women living in rural areas, the illiterate, and women over age 25, the age group experiencing the largest increase in contraceptive usage. The greatest increase was in traditional methods of contraception, although by 1993, 6 out of 10 female users were sterilized. The authors also note increases in the use of prenatal and child health services, and a decline in infant and child mortality, due primarily to an increase in birth intervals.
Correspondence: J. M. Cáceres Henríquez, Asociación Demográfica Salvadoreña, 25 Avenida Norte #583, San Salvador, El Salvador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40208 Chackiel, Juan; Schkolnik, Susana. Latin America: less advanced groups in demographic transition. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 249-67 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
Data from the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Surveys are used to analyze the declines in fertility and infant mortality among those sectors of the population of Latin America that have been the last to become part of the demographic transition. Such groups are identified as including illiterate women and those with low levels of education. The authors conclude that "future decreases in infant mortality, which is still high in these groups, could consequently lead to further fertility declines. But a more significant change seems to depend upon the efficiency with which less educated women can narrow the gap between the number of children they wish to have and that which they actually do."
Correspondence: J. Chackiel, UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. E-mail: jchackie@eclac.cl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40209 Chen, Xianshou; Sun, Lihua. Analyses and thought on countermeasures for the family formation trend among floating population in Wuhan City. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1997. 67-74 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The tendency for the floating population to form families is a new phenomenon that has emerged in the process of growing population mobility [in China]. This phenomenon has brought numerous negative impacts on urbanization and urban management and has become a severe socioeconomic problem deserving serious attention from people in leading positions and the entire society. Effective measures should be adopted to prevent the expansion of the problem."
Correspondence: X. Chen, Office of Population Sampling, Wuhan City, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40210 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. The transition associated with wealth and the transition associated with poverty: the universal nature of the fertility decline. [Transition de la prospérité et transition de la pauvreté: l'universalisation de la baisse de la fécondité.] In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 269-85 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Fre.
The author identifies two modern trends in fertility which he suggests were unexpected: the first is the extent of below-replacement fertility in much of the developed world, and the other is the decline in fertility in many third-world populations that are still experiencing severe poverty. With reference to the second phenomenon, he first analyzes the decline in fertility among the peasant population of France in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as an example of fertility decline in times of economic hardship. He then examines the extent to which this example can help in the study of fertility declines in Indonesia, Bangladesh, and some states in southern India. He concludes by considering the implications of these fertility declines for demographic transition theory.
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. E-mail: chesnais@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40211 Courbage, Youssef. Indonesia: a nearly complete demographic transition in the largest of the Islamic countries. [L'Indonésie: une transition presque achevée dans le plus grand pays d'Islam.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. No. 139, 1997. 183-208 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
An analysis of the demographic transition in Indonesia, the world's largest Islamic country, is presented. The peculiarities of the Indonesian situation are first explored, including the rapid fertility decline that occurred before a substantial decline in infant mortality, the use of prolonged breast-feeding to promote birth spacing, the high level of respect for women's place in society, and the unique characteristics of Indonesian women in Islam. The importance of persistent regional differences in fertility is noted, as is the fact that fertility is lower in areas with higher percentages of Muslims. Finally, future population prospects are reviewed.
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40212 Davis, Kingsley. Kingsley Davis on reproductive institutions and the pressure for population. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Sep 1997. 611-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Kingsley Davis, one of the most eminent and influential figures of twentieth-century American social science, who died on 27 February 1997, made numerous contributions to the understanding of the forces that affect the family and shape fertility behavior. The earliest of these contributions...is reproduced [here]....The article offers an incisive interpretation of the cause of the declining birth rate--locating it in the `ripening incongruity between our reproductive system (the family) and the rest of modern social organization'--and an often provocative discussion of the policies, actual and potential, that seek to resolve that incongruity....As an homage to Davis, this journal asked three distinguished social scientists to comment on the issues discussed in his 1937 article from the perspective of the present." Comments are included by S. Ryan Johansson (pp. 627-37), Norman B. Ryder (639-45), and Nancy Folbre (647-54).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40213 de Beer, J. Fertility: trends and forecasts. [Vruchtbaarheid: trends en prognose.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 7, Jul 1997. 15-25 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"During the last two decades the total fertility rate (TFR) [in the Netherlands] has been fluctuating around a level of 1.5 to 1.6 children per woman. Fertility rates at young ages have declined sharply, whereas fertility rates at higher ages have increased strongly....It is expected that the decrease of fertility rates at young ages will slow down, since already very low levels have been attained, whereas the increase at higher ages will continue for some time. The increase of fertility rates around age 30 is related to the strong increase of the level of educational attainment of young generations of women and the subsequent strong increase in labour force participation. Consequently many young women postpone getting married and having children."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40214 Ezeh, Alex C. Polygyny and reproductive behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa: a contextual analysis. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 3, Aug 1997. 355-68 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper I examine the effect of polygyny on aggregate reproductive behavior. I argue that within countries there exist different polygyny regimes, each exhibiting a unique reproductive pattern. Using the 1988/1989 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS1) data, I identify three distinct regimes: low-polygyny, mid-polygyny, and high-polygyny regimes. The results of the bivariate and multivariate analyses reveal strong differences in reproductive preferences and behaviors across polygyny regimes. High-polygyny regimes, for instance, maintain a value orientation that favors and encourages high reproductive performance. The force of this pronatalism operates equally for men and women; but whereas men in this regime attain their reproductive goals by marrying multiple wives, women attain theirs by maximizing their reproductive capabilities. This maximization occurs through early initiation of sexual/reproductive activity, universal marriage and minimal interruption of marriage, nonuse of contraception within a union, and a positive attitude toward high fertility."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. C. Ezeh, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: Ezeh@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40215 Ferrando, Delicia; Aramburú, Carlos E. The fertility transition in Peru. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 414-36 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The fertility transition in Peru is analyzed using data from a number of recent surveys and official sources. Attention is given to fertility differences between rural and urban areas in the coastal region, the jungle, and the high mountains; and to differences among socioeconomic, cultural, and ethnic groups. The authors conclude that the transition to lower fertility began among the upper and middle classes in urban areas and spread to the urban poor and the rural population over time. "It appears that the increase in contraception is the intermediate variable which has the greatest power to explain the drop in fertility. Total prevalence of contraceptives rose from 31 per cent in 1977-8 to 46 per cent in 1986....Abortion is also most likely to be an important contributor to fertility decline, but exact measures of its contribution are unavailable."
Correspondence: D. Ferrando, Pathfinder International (Peru), 9 Galen Street, Watertown, MA 02172-4501. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40216 France. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED] (Paris, France). The demographic transition in Iran and its neighboring countries. [La transition démographique en Iran et dans les pays voisins.] Population et Sociétés, No. 328, Oct 1997. 4 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This issue contains three short pieces on the demographic transition in Iran and in neighboring Islamic countries. The first article, by Marie Ladier-Fouladi, examines recent demographic trends in Iran. The second, by Jean-Claude Chasteland, summarizes results from a fertility survey in the Iranian city of Shiraz. The third, by Youssef Courbage, looks at fertility trends in several other countries.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40217 Fratczak, Ewa. Cohort analysis of fertility based on the results of the Polish retrospective survey 1988, Life Course (Family, Occupational, and Migratory Biography). [Kohortowa analiza plodnosci na podstawie wyników Polskiego badania retrospektywnego 1988 "Droga Zyciowabiografia Rodzinna, Zawodowa i Migracy JNA"] ISBN 83-901912-3-7. 1996. 118 pp. Polskie Towarzystwo Demograficzne: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
This study is based on a retrospective survey involving event history analysis of family life, occupations, and migration carried out in Poland in 1988. The survey included 2,904 females and 2,200 males over age 45 and gathered information on marriage history, fertility, education, economic activity, and migration, as well as data on the current demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of those taking part. The focus of this report is on a cohort analysis of fertility. Chapter 1 reviews previous research. Chapter 2 defines the basic notions used in cohort analysis. "Chapter 3 is devoted to the fertility analysis with the application of statistical description methods. It gives the algorithm for the cohort fertility analysis software and some results. The intensity measures and fertility schedule were taken as descriptive measures. These are, amongst others, occurrence exposure rates by order of birth, gross maternity cumulative distribution function with relevant moments, intervals between births, [and] parity growth rates. Chapter 4 comprises fertility analysis using non-parametric methods, that is, fertility tables known as stochastic. It presents rules in the construction of tables based on the elementary and stage processes. The construction of tables is largely based on the works by...Frans Willekens whose software LIFELINE was used to make an estimation of the cohort fertility rates....In addition, Chapter 4 gives also a synthetic discussion of estimation results of cohort fertility tables." The English summary is available separately from the published report.
Correspondence: Polish Demographic Society, Warsaw School of Economics, Al. Niepodleglosci 164, Room 3, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40218 Haughton, Jonathan. Falling fertility in Vietnam. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 2, Jul 1997. 203-11 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"According to data collected by the Vietnam Living Standards Survey 1992-93, total fertility was 3.2. This level is low for such a poor country, and reflects a continued fall from 5.6 in 1979, uninterrupted by the rapid transition from a planned to a market economy. Oddly, the proximate causes of the low total fertility, including contraceptive user and abortion rates, imply a value close to 2. One explanation may be that households overstate the degree to which they use contraception. To maintain the momentum of falling fertility, a more user-oriented approach to family planning is required, offering a wider variety of contraceptive options."
Correspondence: J. Haughton, Suffolk University, Department of Economics, Boston, MA 02108-2770. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40219 Henz, Ursula; Huinink, Johannes. Problems concerning the parametric analysis of the age at family formation and the estimation of birth distances. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 120, ISBN 91-7820-111-X. May 1997. 44 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper introduces the application of parametric models to analyze marriage and the birth of the first child....We show the serious difficulties that are encountered when the empirical age distribution of the analyzed event is not fully known or deviates from the empirical distribution. We suggest simple strategies that handle these problems in a pragmatic way....We present examples of the application of these methods by empirical analysis of the process of family formation."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40220 Hermalin, Albert I.; Riley, Ann P.; Rosero-Bixby, Luis. Regional differences in family size preferences in Costa Rica and their implications for transition theory. In: Demographic diversity and change in the Central American Isthmus, edited by Anne R. Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby. 1997. 403-54 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
This study examines theoretical aspects of the transition to lower levels of fertility in Costa Rica, concentrating on regional differences in reproductive behavior. The chapter begins by defining the concept of fertility preferences, describing the model used, and reviewing the relevant literature. Data on fertility preferences in Costa Rica and on related topics are then presented. The study concludes with a multivariate analysis of the available data.
Correspondence: A. I. Hermalin, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. E-mail: alberth@umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40221 Jolivet, Muriel. Japan: the childless society? The crisis of motherhood. ISBN 0-415-14646-1. LC 96-26036. 1997. viii, 244 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"Disillusioned by long hours at home and by demands from society as a whole, Japanese women are marrying later, resulting in a sharp decline in the Japanese birth rate. Muriel Jolivet considers the reasons why Japanese women are finding it increasingly difficult to accept the terms and conditions of motherhood, exploring the major factors of maternal malaise in Japan today including: the `Ten Commandments of the Good Mother', the changing role of the father, education and careers, nostalgia of older generations. Drawing on extensive interviews with Japanese women...for the first time, this...study examines the implications of the declining birth rate and looks towards the future of an ageing society that is in danger of becoming `childless'."
Translated from the original French by Anne-Marie Glasheen.
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40222 Larsen, Ulla. Fertility in Tanzania: do contraception and sub-fertility matter? Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 2, Jul 1997. 213-20 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"An analysis of the 1991/2 Demographic and Health Survey showed that fertility in Tanzania is currently influenced both by contraception and sub-fertility. In the sample analysed, 25 per cent of parous women had used a contraceptive, but only 3 per cent had done so before their first child was born. Contraceptors took longer to conceive. The suppressing effect of contraception on fertility was confirmed by a multivariate analysis. There was also evidence that sub-fertility is prevalent in Tanzania. Parous women who had never used a contraceptive had relatively long waiting times to conception in Tanzania compared to women in a range of countries in Africa, Latin America, South Asia and the Middle East."
Correspondence: U. Larsen, Harvard University, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40223 Larsen, Ulla; Desjardins, Bertrand. Natural marital fertility: a case study of the French-Canadians 1660-1719. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 165-82 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
Natural fertility is examined using a data set of French Canadians developed at the University of Montreal. The data set contains information on all vital events in Quebec for the period 1660-1719. The data sample analyzed in this study includes 1,362 couples and 10,975 births. The authors attempt to identify the proximate determinants of fertility in this population with the very high marital fertility rate of 11.97. They conclude that this was due to early and almost universal marriage, short postpartum periods of about six months, and an age pattern of sterility that closely followed the age pattern of biological aging.
Correspondence: U. Larsen, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. E-mail: ularsen@hsph.harvard.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40224 Lindstrom, David P. The impact of temporary U.S. migration on fertility in a rural Mexican township. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 97-08, Aug 1997. 33, [10] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the relationship between temporary U.S. migration and fertility in a rural Mexican township....Economic considerations emerge from the analysis as the primary determinants of fertility behavior. Having a husband with a high economic status occupation, and the ownership of farm land or a business, significantly reduce the probability of conceptions at higher parities. Temporary U.S. migration experience affects completed fertility only when it increases long-term income streams through husband's occupational advancement or the acquisition of productive capital assets in Mexico."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. E-mail: Population_Studies@brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40225 Lindstrom, David P.; Berhanu, Betemariam. The impact of war and economic crisis on marital fertility in Ethiopia: evidence from urban areas and the rural central highlands. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 97-01, May 1997. 21, [12] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine recent fertility trends in urban areas of Ethiopia and in the rural central highlands for evidence of short- and long-term responses to recent political and economic events....We use retrospective data on children ever born to estimate trends in annual marital conception probabilities, controlling for women's demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The results of our analysis provide evidence of significant short-term declines in conception probabilities during years of major political and economic upheaval. In the longer-term marital fertility below age 35 in both urban areas and the rural central highlands declined in the 1980s after increasing moderately in the 1970s."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Author's E-mail: dl@maxcy2.maxcy.brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40226 Lucas, David; Ikamari, Lawrence; Jhamba, Tapiwa; Nalwamba, Chilumba. A provincial view of fertility and mortality change in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In: Africa today, edited by Peter Alexander, Ruth Hutchison, and Deryck Schreuder. Humanities Research Centre Monograph Series, No. 12, ISBN 0-7315-2491-8. 1996. 479-500 pp. Australian National University: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This chapter examines the different paths toward lower fertility and mortality taken by Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The three factors identified by Caldwell and others as being necessary to African fertility decline, namely, mortality decline, contraceptive use, and female education, are first reviewed, as is an additional factor, urbanization. The second part looks at the factors that have affected development and change at the national and provincial level in each of the three countries concerned. The data are taken primarily from the Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in these three countries, supplemented with data from other sources, such as censuses, where appropriate.
Correspondence: D. Lucas, Australian National University, National Centre for Development Studies, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40227 Macunovich, Diane J. A review of recent developments in the economics of fertility. In: Household and family economics, edited by Paul L. Menchik. 1996. 91-157 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author reviews some of the models that have been developed to explain the economic determinants of recent fertility trends in the United States, including the New Home Economics model and the Easterlin, or Relative Income, model. She concludes that recent evidence supports the relative income approach with a strong female wage effect added. A comment by Richard A. Easterlin is included (pp. 151-7).
