Volume 63 - Number 4 - Winter 1997

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications.

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

63:40109 Chen, Yude; Hu, Jianping; Rao, Keqin. An analysis of the causes of deaths in Beijing and Shanghai. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 303-19 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"As [the] two largest metropolitan cities in northern and southern China, Beijing and Shanghai play a very important role in the nation. This report will give a description and comparison of their death events and compositions during 1987-1993, [for] urban and rural residents in particular....We also have [provided a] detailed analysis [of] causes of deaths for specific age groups...."
Correspondence: Y. Chen, Ministry of Health, Center for Health Statistics Information, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40110 Gjonça, Arjan; Wilson, Chris; Falkingham, Jane. Paradoxes of health transition in Europe's poorest country: Albania 1950-90. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Sep 1997. 585-609, 689-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Scholars interested in the ways in which good health, as measured by levels of mortality, can be achieved at low cost have paid considerable attention to countries and regions in Asia and Latin America where this has been accomplished. Until recently the analogous experience of a poor developing country in Europe, Albania, was impossible to study, because of the totalitarian and isolationist policies of the communist regime that ruled the country from 1944 to 1990. The authors chart the main trends in mortality transition in Albania, examine the underlying and proximate causes of the mortality decline, and consider the wider relevance of the results. They conclude with a discussion of postcommunist developments in the country and their influence on mortality change."
Correspondence: A. Gjonça, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Social Policy and Administration, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40111 Katus, Kalev; Puur, Allan. Mortality development and economic transition: case of Estonia. Rahvastiku-Uuringud/Population Studies Series B, No. 35, ISBN 9985-820-38-X. 1997. 37 pp. Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre: Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng.
"The paper was prepared in the framework of the UNU WIDER Project on Economic Shocks, Social Stress and Mortality Impact...[which] sought for the explanation of excess mortality [that] has been observed in many countries since the end of [the] 1980s. However, evidence presented in the paper gives strong support to [the] hypothesis that the mortality increase observed in Estonia during [the] current economic transition should be considered in the wider context of the long-term mortality stagnation...." General mortality trends in Estonia over the course of the twentieth century are discussed, as well as trends in specific causes of death such as crime, traffic accidents, alcohol, smoking, and diet.
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40112 Meslé, France; Vallin, Jacques. Mortality around the world: trends and prospects. [La mortalité dans le monde: tendances et perspectives.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. 1997. 461-79 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a review of current global trends in mortality. The authors analyze geographical differences in mortality around the world and discuss the end of what they describe as "third-world mortality", as well as the various stages in the health transition and the prospects of all the world's population attaining a life expectancy of 85 years.
Correspondence: F. Meslé, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40113 Mexico. Secretaría de Salud. Dirección General de Estadística e Informática (Mexico City, Mexico). Health indicators: the principal data on mortality in Mexico for 1993. [Indicadores y noticias de salud: principales resultados de la estadística sobre mortalidad en México, 1993.] Salud Pública de México, Vol. 37, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 171-8 pp. Morelos, Mexico. In Spa.
Summary data from the National System of Health Information concerning mortality in Mexico in 1993 are presented in the form of six tables. The data are for total deaths by sex and age group and for various aspects of the causes of death, including years of life lost and life expectancy.
Correspondence: Secretaría de Salud, Dirección General de Estadística e Informática, Morelos, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40114 Peng, Fei. A spatial-temporal approach to mortality: the case of China in the 1980s. [Approche spatio-temporelle de la mortalité: cas de la Chine dans les années 1980.] Institut de Démographie Monographie, No. 9, ISBN 2-87209-481-4. [1997]. xii, 257 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general analysis of mortality trends in China in the 1980s. The author uses data from the 1982 and 1990 censuses to construct life tables by sex for each province. These tables are then used to analyze differences in mortality by province, as well as changes in mortality that occurred between 1982 and 1990.
Correspondence: Bruylant-Academia, Grand Rue, 25 Boîte 115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40115 Pikálek, Darek. Changes within the survivorship function of the Czech population during the years 1900-1960. [Zmeny v rádu vymírání ceské populace v letech 1900 az 1960.] Demografie, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1997. 94-100 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes mortality changes in the Czech population during the period 1900-1960. "The key transitions of the mortality characteristics can be [seen] especially in the following fields: the medium life span of both sexes almost doubled, [and] infant and child mortality declined....The excess mortality of males has increased in all age categories."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40116 Seligson, Mitchell A.; McElhinny, Vincent. Low-intensity warfare, high-intensity death: the demographic impact of wars in El Salvador and Nicaragua. In: Demographic diversity and change in the Central American Isthmus, edited by Anne R. Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby. 1997. 59-95 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
This article evaluates the available data on the mortality associated with the civil wars in El Salvador (1980-1991) and Nicaragua (1975-1990), and estimates the demographic impact of the fighting. The authors also demonstrate how these wars had a differential impact on mortality by socioeconomic class, occupation, and political persuasion.
Correspondence: M. A. Seligson, University of Pittsburgh, Department of Political Science, 4N27 Forbes Quadrangle, Pittsburgh, PA 15260. E-mail: Seligson+@pitt.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40117 Spagnoli, Paul G. The unique decline of mortality in revolutionary France. Journal of Family History, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1997. 425-61 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article seeks to draw historians' attention to a neglected reconstruction of the French population and its mortality rates developed by the Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques in the 1970s. The reconstruction shows a sharp decline in French mortality rates, beginning in the 1790s and continuing through the 1820s. This conflicts with recent historiography stressing the negative effects of the Revolution. This article contends that the reconstruction is plausible and that the French mortality decline was unique in Europe in this period. In turn, this suggests that the Revolution had a much more favorable impact than many historians would have us believe."
Correspondence: P. G. Spagnoli, Boston College, Department of History, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40118 Szreter, Simon. Urbanisation, mortality and the standard of living debate in Britain in the nineteenth century: new estimates of the expectations of life at birth in large British cities. Working Papers in Demography, No. 67, 1996. 36 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper provides empirically-based estimates for life expectancy at birth in the largest British cities in the nineteenth century, using a method devised by Dr. Graham Mooney. These new estimates are used to present a new model of the relationship between urbanisation and changing mortality levels in England and Wales across the decades of the nineteenth century....The demographic evidence presented here indicates...that the second quarter of the nineteenth century was a period of severe deterioration in urban living conditions and life chances; and that this decline was not reversed until the last quarter of the century."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40119 Trudeau, Richard. Monthly and daily patterns of death. [Profils mensuels et quotidiens des décès.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 9, No. 1, Summer 1997. 43-50; 45-53 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"Using Canadian mortality data from 1974 to 1995, this article examines seasonal and daily patterns of death by cause....For at least the past two decades, the highest number of deaths [has] occurred in the winter months. By specific cause, notable exceptions were deaths attributable to motor vehicle accidents and suicide. On a weekly basis, Saturday saw the largest numbers of deaths."
Correspondence: R. Trudeau, Statistics Canada, Distributive Trades Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40120 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Mortality patterns--preliminary data, United States, 1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 46, No. 40, Oct 10, 1997. 941-8 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report summarizes preliminary 1996 vital statistics data from CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and compares these data with data from 1995 and, for life expectancy, data from 1900 to 1995. The findings indicate declines in the rates for most leading causes of death and the infant mortality rate and an increase in overall estimated life expectancy."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40121 Zhao, Zhongwei. Long-term mortality patterns in Chinese history: evidence from a recorded clan population. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 2, Jul 1997. 117-27 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study, by analysing a set of Chinese genealogies, examines long-term mortality patterns in a selected clan population over a period of more than 1,000 years. The result shows that, in this selected population, mortality fluctuated around a relatively high level and showed no secular change over the very long period studied. The study also provides a comparison between the mortality patterns found in the selected population and those observed in a much larger Chinese lineage population, as well as those recorded among the British elites born between the sixteenth and the early nineteenth century. Based on the findings of this research, the paper presents some tentative suggestions about long-term mortality changes in Chinese history."
Correspondence: Z. Zhao, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, Demography Programme, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology, and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion. Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

63:40122 Ceesay, Sana M.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Cole, Timothy J.; Foord, Frances; Weaver, Lawrence T.; Poskitt, Elizabeth M. E.; Whitehead, Roger G. Effects on birth weight and perinatal mortality of maternal dietary supplements in rural Gambia: 5 year randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, Vol. 315, No. 7111, Sep 27, 1997. 786-90 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The efficacy of a dietary supplement program on birth weight and infant survival in rural Gambia is examined. The program involved a five-year controlled trial of pregnant women in 28 villages who were given a daily supplement of high-energy groundnut biscuits for about 20 weeks before delivery. "Prenatal dietary supplementation reduced retardation in intrauterine growth when effectively targeted at genuinely at-risk mothers. This was associated with a substantial reduction in the prevalence of stillbirths and in early neonatal mortality. The intervention can be successfully delivered through a primary healthcare system."
Correspondence: A. M. Prentice, MRC Dunn Clinical Nutrition Centre, Cambridge CB2 2DH, England. E-mail: andrew.prentice@MRC-Dunn.cam.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40123 Hsieh, Hui-Lung; Lee, Kwang-Sun; Khoshnood, Babak; Herschel, Marguerite. Fetal death rate in the United States, 1979-1990: trend and racial disparity. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 89, No. 1, Jan 1997. 33-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors "examine the impact of changes in birth weight distribution in individual groups and in birth weight-specific fetal death rates on the decline in the crude fetal death rate in the United States....In the period 1979-1990, all racial groups had a decrease in the crude fetal death rate, more so in whites and others (about 22%) than in blacks (10%). In the white population, 73.4% of the total reduction in the crude fetal death rate was attributable to the improvement in birth weight-specific fetal death rates, and the remaining portion of the reduction was due to a favorable change in birth weight distribution. In the black population, the reduction in the crude fetal death rate was entirely attributable to the improvement in the birth weight-specific fetal death rates. However, in other groups, a favorable change in the birth weight distribution was the major determinant."
Correspondence: H.-L. Hsieh, University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine, Wyler Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

63:40124 Arbaiza, Mercedes; Guerrero, Ana; Pareja, Arantza. Rural and urban worlds in the Vizcayan mortality transition (1770-1930). [Mundo rural y mundo urbano en la transición de la mortalidad vizcaína (1770-1930).] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1996. 19-55 pp. Alicante, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article tries to establish the chronology and phases of infant and child mortality transition in the long run (1770-1930) in the province of Biscay (Basque Country) [Spain]. We have worked with a population sample of 150,000 inhabitants representative of rural, urban and industrial areas of the province....We have been able to confirm the differences in the evolution and intensity of death between urban and rural areas, as well as to verify that [an] urbanization factor linked to migration flows was [a] determinant for the evolution of urban child mortality."
Correspondence: M. Arbaiza, Universidad del País Vasco, Departamento de Historia Contemporánea, Bilbao, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40125 Bairagi, Radheshyam; Shuaib, Muhammad; Hill, Allan G. Estimating childhood mortality trends from routine data: a simulation using the preceding birth technique in Bangladesh. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 3, Aug 1997. 411-20 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We used data from the Matlab [Bangladesh] surveillance system to test the accuracy of [childhood] mortality estimates derived using the PBT [preceding birth technique] with data obtained from mothers at antenatal visits and at the vaccination of their youngest children. The study shows that the PBT estimates under-3 rather than under-2 mortality in Bangladesh due to the long birth intervals. The data, when used to simulate the collection of the information at antenatal or postnatal visits, nonetheless provide an accurate description of under-3 mortality trends and differences for the two periods examined--before 1984 and before 1989."
Correspondence: R. Bairagi, Population Studies Centre, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: Bairagi@cholera.bangla.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40126 Bradshaw, Benjamin S.; Blanchard, Kenneth S.; Thompson, George H. Postneonatal diarrhea mortality of Mexican American and Anglo American infants: trends and context. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 3, Jun 1997. 225-42 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article traces the contribution of infant diarrhea and enteritis to the difference in mortality of Mexican origin and Anglo-American infants in San Antonio [Texas] from 1935 through 1969, using a portion of a unique 51-year database of consistently coded births and deaths....The paper has three goals: (1) to describe the trends in diarrhea-associated mortality of Mexican origin infants compared with other white infants; (2) to trace the transition in the characteristics of diarrhea as a cause of death; and (3) to examine preliminarily the historic socioeconomic and environmental context of infant mortality and discuss the possible current application of such a study....The evidence suggests that miserable living conditions in densely settled neighborhoods without proper water supplies and sanitation gave rise to environmental contamination resulting in high diarrhea mortality."
Correspondence: B. S. Bradshaw, University of Texas, Health Science Center, School of Public Health, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78284-7976. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40127 Carlson, Elwood; Hoem, Jan M. The low-weight infant-survival paradox: nurture, not nature. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 118, ISBN 91-7820-107-1. Feb 1997. 10, [3] pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"Infant-mortality patterns from Czech vital statistics reveal an anomalous temporary survival advantage for low-weight births to disadvantaged (unmarried, less-educated) women. This temporary advantage is particularly noticeable for deaths from congenital anomalies, and disappears after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight births to black women in the United States. Since the Czech results must be attributed to social circumstances, it seems reasonable to assert that U.S. race-related patterns are also due to social realities of racial identification rather than distinctive hereditary influences on birth weight and birth-weight-specific survival."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Author's E-mail: Jan.Hoem@SUDA.SU.SE. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40128 Cesar, Cibele C.; Palloni, Alberto; Rafalimanana, Hantamalala. Analysis of child mortality with clustered data: a review of alternative models and procedures. CDE Working Paper, No. 97-04, [1997]. 36, [13] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
Alternative methods for analyzing clustered child mortality data are evaluated. "The plan of the paper is as follows: Section II reviews basic estimation approaches for the analysis of correlated sibling survival data; Section III uses simulation to assess the performance of the approaches introduced in Section II. In Section IV we discuss the application of these methods to data from Brazil and, finally, in Section V we address some issues of interpretation."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. E-mail: cdepubs@ssc.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40129 Das Gupta, Monica. Socio-economic status and clustering of child deaths in rural Punjab. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 2, Jul 1997. 191-202 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper alternative models for testing for child death clustering are explored, using data from Punjab. Significant evidence of clustering is found only amongst the lower socio-economic and educational groups....As maternal education and socio-economic status rise, the negative deviance in factors related to child mortality appears to be removed. The extent of clustering is quite high in this population, indicating substantial potential for reducing child mortality by focusing services on high-risk households. Family building factors such as short birth intervals and high parity births do not raise child mortality when families are disaggregated by level of risk. They seem to be an effect rather than a cause of clustering of child deaths."
Correspondence: M. Das Gupta, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40130 Elmén, Håkan. Death rates and causes of death among children and youth in Göteborg, Sweden 1971-85. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1994. 249-55 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"The aim of this study is to describe the development of mortality rates among children (1-14 years) and youth (15-24 years) in 1971-85 in Göteborg and to analyse the development in mortality by causes of death and by comparison with all of Sweden." Results indicate that "the death rate per 100,000 children decreased from 32 in 1971-75 to 24 in 1981-85 and in youth from 76 to 54. Accidents and human violence together with tumours and congenital malformations remained the most important causes of death in children, together accounting for 2/3 of all deaths."
Correspondence: H. Elmén, Barn-Ungdomsmottagningen, Vårdcentralen Gripen, Box 547, 651 12 Karlstad, Sweden. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40131 Erdozáin, Pilar; Mikelarena, Fernando. Infant and child mortality, marital fertility, and family economy among peasants in Navarre (1860-1930). [Mortalidad infantil y juvenil, fecundidad matrimonial y economías familiares campesinas en Navarra (1860-1930).] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1996. 83-114 pp. Alicante, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article analyzes the following four questions. Firstly, the evolutions of infant and child mortality and the evolution of marital fertility in rural Navarre [Spain] from 1860 to 1930. Secondly, the [registered] changes around the size and the composition of the rural households in the central area of Navarre where the stem-family prevailed....Thirdly, the evolution of the quotient between the numbers of potentially active household members and the number of consumption units. Finally, the technical change effects concerning the family labor requirements: the agrarian mechanization process and the intensification of crops."
Correspondence: P. Erdozáin, Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Estructura e Historia Económica, 50009 Saragossa, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40132 Kuhn, Louise; Stein, Zena. Infant survival, HIV infection, and feeding alternatives in less-developed countries. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 6, Jun 1997. 926-31 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper, we model the expected frequency of adverse outcomes (HIV infections and infant deaths) associated with different infant feeding practices in the context of the HIV epidemic [in developing countries]. We compare complete avoidance of breast-feeding with optimal prolonged breast-feeding (up to 12 months or longer), and, unlike previous models, we also compare each of these with early cessation of breast-feeding (by 3 months of age). Throughout, we consider the implications for known HIV-seropositive women and for women who do and those who do not know their serostatus."