Correspondence: D. J. Macunovich, Williams College, Department of Economics, Williamstown, MA 01267. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:40228 McDonald, Peter. Gender equity, social institutions and the future of fertility. Working Papers in Demography, No. 69, 1997. 25 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper has argued that very low fertility as observed in many advanced countries today is the result of incoherence in the levels of gender equity inherent in social and economic institutions. Institutions which deal with women as individuals are more advanced in terms of gender equity than institutions which deal with women as mothers or members of families. There has been considerable advance in gender equity in the institutions of education and market employment. On the other hand, the male breadwinner model often remains paramount in the family itself, in services provision, in tax-transfer systems and in industrial relations."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40229 Mier y Terán, Marta. Fertility transition and women's life course in Mexico. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/136, Pub. Order No. E.94.XII.5. ISBN 92-1-151263-8. LC 94-175323. 1993. vii, 62 pp. UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In Mexico, as in other countries, female education is considered an important determinant of reduction in fertility. Evidence regarding the relationship is, however, sometimes uncertain, and generalizations as regards the magnitude of the impact of the education factor on fertility are thus difficult to support. The purpose of the present study is to try to untangle the network of relationships which link education to fertility and to examine those interactions in a specified sociocultural setting."
Correspondence: UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40230 Narasimhan, R. L.; Retherford, Robert D.; Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Roy, T. K. Comparison of fertility estimates from India's Sample Registration System and National Family Health Survey. National Family Health Survey Subject Reports, No. 4, Sep 1997. 35 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This Subject Report compares fertility trends estimated alternatively from India's Sample Registration System (SRS) and the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey (NFHS). Fertility trends are estimated for the 15-year period of 1978-92. A goal of the analysis is to explain discrepancies between the two sets of estimates and to arrive at an improved assessment of the true trend in fertility. The results indicate that, since the late 1970s, fertility has fallen faster than indicated by the SRS but more slowly than indicated by the NFHS."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40231 Nazar-Beutelspacher, Austreberta; Halperin-Frisch, David; Salvatierra-Izaba, Benito. The effect of contraception on fertility in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico. [Efecto de las prácticas anticonceptivas sobre la fecundidad en la región fronteriza de Chiapas, México.] Salud Pública de México, Vol. 38, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 13-9 pp. Morelos, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors "estimate the effect of contraception on fertility in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico....In 1994 an epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out on a representative sample of 1,560 non-indigenous women between ages 15 and 49....The prevalence of contraception practices and the total fertility rates (TFR) were obtained and stratified by rural, intermediate and urban communities....The major effect of contraception on fertility was observed in rural areas. Factors which influence the small impact of contraception on fertility include the late use of these methods and the early age of first union among users."
Correspondence: A. Nazar-Beutelspacher, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, División de Salud y Población, Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, 29290 San Cristóbal de las Casas 29290, Chiapas, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40232 Nguyen-Dinh, Huan. A socioeconomic analysis of the determinants of fertility: the case of Vietnam. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1997. 251-71 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper is an economics-based quantitative analysis of the determinants of individual fertility in Vietnam, measured as the number of children ever born. In addition to the conventional linear model, two limited dependent variable models, Poisson and ordered-logit, are estimated using data from the 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey. We find, among other things, that husbands' characteristics are almost as important as those of wives in determining fertility, perhaps a reflection of the still dominant role of husbands in Vietnamese families. Both paternal and maternal education have important impacts on fertility. Of special interest is the evidence that supports the attitudinal effect of education over the opportunity-cost effect."
Correspondence: H. Nguyen-Dinh, McMaster University, Department of Economics, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. E-mail: nguyeh@mcmaster.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40233 Ntozi, James P. M.; Nakanaabi, Immaculate M.; Lubaale, Yovani A. M. Fertility levels and trends in the face of the AIDS epidemic in Uganda. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, Suppl., 1997. 145-55 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The paper uses data on ever-married women interviewed in 1992 and 1995 surveys in six districts of Uganda. Total fertility rates declined during the inter-survey period from 7.3 to 6.0. Women in households that experienced AIDS-related deaths had lower fertility levels than women in non-AIDS-affected households in both 1992 and 1995. This pattern was true of women at older ages, in polygamous unions, the widowed and separated, and among the highly educated and the uneducated."
Correspondence: J. P. M. Ntozi, Makerere University, Department of Population Studies, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40234 Pandey, Arvind; Suchindran, C. M. Estimation of birth intervals and parity progression ratios from vital rates. Sankhya: Indian Journal of Statistics, Series B, Vol. 59, No. 1, 1997. 108-22 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
"The paper presents a set of analytical models to estimate the distribution of birth intervals from age-parity-specific fertility rates as well as from the marginal age- and parity-specific fertility rates by taking into account mortality among women at successive ages during the reproductive life span. It is shown that we can simultaneously estimate parity progression ratios and parity distribution from same inputs. We have also derived models ignoring mortality. In addition, we have derived the distribution of last closed birth interval revealing distinctions in child spacing dynamics in the context of limiting behaviour. Further, we have illustrated our models with the 1970 U.S. Vital Statistics on fertility and mortality."
Correspondence: A. Pandey, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40235 Pollard, J. H.; Valkovics, E. J. On the use of the truncated Gompertz distribution and other models to represent the parity progression functions of high fertility populations. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1997. 291-305, 335 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The Gompertz distribution, developed from the mortality `law' long used by actuaries and demographers promises to be a useful distribution for many other demographic purposes as well. The continuous distribution can also be adapted to represent discrete data commonly encountered in demographic work, and maximum likelihood estimates of the two parameters are easily calculated using formulae developed in this paper, whether those data be continuous or discrete, truncated below or provided with observations in a final open-ended interval....Empirical studies using parity progression data of two high fertility populations [in Norway and Kenya] indicate that the truncated Gompertz distribution in its discrete form provides a good overall picture of the parity distribution."
Correspondence: J. H. Pollard, Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40236 Rallu, Jean-Louis; Pictet, Gabriel. The Philippines: the Catholic Church and the slow-down in the fertility decline. [Les Philippines: l'église catholique et le freinage de la baisse de la fécondité.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. 1997. 281-98 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent demographic trends in the Philippines are described, including changes in population characteristics. Separate consideration is given to mortality and the health system, fertility, contraception, social factors affecting fertility, regional aspects, population policy, the labor force, emigration, and population projections. The author concludes that the Philippines have fallen behind their neighbors in the demographic transition, and that this is primarily due to their dependence on traditional methods of contraception. Unlike Malaysia and Thailand, the Philippines seem to lack a socioeconomic elite to lead them toward a voluntary decline in fertility. The impact of the local Catholic Church's opposition to modern contraception is also analyzed.
Correspondence: J.-L. Rallu, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40237 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Lee, Hwa Young; Rajulton, Fernando; Cho, Byunh-yup. Should a second demographic transition follow the first? Demographic contrasts: Canada and South Korea. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 97-4, ISBN 0-7714-1995-3. Jun 1997. 23 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper compares and contrasts the demographic situations in Canada and South Korea....In particular, the questions addressed in this paper are: Given that South Korea went through its first demographic transition quite rapidly, would it then undergo the second demographic transition also? If yes, would its features be similar to those of Canada (or to any other Western nation)? What factors would influence such a transition?" The focus is on fertility behavior and marriage patterns.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40238 Roberts, Dorothy. Killing the black body: race, reproduction, and the meaning of liberty. ISBN 0-679-44226-X. LC 97-2383. 1997. x, 373 pp. Pantheon Books: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a study on the relationships among race, reproduction, and individual rights in the United States. "In contrast to the account of American women's increasing control over their reproductive decisions, centered on the right to an abortion, this book describes a long experience of dehumanizing attempts to control Black women's reproductive lives. The systematic, institutionalized denial of reproductive freedom has uniquely marked Black women's history in America. Considering this history--from slave masters' economic stake in bonded women's fertility to the racist strains of early birth control policy to sterilization abuse of Black women during the 1960s and 1970s to the current campaign to inject Norplant and Depo-Provera in the arms of Black teenagers and welfare mothers--paints a powerful picture of the link between race and reproductive freedom in America."
Correspondence: Pantheon Books, Random House, 400 Hahn Road, Westminster, MD 21157. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40239 Rodríguez, Germán; Philipov, Dimiter. Fitting the Coale-Trussell model by maximum quasi-likelihood. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1997. 307-17, 335 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"We describe a method for fitting the Coale-Trussell model to fertility rates or to counts of births and exposure by single years of age. The procedure maximizes a quasi-likelihood function and can easily be implemented using standard software. An extension to handle covariates is discussed."
Correspondence: G. Rodríguez, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. E-mail: grodri@opr.princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40240 Sathar, Zeba A. Population growth in Pakistan: fragile control. [La croissance démographique au Pakistan: une maîtrise délicate.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. 1997. 299-308 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Some of the main population problems facing Pakistan are introduced. The author estimates current trends in fertility and mortality and projects future trends in the light of the relative ineffectiveness of Pakistan's population policies to date. It is noted that, in contrast to India and Bangladesh, fertility has not declined substantially in recent years. Furthermore, it is increasingly difficult to obtain current demographic data for the country because it has not been possible to take a census since 1981 due to the predicted political implications of the results. The author concludes that it is reasonable to expect a modest fertility decline in the near future.
Correspondence: Z. A. Sathar, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40241 Schoen, Robert; Kim, Young J. Exploring cyclic net reproduction. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1997. 277-90, 335 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper advances a new approach that provides closed form expressions for the birth trajectory produced by a regime of changing vital rates. An exponentiated sinusoidal net maternity function is considered in detail, as population with cyclically varying net maternity are of particular interest because of the connection to the Easterlin hypothesis. The dynamics of the model are largely determined by the ratio of the population's generation length (A) to the period of cyclicity (T), and relatively simple expressions are found for the phase difference and relative amplification of the birth and net reproduction functions. More generally, an analytical expression for a population's birth trajectory is derived that applies whenever net reproductivity can be written as an exponentiated Fourier series."
Correspondence: R. Schoen, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population Dynamics, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40242 Siddiqui, Rehana. The impact of socio-economic factors on fertility behaviour: a cross-country analysis. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 35, No. 2, Summer 1996. 107-28 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Recent availability of cross-country data for a number of years allows us to pool data for more than 100 countries for the period 1955-1985 and estimate [a] fertility model. The results show that the impact of socio-economic factors differs across different age-cohorts; particularly, the negative impact of improvements in female status on the fertility rates is higher among the younger age-cohorts. Similarly, our results show that cross-country differences affect fertility rates significantly. However, the differences tend to diminish as countries become more developed."
Correspondence: R. Siddiqui, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40243 Takahashi, Shinichi. Demographic transition in rural northeast in Thailand: two population regimes according to the relationship between population and resource use. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 67-86 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The author has tried to provide a new explanation of the demographic transition in which innovation and adjustment processes are integrated, and two distinctive regimes distinguished in terms of resource use by mankind, that is population adjustment and population transition, have an important role in population changes. Using this new model, this paper undertakes to explain the demographic transition in the rural northeastern region of Thailand where a unique pattern of transition is...taking place."
Correspondence: S. Takahashi, Kobe University, Faculty of Economics, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40244 Véron, Jacques. The decline of global fertility. [La baisse de la fécondité dans le monde.] Bulletin de l'Association de Géographes Français, No. 2, 1996. 86-95 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Fertility has strongly declined over the last three decades but a high fertility level persists in a part of the developing world, especially in Africa. Disparities are therefore very pronounced (the TFR [total fertility rate] varies from 1.3 to 7.6 children per woman). The causes of disparities and changes are diverse and complex. They are all linked to the development process."
Correspondence: J. Véron, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, NH.

63:40245 Véron, Jacques. The demographic transition in India. [La transition démographique en Inde.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1997. 135-44 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"India was the first country to adopt a restrictive population policy but fertility remained for a long time at a high level. The total fertility rate is now a little bit higher than 3 children per woman, which is the fertility world average. The decline of...fertility affects all the states but sometimes important regional disparities remain between North and South of India. In Kerala the number of children per woman is less than 2 and in Uttar Pradesh close to 5. These contrasts between states are largely related to the level of [literacy] of women."
Correspondence: J. Véron, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40246 Visaria, Pravin; Visaria, Leela. Accelerating fertility transition in India during the 1980s: trends and determinants. Gujarat Institute of Development Research Working Paper, No. 66, ISBN 81-85820-24-4. Oct 1995. 39 pp. Gujarat Institute of Development Research: Ahmedabad, India. In Eng.
The authors describe demographic trends in India during the past two decades, with a focus on fertility change and determinants. Chapters are included on population size and diversity; deficit of females in the population; population age distribution and marital status; determinants of population growth and fertility decline; and the development of a national population policy.
Correspondence: Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Near Gota Char Rasta, Gota, Ahmedabad 382 481, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40247 Yousif, Hassan M. Fertility and mortality in North Africa: levels, trends and future prospects. IIASA Working Paper, No. 95-71, Jul 1995. vii, 24 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"The focus of this paper is on substantive aspects of fertility and mortality, and their implications for future population trends in North Africa....The paper highlights demographic differentials by place of residence and education, and briefly reviews the stand of governments on population issues. It concludes with future demographic prospects."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. E-mail: info@iiasa.ac.at. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

63:40248 Bhuyan, K. C. Fertility differentials according to female education, employment and family planning adoption in rural Bangladesh. Nüfusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 17-18, 1995-1996. 21-39 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"Fertility levels and the impacts of important socio-economic variables on fertility [in Bangladesh] were investigated separately for females of different levels of education, employment status and family planning adoption. [An] inverse relationship between fertility and levels of education of both females and males was observed. Duration of marriage and child mortality had positive impacts on number of ever born children. Differential impacts of socio-economic factors on fertility were observed among different groups of females."
Correspondence: K. C. Bhuyan, Garyounis University, Department of Statistics, Benghazi, Libya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40249 Bhuyan, K. C. Fertility differentials according to socio-economic status and family planning adoption in rural Bangladesh. Sankhya: Indian Journal of Statistics, Series B, Vol. 58, No. 2, Aug 1996. 302-22 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
An analysis of fertility differentials in rural Bangladesh is presented using data from a 1992 survey of 1,250 couples in Savar thana in the Dhaka district. "Depressing effects of levels of education and occupation of females were observed. Duration of marriage, desired number of children and child mortality had positive impacts on fertility. Upward socio-economic status was positively associated with family planning adoption and negatively associated with fertility, irrespective of duration of marriage. Significant differences in fertility levels of couples of different socio-economic status were observed even after eliminating the effects of other variables."
Correspondence: K. C. Bhuyan, Garyounis University, Department of Statistics, Benghazi, Libya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40250 Burke, B. Meredith. Trends and compositional changes in fertility: California circa 1970-1990. Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 1, Sep 1997. 15-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Since 1970 California has been the prime destination of the high numbers of both legal and illegal U.S. entrants. Fertility consequences have been dramatic. Births to U.S.-born women, after the decline in the 1970s and mild rebound in the 1980s, neared the 1970 level of 325,000. Yet total births rose from 360,000 to 600,000 in 1992." Fertility trends are analyzed by ethnic group, place of birth, citizenship, age, education, and cultural background.
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: B. M. Burke, 443 Tennessee Lane, Palo Alto, CA 94306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40251 El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil. Family life cycle and fertility in Germany before unification: 1947-1989. History of the Family, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1997. 309-30 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The article presents time-series macro-level aggregate data sets of childbearing/family life cycle and fertility-inhibiting indices for the two German lands during the period 1947-1989. Estimation of these indices is achieved by the application of new demographic and statistical methodologies, which require only knowledge of age-specific fertility rates. These annual sets of indices of family demography, which otherwise would require detailed biographical information on the dates of such events, help to quantitatively ascertain the effects of various pronatalist policies adopted by the two countries. The results indicate that the childbearing and fertility patterns of the two countries diverged systematically during the years of separation. Today, while the two German countries are politically and economically united, they are demographically different. Maternal ages at first and last birth in East Germany were consistently below those for West Germany. Women in West Germany enter the childbearing process at the age when their counterparts in East Germany exit."