Correspondence: L. Kuhn, Columbia University, Sergievsky Center, 630 W. 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40133 Kytir, Josef; Köck, Christian. Epidemiologic causes of the above-average infant mortality in Vienna. [Epidemiologische Ursachen der überdurchschnittlichen Säuglingssterblichkeit in Wien.] Demographische Informationen, 1995-1996. 82-92, 163 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This present analysis is looking into the epidemiologic causes of the above-average infant mortality in Vienna using a population-based cohort study (birth cohorts 1984-93)....The estimation of crude and adjusted relative risks as well as of 95%-confidence intervals demonstrates that Vienna's higher infant mortality rate is statistically significant, that socio-demographic risk groups are not responsible whereas the higher rate of premature births is; it furthermore shows that infant mortality is above-average in other big provincial capitals as well. From the health policy point of view this means that all measures taken to lower infant mortality should be aimed at the period before birth, i.e. improving antenatal care."
Correspondence: J. Kytir, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut für Demographie, Hintere Zollamtsstraße 2b, 1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40134 Mturi, Akim J.; Curtis, Siân L. The determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 10, No. 4, Dec 1995. 384-94 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania using the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey....Short birth intervals, teenage pregnancies and previous child deaths are associated with increased risk of death....Further, this study shows that there is a remarkable lack of infant and child mortality differentials by socioeconomic subgroups of the population, which may reflect post-independence health policy and development strategies."
Correspondence: A. J. Mturi, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO9 5NH, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40135 Ntozi, James P. M.; Nakanaabi, Immaculate M. The AIDS epidemic and infant and child mortality in six districts of Uganda. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, Suppl., 1997. 189-205 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The paper uses retrospective survey data of six districts in the east, south and west of Uganda to study infant and child mortality, which increased in the 1980s probably because of the AIDS epidemic and started declining in the early 1990s, a period when the epidemic was reported to be subsiding. Deeper analysis of data indicates that children whose parents are polygamous, educated, formally employed and in business are at a higher risk of death from AIDS and related illness. Although AIDS as a direct cause of death is the fourth leading killer of children, other serious diseases such as diarrhoea, respiratory infection and measles are associated with AIDS."
Correspondence: J. P. M. Ntozi, Makerere University, Department of Population Studies, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40136 Pasi, Antonia. Infant mortality and medical knowledge in Italy in the nineteenth century. [Mortalità infantile e cultura medica in Italia nel XIX secolo.] Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 23, 1995. 71-96 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
The initiatives concerning infant health taken by the Italian medical profession during the nineteenth century, such as the move toward greater supervision of babies given out to wet-nurses and the encouragement of day care facilities for small children, are described. Attitudes and practices surrounding breast- and bottle-feeding are also examined. The emphasis is on how such developments affected infant mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40137 Sodemann, M.; Jakobsen, M. S.; Mølbak, K.; Alvarenga, I. C.; Aaby, P. High mortality despite good care-seeking behaviour: a community study of childhood deaths in Guinea-Bissau. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, Vol. 75, No. 3, 1997. 205-12 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"We conducted the present study [in Guinea-Bissau] on patterns of care-seeking behaviour prior to a child's death to investigate child mortality on the basis of the mother's experience. The aim was to obtain individual case histories that could be used to improve patient management in primary health care programmes and thereby lower childhood mortality in developing countries." The results "reveal a need for improved hospital admission criteria, improved recognition of the symptoms of serious illness, better discharge criteria, and the implementation of quality assurance systems for health services."
Correspondence: M. Sodemann, University of Aarhus, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Hoegh-Guldbergsgade 10, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40138 Souza, Regina K. T. de; Gotlieb, Sabina L. D. Probability of dying in the first year of life in an urban area of southern Brazil. [Probabilidade de morrer no primeiro ano de vida em área urbana da região sul, Brasil.] Revista de Saúde Pública/Journal of Public Health, Vol. 27, No. 6, Dec 1993. 445-54 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Por.
"A birth-cohort of 4,876 children born alive in hospital [in Brazil] were selected and followed through up to the age of one year with a view to estimating the risk of dying in the first year of life....The estimated probability of dying in the first year was of 19.9 per 1,000 (77.3% of the deaths occurred during the neonatal period)....A higher probability of death was present among infants born to adolescent mothers, and those with low birthweight (less than 2,500g)."
Correspondence: R. K. T. de Souza, Avenida Colombo 3690, 87020-900 Maringá, PR, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40139 Sowards, Kathryn A. Premature birth and the changing composition of newborn infectious disease mortality: reconsidering "exogenous" mortality. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 3, Aug 1997. 399-409 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Linked death and birth records from San Antonio, Texas reveal that infectious infant mortality is increasingly a function of premature birth and low birth weight. Between 1935 and 1944, 4% of infectious infant deaths had associated causes involving prematurity and related conditions; by 1980, 25% of infectious infant deaths involved prematurity and more than 40% of those infants weighed less than 2,500 grams. The shift in birth-weight composition results almost entirely from an increase in very low-weight births. Under conditions of advanced perinatal technology, infectious infant mortality should no longer be viewed as wholly exogenous. These findings further undermine the contemporary relevance of the exogenous-endogenous distinction."
Correspondence: K. A. Sowards, Washington State University, Department of Sociology, Pullman, WA 99164-4020. E-mail: sowardsk@vancouver.wsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40140 Stockwell, Edward G.; Goza, Franklin W. Infant mortality and economic status in metropolitan Ohio, total and cause-specific: 1979-81 and 1989-91. Sociological Focus, Vol. 29, No. 1, Feb 1996. 73-82 pp. Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper presents the results of an ecological analysis of the relationship between infant mortality and economic status in a metropolitan aggregate comprised of six of the larger cities in Ohio covering the years 1979-81 and 1989-91....Results of the analysis revealed, first of all, that there continues to be a clear and pronounced inverse association between the aggregate economic status of an area and the probability that a newborn infant will not survive the first year of life. There are, however, some noteworthy race-cause differences....Only one cause, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, stood out as having a generally consistent and very strong inverse relationship with economic status."
Correspondence: E. G. Stockwell, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40141 Taucher, Erica. The impact of fertility decline on levels of infant mortality. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 289-309 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, the mechanisms through which a reduction in fertility may act on infant mortality are summarized. Then the differentials in infant mortality--in terms of birth order, age of mother, and birth interval--are analysed. Along with discussion of possible confounding variables, reference will be made to the difficulty of obtaining adequate data to separate out the true relationships from those that may be spurious. Finally, an attempt will be made to give an overall view of the state of fertility and infant mortality [in Latin America]."
Correspondence: E. Taucher, Traiguén 2332, Santiago 9, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40142 Ventisette, Moreno. Infant mortality in Italy: 1863-1992. [La mortalità infantile in Italia: 1863-1992.] Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 23, 1995. 133-62 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
Using data from official sources, trends in infant mortality in Italy are analyzed from the unification of the country in 1860 up to the year 1992. Consideration is given to mortality trends in the first months of life and in the second year, and to differences in infant mortality by sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40143 Victora, Cesar G.; Olinto, Maria T. A.; Barros, Fernando C.; Nobre, Leticia C. Falling diarrhoea mortality in northeastern Brazil: did ORT play a role? Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 11, No. 2, Jun 1996. 132-41 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The impact of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) on the recent decline in diarrhoea mortality in the northeast of Brazil was studied. Proportionate infant mortality fell from 32% in 1980 to 17% in 1989 and infant deaths attributed to diarrhoea dropped from 41% to 25%, resulting in an overall reduction of 57%....A simulation model estimated that changes in factors other than ORT would lead to a 21% reduction in infant diarrhoea mortality, or about one-third of the actual decline. Finally, an ecological analysis showed that ORT use rates were inversely correlated to infant diarrhoea mortality...."
Correspondence: C. G. Victora, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Departamento de Medicina Social, CP 464, 96001 Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40144 Xu, Baizhuang; Rimpelä, Arja; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Nieminen, Mauri. Sex differences of infant and child mortality in China. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1994. 242-8 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper was to study the sex differences in infant mortality and mortality before the age of 5 in China, and the differences between urban and rural areas on the one hand and urban areas of mainland China and Hong Kong on the other....Infant mortality of both sexes decreased notably from the 1970s onwards, the sex ratios of mortality being 1.15 in 1973-75, 1.06 in 1981 and 0.86 in 1990. A remarkable decline of mortality before the age of 5 was also seen in both sexes, but the sex ratios of mortality were not greatly altered, remaining less than 1 from the 1970s on."