Correspondence: M. N. El-Khorazaty, Research Triangle Institute, 6101 Executive Boulevard, Suite 365, Rockville, MD 20852-3909. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40252 Franklin, Cynthia; Grant, Darlene; Corcoran, Jacqueline; Miller, Pamela O.; Bultman, Linda. Effectiveness of prevention programs for adolescent pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 3, Aug 1997. 551-67 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using meta-analysis, we analyzed 32 outcome studies on the primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy and examined several moderator variables in relationship to the findings. Three outcome variables--sexual activity, contraceptive use, and pregnancy rates or childbirths--were analyzed as three separate and independent meta-analyses. Results indicate that the pregnancy prevention programs that we examined have no effect on the sexual activity of adolescents. We found sufficient evidence to support the efficacy of pregnancy prevention programs for increasing use of contraceptives. A smaller but significant amount of evidence supports program effectiveness in reducing pregnancy rates."
Correspondence: C. Franklin, University of Texas, School of Social Work, 1925 San Jacinto Boulevard, Austin, TX 78712. E-mail: cfranklin@mail.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40253 Gillmore, Mary R.; Lewis, Steven M.; Lohr, Mary J.; Spencer, Michael S.; White, Rachelle D. Repeat pregnancies among adolescent mothers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 3, Aug 1997. 536-50 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We report the results of an event history analysis of rapidly repeated pregnancies (i.e., within 18 months) among a sample of 170 [U.S.] adolescents who had experienced a nonmarital birth. Study participants were school-aged adolescents (under age 18 at enrollment) from lower- to middle-income families who were recruited from social and health service agencies in an urban area of the Northwest. Just over half the sample were persons of color. Respondents were interviewed at five points from pregnancy through 18 months postpartum. The best fitting model included two proximate determinants of pregnancy, contraceptive use and frequency of intercourse, as well as a history of school problems, drug use, fighting, living with parents, length of relationship with boyfriends, best friends experiencing pregnancies, and age at first birth."
Correspondence: M. R. Gillmore, University of Washington, School of Social Work, 4101 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98105. E-mail: maryg@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40254 Guilmoto, Christophe Z. Geography of fertility in India (1981-1991). [La géographie de la fécondité en Inde (1981-1991).] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1997. 145-59 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Fertility is seen in this article more as a social process than as a demographic phenomenon. Changes in reproductive behaviour can be therefore linked to a social innovation mechanism spreading along certain social and cultural channels. As a result of this uneven diffusion, the geographical patterning of fertility in contemporary India has become extremely heterogeneous. Whereas in some regions fertility seems to have remained more or less stable over the last twenty years, changes have been profound in the rest of the country. In some areas, mostly in South India and along the West coast, fertility will even soon reach below-replacement levels."
Correspondence: C. Z. Guilmoto, French Institute, P.B. 33, 11 Saint-Louis Street, Pondicherry 605 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40255 Guzmán, José M. A rapid look at the fertility transition by zone of residence in Central America and Panama. In: Demographic diversity and change in the Central American Isthmus, edited by Anne R. Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby. 1997. 41-57 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
The transition from high to low levels of fertility in Central America is analyzed over the period from the 1930s to the present day, focusing on differences by area of residence. The author suggests that there is a clear distinction between fertility trends in rural and urban areas, which needs to be taken into account in any analysis of the demographic transition of this region.
Correspondence: J. M. Guzmán, United Nations Population Fund, Office of Latin America and the Caribbean, Tomás de Figueroa 2451, Santiago, Chile. E-mail: jmguzman@unfpacst.cl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40256 Hansen, Hans O.; Maxim, Paul S. Some patterns and social impacts of external migration on a below-replacement population: Denmark by the turn of the millennium. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 136-49 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"As with many other nations in Europe, Denmark has experienced below-replacement fertility over the past three decades. The impact on population growth of the recent fertility decline to a large extent has been offset by a positive net balance of external migration. To provide a factual basis for a wide range of policy issues and social and cultural impacts we start by studying external migration, differential fertility, naturalization of foreign nationals, and population growth in the framework of multidimensional life models. Migrants and naturalized citizens tend to have reproductive behavior and sex/age profiles that differ significantly from those of the remaining population. To study some concerted demographic and social impacts of such differentials, we construct a number of midterm projections based on existing and expected development of fertility, mortality, and migration."
Correspondence: H. O. Hansen, University of Copenhagen, Institute of Statistics, Studiestræde 6, 1455 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40257 Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. Adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior: a review of the evidence from India. ICRW Working Paper, No. 3, Dec 1996. ii, 35 pp. International Center for Research on Women: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper documents the existing research on sexual and reproductive behavior [of adolescents in India], explores the knowledge and attitudes among this population in India, and makes program and research recommendations related to adolescent reproductive health in India."
Correspondence: International Center for Research on Women, 1717 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 302, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: icrw@igc.apc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40258 Maynard, Rebecca A. Kids having kids: economic costs and social consequences of teen pregnancy. ISBN 0-87766-654-7. LC 96-33522. 1996. x, 361 pp. Urban Institute Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This collective work is about the costs and consequences of adolescent parenting in the United States. The table of contents is as follows: Trends over time in teenage pregnancy and childbearing: the critical changes, by Susan W. McElroy and Kristin A. Moore. The impacts of teenage childbearing on the mothers and the consequences of those impacts for government, by V. Joseph Hotz, Susan W. McElroy, and Seth G. Sanders. Costs and consequences for the fathers, by Michael J. Brien and Robert J. Willis. Effects on the children born to adolescent mothers, by Kristin A. Moore, Donna R. Morrison, and Angela D. Greene. Teen children's health and health care use, by Barbara Wolfe and Maria Perozek. Abuse and neglect of the children, by Robert M. Goerge and Bong Joo Lee. Incarceration-related costs of early childbearing, by Jeffrey Grogger. Children of early childbearers as young adults, by Robert H. Haveman, Barbara Wolfe, and Elaine Peterson. The costs of adolescent childbearing, by Rebecca A. Maynard.
Correspondence: Urban Institute Press, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40259 Samara, Renee. Adolescent motherhood in Guatemala: a comparative perspective. In: Demographic diversity and change in the Central American Isthmus, edited by Anne R. Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby. 1997. 557-75 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
This comparative analysis of adolescent fertility in Guatemala is based on data from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey and eight other DHS surveys undertaken elsewhere in Latin America. Factors affecting Guatemala's relatively high levels of adolescent fertility are discussed. These include initiation of sexual relations at an early age, particularly within marriage, combined with low contraceptive use.
Correspondence: R. Samara, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40260 Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Howard, Gregory J. Risk factors for teenage fatherhood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 3, Aug 1997. 505-22 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This article uses data from the Rochester [New York] Youth Development Study, an ongoing panel study of urban youth, to identify early risk factors for the likelihood of becoming a teen father. The study is well suited to this task because the prevalence of teen fatherhood in this sample is quite high, and the project has collected extensive data in a range of developmental domains. We found teen fatherhood to be related to a variety of risk factors, such as social class, educational performance, precocious sexual activity, and drug use. Perhaps most important is the finding that teen fatherhood is strongly related to the cumulation of risk factors across many domains."
Correspondence: T. P. Thornberry, State University of New York, School of Criminal Justice, 135 Western Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. E-mail: tt408@cnsvax.albany.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40261 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). State-specific birth rates for teenagers--United States, 1990-1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 46, No. 36, Sep 12, 1997. 837-42 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report presents state-specific birth rates for females aged 15-19 years for 1991 and 1995 and compares race/ethnicity-specific birth rates for U.S. females aged <20 years for 1990-1996. These findings indicate that, during 1991-1995, birth rates among teenagers declined significantly in all but five states and the District of Columbia, and declines nationwide during 1991-1996 were especially large for teenagers aged 15-17 years and for black teenagers. Recent declines in abortions and abortion rates for teenagers, coupled with the trends described in this report for birth rates for teenagers, indicate that, since 1991, pregnancy rates for teenagers also have declined."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

No citations in this issue.

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

63:40262 Agha, Sohail. First report: the Lusaka Sexual Behavior and Condom Use Survey 1996. 1997. vii, 92 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the first report from the 1996 Lusaka Sexual Behavior and Condom Use Survey, a representative survey of some 800 men and women aged 15-49 carried out in Zambia. "It was designed to provide information on sexual behavior, condom use and the effect of condom advertising and promotion on condom use."
Correspondence: Population Services International, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40263 Agha, Sohail. Sexual activity and condom use in Lusaka, Zambia. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 6, 1997. 28 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The present study examines patterns of sexual behavior and condom use in Lusaka primarily on the basis of a survey conducted by the Zambia Social Marketing Project in 1996....The results of this study strongly suggest that condom use has increased substantially in Lusaka as a result of condom marketing, promotion and distribution activities....This finding is supported by evidence of dramatic increases in the percentage of persons reporting knowledge of condom source and easy access to condoms. The findings of this study also suggest that the time span required for changes in sexual behavior may be longer than the time needed to increase condom use."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40264 Ahmed, Saifuddin; Mosley, W. Henry. Simultaneity in maternal-child health care utilization and contraceptive use: evidence from developing countries. Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 97-03, Aug 1997. 31, 7 pp. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study examines the synergistic relationship between the utilization of maternal-child health (MCH) care and contraceptive use, and the causal mechanism that operates at individual and household levels facilitating joint determination of these interventions....The study addresses some methodological issues in analyzing binary outcome variables with endogeneity....[The authors] analyzed Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted during 1986 to 1989 in six developing countries, to examine the simultaneity in use of contraceptives and MCH interventions."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179 Author's E-mail: sahmed@hpcsun01.sph.jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40265 Ainsworth, Martha; Beegle, Kathleen; Nyamete, Andrew. The impact of women's schooling on fertility and contraceptive use: a study of fourteen Sub-Saharan African countries. World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan 1996. 85-122 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article examines the relationship between female schooling and two behaviors--cumulative fertility and contraceptive use--in fourteen Sub-Saharan African countries where Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) have been conducted since the mid-1980s. Average levels of schooling among women of reproductive age are very low, from less than two years to six. Controlling for background variables, the last years of female primary schooling have a negative relation with fertility in about half the countries, while secondary schooling is associated with substantially lower fertility in all countries. Female schooling has a positive relationship with contraceptive use at all levels. Among ever-married women, husband's schooling exerts a smaller effect than does female schooling on contraceptive use and, in almost all cases, on fertility. Although the results suggest commonalities among these Sub-Saharan countries, they also reveal intriguing international differences in the impact of female schooling, which might reflect differences in the quality of schooling, labor markets, and family planning programs, among others."
Correspondence: M. Ainsworth, World Bank, Policy Research Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:40266 Berhanu, Betemariam; Hogan, Dennis P. Women's status and contraceptive innovation in urban Ethiopia. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 97-03, May 1997. 25, [4] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"In this paper, we use data from the Ethiopian 1990 Family and Fertility Survey to explore the relationships between some dimensions of women's status and contraceptive innovation in urban areas of the country. The results confirm our expectation that women's status has an important bearing on contraception innovation and diffusion. In short, they suggest that female education, employment status and spousal communication about family size are the key factors that significantly increase early adoption and current use of contraception."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. E-mail: Population_Studies@brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40267 Berman, Peter; Rose, Laura. The role of private providers in maternal and child health and family planning services in developing countries. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 11, No. 2, Jun 1996. 142-55 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses data from the Demographic and Health Surveys program (DHS) in 11 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America to explore the contribution of private health care providers to population coverage with a variety of maternal and child health and family planning services....Private providers contribute significantly to family planning services and treatment of children's infectious diseases in a number of the countries studied....Two groups of countries were identified: those with a higher private provision role across many different types of services and those where private provision was limited to only one or two types of the services studied. The analysis identified the lack of consistent or systematic definitions of private providers across countries as well as the absence of data on many key services in most of the DHS surveys."
Correspondence: P. Berman, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Building I-1210, Boston, MA 02115. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40268 Bulut, Aysen; Yolsal, Nuray; Kayatürk, Füsun; Nalbant, Hacer; Molzan, Janet; Filippi, Veronique; Marshal, Tom; Graham, Wendy. Contraceptive methods used in Istanbul and factors affecting the method choice and continuation. [Istanbul'da kullanilan gebelikten korunma yöntemleri, bu yöntemlerin tercih ve kullanimini sürdürmede etkili faktörler.] Nüfusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 17-18, 1995-1996. 3-19 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper presents and discusses the results of collaborative research, to investigate uptake and use of modern versus traditional contraceptive methods in a new settlement area in Istanbul....Ninety percent (778) of 867 currently non-pregnant women [with a mean age of] 31.4 were using a method of contraception at the time of the study. The majority of current contraceptive users (46%) employed withdrawal, alone or in combination, followed by 29% using IUD....The use of these principal methods was found to be unrelated to age, family size or education, but there was a negative association of withdrawal use and positive association of permanent methods with long-term residence in Istanbul."
Correspondence: A. Bulut, Istanbul Üniversitesi, Çocuk Sagligi Enstitüsü, Beyazit, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40269 Calvès, Anne-Emmanuèle; Meekers, Dominique. Gender differentials in premarital sex, condom use, and abortion: a case study of Yaoundé, Cameroon. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 10, 1997. 31 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper uses focus group and survey data from the 1995 Yaoundé Family Formation Dynamics Study to examine gender differentials in premarital sexual behavior, condom use, abortion experience, and abortion intentions among single young men and women. The results indicate that many Cameroonian adolescents, males in particular, engage in unsafe sexual practices, such as simultaneously having multiple casual and/or regular partners, and having sex in exchange for money or gifts. Many adolescents have used condoms, but condom use varies by type of partner. Females mainly use condoms with partners with whom pregnancy is highly unwanted. Males, on the other hand, primarily use condoms with commercial sex workers, to reduce the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Condom use with regular partners remains low. These high rates of sexual activity and low rates of condom use with regular partners lead to relatively high rates of unwanted pregnancies and abortions. The fact that many abortions are performed by untrained persons indicates that many females have unsafe abortions."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40270 Carvalho, A.; Laudari, C.; Marini, M.; Faundes, A. Characteristics of contraceptive acceptors in Luanda, Angola. African Journal of Fertility, Sexuality and Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1996. 109-14 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"The Angolan Family Planning Programme has succeeded in attracting an increasing number of acceptors during the last 10 years....In an attempt to find out the characteristics of the programme's users, a retrospective cohort study was carried out on 7,246 women who attended the three largest family planning clinics of Luanda during 1991 and 1992. Our results show that, during that period, the family planning services in Luanda mainly served women under age 30, with a parity below 4 and more than 4 years of education."
Correspondence: A. Carvalho, Ministério da Saúde, Setor de Saúde Materna, Luanda, Angola. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40271 Casterline, John B.; Perez, Aurora E.; Biddlecom, Ann E. Factors underlying unmet need for family planning in the Philippines. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1997. 173-91 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article investigates four explanations for unmet need [for family planning]: (1) as an artifact of inaccurate measurement of fertility preferences and contraceptive practice; (2) as a reflection of weakly held fertility preferences; (3) as a result of women's perceiving themselves to be at low risk of conceiving; (4) as due to excessive costs of contraception. The explanations are examined using quantitative and qualitative data collected in 1993 from currently married women and their husbands in two provinces in the Philippines. The results indicate that the preference-behavior discrepancy commonly termed `unmet need' is not an artifact of survey measurement. The most important factors accounting for this discrepancy are the strength of women's reproductive preferences, husbands' fertility preferences, and the perceived detrimental side effects of contraception."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. B. Casterline, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40272 Cates, Willard; Raymond, Elizabeth G. Emergency contraception--parsimony and prevention in the medicine cabinet. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 6, Jun 1997. 909-10 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Emergency contraception [in the United States] remains an underutilized public health gem. Unfortunately, women don't know about it, clinicians don't talk about it, regulators don't label it, policymakers don't endorse it, and pharmaceutical companies don't market it....We believe we can have the greatest population-level impact on unintended pregnancy by making emergency contraception readily available to all who want it."