Correspondence: B. Xu, University of Oulu, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Aapistie 1, 90220 Oulu, Finland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

63:40145 Alho, Juha M.; Nyblom, Jukka. Mixed estimation of old-age mortality. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1997. 319-30, 335 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Section 2 will first extend the method of mixed estimation to maximum likelihood estimation in general. Then, we will review generalized linear models with logistic and Poisson regressions as examples. In Section 3 we discuss different approaches for formulating the auxiliary information in practice. Section 4 first reviews the method of Coale and Kisker, provides empirical estimates for it, and then proceeds with the mixed estimation variant. In Section 5 we apply the methods to the estimation of mortality at ages 80+ in Finland in 1980-1993. We will first consider the evidence for mortality crossover between males and females....Then we will estimate life expectancies at age 100."
Correspondence: J. M. Alho, University of Joensuu, Department of Statistics, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40146 Donaldson, G. C.; Keatinge, W. R. Mortality related to cold weather in elderly people in southeast England, 1979-94. British Medical Journal, Vol. 315, No. 7115, Oct 25, 1997. 1,055-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Mortality in southeast England among those aged 65-74 is analyzed. "Substantial declines in excess winter mortality from all causes, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases from 1977 to 1994 were not due to fewer deaths from influenza. They can be attributed in part to improvement in non-seasonal background factors such as general medical care and diet, since baseline death rates also fell. Assuming that such background factors affected baseline mortality and mortality related to cold proportionately, about half of the decline in excess winter mortality can be explained by such non-seasonal factors. The rest can most easily be attributed to improvements in home heating and to factors such as greater car ownership, which reduce outdoor exposure to cold."
Correspondence: W. R. Keatinge, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, England. E-mail: w.r.keatinge@qmw.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40147 Gènova Maleras, Ricard. Youth mortality in the community of Madrid. [La mortalidad juvenil en la comunidad de Madrid.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1996. 115-49 pp. Alicante, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The mortality of the Autonomous Community of Madrid has remarkably improved [in] the last decades. However, the evolution of the young ages (15-39) is radically opposed to this general trend, getting worse during the 80s and 90s. Young mortality is at the present the main problem of public health in Madrid, both by its resistance to change and by the great number of potential years of life lost and [the] socioeconomic implications. In this paper we identify the three main causes of death: accidents, AIDS and drugs; we comment [on] some methodological problems for their study and we analyze their evolution by age and sex."
Correspondence: R. Gènova Maleras, Escuela Nacional de Sanidad, Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40148 Lyra, Sylvia M. K.; Goldberg, Tamara; Iyda, Massako. Adolescent mortality in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil, 1984-1993. [Mortalidade de adolescentes em área urbana da região Sudeste do Brasil, 1984-1993.] Revista de Saúde Pública/Journal of Public Health, Vol. 30, No. 6, 1996. 587-91 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Mortality among adolescents resident in the municipal district of Botucatu, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, according to age group (10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years), sex, occupation and cause of death, during the period from 1984 to 1993, was analysed. The mortality data were obtained from death certificates and the population estimates were based upon census figures....There was predominance of external causes of mortality which suggests the need for further studies [on their] determining factors. The data indicate that health programs targeted at [reaching] adolescents, their families and community should be developed since these are avoidable causes of death."
Correspondence: M. Iyda, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Saúde Pública, Caixa Postal 549, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP, Brazil. E-mail: miyda@fmbunesp.br. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

63:40149 Cohen-Feldmann, Carole. Complete life tables of Israel, 1990-1994. Current Briefings in Statistics, No. 29, 1996. xi, 18 pp. Central Bureau of Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
"This publication presents complete life tables for 1990-1994. In the tables data are detailed by single ages, for males and females separately. The data are presented for the entire population and for Jews and Arabs and others separately."
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya Romema, P.O. Box 13015, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. E-mail: cbs@cbs.gov.il. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40150 Halingali, B. I.; Halli, S. S. A generalized method for constructing an abridged life table. In: 1996 Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. 1996. 92-6 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt is made to estimate the death probability functions using the generalized power series. The method is applied to construct a life table for the United States. In order to compare this methodology with the other most frequently used short-cut procedures, mortality rates are derived for the United States by the four other methods. A comparison shows that the other methods are all particular cases of the method proposed here."
Correspondence: S. S. Halli, University of Manitoba, Department of Sociology, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40151 Italy. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica [ISTAT]. Sistema Statistico Nazionale (Rome, Italy). Life tables for the Italian population by region, 1989-1993. [Tavole di mortalità della popolazione per regione, 1989-93.] Informazioni, No. 8, 1996. 54 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This monograph presents regional life tables by sex for the period 1989-1993. The tables are calculated using data from the 1991 census of Italy. Two diskettes are included, one containing the software SCAI (Sistema di Consultazione Archivi Istat) and one containing the statistical tables.
Correspondence: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Via Cesare Balbo 11a, 00184 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40152 United Kingdom. Office for National Statistics (London, England). English life tables No. 15. Series DS, No. 14, ISBN 0-11-620925-9. 1997. vi, 20 pp. London, England. In Eng.
These life tables for England and Wales are based on mid-year estimates for the years 1990, 1991, and 1992 and are presented separately by sex. Details of the methodology used to prepare them are included.
Correspondence: Office for National Statistics, Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

63:40153 Davey Smith, George; Hart, Carole; Ferrell, Catherine; Upton, Mark; Hole, David; Hawthorne, Victor; Watt, Graham. Birth weight of offspring and mortality in the Renfrew and Paisley study: prospective observational study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 315, No. 7117, Nov 8, 1997. 1,189-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The association between birthweight of offspring and mortality among fathers and mothers is analyzed using data on 794 married couples living in the Renfrew district of western Scotland who were followed over a 15-year period from the early 1970s onward. The results indicate that "birth weight of offspring was related inversely to mortality, from all causes and cardiovascular disease, in this cohort. The strength of this association was greater than would have been expected by the degree of concordance of birth weights across generations, but an extensive range of potential confounding factors could not account for the association. Mortality is therefore influenced by a factor related to birth weight that is transmissible across generations."
Correspondence: G. Davey Smith, University of Bristol, Department of Social Medicine, Canynge Hall, Bristol BS8 2PR, England. E-mail: zetkin@bristol.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40154 Diderichsen, Finn; Hallqvist, Johan. Trends in occupational mortality among middle-aged men in Sweden 1961-1990. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 4, Aug 1997. 782-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study describes trends, 1961-1990, in total and cardiovascular mortality among men, 45-69 years of age, in major occupational classes in Sweden....The increase in mortality among middle-aged men in Sweden 1965-1980 was mainly a result of increasing cardiovascular mortality among industrial workers and farmers. In the 1980s the trend for these groups changed into a fast decrease in mortality similar to that for non-manual occupations for the whole period....While Sweden, during the period studied, had narrowing income differentials and low unemployment this result points to the importance of working conditions in understanding trends and distribution of male adult mortality."
Correspondence: F. Diderichsen, Karolinska Institute, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, 172 83 Sundbyberg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40155 Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele. Social inequalities in death: on the extent of socioeconomic differences in mortality in Austria. [Soziale Ungleichheit vor dem Tod: zum Ausmaß sozioökonomischer Unterschiede der Sterblichkeit in Österreich.] Demographische Informationen, 1995-1996. 71-81, 162-3 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper presents selected results from the analysis of socioeconomic differentials in the mortality of the adult Austrian population....Results suggest that mortality increases with decreasing educational attainment levels. Differential mortality is highest in the age interval of 35 to 49 years....Educational differences are higher in non-elderly men than in non-elderly women....Educational differentials are found both with respect to total mortality and specific causes of death....Differences in mortality are also found between occupational groups, according to family status or motherhood in the case of women. In this paper, special attention has been given to non-linearities in the mortality of socioeconomic and socio-demographic groups."
Correspondence: G. Doblhammer-Reiter, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut für Demographie, Hintere Zollamtsstraße 2b, 1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40156 Dzúrová, Dagmar; Jelínková, Jitka. Quality of atmosphere and mortality level: selected towns of the Czech Republic, daily values, 1992. [Kvalita ovzdusí a úroven úmrtnosti: vybraná mesta Ceské Republiky, denní hodnoty za rok 1992.] Demografie, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1997. 81-93 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"The study issued from four indicators of the state of atmosphere (average daily concentrations of sulphurous and nitrogen oxides, dusty aerosol, average daily temperature) and numbers of deaths per day classified by living place, sex and age of deceased persons [after] elimination of death due to [other] causes and accidents....[The] study results acknowledge the assumption that pollution of the atmosphere is not the decisive cause of higher intensity of mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40157 Ecob, Russell; Robertson, Chris; Watt, Graham. Has regional variation in mortality rates declined since 1931, and in all age groups, in Britain? A re-analysis using formal statistical modelling. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 5, Oct 1997. 502-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "examine changes in regional variance in all cause mortality rates in Great Britain from 1931-91 using formal statistical modelling procedures, and...follow up the suggestion by Illsley and Le Grand that there has been a reduction over time in the regional variance in younger but not older age groups....While there was some evidence of a decline and levelling off of the regional variance over time in older age groups (over 35), the decline in younger age groups was more marked. This broadly confirms previous findings....In the younger (but not older) groups there was evidence of a rise in the regional variance between 1981 and 1991."
Correspondence: R. Ecob, University of Glasgow, MRC Medical Sociology Unit, 6 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow G12 8RZ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40158 Fang, Jing; Madhavan, Shantha; Alderman, Michael H. Nativity, race, and mortality: favorable impact of birth outside the United States on mortality in New York City. Human Biology, Vol. 69, No. 5, Oct 1997. 689-701 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"To determine the association of birthplace (U.S.-born vs. foreign-born) with mortality among blacks and whites in New York City, we examined death records for 5 years from 1988 to 1992 and the 1990 census data. Mortality rates by race and birthplace were compared for all causes of death and for specific causes. Although overall death rates for blacks generally exceeded those for whites,...foreign-born blacks had death rates...slightly lower than those for whites....U.S.-born black males were three times as likely...and U.S.-born black females were more than 2.5 times as likely...to die as were foreign-born blacks....Excess mortality of blacks is largely explained by higher death rates of U.S.-born compared with foreign-born Americans."
Correspondence: J. Fang, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40159 Joung, Inez M. A.; Glerum, Jacobus J.; Van Poppel, Frans W. A.; Kardaun, Jan W. P. F.; Mackenbach, Johan P. The contribution of specific causes of death to mortality differences by marital status in the Netherlands. European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 6, No. 2, Jun 1996. 142-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to describe the differences in mortality by marital status in the Netherlands in the period 1986-1990 for specific causes of death and to estimate the contribution of each specific cause to the differences in total mortality. We have used mortality and population data from Statistics Netherlands....Since the causes of death that contributed disproportionately to the excess mortality of the unmarried almost all have unhealthy lifestyles as important risk factors, we argue that the majority of the mortality differences by marital status can be explained by social causation (marital status affects health through lifestyle differences)."
Correspondence: I. M. A. Joung, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40160 Keatinge, W. R.; Donaldson, G. C. Cold exposure and winter mortality from ishaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and all causes in warm and cold regions of Europe. Lancet, Vol. 349, No. 9062, May 10, 1997. 1,341-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This report, authored by the Eurowinter Group, for which Keatinge and Donaldson acted as coordinators, examines differences in mortality from various causes related to cold weather conditions among regions in Europe. The results indicate that "mortality increased to a greater extent with given fall of temperature in regions with warm winters, in populations with cooler homes, and among people who wore fewer clothes and were less active outdoors."
Correspondence: W. R. Keatinge, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Department of Physiology, London E1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40161 Keller, Donald M.; Peterson, Eric A.; Silberman, George. Survival rates for four forms of cancer in the United States and Ontario. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 7, Jul 1997. 1,164-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this study, cancer survival rates for patients diagnosed in Ontario and selected areas within the United States were compared. Relative survival rates were computed for patients aged 15 through 84 years diagnosed with any of four forms of cancer (breast, colon, lung, and Hodgkin's disease). The cohorts represented those diagnosed over the years 1978 through 1986 in the Canadian province of Ontario and in nine regions covered by the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results program. Patients were followed through the end of 1990. The cumulative relative survival rates were similar for American and Canadian patients. The largest difference was observed for breast cancer, where patients in the United States enjoyed a survival advantage throughout the follow-up period." Possible reasons for the observed differences in survival from breast cancer, such as the greater use of mammographic screening in the United States, are discussed.
Correspondence: D. M. Keller, U.S. General Accounting Office, HEHS/HSQ&PH, 441 G Street NW, Room 4083, Washington, D.C. 20548. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40162 Klasen, Stephan. Marriage, bargaining, and intrahousehold resource allocation: excess female mortality among adults during early German development (1740-1860). Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure Working Paper Series, No. 5, 1997. 74 pp. Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"To determine whether sex bias in the allocation of household resources is unique to today's developing world, this paper investigates sex-specific mortality rates in 18th and 19th century Germany. Using a...sample of recently assembled village genealogies, the analysis shows that there was considerable excess female mortality (EFM) among married adults which peaked in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This female survival disadvantage is evaluated by introducing and testing a bargaining model to intrahousehold resource allocation. The empirical section applies and confirms the bargaining approach and finds that EFM is related to the woman's position in the remarriage market and the perceived relative value of her work, as well as to differences in each parent's intensity of altruism vis-à-vis their children. Agricultural change, which brought about a relative devaluation of women's work, appears to be one of the factors accounting for the rise in EFM in late 18th and early 19th century Germany."
Correspondence: Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB1 1QA, England. E-mail: campop@lists.cam.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40163 LeClere, Felicia B.; Rogers, Richard G.; Peters, Kimberley D. Ethnicity and mortality in the United States: individual and community correlates. Social Forces, Vol. 76, No. 1, Sep 1997. 169-98 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Ethnic gaps in mortality persist in the United States but the specific causes remain elusive. We propose a broader mortality framework that includes neighborhood characteristics....The concentration of African Americans in the neighborhood of residence, in addition to individual socioeconomic status, fully account for differential mortality between African American and non-Hispanic white men and women. For Mexican Americans, the concentration of Hispanics in the neighborhood slightly enhances their significant mortality advantage. From additional analyses, it appears that the pathway between residential segregation and mortality is routed through poorer neighborhood economic conditions for men and high levels of female headship in segregated neighborhoods for women."
Correspondence: F. LeClere, University of Notre Dame, Laboratory for Social Research, G126 Hesburgh Library, South Bend, IN 46556. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40164 Nault, François. Narrowing mortality gaps, 1978 to 1995. [Diminution des écarts de mortalité, de 1978 à 1995.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 9, No. 1, Summer 1997. 35-41; 37-43 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This article examines the narrowing difference in life expectancy between men and women and among Canadian provincial populations in the context of trends in several major causes of death and risk factors....Narrowing differences in life expectancy...have coincided with similar trends in several cause-specific age-standardized death rates and a number of behavioural risk factors."
Correspondence: F. Nault, Statistics Canada, Division of Health Statistics, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40165 Rahman, M. Omar. The effect of spouses on the mortality of older people in rural Bangladesh. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, Apr 1997. 1-12 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper uses prospective data to show that older widowed and divorced individuals in rural Bangladesh have significantly higher mortality than their currently married peers. In contrast to Western societies however, women suffer more from widowhood (in terms of decreased survival) than men. This disparity can plausibly be attributed to the greater poverty associated with widowhood for women than for men. However the effect of adverse selection into widowhood on the basis of poor health for both men and women cannot be ruled out nor can the effects of adverse changes in lifestyle."
Correspondence: M. O. Rahman, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40166 Robles, Arodys. Adult mortality among indigenous and non-indigenous populations of Guatemala and Bolivia. [Mortalidad adulta entre poblaciones indígenas y no indígenas de Guatemala y Bolivia.] Notas de Población, Vol. 24, No. 64, Dec 1996. 33-61 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Use of the maternal orphanhood method permits comparison of adult female mortality levels between indigenous and non-indigenous population [in Guatemala and Bolivia]....Results show that in both countries adult female mortality is higher for the indigenous population. Comparison with infant mortality levels reveals differences in the mortality patterns between the two ethnic groups. In Guatemala--where estimates are more consistent--comparisons across time reveal a more rapid descent for infant than for adult mortality. As a consequence, differences in levels of adult mortality between indigenous and non-indigenous populations are higher than differences in infant mortality. In Bolivia estimates are not as consistent as in Guatemala."
This paper was originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. Robles, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40167 Sánchez Aguilera, Dolores. Territorial differences in mortality in Andalusia at the end of the nineteenth century. [Las diferencias territoriales de la mortalidad en Andalucía a fines del siglo XIX.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1996. 151-71 pp. Alicante, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This paper concerns the territorial differences between the mortality rates in Andalusia [Spain] during the last decades of the nineteenth century....[It analyzes] interprovincial differences...and the inequalities between urban areas and rural areas. The comparative study of the mortality conditions shows the contrasts between the oriental and the occidental provinces and the high mortality [in] the cities. The analysis of the age and sex structure of...mortality reveals...infant and child mortality as determining elements [in] this Mediterranean region."