Correspondence: W. Cates, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40273 DeGraff, Deborah S.; Bilsborrow, Richard E.; Guilkey, David K. Community-level determinants of contraceptive use in the Philippines: a structural analysis. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 3, Aug 1997. 385-98 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We use household and community data from the Philippines to estimate a multilevel model of contraceptive use. We go beyond previous efforts in this field by developing a structural model that reorganizes joint endogeneity and the temporal ordering of variables, by considering a wider range of community influences on fertility behavior, and by employing an econometric procedure allowing for a multilevel error structure. The results suggest that there are significant effects on fertility behavior of community-level family planning services, labor-market conditions, and infrastructure development. These results provide insights regarding the structural determinants of contraceptive use and fertility that are useful for drawing policy implications."
Correspondence: D. S. DeGraff, Bowdoin College, Department of Economics, 9700 College Station, Brunswick, ME 04011-8497. E-mail: ddegraff@polar.bowdoin.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40274 Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo; Luo, Ye; Panayotova, Evelina. Do male reproductive preferences really point to a need to refocus fertility policy? Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 5, Oct 1997. 447-55 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Independently collected data from a 1994 survey in Accra, Ghana, are used here to verify earlier findings from Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data which indicate the existence of a closer tie between men's reproductive preferences and contraceptive use, than between the latter and women's preferences. Indeed, the findings corroborate the earlier studies and suggest that fertility transition in Africa may be accelerated if the family planning establishment would recognize the contribution of the `male role', and bring men into the mainstream of their agenda."
Correspondence: F. N.-A. Dodoo, Vanderbilt University, Department of Sociology, Box 1811-B, Nashville, TN 37205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40275 Edwards, R. G. New concepts in fertility control. Human Reproduction, Vol. 9, Suppl., No. 2, Jun 1994. v, 157 pp. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This book is based on a conference held in Thessaloniki in 1993....The meeting was intended to invite leading scientists and doctors to present their most recent data on conception and contraception, based on studies in animals and man. Contributors were asked to indicate the areas and significance of further research needed to maintain the momentum of studies on fertility control. Papers delivered at the meeting have been published in Human Reproduction, and are reprinted and repaginated in this supplement."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40276 Elstein, Max; Jennings, Victoria H.; Queenan, John T.; Spieler, Jeffrey. Natural family planning and reproductive health awareness: expanding options and improving health. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 81-384 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This special issue contains papers presented at a conference titled Natural Family Planning and Reproductive Health Awareness: Expanding Options and Improving Health, which was held in April 1997 in Washington, D.C. "The focus of the meeting was on the role of NFP as a component of reproductive health and on expanding its availability through a variety of service delivery structures." Papers are grouped into sections on pregnancy and timing of intercourse; natural family planning (NFP) and fecundability; detection of the fertile period; NFP effectiveness; NFP safety; methods of NFP service delivery; benefits of NFP and fertility awareness education; reproductive health awareness; and implementation of reproductive health awareness.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40277 Ezeh, Alex C.; Mboup, Gora. Estimates and explanations of gender differentials in contraceptive prevalence rates. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 2, Jun 1997. 104-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines gender differentials in the reporting of contraceptive use and offers explanations regarding the sources of these differences. Data from five countries where DHS surveys were conducted recently among men and women are used in exploring these differences. The gap exists in all five countries, with men (or husbands) reporting greater practice of contraception than women (or wives). Results from the bivariate analysis suggest that the gap is attributable to polygyny and to gender differences in how the purpose of contraception is understood, rather than to male extramarital sexual relations. Additionally, gender differences in the definition of certain contraceptive methods and differences in the interpretation of questions about contraception contribute to the observed gap. These findings are also consistent with results of the multivariate analysis."
Correspondence: A. C. Ezeh, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, Applied Research and Development, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119l. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40278 Feyisetan, Bamikale J.; Ainsworth, Martha. Contraceptive use and the quality, price, and availability of family planning in Nigeria. World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan 1996. 159-88 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Nigeria has experienced high fertility and rapid population growth for at least the past thirty years. Only recently have public authorities launched efforts to promote contraceptive use. In this article, individual women are linked to the characteristics of the nearest health facility, pharmacy, and source of family planning to assess the relative importance of women's socioeconomic background and the characteristics of nearby services on contraceptive use. The results suggest that the limited levels of female schooling (and probably other factors affecting women's opportunity cost of time) are constraining contraceptive use, especially in rural areas. Another major constraint to increased contraceptive use is the low availability of family planning services in Nigeria. Broader availability of the pill and other methods in pharmacies and of injectables and intrauterine devices (IUDs) in health facilities is likely to raise contraceptive use. Outpatient or consultation fees at nearby health facilities do not appear to be constraining demand for modern contraceptive methods."
Correspondence: B. J. Feyisetan, Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:40279 Grant, George. Immaculate deception: the shifting agenda of Planned Parenthood. ISBN 1-881273-54-7. 1996. 240 pp. Northfield Publishing: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This is a diatribe from a fundamentalist Christian perspective against the U.S. family planning organization Planned Parenthood. The author suggests that Planned Parenthood may well be the largest and wealthiest nonprofit organization in history. He also claims that its working agenda affects the daily lives of people in many unsuspected ways by its involvement in setting curricula for public schools, providing abortions, distributing contraceptives, funding health and social services, supporting legal services and litigation, lobbying for legislation, providing foreign aid, underwriting pharmacological research and development, providing psychological research counseling, and lobbying for health care reform.
Correspondence: Northfield Publishing, Moody Bible Institute, 215 West Locust, Chicago, IL 60610. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40280 Guilkey, David K.; Jayne, Susan. Fertility transition in Zimbabwe: determinants of contraceptive use and method choice. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 2, Jul 1997. 173-89 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The determinants of contraceptive method choice in Zimbabwe are examined within the context of a structural equations model that controls for both supply and demand factors that can influence the choice. The data set used in the empirical work is the 1989 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey. Among the policy related variables that have contributed to Zimbabwe's highly successful programme, the multivariate results reveal the importance of wife's education, husband's education, family planning messages, and the presence of a community based distributor of contraceptives."
Correspondence: D. K. Guilkey, University of North Carolina, University Square 300A/CB No. 8120, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40281 Hubacher, David; Suazo, Margarita; Terrell, Stanley; Pinel, Marco. Examining the increasing popularity of traditional contraceptive methods in Honduras. In: Demographic diversity and change in the Central American Isthmus, edited by Anne R. Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby. 1997. 533-56 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
The recent increase in contraceptive practice in Honduras is analyzed using data from surveys undertaken in 1987 and 1991-1992. The focus is on the reasons for the growing popularity of traditional methods of contraception, particularly the rhythm method. Differences in the characteristics of those using the rhythm and withdrawal methods are discussed.
Correspondence: D. Hubacher, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. E-mail: dhubacher@fhi.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40282 Knight, Rodney. The diffusion of information and adoption of contraception in Costa Rica. In: Demographic diversity and change in the Central American Isthmus, edited by Anne R. Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby. 1997. 455-95 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
This study examines the dynamics of information diffusion and the adoption of contraception in light of the fertility decline that occurred in Costa Rica over the period 1970-1980. The author assesses the relative importance of access to mass media, amount of family planning program activity, and existing levels of contraceptive practice.
Correspondence: R. Knight, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, 109 South Observatory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. E-mail: knight@usaid.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40283 Kohler, Hans-Peter. Learning in social networks and contraceptive choice. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 3, Aug 1997. 369-83 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"A puzzling observation in the diffusion of modern fertility control is the persistent diversity in contraceptive practices across communities or social strata. I propose a model of `learning in social networks' to explain this diversity with the random dynamics of word-of-mouth communication. Women are uncertain about the merits of modern contraception and estimate the different qualities of available methods based on imprecise information from network partners. Their contraceptive choices are determined by this estimate and by private knowledge about one's personal characteristics. This process of social learning leads to path-dependent adoption of fertility control within, and diversity in contraceptive practices across villages or social strata....I illustrate the regional diversity in contraceptive use with data from rural Korean villages."
Correspondence: H.-P. Kohler, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Doberaner Strasse 114, 18057 Rostock, Germany. E-mail: kohler@demogr.mpg.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40284 Kosunen, Elise A.-L.; Rimpelä, Arja H.; Rimpelä, Matti K. Sixteen-year-old oral contraceptive users in Finland, 1981-1993. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1995. 236-41 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"We studied differences in the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) among 16-year-old girls [in Finland] according to sociodemographic variables between 1981 and 1993....The increasing trend in OC use levelled off in 1989 at around 17-19%. OC use was most frequent in the lower socioeconomic groups, least frequent in the rural areas, but did not vary significantly according to region of the country. The pace of adopting OCs did not vary across the socioeconomic groups or regions."
Correspondence: E. A.-L. Kosunen, University of Tampere Medical School, Box 607, Kalevantie 4, 33101 Tampere, Finland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40285 Kvalem, Ingela L.; Sundet, Jon M.; Rivø, Kate I.; Eilertsen, Dag E.; Bakketeig, Leiv S. The effect of sex education on adolescents' use of condoms: applying the Solomon four-group design. Health Education Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1996. 34-47 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"A school-based sex education program was developed in order to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies. A Solomon four-group design, with random assignment to the different conditions, was used to evaluate an intervention based on cognitive social learning theory and social influence theory. The main goal of the intervention was to increase use of condoms. A stratified sample of 124 classes (2,411 students) was drawn at random from all the upper secondary schools (high schools/colleges) in one county in Norway. The results indicate a consistent interaction between pretest and intervention, which seems to have an effect on condom use. Pretest or intervention alone did not contribute to this effect. The interaction effect appeared among the students with few sexual partners."
Correspondence: I. L. Kvalem, University of Oslo, Institute of Psychology, P.B. 1094, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. E-mail: ingela.kvalem@psykologi.uio.no. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40286 Larsson, Gerd; Blohm, Febe; Sundell, Gunilla; Andersch, Björn; Milsom, Ian. A longitudinal study of birth control and pregnancy outcome among women in a Swedish population. Contraception, Vol. 56, No. 1, Jul 1997. 9-16 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The prevalence of contraception and pregnancy outcome in the same women, at 19, 24, and 29 years of age, was assessed in a longitudinal cohort study [in Sweden] using a postal questionnaire technique....Contraceptive usage was as follows (at 19, 24, and 29 years of age respectively): oral contraception (OC) 47%/51%/22%; intrauterine device 3%/11%/19%; barrier methods 12%/12%/20%; depot gestagen 0/0.2%/0.4%; no contraception 39%/26%/25%....The relationship between method of contraception, history of pregnancy, legal abortion, and smoking habits was analyzed in detail. Despite the availability of effective contraception, the ratio of legal abortions to live births was high. Fear of side effects was the commonest reason for discontinuing OC."
Correspondence: G. Larsson, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 416 85 Göteborg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40287 Leridon, Henri; Toulemon, Laurent. The control of fertility becomes universal. [La régulation des naissances se généralise.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. 1997. 421-34 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The spread of family planning and contraception around the world in recent years is described using data from published sources, particularly the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Surveys. The authors note that, according to UN estimates, the percentage of couples of reproductive age using contraception has increased from around 15% in 1965 to 55-60% today. Global data on contraception and sterilization are presented, some differences within regions are examined, and the relation between contraception and fertility and its determinants is reviewed. The role of induced abortion in the control of fertility is also discussed.
Correspondence: H. Leridon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40288 Martinez, A. R. Prediction and detection of the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle: an overview. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 131-8 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author discusses methods that have been developed to accurately predict and detect the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. "Methods based on the detection of direct fertility markers, such as hormonal tests and ultrasound, are more objective and accurate than traditional markers based on indirect markers, but cost and dependence on supplies limit their application....Some new devices designed to facilitate recording and calculation of fertility signals could be combined with clinical methods to improve prediction and detection of the fertile phase."
Correspondence: A. R. Martinez, Instituto de Medicina Reproductiva, Fundación SAMEN, Casilla de Correo 855, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40289 Meekers, Dominique. The implications of free and commercial distribution for condom use: evidence from Cameroon. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 9, 1997. 27 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relative effectiveness of free versus commercial distribution of contraceptive supplies is analyzed using data from Cameroon. "This paper [describes] to what extent adolescents and young adults in Cameroon obtain free condoms, socially marketed condoms, and other commercial condoms, and by testing whether the type of condoms procured is related to actual condom use and continuation of use. The results indicate that free distribution programs are more effective than programs that sell condoms for reaching adolescents who are not yet sexually experienced. However, among sexually experienced adolescents, programs that sell condoms are more effective than free distribution programs."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40290 Miller, Robert; Fisher, Andrew; Miller, Kate; Ndhlovu, Lewis; Maggwa, Baker N.; Askew, Ian; Sanogo, Diouratie; Tapsoba, Placide. The situation analysis approach to assessing family planning and reproductive health services: a handbook. ISBN 0-87834-090-4. LC 97-5428. 1997. x, 195 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
This handbook illustrates how the management technique called situation analysis can be used to improve the quality of the services offered in family planning and reproductive health programs. The work has four chapters. The first describes the methodology used in situation analysis. The second describes how situation analysis studies are carried out. The third gives details on the instruments and question-by-question guides used. The fourth deals with data analysis and reporting. The situation analysis instruments described are available in electronic format on request from the publishers.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. E-mail:pubinfo@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40291 Muvandi, Ityai. Fertility behaviour and contraceptive use in Kenya: findings from a male survey. African Journal of Fertility, Sexuality and Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1996. 136-45 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This paper is based on information collected from a representative sample of men aged between 20 and 54 years selected from six districts of Kenya. The data are used to study the role of men in influencing contraceptive use and fertility behaviour in Kenya....The study has shown that fertility increases with age and is inversely related to level of education of men....Public awareness of family planning is very high among men but knowledge of family planning methods is limited mainly to the pill and the condom."
Correspondence: I. Muvandi, Centre for African Family Studies, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40292 Ngom, Pierre. Men's unmet need for family planning: implications for African fertility transitions. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1997. 192-202 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article introduces the concept of men's unmet need for family planning and explains its programmatic relevance. Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ghana (1988, 1993) and Kenya (1989, 1993), married men are found to have high levels of unmet need for family planning that are comparable to, although slightly lower than, those for women. The importance of men's unmet need is demonstrated when the analysis is restricted to marital pairs in the DHS samples; trends in the joint unmet need of husbands and wives are shown to be closely associated with the nature of the fertility transitions occurring in Ghana and Kenya. Because of wide discrepancies found between husbands' and wives' unmet need statuses, family planning programs that foster spousal communication are likely to facilitate the transition to lower fertility."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: P. Ngom, Navrongo Health Research Centre, Demographic Surveillance System, P.O. Box 114, Navrongo-UER, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40293 Okun, Barbara S. Family planning in the Jewish population of Israel: correlates of withdrawal use. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1997. 215-27 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report describes trends and differentials in contraceptive practices among Israeli Jews. Data from two fertility surveys show a heavy reliance on the IUD, little use of sterilization, and declining, but still significant use of withdrawal. The factors associated with the practice of withdrawal are explored. Evidence is found in support of Santow's hypotheses that the degree of sex-role differentiation within marriage and the belief that men hold the authority in reproductive decisionmaking are both positively related to the practice of withdrawal. Fear of oral contraceptives, a dislike of sterilization, and a reliance on the IUD only at greater parities imply a continuing role for withdrawal, especially among Israeli Jewish couples in which wives are less educated and have more traditional sex roles than the wives in other couples."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: B. S. Okun, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Population Studies, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40294 Piotrow, Phyllis T.; Kincaid, D. Lawrence; Rimon, Jose G.; Rinehart, Ward. Health communication: lessons from family planning and reproductive health. ISBN 0-275-95577-X. LC 97-19235. 1997. xx, 307 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This book is about the theory and practice of family planning communication. The theory comes from many sources, including sociology, psychology, political science, communication science, and medicine. The practice, as described here, comes from 15 years of health communication work through the Population Communication Services (PCS) project and other activities of the Center for Communication Programs in the School of Hygiene and Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University. This book reviews the development of family planning communication and compiles what we have learned from working in some 50 [developing] countries around the world. While this book focuses on our experience in family planning communication, the lessons apply to a broad range of health issues, from diet to drug abuse, from child survival to accident prevention."