Correspondence: D. Sánchez Aguilera, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Departament de Geografía Físca i Anàlisi Geogràfica Regional, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40168 Scholz, Rembrandt D. Analysis and prognosis of mortality trends in the old and new German states: results of the comparison of cohort mortality in East and West Germany. [Analyse und Prognose der Mortalitätsentwickung in den alten und neuen Bundesländern--Ergebnisse des Ost/West-Vergleiches der Kohortensterblichkeit.] In: Sterblichkeitsentwicklung--unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Kohortenansatzes, edited by Reiner H. Dinkel, Charlotte Höhn, and Rembrandt D. Scholz. 1996. 89-102 pp. R. Oldenbourg Verlag: Munich, Germany; Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
The differences in cohort mortality in the former East and West Germany are examined, combining life-table approaches for analyzing past data with a methodology for predicting future mortality.
Correspondence: R. D. Scholz, Humboldt-Universität, 10099 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40169 Smith, Mark H.; Anderson, Roger T.; Bradham, Douglas D.; Longino, Charles F. Rural and urban differences in mortality among Americans 55 years and older: analysis of the National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Journal of Rural Health, Vol. 11, No. 4, Fall 1995. 274-85 pp. Kansas City, Missouri. In Eng.
"Previous research on rural and urban differences in risk of mortality in the [United States] has been inconclusive. This article used data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study to establish whether all-cause mortality risk among persons 55 years and older varies by degree of urbanization, controlling for the potential sociodemographic confounders of age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, income, and marital status. Using the Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Procedure, the authors found that persons living in the most rural locales and those living in rural communities in standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs) have the lowest risk of mortality, while those living in SMSA central cities had the highest risk of dying during the study period. The protective effect of rural residence declines in older age cohorts."
Correspondence: M. H. Smith, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40170 Strawbridge, William J.; Cohen, Richard D.; Shema, Sarah J.; Kaplan, George A. Frequent attendance at religious services and mortality over 28 years. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 6, Jun 1997. 957-61 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study analyzed the long-term association between religious attendance and mortality [in the United States] to determine whether the association is explained by improvements in health practices and social connections for frequent attenders....Frequent attenders had lower mortality rates than infrequent attenders....Results were stronger for females. Health adjustments had little impact, but adjustments for social connections and health practices reduced the relationship....Frequent attenders were more likely to stop smoking, increase exercising, increase social contacts, and stay married."
Correspondence: W. J. Strawbridge, Human Population Laboratory, 2151 Berkeley Way, Annex 2, Suite 300, Berkeley, CA 94704-1011. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

63:40171 Ballester, Ferran; Corella, Dolors; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hervás, Anna. Air pollution and mortality in Valencia, Spain: a study using the APHEA methodology. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 50, No. 5, Oct 1996. 527-33 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "assess the short term relationship between daily air pollution indicators (black smoke and sulphur dioxide)...and mortality in Valencia [Spain]....Daily variations in four selected outcome variables (total mortality, mortality in those over 70 years of age, and cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) were considered in relation to daily variations in air pollution levels for the period 1991-93....A positive relationship between air pollution and mortality was found in the short term....Although the current levels of particulate air pollution in Valencia are not very high, they could have an effect on the number of premature deaths."
Correspondence: F. Ballester, Institut Valencià d'Estudis en Salut Pública, Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, C/Joan de Garay 23, 46017 Valencia, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40172 Barona, J. L.; Barea, Elena. Illness and death in the city of Valencia (1901-1920). [Enfermedad y muerte en la ciudad de Valencia (1901-1920).] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1996. 57-82 pp. Alicante, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The present work analyses the origins of demographic and sanitary statistics in the city of Valencia (Spain) through the medical journals at the end of the 19th century and two specific publications: the Boletín Sanitario Municipal (1905-1913) and the Boletín de la Estadística Municipal de Valencia (1915-1920)....The diagnostic categories of death causes are analysed and a study of urban mortality during the period 1901-1920 is proposed, in which specific mortality [by] age, cause and sex is discussed."
Correspondence: J. L. Barona, Universitat de València, Departament d'Història de la Ciència i Documentació, Nave 2, 46003 Valencia, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40173 Carey, Arlen D. Modernization's effects on the mortality costs of reproduction. Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 4, Summer 1997. 343-72 pp. Washington, D. C. In Eng.
"This paper utilizes a unique data set to investigate more fully modernization's transformation of sex mortality differentials and, in particular, the role played by the mortality costs of reproduction. These data pertain to the Mexican American population of Bexar County (San Antonio), Texas, over a 51-year period, 1935 through 1985....The paper [discusses] several previous demographic analyses of the mortality costs of reproduction and the impact of these costs on sex mortality differentials. The structure of the present empirical analysis is then outlined, followed by a presentation of results. The paper concludes with a two-part discussion of the results."
Correspondence: A. D. Carey, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40174 Chenet, Laurent; McKee, Martin; Otero, Angel; Ausin, Inma. What happed to life expectancy in Spain in the 1980s? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 5, Oct 1997. 510-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors aim to "determine the causes of death that have been responsible for the failure by Spain to maintain in the 1980s and 1990s the rate of improvement in life expectancy seen during the 1970s....The trend in life expectancy at birth in Spain over this 20 year period can be considered to have two components, both with important consequences for public health policy. Underlying trends include a steady negative contribution from respiratory cancer in men and a reduction in cardiovascular disease. More recent trends include a considerable deterioration in deaths among young adults, most notably from accidents and, possibly, AIDS."
Correspondence: M. McKee, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40175 Conti, Susanna; Masocco, Maria; Farchi, Gino; Rezza, Giovanni; Toccaceli, Virgilia. Premature mortality in Italy during the first decade of the AIDS epidemic: 1984-1993. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 4, Aug 1997. 873-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"AIDS has become a leading cause of premature mortality in many countries, owing to the decline in other major causes of premature death and the increase in AIDS itself. This study was carried out to determine the trend in premature mortality due to selected causes in Italy....In this period there has been a marked increase in premature mortality from AIDS both among males aged 1-69 years...and females of the same age group....Throughout the same period all the other causes of premature death have been declining, with the exception of suicide and overdose among males, and overdose and lung cancer among females. For people aged 25-44 years, AIDS has become the greatest cause of premature death. The increasing trend in premature mortality due to AIDS is most pronounced in the northern and central areas of Italy."
Correspondence: S. Conti, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, V. Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40176 Cummings, Peter; Grossman, David C.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Koepsell, Thomas D. State gun safe storage laws and child mortality due to firearms. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 278, No. 13, Oct 1, 1997. 1,084-6 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This study examines whether state laws in the United States that require the safe storage of firearms are associated with a reduction in child mortality due to firearms. "Laws that make gun owners responsible for storing firearms in a manner that makes them inaccessible to children were in effect for at least 1 year in 12 states from 1990 through 1994. Among children younger than 15 years, unintentional shooting deaths were reduced by 23%...during the years covered by these laws. This estimate was based on within-state comparisons adjusted for national trends in unintentional firearm-related mortality. Gun-related homicide and suicide showed modest declines, but these were not statistically significant."
Correspondence: P. Cummings, University of Washington, Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, Box 359960, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104-2499. E-mail: peterc@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40177 Cummings, Peter; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Grossman, David C.; Savarino, James; Thompson, Robert S. The association between the purchase of a handgun and homicide or suicide. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 6, Jun 1997. 974-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to determine whether purchase of a handgun from a licensed dealer [in the United States] is associated with the risk of homicide or suicide and whether any association varies in relation to time since purchase....The adjusted relative risk for suicide was 1.9...for persons with a history of family handgun purchase from a registered dealer. The adjusted relative risk for homicide, given a history of family handgun purchase, was 2.2....For both suicide and homicide, the elevated relative risk persisted for more than 5 years after the purchase. Legal purchase of a handgun appears to be associated with a long-lasting increased risk of violent death."
Correspondence: P. Cummings, Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, Box 35996, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104-2499. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40178 Danel, Isabella; Grummer-Strawn, Lawrence; Caceres, José M.; Stupp, Paul. Maternal mortality and morbidity in El Salvador. In: Demographic diversity and change in the Central American Isthmus, edited by Anne R. Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby. 1997. 213-35 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
An analysis of maternal morbidity and mortality in El Salvador is presented using data from a 1993 survey of 6,207 women of reproductive age. The level of maternal mortality recorded was 158 per 100,000 births, which compares with official estimates for 1988 of 47 per 100,000. Major differences in the use of health services by such factors as area of residence and educational status are noted.