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40295 Ramesh, B. M.; Gulati, S. C.; Retherford, Robert D. Contraceptive use in India, 1992-93. National Family Health Survey Subject Report, No. 2, Oct 1996. xvi, 107 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The demographic and socioeconomic determinants of contraceptive use in India are analyzed using data from the 1992-1993 National Family Health Survey. The results show that "contraceptive use is higher in urban than in rural areas in part because urban women are more educated than rural women. Son preference has a strong effect on contraceptive use up to the point at which women have two living sons, but not beyond. Religion has a substantial effect on contraceptive use, even after residence and education are controlled: in almost all states, Muslims have lower use rates than Hindus. Although there is considerable variability among states in the effect of caste and tribe on contraceptive use, there is a strong tendency for women from scheduled castes or scheduled tribes to have lower contraceptive use rates than other women. Exposure to the electronic mass media (radio, television, and cinema) has a large, positive effect on contraceptive use. This effect persists after residence and education are controlled. Utilization of health services for antenatal care or delivery tends to have a positive effect on contraceptive use...but this effect varies considerably by state."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: ipps.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40296 Rosero-Bixby, Luis. Spatial dimensions of family planning in Costa Rica: the value of geocoding demographic surveys. In: Demographic diversity and change in the Central American Isthmus, edited by Anne R. Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby. 1997. 497-532 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
This study illustrates the use of geographic information systems to evaluate the impact of the spatial distribution of family planning services and availability of such services on contraceptive behavior in Costa Rica. Data are from a number of sources, including both censuses and surveys. The results confirm those from earlier studies in that the larger and more accessible centers are more likely to be chosen by those looking for contraceptive advice and services. The author notes that choice of contraceptive method is affected differently by clinic availability and information from neighbors.
Correspondence: L. Rosero-Bixby, Universidad de Costa Rica, Programa Centroamericano de Población/INISA, Apartado 833-2050, San José, Costa Rica. E-mail: lrosero@cariari.ucr.ac.cr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40297 Sambisa, William; Curtis, Siân. Contraceptive use dynamics in Zimbabwe: postpartum contraceptive behaviour. Zimbabwe Further Analysis, Jul 1997. v, 24 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This report summarizes the findings of one of the further analysis projects undertaken following the 1994 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey. "It presents the findings of the second of a two-part analysis entitled `Contraceptive Use Dynamics in Zimbabwe' and provides a useful description of the relationship between contraceptive initiation following the birth of a child and postpartum factors including breastfeeding, abstinence, and amenorrhoea. The first part of the analysis was published previously and focused on patterns of contraceptive discontinuation, contraceptive failure, reasons for discontinuation, and factors related to these `behaviours'."
For the first part of this analysis, see 63:10313.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40298 Sly, David F.; Quadagno, David; Harrison, Dianne F.; Eberstein, Isaac W.; Riehman, Kara; Bailey, Marie. Factors associated with use of the female condom. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1997. 181-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Black, Hispanic and white women recruited for an HIV prevention intervention were instructed in the use of the female condom and encouraged to try the device. Of the 231 women who completed the intervention, 29% tried the condom over the course of a month; 30% of those who tried it used it during at least half of their sexual encounters. Both ethnicity and age were associated with trying the device....Trying the device was more likely among women living with a partner, those with a history of sexually transmitted disease infection, women who had had an HIV test, those who did not believe that the method afforded them a greater degree of overall control than did the male condom and those who had no prior knowledge of the device."
Correspondence: D. F. Sly, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 659-C Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40299 Stanback, John; Thompson, Andy; Hardee, Karen; Janowitz, Barbara. Menstruation requirements: a significant barrier to contraceptive access in developing countries. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1997. 245-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"One common, but little appreciated, barrier to family planning services is the requirement that women seeking hormonal methods and IUDs present themselves for family planning services while they are menstruating....Recent data from Ghana, Kenya, Cameroon, Jamaica, and Senegal on family planning menstruation requirements are presented below, and the rationales for and against such requirements are outlined. Issues related to menstruation requirements are also discussed."
Correspondence: J. Stanback, Family Health International, Service Delivery Research Division, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40300 Ulrich, Ralf E. Fertility and family planning in developing countries. Economics, Vol. 54, 1996. 7-43 pp. Tübingen, Germany. In Eng.
The author explores recent trends in fertility and family planning in developing countries. Phases in the process of demographic transition are outlined. Reasons for a fall in fertility rates are analyzed. Interrelations among the desire for children, terminated or prevented births, and the demand for family planning services are considered, and future needs for family planning are discussed.
Correspondence: R. E. Ulrich, Humboldt-Universität, 10099 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40301 Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J. The effects of an abusive primary partner on the condom use and sexual negotiation practices of African-American women. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 6, Jun 1997. 1,016-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examined the consequences of having a physically abusive primary partner on the condom use and sexual negotiation practices of young African-American women...in San Francisco, California....Women in abusive relationships were less likely than others to use condoms and were more likely to experience verbal abuse, emotional abuse, or threats of physical abuse when they discussed condoms. They were more fearful of asking their partners to use condoms, worried more about acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and felt more isolated than did women not in abusive relationships."
Correspondence: G. M. Wingood, University of Alabama, School of Public Health, 1825 University Boulevard, Room 121, Birmingham, AL 35294-2010. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

63:40302 Akhter, Farida. Resisting Norplant: women's struggle against coercion and violence. ISBN 984-467-044-6. LC 96-902381. Aug 1995. 142 pp. Narigrantha Prabartana: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The author discusses the forced use of Norplant in Bangladesh, with a focus on population policy, untrue or misleading information, and lack of informed consent. "What I have done mostly here is to compile...writings since 1981 and to document all our activities for [the] last 15 years to stop the unethical trial of Norplant." Chapters are included on Norplant trials, the national family planning program, unethical trials, dissemination, UN and government actions, and promotional attempts.
Correspondence: Narigrantha Prabartana, 2/8 Sir Syed Road, Mohammadpur, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40303 Bonnar, J.; Lamprecht, V.; O'Connor, E. Alternatives to vaginal intercourse practiced during the fertile time among calendar method users in Ireland. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 173-7 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The focus of this paper is to report the alternatives to vaginal intercourse that couples [practice] during the fertile time, and to determine the factors related to these alternative sexual expressions....The data used in this analysis were obtained from [a] pilot study of the acceptability of the calendar method of contraception that was conducted in Dublin, Ireland in 1993-1994."
Correspondence: J. Bonnar, Trinity College, St. James Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dublin 8, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40304 Faúndes, A.; Lamprecht, V.; Osis, M. J.; Lopes, B. C. Simplifying NFP: preliminary report of a pilot study of the "collar" method in Brazil. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 167-71 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the acceptability of the "collar" method of natural family planning, based on a pilot study conducted in Brazil. "Couples are asked to abstain from day 9-19 (inclusive) of the menstrual cycle, using beaded necklace (the `collar') as a mnemonic device. Focus groups with the teacher-monitors and in-depth interviews with female and male users were carried out to evaluate the acceptability of the `collar' method....While volunteer couples have been difficult to recruit, and initial acceptance of the method was low, the experience of those who did accept the collar seems to indicate that this device is effective in helping couples to use NFP properly."
Correspondence: A. Faúndes, Centro de Pesquisas e Controle das Doenças Materno-Infantis de Campinas, Ciudade Universitaria, 200 Rua Vital Brazil, CEP 13081, 970 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40305 Ferreira-Poblete, A. The probability of conception on different days of the cycle with respect to ovulation: an overview. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 83-95 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Over the last 30 years two different models have been developed to estimate probabilities of conception. Barrett and Marshall proposed a model where the probability of conception depended only on the timing of intercourse. Royston, on the other hand, related the probability of conception to the survival time of sperm and the ovum. The next two sections of this paper will present these two models and further modifications proposed in the literature. The results section will present estimates for these models as found in the literature. These estimates have been taken directly from the published results and have not been verified in all cases."
Correspondence: A. Ferreira-Poblete, University of London, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, Ducane Road, London W12 ONN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40306 France, M.; France, J.; Townend, K. Natural family planning in New Zealand: a study of continuation rates and characteristics of users. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 191-8 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study has determined long-term continuation rates of clients who attended clinics of the New Zealand Association of Natural Family Planning and became autonomous users. It has also identified factors which might influence the continuation of NFP use....Subjects for whom NFP was their first family planning method, who were Catholic or who gave religion as their reason for choosing NFP were more likely to continue long-term use. The majority of subjects [more than 90%] were highly satisfied with NFP use, with the most common reasons for satisfaction being self-awareness, freedom from drugs, naturalness and effectiveness. The difficulties reported related to abstinence and cycle interpretation."
Correspondence: M. France, New Zealand Association of Natural Family Planning, 19a Frater Avenue, Milford, Auckland, New Zealand. E-mail: j.france@auckland.ac.nz. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40307 Frank-Herrmann, P.; Freundl, G.; Gnoth, C.; Godehardt, E.; Kunert, J.; Baur, S.; Sottong, U. Natural family planning with and without barrier method use in the fertile phase: efficacy in relation to sexual behavior: a German prospective long-term study. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 179-89 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A large prospective long-term study with users of natural family planning (NFP) methods has been conducted to analyze the relation between unintended pregnancy rates and sexual behavior with special reference to barrier method use in the fertile phase....Of the couples, 54.2% use NFP only or predominantly and 45.9% use mixed methods....The overall pregnancy rate after 12 cycles of exposure is 2.2% according to the actuarial method. There is no significant difference between NFP users and mixed methods users and also no significant effect of duration of use in the first 5 years of exposure."
Correspondence: P. Frank-Herrmann, University of Düsseldorf, NFP Study Group, 4000 Düsseldorf 13, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40308 Hatcher, Robert A.; Rinehart, Ward; Blackburn, Richard; Geller, Judith S. The essentials of contraceptive technology. ISBN 1-885960-01-8. Jul 1997. xii, [329] pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This handbook...aims at providing state-of-the-art information on family planning methods to health care providers around the world....The handbook uses a simple, client-centred approach to the provision of family planning care. It covers a wide range of topics that will help to enable women and men to use the method of their choice effectively and with satisfaction while safeguarding against avoidable negative health effects. It helps health care providers give their clients simple but appropriate information and advice on method use and other reproductive health concerns. Further, it offers guidance for appropriate procedures in offering family planning methods and helping continuing users."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40309 Hight-Laukaran, Virginia; Labbok, Miriam H.; Peterson, Anne E.; Fletcher, Veronica; von Hertzen, Helena; Van Look, Paul F. A. Multicenter study of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM): II. Acceptability, utility, and policy implications. Contraception, Vol. 55, No. 6, Jun 1997. 337-46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A multicenter study of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) was carried out to determine acceptability, satisfaction, and utilization in 10 different populations, and to confirm the efficacy of the method....The overall satisfaction with LAM was 83.6%, and continuation with another method of family planning was shown to be 67.6% at 9 months postpartum, in most cases exceeding previous use of contraception prior to use of LAM. Knowledge and understanding of the method at discontinuation were high, ranging from 78.4 to 88.6% for the three criteria."
Correspondence: A. E. Peterson, Institute of Reproductive Health, 2115 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 602, Washington, D.C. 20007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40310 Katz, D. F.; Slade, D. A.; Nakajima, S. T. Analysis of pre-ovulatory changes in cervical mucus hydration and sperm penetrability. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 143-51 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study analyzed daily changes in mucus water content (hydration) prior to the LH surge (LH+0) in normal women, in relation to daily levels of serum LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone, and to daily tests of sperm penetration of the mucus. Cervical mucus was studied for 12 cycles in 10 ovulating women....The new technique determines objective measures of both the numbers of penetrating sperm (motile and non-motile) and the distance penetrated by the forward most vanguard sperm."
Correspondence: D. F. Katz, Duke University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 136 Engineering Building, Box 90281, Durham, NC 27708. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40311 Labbok, Miriam H.; Hight-Laukaran, Virginia; Peterson, Anne E.; Fletcher, Veronica; von Hertzen, Helena; Van Look, Paul F. A. Multicenter study of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM): I. Efficacy, duration, and implications for clinical application. Contraception, Vol. 55, No. 6, Jun 1997. 327-36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A multicenter study of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) was carried out to test the acceptability and efficacy of the method. Additionally, the data are used to test new constructs for improvement of method criteria....The 98+% efficacy of LAM is confirmed in a wide variety of settings. In addition, the results yield insight on the possibility of continued use beyond 6 months. LAM is found to be highly effective as an introductory postpartum method when offered in a variety of cultures, health care settings, socioeconomic strata, and industrial and developing country locales. In addition, LAM acceptance complements breast-feeding behaviors without ongoing breastfeeding support services."
Correspondence: A. E. Peterson, Institute of Reproductive Health, 2115 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 602, Washington, D.C. 20007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40312 Lamprecht, V.; Trussell, J. Natural family planning effectiveness: evaluating published reports. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 155-65 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors aim "to equip the reader with the tools necessary to evaluate studies of natural family planning (NFP) effectiveness found in the literature and to make recommendations for future NFP effectiveness studies....Current standards to evaluate contraceptive method effectiveness are reviewed. A framework for evaluating reports on NFP is presented....Most NFP studies found in the literature are flawed in design and do not calculate pregnancy rates correctly. The results from the few well-designed studies are presented."
Correspondence: V. Lamprecht, Georgetown University, Institute for Reproductive Health, 2115 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 602, Washington, D.C. 20007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40313 Masarotto, G.; Romualdi, C. Probability of conception on different days of the menstrual cycle: an ongoing exercise. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 105-15 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper describes an ongoing study to obtain new estimates of the chance of conceiving on a given day of the cycle conditional to `unprotected' intercourse taking place only on that specific day. The objective of [the European Multicenter Study] is to obtain more precise and informative estimates of the time of fecundability than the few already available in the literature....This paper reviews the basic characteristics of the study; describes some models that can be used to analyze the type of data we are collecting; and presents some preliminary results, based on a part of our data."
Correspondence: G. Masarotto, Università di Padova, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, via San Francesco 33, 35121 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40314 May, K. Monitoring reproductive hormones to detect the fertile period: development of Persona--the first home use system. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 139-41 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author describes the development of Persona, a home use test designed to monitor reproductive hormones to detect a woman's fertile period.
Correspondence: K. May, UNIPATH, Research and Development, Priory Business Park, Bedford MK44 3UP, England. E-mail: keith.may@unilever.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40315 Rosenberg, Michael J.; Waugh, Michael S. Latex condom breakage and slippage in a controlled clinical trial. Contraception, Vol. 56, No. 1, Jul 1997. 17-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In an effort to define condom performance in a group of monogamous couples typical of those using condoms for contraception, we conducted a clinical trial of a single brand of lubricated condoms....A total of 4,637 attempts to use the condom were evaluated. Six breaks occurred before intercourse (nonclinical breaks), and 10 condoms broke during intercourse or were only noted to have broken upon withdrawal....Results indicate that condoms can, in experienced, motivated populations, provide excellent performance and suggest that their efficacy at preventing pregnancy may equal that of the most reliable forms of contraception. Because this study involved a single condom brand, these results may not be generalizable to other brands."
Correspondence: M. J. Rosenberg, Health Decisions, 1516 East Franklin Street, Suite 200, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40316 Simmons, Ruth; Hall, Peter; Díaz, Juan; Díaz, Margarita; Fajans, Peter; Satia, Jay. The strategic approach to contraceptive introduction. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 2, Jun 1997. 79-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The introduction of new contraceptive technologies has great potential for expanding contraceptive choice, but in practice, benefits have not always materialized as new methods have been added to public-sector programs....After reviewing previous experience with contraceptive introduction, the article outlines [a new] strategic approach and discusses lessons from eight countries. This new approach shifts attention from promotion of a particular technology to an emphasis on the method mix, the capacity to provide services with quality of care, reproductive choice, and users' perspectives and needs. It also suggests that technology choice should be undertaken through a participatory process that begins with an assessment of the need for contraceptive introduction and is followed by research and policy and program development. Initial results from Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, Myanmar, South Africa, Vietnam, and Zambia confirm the value of the new approach."
Correspondence: R. Simmons, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, 1420 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40317 Trussell, James; Koenig, Jacqueline; Ellertson, Charlotte; Stewart, Felicia. Preventing unintended pregnancy: the cost-effectiveness of three methods of emergency contraception. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 6, Jun 1997. 932-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examined the cost-effectiveness of emergency contraceptive pills, minipills, and the copper-T intrauterine device (IUD) as emergency contraception [in the United States]....In a managed care (public payer) setting, a single treatment of emergency contraception after unprotected intercourse saves $142 ($54) with emergency contraceptive pills and $119 ($29) with minipills. The copper-T IUD is not cost-effective as an emergency contraceptive alone, but savings quickly accrue as use continues. Advance provision of emergency contraceptive pills to women using barrier contraceptives, spermicides, withdrawal, or periodic abstinence saves from $263 to $498 ($99 to $205) annually."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. E-mail: trussell@opr.princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40318 Tu, Ping; Qiu, Shuhua; Fang, Huimin; Smith, Herbert L. Acceptance, efficacy, and side effects of Norplant implants in four counties in North China. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 2, Jun 1997. 122-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report attempts to present a comprehensive analysis of the acceptability, side effects, and efficacy of Norplant as used in rural areas, based on a field experiment conducted in four counties in Hebei and Shandong Provinces, China. The initial acceptance of Norplant was relatively high but waned after the first year in three of the four counties. Compared with clinical trials, the current study shows a lower prevalence but similar patterns of side effects. The pregnancy rate during the first two years of use is similar to that found in large-scale clinical trails conducted in China, but discontinuation due to other reasons is lower. A three-level logistic regression analysis shows significant variation in the probability of discontinuation due to side effects across counties. It also indicates an increase in the conditional probability of discontinuation with the duration of use."
Correspondence: P. Tu, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40319 Weinberg, C. R.; Zhou, H. Model-based approaches to studying fertility and contraceptive efficacy. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 97-103 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to propose two...approaches to design and analysis of contraceptive clinical trials. The proposed approaches are to be used in a setting where intercourse is unrestricted and intercourse records are maintained daily by participating couples, and where the investigator has available a reliable benchmark for dating ovulation. For methods used sporadically, e.g. condoms, the approaches to be described allow simultaneous estimation of both the relevant fertility parameters and the contraceptive efficacy parameters."
Correspondence: C. R. Weinberg, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Biostatistics Branch, MD A3-03, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

63:40320 Barry, T. M. Quality of care: from concept to action. A way ahead for Sub-Saharan Africa FP&RH programmes. African Journal of Fertility, Sexuality and Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1996. 85-91 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This article describes sub-Saharan African countries' efforts to maximise the access and the quality of their FP/RH [family planning/reproductive health] programmes, and examines the impact of the various initiatives. The author also discusses some strategic approaches to improve the actual situation bearing in mind that the prospects for fertility transition in the sub-region will depend highly on the extent to which quality concerns are integrated into comprehensive national programmes."
Correspondence: T. M. Barry, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Region, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40321 Davies, John; Agha, Sohail. 10 years of contraceptive social marketing in Pakistan: an assessment of management, outputs, effects, costs and cost-efficiency, 1987-1996. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 7, 1997. 37 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report examines the evolution of management and organization of contraceptive social marketing (CSM) in Pakistan, showing how the change from implementation by a local commercial firm to implementation by a local social marketing firm in partnership with a U.S.-based firm specializing in social marketing improved sustainability of the activities while improving relationships between stakeholders. Second, the report describes how an increase in contraceptive prices led to a large decline in demand among low-income users. Third, the report analyses ten-year output trends and shows that, among other things, access to contraceptives increased from 7,000 to 30,000 outlets, condom users increased from 200,000 to 500,000, and consumption rose from 25 million to 71 million."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40322 Janowitz, Barbara; Holtman, Matthew; Hubacher, David; Jamil, Kanta. Can the Bangladeshi family planning program meet rising needs without raising costs? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 3, Sep 1997. 116-21, 145 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Efforts to expand Bangladesh's government-sponsored family planning program to meet the needs of more women while raising overall contraceptive prevalence may increase costs to unacceptably high levels. A 1993-1994 study examined this problem using data for both clinics and home visits. Results show that cost per couple-year of protection are affected by the overlap between the home service delivery and clinic systems, since fieldworkers visit couples of reproductive age in their homes, regardless of couples' method choice or source of supply....Furthermore, costs could be reduced if worker productivity improved....Increased productivity would enable the existing systems to meet the projected demand in 2004."
Correspondence: B. Janowitz, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40323 Khanna, Renu. Dilemmas and conflicts in clinical research on women's reproductive health. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 168-73 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Reflecting on the experiences of SARTHI [Social Action for Rural and Tribal Inhabitants of India], a rural grass roots organisation in western India, this paper questions the research process adopted for carrying out community-based, clinical research in women's reproductive health. It challenges the `top-down' imposition of a narrowly-focused methodology which requires the community to keep pace with the study rather than the other way around, and creates unreal service-delivery conditions which cannot be sustained after the study. The paper underscores the need for methodology that looks beyond the study, pays as much attention to process as to results, and is an ongoing exercise operating within the realities of service provision."
Correspondence: R. Khanna, SAHAJ, 1 Tejas Apartments, 53 Haribhakti Colony, Old Padra Road, Baroda 390 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40324 Özvaris, Sevkat B.; Dervisoglu, Ayse A. Operational research for an effective information and training approach for surgical contraception knowledge and attitude in Turkey. Nüfusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 17-18, 1995-1996. 41-53 pp. Ankara, Turkey. Distributed by Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"This study was conducted in two districts of Ankara (Etimesgut and Gölbasi), which are rural and semi-rural areas and consist of 27 villages, to identify the most effective training (information and education) approach to increase knowledge and change attitudes toward surgical contraception....After three different training interventions, increase in knowledge scores on surgical contraception was observed to be higher in groups in which women were trained directly. However, this study shows that although the scores of knowledge increased, the training intervention did not cause a significant change in attitude. Training couples concurrently was not shown to be superior to other training approaches in terms of increasing knowledge or changing attitude."
Correspondence: S. B. Özvaris, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40325 Tiezzi, Lorraine; Lipshutz, Judy; Wrobleski, Neysa; Vaughan, Roger D.; McCarthy, James F. Pregnancy prevention among urban adolescents younger than 15: results of the "in your face" program. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1997. 173-6, 197 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from a pregnancy prevention program operating through school-based clinics in four New York City junior high schools suggest that an intensive risk-identification and case-management approach may be effective among very young adolescents. Among students given a referral to a family planning clinic for contraception, the proportion who visited the clinic and obtained a method rose from 11% in the year before the program began to 76% in the program's third year. Pregnancy rates among teenagers younger than 15 decreased by 34% over four years in the program schools. In the fourth year of the program, the pregnancy rate in one school that was unable to continue the program was almost three times the average rate for the other three schools (16.5 pregnancies per 1,000 female students vs 5.8 per 1,000)."
Correspondence: L. Tiezzi, Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40326 Valadez, Joseph J.; Transgrud, Rikka; Mbugua, Margaret; Smith, Tamara. Assessing family planning service-delivery skills in Kenya. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 2, Jun 1997. 143-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report demonstrates the use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) to evaluate the technical competence of two cohorts of family planning service providers in Kenya trained with a new curriculum. One cohort had just finished training within two months of the study. The other cohort was the first group trained with the new curriculum about one year before the study....Results show that Cohorts One and Two did not differ markedly in the number of tasks needing improvement. However, both cohorts exhibited more tasks needing improvement in counseling skills as compared with physical examination skills or with all other skills. Care-givers who were not currently providing services accounted for most service-delivery problems."
Correspondence: J. J. Valadez, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of International Health, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40327 Vimard, Patrice; Koffi, N'Guessan; Guillaume, Agnès; Adjamagbo, Agnès. Some suggestions for applied research on family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa: on the value of research to improve population program effectiveness. [Propositions pour des recherches appliquées sur la planification familiale en Afrique subsaharienne: de l'utilité de la recherche pour l'efficience des programmes de population.] Notes et Projets, No. 5, Sep 1997. 18 pp. Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction [ETS]: Marseilles, France; Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération [ORSTOM]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors suggest that current family planning efforts in Sub-Saharan Africa are not as effective as they might be, and that applied research in this area would help increase their efficiency. They argue for a closer link between fertility research and family planning programs, and describe an example of this kind of research currently underway in the Ivory Coast.
Correspondence: Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, 213 rue Lafayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

63:40328 Arnold, Fred. Gender preferences for children. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 23, Aug 1997. vii, 56 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"Parental preferences for daughters or sons exhibit a wide variety of patterns throughout the world. This report documents patterns and consequences of gender preferences in [developing] countries with Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). The report also provides a model of how to analyze DHS data on gender preferences. The findings are based on data from 57 DHS surveys in 244 countries, conducted from 1986 to 1995. Three different aspects of gender preferences are examined in this report: (1) women's gender preference attitudes; (2) the extent to which gender preferences influence demographic behavior; (3) differential treatment of daughters and sons, particularly during the first few years of life. The underlying reasons for gender preferences are also briefly addressed."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40329 Beets, Gijs C. N.; Liefbroer, Aart C.; de Jong Gierveld, Jenny. Combining employment and parenthood: a longitudinal study of intentions of Dutch young adults. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 5, Oct 1997. 457-74 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the intentions of Dutch males and females with regard to combining paid employment and parenthood. Four models of how couples combine these roles are distinguished. Panel data from a representative survey among Dutch young adults show that the traditional model (the female takes care of the children and the male works full-time) is becoming less popular, whereas the supplementary model (the female takes care of the children and supplements the labor force participation of the male), and the egalitarian model (both partners share paid labor more or less equally) are becoming more popular. The no-child model is preferred by about 10% of the respondents. A multivariate analysis shows that both job characteristics, like the flexibility of working hours, and gender role attitudes are important predictors of intentions with regard to combining family and work roles."
Correspondence: G. C. N. Beets, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: beets@nidi.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40330 Biddlecom, Ann E.; Casterline, John B.; Perez, Aurora E. Spouses' views of contraception in the Philippines. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 3, Sep 1997. 108-15 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Data from a 1993 survey in the Philippines indicate that, in the aggregate, men and women have similar views of contraception. For example, 72% of husbands and 77% of wives strongly approved of contraception, and at least half believed that relatives and friends approved (although men were less likely than women to think so). At the couple level, however, men's perceptions about contraception often differ from those of their wives. A relatively large amount of disagreement exists about the importance of certain contraceptive attributes and the extent to which these attributes apply to specific methods. This disagreement is associated both with lower levels of contraceptive use and with greater conflict over intentions to use contraceptives in the future. For example, when both spouses approve of family planning in general, 81% of couples share the same intentions to practice contraception in the future; but among couples who disagree over approval of contraception, just 43% share intentions about future use."
Correspondence: A. E. Biddlecom, Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40331 Cao, Jingzhuang; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhong; Liu, Fengxia; Kang, Zhuang. An investigative report on the phenomenon of postponing the birth of a second child among farmers in Liaoning Province. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1997. 9-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Along with the implementation of birth control policies and the rapid development of the rural economy [in China], the living standard and educational quality of farmers have both improved dramatically, thus bringing about tremendous changes in farmers' values and conceptions including those on marriage and reproduction. Many farmers have begun to postpone the birth of a second child. Based on investigations on people who decide to postpone the birth of a second child on their own initiative, this article analyzes this social phenomenon and puts forth feasible proposals for further guidance and intensified efforts over management of this trend."
Correspondence: J. Cao, Population Information Center, Population Society, Liaoning Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40332 Geldstein, Rosa N.; Pantelides, Edith A. Double subordination, double risk: class, gender and sexuality in adolescent women in Argentina. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 121-31 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper presents part of the results of research on the relationship between sexual behaviour and gender images among adolescents of both sexes in Argentina, with a focus on young women in the highest and lowest social classes in the greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area. The research was based on the hypothesis that gender inequality is translated into behaviour through cultural role images (gender images). This study shows that more young women from the upper-middle class have egalitarian gender images, feel more in control of their lives, tend to protect themselves during sexual relations and experience few unplanned pregnancies. Sexual and reproductive risk-taking behaviour is more likely among those who have the least educational opportunities, whose mothers had similar experiences, and among whom traditional gender concepts are maintained."
Correspondence: R. N. Geldstein, Centro de Estudios de Población, Casilla 4397, Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: geldstei@cenep.satlink.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40333 Genç, Metin; Günes, Gülsen; Sahin, Mustafa; Karaoglu, Leyla; Pehlivan, Erkan. Family planning knowledge and practice of reproductive age (15-49 years) married women in Yesilyurt (Malatya). [Yesilyurt (Malatya) merkezindeki 15-49 yas grubu evli kadinlarin aile planlamasina iliskin bilgi ve uygulamalari.] Nüfusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 17-18, 1995-1996. 61-81 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
The authors investigate knowledge and practice of family planning among married women aged 15-49 in Yesilyurt, Malatya, Turkey. "It was observed that the increase in the number of both methods known by the women was parallel to the increase in their educational levels. Women whose source of knowledge was [the] media had more knowledge about contraception compared to the women whose source of knowledge was health professionals."
Correspondence: M. Genç, Halk Sagligi Uzmani, Malatya ACS-AP, Merkezi, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40334 Groat, H. Theodore; Giordano, Peggy C.; Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Pugh, M. D.; Swinford, Steven P. Attitudes toward childbearing among young parents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 3, Aug 1997. 568-81 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Grounded in both cultural and rational choice theories of fertility, this article examines the positive and negative attitudes of young [U.S.] parents toward their own childbearing and childrearing experiences. With data from a subsample of 412 White and African American respondents, our analyses show marked differences in the combinations of variables that predict attitudes of childbearing rewards and regrets. Respondents who find child bearing most rewarding are disproportionately white, female, married, and have positive feelings about their first pregnancies. Those holding regretful childbearing attitudes, in contrast are disproportionately Black, materialistic, have three or more children, and express negative feelings about their first pregnancies. Thus, race and retrospections concerning experiences of first pregnancy significantly predict both rewards and regrets."
Correspondence: H. T. Groat, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. E-mail: tgroat@bgnet.bgsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40335 Gwako, Edwins L. M. Conjugal power in rural Kenya families: its influence on women's decisions about family size and family planning practices. Sex Roles, Vol. 36, No. 3-4, 1997. 127-47 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the effects of conjugal power on currently married women's decisions about family size and family planning practices in rural Kenya. Data on wife's position vis-à-vis husband's that reflects the nature of spousal power relations measured in this study by a constructed score index based on wives' influence in decision-making processes about family size, adoption of family planning methods, and management of income were collected during an 18 months fieldwork among the Abaluhya, Abagusii, and Masai ethnic groups. These data were used to classify wives' positions relative to their husbands' as either low, moderate, or high. These categories were cross-tabulated with the mean number of children ever born and current use of family planning methods. The results reveal that wives who had high positions relative to their husbands had a low mean number of children ever born and reported a greater percentage of current use of family planning methods."