Correspondence: I. Danel, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Reproductive Health, Women's Health and Fertility Branch, MS K-34, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40179 Dollimore, Nicola; Cutts, Felicity; Binka, Fred N.; Ross, David A.; Morris, Saul S.; Smith, Peter G. Measles incidence, case fatality, and delayed mortality in children with or without vitamin A supplementation in rural Ghana. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 8, Oct 15, 1997. 646-54 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Data on measles incidence, acute case fatality, and delayed mortality were collected on 25,443 children aged 0-95 months during the course of a community-based, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of vitamin A supplementation in rural, northern Ghana between 1989 and 1991. Measles vaccine coverage in these children was 48%. The overall estimated measles incidence rate was 24.3 per 1,000 child-years, and acute case fatality was 15.7%. There was not significantly increased mortality in survivors of the acute phase of measles compared with controls....Reported incidence rates and case fatality were higher in families with low paternal education, in the dry season, and in unvaccinated children, and case fatality was higher in malnourished children. There was no sex difference in incidence, but acute case fatality was somewhat higher in girls than boys....Measles incidence was lower in vitamin A-supplemented groups (23.6 per 1,000 child-years) than in placebo groups (28.9 per 1,000 child-years), but this difference was not statistically significant...."
Correspondence: F. Cutts, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40180 Ebrahim, Shahul H.; Peterman, Thomas A.; Zaidi, Akbar A.; Kamb, Mary L. Mortality related to sexually transmitted diseases in U.S. women, 1973 through 1992. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 6, Jun 1997. 938-44 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study estimated the trends in mortality related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their sequelae in U.S. women from 1973 through 1992....From 1973 through 1984, total STD-related deaths decreased 24% However, from 1985 through 1992, STD-related deaths increased by 31%, primarily because of increasing numbers of deaths from sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The most important changes during the 20-year period were the emergence of and continued increase in the number of deaths related to heterosexually transmitted HIV."
Correspondence: S. H. Ebrahim, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mail Stop F15, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40181 Evstifeeva, Tatiana V.; MacFarlane, Gary J.; Robertson, Chris. Trends in cancer mortality in central European countries--the effect of age, birth cohort and time-period. European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jun 1997. 169-76 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"An analysis of changes in mortality from major cancer sites and all cancer sites combined in 6 central European countries, considered as a Western group of countries (Germany--the former FRG, Switzerland and Austria) and an Eastern group of countries (Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary) is presented. Cancer mortality and population data have been obtained from the World Health Organization Mortality Database and are available over at least 20 years. They have been analysed using age-period-cohort models and birth-cohort and time-period effects are presented graphically....[The] results demonstrate the magnitude of the increasing mortality from tobacco- and alcohol-related cancers in the countries considered and emphasize the importance and potential of public health measures in preventing such increases continuing in the future."
Correspondence: T. V. Evstifeeva, University of Manchester Dental School, Department of Oral Health and Development, Coupland III Building, Higher Cambridge Street, Manchester M15 6FH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40182 Garenne, Michel; Friedberg, Fabrice. Accuracy of indirect estimates of maternal mortality: a simulation model. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 2, Jun 1997. 132-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A simulation model was developed to test the accuracy of indirect estimates of maternal mortality (the sisterhood method)....Empirical values for the parameters of fertility and mortality were taken from a prospective survey in Senegal (Niakhar). Results based on 100 simulations of the same situation revealed several limitations of the sisterhood method: The indirect estimates could fall as far as 33 percent from the true values on individual cases; the indirect estimates tended to be systematically higher than the direct estimates; their range was wider, as were their confidence intervals; and biases were particularly strong for the younger age groups of respondents. Reasons for these biases are explored."
Correspondence: M. Garenne, Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40183 Gaudette, Leslie A.; Gao, Ru-Nie; Wysocki, Marek; Nault, François. Update on breast cancer mortality, 1995. [Le point sur la mortalité par cancer du sein, 1995.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 9, No. 1, Summer 1997. 31-4; 33-6 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This article updates recently published information on Canadian breast cancer mortality, highlighting a lower rate in 1995, a marked decline in the rate since 1990, and possible factors contributing to this trend....Breast cancer mortality data are from the Canadian Vital Statistics Data Base, maintained by Statistics Canada....The average annual percent change in mortality rates by age group and province was calculated and tested for statistical significance."
Correspondence: L. A. Gaudette, Statistics Canada, Division of Health Statistics, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40184 Graham, Wendy J.; Filippi, Véronique G. A.; Ronsmans, Carine. Demonstrating programme impact on maternal mortality. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 11, No. 1, Mar 1996. 16-20 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Reducing maternal mortality is one of the primary goals of safe motherhood programmes in developing countries. Maternal mortality is not, however, a feasible outcome indicator with which to judge the success of these programmes....The objective of this paper is to promote greater realism about the measurement-related constraints on safe motherhood."
Correspondence: W. J. Graham, Aberdeen University, Dugald Baird Centre for Research on Women's Health, Forester Hill, Aberdeen AB9 22D, Scotland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40185 Izazola-Licea, José A.; Valdez-García, Maricruz; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor J.; del Río-Chiriboga, Carlos. AIDS mortality in Mexico, 1983-1992: trends and years of potential life lost. [La mortalidad por el SIDA en México de 1983 a 1992. Tendencias y años perdidos de vida potencial.] Salud Pública de México, Vol. 37, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 140-8 pp. Morelos, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors "describe trends in AIDS mortality in Mexico from 1983 to 1992, as well as years of potential life lost (YPLL) and years of potential productive life lost (YPPLL) due to AIDS....A retrospective review of databases available in Mexico that code mortality from AIDS was performed....Through 1992, there have been 8,204 deaths attributable to AIDS in Mexico (86% were men) with a rate of 2.9 deaths/100,000. In 1992 AIDS was the 19th leading cause of death in the country....However, due to under-reporting, these estimates should be considered conservative and as lower-bound estimates."
Correspondence: J. A. Izazola-Licea, Consejo Nacional de SIDA, Comercio y Administración 35, Colonia Copilco Universidad, Mexico City 04360, DF, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40186 Li, X. F.; Fortney, J. A.; Kotelchuck, M.; Glover, L. H. The postpartum period: the key to maternal mortality. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 54, No. 1, Jul 1996. 1-10 pp. Shannon, Ireland. In Eng.
"To assess postpartum care at an international level, we reviewed published literature on postpartum maternal deaths....Postpartum deaths in developing countries were compared with those in the United States....The first 24 [hours] postpartum and the first postpartum week is the high risk of postpartum deaths, and the risk remains significant until the second week after delivery. In developing countries, hemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension complications, and obstetric infection are commonest causes of postpartum deaths."
Correspondence: X. F. Li, University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40187 Li, Zhaochen; Morikawa, Yuko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tabata, Masaji; Nishijo, Muneko; Semma, Masami; Miura, Katsuyuki; Yoshita, Katsushi; Kawano, Shunichi; Chen, Yude. Comparative study on mortality patterns in Japan and China. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 333-42 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"On the basis of the 1990 Chinese death notice data and 1990 Japanese...vital statistical materials, the mortality patterns and proportions of individual causes of death in the two countries were compared. In both sexes, the mortality rates were the highest in almost all age groups in Chinese rural areas followed by urban areas and Japan. In Japan and in Chinese urban areas, malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases and cerebrovascular diseases were the major causes of death....[The] differences in mortality rates and proportions of individual causes of death...are thought to be attributable to the differences in medical services and the level of risk factors for each disease."
Correspondence: Y. Morikawa, Kanazawa Medical University, Department of Public Health, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-02, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40188 McDonagh, Marilyn. Is antenatal care effective in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality? Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 11, No. 1, Mar 1996. 1-15 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Women in developing countries are dying from simple preventable conditions but what impact can the procedures collectively called antenatal care have in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity?...This review found that questions have been raised about the impact of antenatal care (specifically on maternal mortality) since its inception in developed countries, and that although the questions continue to be asked there is very little research trying to find answers....This paper argues that there is insufficient evidence to reach a firm decision about the effectiveness of antenatal care, yet there is sufficient evidence to cast doubt on the possible effect of antenatal care."