Correspondence: E. L. M. Gwako, Washington University, Department of Anthropology, Campus Box 1114, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40336 Harries, Richard. Population and birth control: an Anglican perspective. In: Population and the environment: the Linacre Lectures 1993-4, edited by Bryan Cartledge. 1995. 136-49 pp. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author, who is the Anglican Bishop of Oxford, England, discusses population growth and birth control. While the author sympathizes with the view of the Roman Catholic Church that economic development will lead to lower population rates, he also states that "economic growth and the availability of family planning need to go together....Some recent evidence shows that the traditional assumption that family size falls with economic progress does nor always hold true."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40337 Jukes, John. Mankind: master of this creation but servant of the Creator. In: Population and the environment: the Linacre Lectures 1993-4, edited by Bryan Cartledge. 1995. 150-64 pp. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Taking his point of departure in the Book of Genesis and in Papal writings on the topics of marriage, fertility, population growth, and the environment, the author reaffirms the opposition of the Roman Catholic Church to contraception.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40338 Kaufman, Gayle. Men's attitudes toward parenthood. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 5, Oct 1997. 435-46 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines men's attitudes toward parenthood using data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households. The results indicate (1) married men are significantly less likely than unmarried men to think that the stress of raising children, the ability to purchase goods, career time, leisure time, and old age security are important considerations in deciding whether or not to have a child; (2) men with higher education are more likely than less educated men to consider time for career and time for leisure and social activities important in making fertility decisions but are less likely to consider having someone to love important; and (3) black and Hispanic men are more likely to place importance on old age security than non-Hispanic white men."
Correspondence: G. Kaufman, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. E-mail: gayle_kaufman@unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40339 Kubicka, L.; Matejcek, Z.; David, H. P.; Dytrych, Z.; Miller, W. B.; Roth, Z. Children from unwanted pregnancies in Prague, Czech Republic revisited at age thirty. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 91, No. 6, Jun 1995. 361-9 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"The results of the fourth wave of the Prague Study of subjects born of unwanted pregnancies (UP) are reported. Of these young adults, 190 were examined at age 30 together with pair-matched control subjects born of accepted pregnancies (AP). Siblings of both UP and AP subjects were also examined. As in the previous data waves the UP subjects manifest less favorable psychosocial development on average than their AP controls, although the differences have narrowed. In some respects the siblings of the UP subjects share the latter's less favorable characteristics. However, there is a gender specific nonshared late effect of unwanted pregnancy: the UP females are more frequently emotionally disturbed than their AP female controls, whereas no such difference occurs between the female siblings of the UP and AP subjects."
Correspondence: L. Kubicka, Prague Psychiatric Center, 181 03 Prague 8, Czech Republic. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40340 Kuiper, Heather; Miller, Suellen; Martinez, Elena; Loeb, Lisa; Darney, Philip. Urban adolescent females' views on the implant and contraceptive decision-making: a double paradox. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1997. 167-72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Focus groups and in-depth interviews were used to explore the decline in popularity of the contraceptive implant in a [San Francisco] clinic-based sample of 41 ethnically diverse, urban, sexually active adolescents. While these teenagers' socioeconomic status and patterns of inconsistent contraceptive use made them potentially ideal implant recipients, they were unlikely to select this method. Negative media reports about the method were less influential than social conditions such as peer perspectives and gender relations. Oral networks that propagated misinformation went unchallenged because of the silence of satisfied users. Personal factors such as future orientation, autonomous decision-making and value of control also influenced contraceptive decision-making."
Correspondence: H. Kuiper, University of California, School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40341 Mahmood, Naushin; Ringheim, Karin. Knowledge, approval and communication about family planning as correlates of desired fertility among spouses in Pakistan. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 3, Sep 1997. 122-9, 145 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"The responses of a matched sample of husbands and wives who participated in the 1990-1991 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey are used to identify the factors associated with desired fertility in Pakistan. In urban areas, 40% of men and 50% of women do not want more children, compared with 26% of men and 37% of women in rural areas. Urban men and women are equally likely to approve of family planning, whereas among rural residents, men are significantly more likely than women to approve. In both settings, men are more likely than women to know of a source of supply. Multivariate analyses indicate that a couple's approval of family planning, knowledge of a source of family planning and discussion about family planning are correlated with the desire to have no additional children, and the relationship is particularly strong among rural residents."
Correspondence: N. Mahmood, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40342 Obermeyer, Carla M.; Cárdenas, Rosario. Son preference and differential treatment in Morocco and Tunisia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1997. 235-44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report investigates the links between son preference and differential treatment of children by analyzing data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of Morocco and Tunisia, two countries that are thought to vary considerably regarding indicators of gender. The analyses find no significant differences in either country in the duration and intensity of breast feeding and small differences in favor of boys in Tunisia regarding immunization and the treatment of diarrhea. These findings, which are, to some degree, unexpected, are discussed in light of other research relevant to son preference in the two countries."
Correspondence: C. M. Obermeyer, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40343 Population Council (New York, New York). The gap between reproductive intentions and behaviour: a study of Punjabi men and women. Jun 1997. ix, 78, [2] pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This study examines the unmet need for family planning in the Pakistani part of Punjab. The fieldwork, which took place in 1996, was carried out in two phases; the first consisted of 42 qualitative interviews and the second involved a survey of 1,310 currently married women aged 20-44 and 554 of their husbands. Emphasis was placed on the analysis of fertility preferences, and it was concluded that one explanation for unmet need was the fact that women are often only weakly attached to their stated preferences. Another factor explaining the gap between the desire to limit fertility and the practice of family planning was identified as the cost of contraception, understood not only as the monetary cost, but also as fear of husband's disapproval, fear of contraceptive side effects, and fear of social, cultural, or religious disapproval.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40344 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Determinants of desire for more children: an analysis of the 1993 Social Attitudes towards Children Survey. ISBN 974-236-313-7. [1997]. [xx], 16, 12 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This report uses data from the 1993 Social Attitudes towards Children Survey to analyze the extent of sex preference in Thailand and the factors affecting the desire for additional children. The analysis includes differences in desire for more children by socioeconomic status and by region.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40345 Thomson, Elizabeth. Couple childbearing desires, intentions, and births. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 3, Aug 1997. 343-54 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using new panel data from the National Surveys of Families and Households, I investigate the effects of [U.S.] wives' and husbands' childbearing desires on their spouses' intentions, and the effects of spouses' desires and intentions on subsequent births. The results show clearly that husbands' desires and intentions influence couples' births, with approximately equal force to that of wives' desires and intentions. When couples disagreed about wanting a child, each partners' intentions were shifted toward not having a child; and disagreement in desires or intentions were reflected in births rates that were lower than average. These patterns were generally not different for couples with more or less traditional gender roles or attitudes."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: E. Thomson, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. E-mail: Thomson@ssc.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40346 Wang, Weiren; Famoye, Felix. Modeling household fertility decisions with generalized Poisson regression. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1997. 273-83 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper models household fertility decisions by using a generalized Poisson regression model. Since the fertility data used in the paper exhibit under-dispersion, the generalized Poisson regression model has statistical advantages over both standard Poisson and negative binomial regression models, and is suitable for analysis of count data that exhibit either over-dispersion or under-dispersion. The model is estimated by the method of maximum likelihood. Approximate tests for the dispersion and goodness-of-fit measures for comparing alternative models are discussed....The hypothesis of Becker-Lewis is...tested with a data set of fertility from the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics...."
Correspondence: W. Wang, University of Kentucky, Department of Economics, Lexington, KY 40506-0034. E-mail: weiren@convex.cc.uky.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40347 Wielandt, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth B. Birth control: some experiences from Denmark. Contraception, Vol. 55, No. 5, May 1997. 301-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The concept of family planning and birth control is often used to signify the limitation of the number of children in a family, but in a broader sense it may also include planning of the wished-for number of children and the time of their births. In this article we take the broader view and consider birth control not only as a means for the couple to limit the number of children in the family but also as an expression of the wish to be able to decide when to have children, for instance, by postponement of first childbirth and by spacing the births of the children." The authors conclude that "birth control is primarily accomplished by use of contraceptives and as an effect of widespread use, teenagers have managed to diminish their total rate of pregnancy rather dramatically."
Correspondence: H. Wielandt, Odense University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Odense, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40348 Zafar, Muhammad I. Husband-wife roles as a correlate of contraceptive and fertility behavior. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 35, No. 2, Summer 1996. 145-70 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"In this paper, an investigation of reproductive behaviour [in Pakistan] within the socioeconomic and cultural frameworks is carried out to find the extent to which socioeconomic, cultural, and attitudinal variables...influence the fertility decision-making process....Preferences for smaller families and contraceptive use were found to be consistently associated with modern attitudes and behaviour towards the husband-and-wife relationship....It is concluded that cultural setting and tradition exert an important influence on reproductive behaviour independent of development in economic realities."
Correspondence: M. I. Zafar, University of Agriculture, Department of Rural Sociology, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility. Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology.

63:40349 Abeyesekera, Sunila. Abortion in Sri Lanka in the context of women's human rights. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 87-93 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper analyses, from the perspective of women's human rights, an unsuccessful attempt to amend the abortion law in the Penal Code of Sri Lanka in 1995. The parliamentary debate brought to the surface a number of contentious issues relating to women's right to control their sexuality and reproductive capacities, in which women were variously assumed to be promiscuous and conniving, or vulnerable and needing protection....This paper argues that a human rights framework, with its emphasis on equality and universality, is appropriate for conceptualising and working for women's right to abortion."
Correspondence: S. Abeyesekera, INFORM, 5 Jayaratne Avenue, Colombo 5, Sri Lanka. E-mail: inform@lanka.gn.apc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40350 Azize-Vargas, Yamila; Avilés, Luis A. Abortion in Puerto Rico: the limits of colonial legality. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 56-65 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"As a colony of the United States, abortion became legal in Puerto Rico, as a consequence of the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Roe v. Wade, rather than as a consequence of internal political developments....Using data from a survey carried out in 1991-92 of women attending 10 of the 13 private abortion clinics, and other sources of historical information, this paper examines the current practice of abortion and the hurdles women face to obtain this service, taking into consideration the impact of colonial subordination. The colonial legality of abortion in Puerto Rico has both supported and deterred Puerto Rican women's right to abortion, and other means of ensuring that right need to be found."
Correspondence: Y. Azize-Vargas, P.O. Box 10000, Suite 292, Cayey, Puerto Rico 00737. E-mail: azize@coqui.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40351 Ba-Thike, Katherine. Abortion: a public health problem in Myanmar. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 94-100 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Based on a review of various studies, and comparing data from the 1970s and 1980s with data since 1990, this paper presents an overview of the problem of [illegal] induced abortion in Myanmar. Maternal deaths have decreased dramatically since the 1970s in relation to pregnancy and childbirth, but remain very high for abortion complications....Women's experience and perceptions of abortion are also described."
Correspondence: K. Ba-Thike, Institute of Medicine, 19 Myitzu Road, Parami Yeiktha, Yankin P.O. 11081, Yangon, Myanmar. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40352 Benson, Janie; Nicholson, Lori A.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Kinoti, Stephen N. Complications of unsafe abortion in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 11, No. 2, Jun 1996. 117-31 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat undertook a study in 1994 to document the magnitude of abortion complications in Commonwealth member countries. The results of the literature review component of that study, and research gaps identified as a result of the review, are presented in this article. The...findings indicate a significant public health problem in the region, as measured by a high proportion of incomplete abortion patients among all hospital gynaecology admissions....Articles on contraceptive behaviour and abortion reported that almost all patients suffering from abortion complications had not used an effective, or any, method of contraception prior to becoming pregnant, especially among the adolescent population; studies on post-abortion contraception are virtually nonexistent. Almost all articles on the legal aspect of abortion recommended law reform to reflect a public health, rather than a criminal, orientation."
Correspondence: L. A. Nicholson, Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Reproductive Health, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40353 Berer, Marge. Abortion: unfinished business. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 190 pp. Reproductive Health Matters: London, England. In Eng.
This special issue is devoted to the status of abortion worldwide. The focus is on commitments made to women's health and empowerment at the Cairo and Beijing conferences, and on the actual changes that have been made since those conferences were held.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Reproductive Health Matters, 29-35 Farringdon Road, London EC1M 3JB, England. E-mail 100663.3504@compuserve.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40354 Bertelsen, Ole. Abortion or birth. [Abort eller fødsel.] Rapport fra Socialforskningsinstituttet, No. 94:4, ISBN 87-7487-481-0. 1994. 107 pp. Socialforskningsinstituttet: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan.
This report is based on a survey of a cohort of Danish women who either gave birth or had an abortion in 1993. Chapter 1 describes the main results of the survey. Chapter 2 defines the methodology of the survey. Chapter 3 examines trends in births and abortions. Chapter 4 discusses abortion as part of family planning. Chapter 5 examines how the choice of abortion was made. Chapter 6 describes issues of social background and networks. Chapter 7 gives an overview of the use of contraception, and Chapter 8 renders a statistical analysis.
Correspondence: Socialforskningsinstituttet, Borgergade 28, 1300 Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40355 Bumpass, Larry L. The measurement of public opinion on abortion: the effects of survey design. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1997. 177-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A factorial experiment examined the effects of the wording and sequence of survey questions on the measurement of [U.S.] attitudes toward abortion. When a first-trimester pregnancy is specified, 55% of respondents agree that a woman should be able to obtain a legal abortion for any reason, compared with 44% when no pregnancy duration is stated. Specifying first-trimester pregnancies has little effect on the proportion of respondents who agree that abortion should be available for maternal health, fetal defects or rape, but it significantly increases the proportion who agree that a woman should be able to obtain an abortion if she is single, has financial constraints or wants no more children. When gestational lengths from one to six months are presented to respondents in ascending order, agreement that a woman should be able to obtain an abortion for any reason is lower for any given length of gestation than when pregnancy durations are presented in descending order."
Correspondence: L. L. Bumpass, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40356 Casas-Becerra, Lidia. Women prosecuted and imprisoned for abortion in Chile. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 29-36 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Chile is one of the last countries in the world where abortion is absolutely illegal. This paper reports on a study of 80 women who were prosecuted in Santiago for having had an abortion....Most of the women who had abortions were single mothers; many were domestic workers who had migrated to the city from the countryside....This paper highlights the gender and poverty-related discrimination that poor women having abortions face in Chile, and how the law is used to undermine medical confidentiality."
Correspondence: L. Casas-Becerra, Avenida Suecia 0119, Oficina 507, Providencia, Santiago, Chile. E-mail: lcasas@chasqui.mic.cl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40357 Castle, Mary A.; Fisher, Barbara. Anatomy of a physician education programme. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 46-55 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper describes an innovative abortion training programme implemented in three free-standing clinics of a women's health care agency in a large U.S. city. It was designed to address the growing shortage of clinicians trained and willing to perform abortions, a shortage that has restricted women's access to abortion services....In its first three years, this programme trained 60 physicians and 2 physician-assistants to provide first trimester abortions, using local anaesthesia. The successes and challenges in implementing an innovative programme which also called for change from a medical model of care to patient-centred care, are described."
Correspondence: M. A. Castle, METIS Associates, 80 Broad Street, Suite 1600, New York, NY 10004. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40358 Cazzola, Alberto. Abortion and fertility: short-term effects of legal abortion on natality in Italy. [Aborto e fecondità: gli effetti di breve periodo indotti dall'aborto legale sulle nascite in Italia.] ISBN 88-204-9434-5. 1996. 272 pp. FrancoAngeli: Milan, Italy. In Ita.
This book assesses the impact on fertility of Italy's legalization of abortion in 1978. In addition to estimating the number of births avoided or postponed by legal abortions by region, age, and woman's marital status, the author discusses the most likely hypotheses concerning the trends in reproductive behavior in the years immediately before and after this legislative change. Particular attention is given to the process of change from a restrictive to a permissive regime; the author analyzes abortion trends and attempts to distinguish abortions that would previously have been performed illegally from those that would not have occurred if abortion had remained illegal.
Correspondence: FrancoAngeli, Viale Monza 106, 20217 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40359 Driedger, Leo; Halli, Shiva S. Pro life or pro choice: politics of career and homemaking. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 2, Jul 1997. 129-37 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The authors constructed empirical homemaking and career typologies to test the validity of Luker's contention that the abortion debate is not about the welfare of the fetus but about the status and roles of women. We found that both homemakers and career-oriented women existed in a North American sample of Mennonites. Homemakers, who were more religious, less educated and less individualistic, were significantly more pro-life, as expected. The career-oriented were more educated and more individualistic, and they were also significantly more pro-choice. Individualism was the most significant predictor of pro-choice attitudes on all six dependent variables. However, ideology in the form of the Anabaptist religious beliefs found in this sample of Mennonites, was the most consistent and most significant predictor of pro-life attitudes."
Correspondence: L. Driedger, University of Manitoba, Department of Sociology, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40360 Ellertson, Charlotte; Elul, Batya; Winikoff, Beverly. Can women use medical abortion without medical supervision? Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 149-61 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper identifies the seven steps women would need to accomplish in order to use mifepristone-misoprostol for abortion without medical supervision....Data from a large clinical trial of mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion offer indirect evidence that women may be able to complete these steps successfully. If so, it is possible that women could use the method safely and effectively with less medical supervision than is currently required in the standard protocols."
Correspondence: C. Ellertson, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10021. E-mail: cellertson@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40361 Fried, Marlene G. Abortion in the U.S.: barriers to access. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 37-45 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper argues that connecting abortion to a broader conception of women's rights and social justice is necessary to defending and expanding abortion rights [in the United States]....[It] gives a picture of the status of legal abortion from the vantage point of those women who bear the brunt of restricted access--low income women, women of colour (who comprise a disproportionate number of the poor), and young women. As such, it emphasises the losses rather than the gains that have accompanied the legalisation of abortion and the inadequacy of the pro-choice political responses."
Correspondence: M. G. Fried, Hampshire College, Civil Liberties and Public Policy Program, Amherst, MA 01002. E-mail: mfried@hamp.hampshire.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40362 Gupte, Manisha; Bandewar, Sunita; Pisal, Hemlata. Abortion needs of women in India: a case study of rural Maharashtra. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 77-86 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The Indian Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act came into force in 1972, in response to the high mortality and morbidity associated with illegal abortion. However, 25 years on, both restrictions in the law and the way it is implemented through service delivery have failed to meet the abortion needs of large numbers of women. Using data from a larger qualitative study in rural Maharashtra, this paper explores women's perceptions of their rights and needs in relation to abortion. The women were ambivalent about abortion, based on their roles and identity as mothers, but they saw the necessity for abortion and supported each other to have abortions."
Correspondence: S. Bandewar, CEHAT, 2/10 Swanand, Aapli Sahakari Society, Parvati Darshan, Pune 441 009, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40363 Hardy, Ellen; Bugalho, António; Faúndes, Anibal; Duarte, Graciana A.; Bique, Cassimo. Comparison of women having clandestine and hospital abortions: Maputo, Mozambique. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 108-15 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In Mozambique a Ministry of Health decree since 1981 allows public hospitals to carry out abortions if pregnancy results from contraceptive failure or places a woman's health or life at risk....This study compared women attending the main hospital in Maputo for complications of clandestine abortion and those having an induced abortion in the hospital. Most of those in the fist group were young and primigravida, had experienced fewer abortions and lived in poorer socio-economic conditions. Fewer had a steady partner, were more frequently recent migrants to Maputo, and had lower knowledge and use of contraceptives."
Correspondence: E. Hardy, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics-Gynecology, Caixa Postal 6181, 10381-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. E-mail: cemicamp@turing.unicamp.br. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40364 Huntington, Dale; Nawar, Laila; Abdel-Hady, Dalia. Women's perceptions of abortion in Egypt. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 101-7 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A rapidly implemented qualitative study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of women about abortion in Egypt using in-depth interviews with hospitalised patients and focus group discussions with family planning clients and non-contracepting women. The most salient issue confronting the patients (whether the abortion had been spontaneous or induced) was their physical survival....The provision of post-abortion contraception was found to be problematic as women believed their bodily balance needed restoring first and that their fertility would not return immediately. The provision of counseling to reduce anxiety and fears, accurate and easily comprehensible information about miscarriage, induced abortion and future fertility and support for the women's need to rest are important aspects of post-abortion care."
Correspondence: D. Huntington, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40365 Jewkes, Rachel K.; Fawcus, Susan; Rees, Helen; Lombard, Carl J.; Katzenellenbogen, Judy. Methodological issues in the South African incomplete abortion study. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1997. 228-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In 1994, a national hospital-based study was undertaken of cases of incomplete abortion presenting to public hospitals in South Africa....This report focuses on methodological issues arising from the study that have implications for future research. The findings demonstrate that only a small proportion of the women acknowledged having had an induced abortion and that only a few of those who did showed evidence of interference with pregnancy. Clinical opinion of sepsis and the likelihood of induction were found to be highly unreliable. These findings considerably reduce the usefulness of the WHO-protocol method of estimating the likely origin of incomplete abortions."
Correspondence: R. K. Jewkes, Medical Research Council, CERSA--Women's Health, Centre for Epidemiological Research in Southern Africa, Private Bag X385, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40366 Langer, Ana; García-Barrios, Cecilia; Heimburger, Angela; Stein, Karen; Winikoff, Beverly; Barahona, Vilma; Casas, Beatriz; Ramírez, Francisca. Improving post-abortion care in a public hospital in Oaxaca, Mexico. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 20-8 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper describes patients' and providers' perceptions of the quality of care in the treatment of 132 women who arrived at the emergency room of a public hospital in Oaxaca, Mexico, with complications of abortion, whether spontaneous or induced clandestinely. This hospital was interested in assessing and improving its services. Questionnaires, on-site observation and in-depth interviews revealed insensitive personal treatment by rushed staff, apparent lack of concern for women's emotional state, lack of privacy during examinations, poor attention to pain management, and long waiting times for treatment....An intervention was developed to improve quality of care, both from a medical standpoint and as regards access to information, counseling and personal interaction."
Correspondence: A. Langer, Population Council, Regional Office for LAC, Escondida No. 110, Col. Villa Coyoacán, Mexico, DF 0400, Mexico. E-mail: alangerpc@laneta.apc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40367 Nunes, Frederick E.; Delph, Yvette M. Making abortion law reform work: steps and slips in Guyana. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 66-76 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The euphoria of success with abortion law reform [in Guyana], followed by the practical difficulties of implementation and the impact of the law are described in this paper....[It] discusses the role of the non-governmental advisory board which monitors the law, a new NGO [nongovernmental organization] formed to support the implementation of the law, the importance of the local media, and the difficulties of sustaining action for change where civil society is weak."
Correspondence: Author's E-mail: ydelph@aol.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40368 Posada, Carmen. Abortion: a social, legal and juridical debate of the first order in Colombia. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 147-8 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A review of the sentence in a case of abortion of a pregnancy resulting from rape earlier this year led to a split of opinion on the Constitutional Court of Colombia. This paper summarises the majority and minority opinions. It argues that it is no longer only women committed to sexual and reproductive rights who are speaking out in favour of the decriminalisation of abortion, under specific conditions such as rape. Three high court judges have opened new levels of debate and motivated the media and public opinion in Colombia to participate in this debate."
Correspondence: C. Posada, CERFAMI, Cra. 77A No. 48-27, A.A.057443, Medellín, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40369 Rance, Susanna. Safe motherhood, unsafe abortion: a reflection on the impact of discourse. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 10-9 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In Bolivia, the past decade has seen considerable developments in reproductive health policies and services, including a number of programmes designed to reduce maternal mortality, at least one third of which result from the complications of unsafe abortions. However, due to opposition from conservative forces within the Bolivian government influenced by the Catholic hierarchy, efforts to reduce deaths from unsafe abortion took a step backwards in 1996. This paper shows that discourses which condemn abortion have material effects on women's bodies and lives."
Correspondence: S. Rance, Capsule 10640, La Paz, Bolivia. E-mail: srance@lpz.rds.org.bo. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40370 Rogo, Khama O. A review of abortion in Zambia. LC 95-980953. Feb 1994. 35 pp. Centre for the Study of Adolescence: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
The author reviews abortion trends in Zambia. The impact of a 1972 law providing for more liberal abortion indicators is considered, and constraints on legal abortion are described.
Correspondence: Centre for the Study of Adolescence, P.O. Box 19329, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40371 Roloff, Juliane. Abortion in West and East Germany: analysis of background, facts, and acceptance with special reference to the results of the German FFS (Fertility and Family Survey). [Schwangerschaftsabbruch in West- und Ostdeutschland: Analyse seiner Hintergründe, Fakten und Akzeptanz unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Ergebnisse des deutschen FFS (Fertility and Family Survey).] Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, No. 27, 1997. 117 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
The author analyzes to what extent the responses to an unwanted pregnancy differ in the old versus the new German states, whose abortion laws differed until reunification in 1990. She also analyzes differences in abortion acceptance and trends in the abortion rate, along with the sociodemographic factors influencing it. A history and bibliography of abortion law in Germany are included, and some demographic factors related to abortion, such as birthrate, are examined.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40372 Shin, Hee-Choon. Pro-life, pro-choice, and pro-health: a principal coordinate analysis. In: 1996 Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. 1996. 24-6 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
Data from the 1994 General Social Survey are used in an attempt to better understand attitudes toward abortion in the United States. "People's opinion or attitude on abortion should not be understood on an unidimensional space based on morality, or on a liberal versus non-liberal basis. Using Principal Coordinate Analysis, we graphically identify two components: the moral and the health dimension. In addition to `pro-life' and `pro-choice' groups, we identify a third group, the `pro-health' group."
Correspondence: H.-C. Shin, National Opinion Research Center, 55 East Monroe Street, Suite 4800, Chicago, IL 60603. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40373 Singh, Susheela; Cabigon, Josefina V.; Hossain, Altaf; Kamal, Haidary; Perez, Aurora E. Estimating the level of abortion in the Philippines and Bangladesh. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 3, Sep 1997. 100-7, 144 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"In countries where data on induced abortion are underreported or nonexistent--such as the Philippines and Bangladesh--indirect estimation techniques may be used to approximate the level of abortion. The collection of data about women hospitalized for abortion complications and the use of such indirect estimation techniques indicates that the abortion rate in the Philippines is within the range of 20-30 induced abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and the rate in Bangladesh ranges between 26 and 30 per 1,000. About 400,000 abortions are estimated to occur each year in the Philippines, while the number in Bangladesh is calculated to be about 730,000. Some 80,000 women per year are estimated to be treated in hospitals in the Philippines for complications of induced abortion; in Bangladesh, about 52,000 women are treated for such complications, and another 19,000 are treated for complications resulting from menstrual regulation procedures."
Correspondence: S. Singh, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40374 World Health Organization [WHO] (Geneva, Switzerland). Methotrexate for the termination of early pregnancy: a toxicology review. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 9, May 1997. 162-7 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A review of the toxicology of methotrexate combined with misoprostol for termination of early pregnancy found that: (1) methotrexate is teratogenic in both animals and humans, and (2) some data suggest that misoprostol may be a human teratogen. The combined regimen of methotrexate and misoprostol fails to interrupt pregnancy in about four per cent of cases. Serious congenital abnormalities have been observed in several of these continuing pregnancies....This paper summarises the review and the Panel's comments."
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

63:40375 Paulsen, C. A.; Berman, N. G.; Wang, C. Is male reproductive health at risk? Longitudinal semen analysis studies. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 119-21 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"We examined the semen data collected from 510 healthy adult men. These data spanned a 21-year period (1972-1993)....Our data do not rule out the possibility of a deterioration in male reproductive health in [some] geographical areas, or in certain small populations which are vulnerable as a consequence of environmental toxins....Our semen analyses, as well as those of other investigators, are not able to answer the important question of whether a certain male is fertile or infertile."
Correspondence: C. A. Paulsen, University of Washington, Department of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40376 Zinaman, M. J.; Katz, D. F. Incidence and implications of altered semen quality on family planning. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 13, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1997. 123-8 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"[A] report by Carlsen in 1992 suggested that semen quality has deteriorated over the past six decades. More recent reports suggest that the decline may be globally non-uniform and regional in nature....A preliminary review of the impact of a small decrease in sperm concentrations suggests that a directly measurable reduction in fecundity does not occur, but that future problems could be anticipated....Current understanding of the implications of altered semen quality on relative fertility is not sufficient to change our current teaching and practice of [natural family planning]."
Correspondence: M. J. Zinaman, Loyola University Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2160 South 1st Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

63:40377 Garssen, M. J.; Sprangers, A. H. Nonmarital fertility: the Netherlands in a European context. [Buitenechtelijke geboorten: Nederland in Europees perspectief.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 5, May 1997. 28-36 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze trends in nonmarital fertility in the Netherlands and compare these trends with those for other European countries. "The share of non-marital fertility in total fertility in the European Economic Area has more than quadrupled since the 1960s. This rapid increase has to some extent been caused by the decrease in the total number of births. Historical evidence suggests a continuously low level of non-marital fertility in the Netherlands. In spite of a tenfold increase since 1960, the share of non-marital fertility is still well below the European average....Tradition would seem to play a major role in explaining the differences between neighbouring countries....Policy measures on the other hand have been shown to influence fertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40378 Hoffman, Saul D.; Foster, E. Michael. Nonmarital births and single mothers: cohort trends in the dynamics of nonmarital childbearing. History of the Family, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1997. 255-75 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"It is no secret that the proportion of births in the U.S. that are nonmarital has been rising steadily for the past several decades. But what about the proportion of women who have nonmarital births? How has it changed over time? There is, in fact, no necessary relationship between the two proportions; rather, the relationship reflects what we refer to as the dynamics of nonmarital childbearing over the life-course. In this article, we use new data from the panel Study of Income Dynamics to describe the relationship between the two proportions, and the way this relationship has changed across birth cohorts in the U.S. [from the 1930s to the present]. We find that the proportion of women ever having a nonmarital birth has risen much more slowly over time than the proportion of births that are nonmarital. This finding implies that there are now fewer changes than in the past in a woman's marital status across births. Indeed, what appears most to distinguish recent cohorts of women who have nonmarital births is that they do not have a subsequent marital birth."
Correspondence: S. D. Hoffman, University of Delaware, Department of Economics, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40379 Pongrácz, Tiborné; Molnár, Edit, S. Extramarital pairs of parents. [Szülopárok házasságkötés nélkül.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 75, No. 7, Jul 1997. 582-97 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The proportion of births out of wedlock [in Hungary] increased considerably in the past 10-15 years....The authors looked for an explanation as to changes in the value system underlying facts and figures....The two main subject areas of the study are: (a) presenting the socio-demographic characteristics of the mothers, and (b) analysing the [characteristics] of the parents."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40380 Trent, Katherine; Crowder, Kyle. Adolescent birth intentions, social disadvantage, and behavioral outcomes. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 3, Aug 1997. 523-35 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience of Youth are used to examine the extent to which group differentials in early nonmarital childbearing are a function of normative differences in fertility intentions. We find that, like adolescent and nonmarital childbearing, birth intentions do vary by race and ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure. However, although birth intentions significantly influence birth outcomes, they do not substantially reduce the effects of race and ethnicity, poverty status, and family background. Furthermore, the effect of intentions on birth outcomes is not significantly greater for more socially disadvantaged adolescents."
Correspondence: K. Trent, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. E-mail: kt526@cnsibm.albany.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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