Correspondence: M. McDonagh, Save the Children Fund, London, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40189 Messner, Torbjörn; Petersson, Bo. Alcohol consumption and ischemic heart disease mortality in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jun 1996. 107-13 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"We carried out an ecological study in Sweden where cross-sectional, longitudinal, and time series analyses (1973-1986) were performed on consumption of spirits, wine, and beer in relation to age-standardized mortality in IHD [ischemic heart disease] for males and females There was a negative correlation in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses between wine consumption and mortality from IHD, especially strong for women, but no consistent relationship between the consumption of total ethanol, spirits and beer versus the mortality from IHD....We conclude that, on a population level, consumption of spirits and beer in a Swedish drinking pattern does not imply any protection against death from IHD. On the other hand, wine consumption in Sweden could be associated with a reduced risk of IHD death among women."
Correspondence: T. Messner, Kiruna District Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, P.O. Box 805, 981 28 Kiruna, Sweden. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40190 Nizard, Alfred. Cancer mortality in France at the turn of the 1990s. [La mortalité par tumeur en France au tournant des années quatre-vingt-dix.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 3, May-Jun 1997. 665-97 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The situation concerning mortality from cancer in France in the late 1990s is described. Trends in causes of death by sex from 1950 to 1994 are outlined; the growing importance of cancer mortality for both sexes is noted. The excess mortality of males, particularly among the aged, is also discussed. Finally, mortality differentials by age are analyzed.
Correspondence: A. Nizard, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40191 Ntozi, James P. M.; Lubaale, Yovani M. A.; Nakanaabi, Immaculate M. AIDS mortality in Uganda: circumstances, factors and impact of death. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, Suppl., 1997. 207-24 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"HIV/AIDS is a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease affects the most sexually active adults of the population, who belong to the most productive age groups, and some of whom are breadwinners. The paper uses data from a baseline survey of six districts of Uganda to study the circumstances, factors and impact of death due to AIDS. While high proportions of patients of AIDS or related diseases use health facilities, most deaths occur at home. Deaths due to AIDS or related diseases are associated with sex, age, marital status, type of marriage, education, occupation and ethnicity. The worst effect of AIDS deaths on the household is lack of finance."
Correspondence: J. P. M. Ntozi, Makerere University, Department of Population Studies, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40192 Nunn, Andrew J.; Mulder, Daan W.; Kamali, Anatoli; Ruberantwari, Anthony; Kengeya-Kayondo, Jane-Frances; Whitworth, Jimmy. Mortality associated with HIV-1 infection over five years in a rural Ugandan population: cohort study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 315, No. 7111, Sep 27, 1997. 767-71 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The impact of HIV-1 on mortality over a five-year period in a rural Ugandan population is assessed using data on about 10,000 individuals living in 15 villages who were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study in 1989 or later. Over this period, the rate of adult seroprevalence was about 8%. "During 35,083 person years of follow up, 459 deaths occurred, 273 in seronegative subjects and 186 in seropositive subjects, corresponding to standardised death rates of 8.1 and 129.3 per 1,000 person years." The results confirm that HIV infection is associated with high death rates and a substantial reduction in life expectancy.
For a related study, published in 1994, see 60:20180.
Correspondence: A. J. Nunn, University College London Medical School, MRC HIV Clinical Trials Centre, London WC1E 6AU, England. E-mail: ajn@mrc.ucl.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40193 Regidor, Enrique; Gutierrez Fisac, J. L. Increase in the number of deaths from lung and breast cancer between 1960 and 1985. [Incremento en el número de muertes por cancer de pulmón y cancer de mama entre 1960 y 1985.] Revista de Sanidad e Higiene Pública, Vol. 65, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1991. 309-17 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"[Spain] has seen an increase of 298% in...lung cancer [deaths] among males and of 178% [in] breast cancer [deaths] among females between 1960 and 1985....[We] distinguish, within these increases, the effect produced by changes in the demographic structure of the population from the effects owing to a real change in the risk of death at different ages. Using this method of analysis, it has been shown that the increased risk of death accounted for 3,433 deaths of males among the 10,085 caused by lung cancer in 1985 and for 1,235 of the 4,293 deaths of females caused by breast cancer."
Correspondence: E. Regidor, Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, Subdirección General de Información Sanitaria y Epidemiología, Paseo del Prado, 18-20 Madrid, Spain. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40194 Rehm, Jürgen; Sempos, Christopher T. Alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. Addiction, Vol. 90, No. 4, Apr 1995. 471-98 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Based on a large U.S. representative cohort with detailed baseline interview and examination data, the relationship between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality is examined over a period of 15 years follow-up. Results show a significant linear relationship for females and males under 60 years of age at baseline, and a non-significant U-shape for the older ones. Both results remain stable for different kinds of adjustment including adjustment for nutritional variables and smoking. Excluding people with heart disease history at baseline leads to an even more pronounced linear relationship for both males and females under 60 years of age. Furthermore, it is shown that the curvilinear relationship for men found in previous research is partly due to the age groups examined." Comments are included by Peter Anderson (pp. 481-4), John C. Duffy (484-5), Roberta Ferrence and Lynn T. Kozlowski (485-8), A. G. Shaper (488-90), Ole-Jørgen Skog (490-2), and Maurizio Trevisan (492-3); a reply by the authors (493-8) is also provided.
Correspondence: J. Rehm, Addiction Research Foundation, Social Evaluation and Research, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2S1, Canada. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40195 Schneider, Dona; Greenberg, Michael R.; Lu, Lisa L. Region of birth and mortality from circulatory diseases among black Americans. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 5, May 1997. 800-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines the relationship between birthplace and mortality from circulatory diseases among American Blacks....Age-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for males and females for combinations of five regions of residence at birth and four regions of residence at death....Males had higher mortality rates from circulatory diseases than females in every regional combination of birth place and residence at death. For both genders, the highest rates were for those who were born in the South but died in the Midwest; the lowest rates were for those who were born in the West but died in the South. Excess mortality for both Southern-born males and females begins at ages 25 through 44."
Correspondence: D. Schneider, 145 Shadybrook Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40196 Thom, Thomas J.; Epstein, Frederick H. Heart disease, cancer, and stroke mortality trends and their interrelations: an international perspective. Circulation, Vol. 90, No. 1, 1994. 574-82 pp. Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
"Age-adjusted death rates for total mortality and mortality from heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and cancer other than lung cancer were obtained for the years 1950 to 1987 in 27 countries by sex and ages 35 to 74 years from the World Health Organization statistical reports. Concordance of mortality trends was assessed for ages 35-74 between 1950 and 1983 through visual inspection and semi-quantitative measurements of percentage change over time....Trends for mortality from heart disease, stroke, lung cancer and, less distinctly, cancer other than lung cancer, tend to be similar in different countries, leading to a corresponding similarity in total mortality trends. An analysis of trends for pairs of diseases within countries indicates a tendency toward concordance of trends, suggesting the existence of common causes amenable to the same preventive measures."
Correspondence: T. J. Thom, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Application, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892-0002. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40197 Torrents, Angels. The epidemiologic transition in rural Catalonia: Sant Pere de Ruidebitlles, 1880-1935. [La transición epidemiológica en la Cataluña rural: Sant Pere de Riudebitlles, 1880-1935.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1996. 173-200 pp. Alicante, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article examines the mortality fall in rural Catalonia [Spain] during the epidemiologic transition. The discussion focuses on an analysis of all causes of death in Sant Pere de Riudebitlles Register Office, from 1880 to 1935, the eve of the Civil War....The main causes of death [were] epidemic and gastro-enteric diseases for children under five until the first decades of the twentieth century; from then on, the main causes of death [were] degenerative diseases affecting people over fifty years of age, and in turn, life expectancy increased."
Correspondence: A. Torrents, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Centre d'Estudis Demogràfics, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40198 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Update: trends in AIDS incidence--United States, 1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 46, No. 37, Sep 19, 1997. 861-7 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"Provisional surveillance data about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for the first 6 months of 1996 indicated a decrease in deaths among persons with AIDS, attributed primarily to the effect of antiretroviral therapies on the survival of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This report describes a decline in AIDS incidence during 1996 compared with 1995 and the continued decline in AIDS deaths; the findings indicate that HIV therapies are having a widespread beneficial impact on the rate of HIV disease progression in the United States."
Correspondence: CDC National AIDS Clearinghouse, P.O. Box 6003, Rockvile, MD 20849-6003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40199 Valdespino-Gómez, José L.; García-García, M. de L.; del Río-Zolezzi, Aurora; Loo-Méndez, Elia; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Salcedo-Alvarez, Rey A. Epidemiology of AIDS/HIV in Mexico: from 1983 to March 1995. [Epidemiología del SIDA/VIH en México; de 1983 a marzo de 1995.] Salud Pública de México, Vol. 37, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. 556-71 pp. Morelos, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to analyze the HIV/AIDS magnitude, distribution, frequency, patterns, trends, risk factors, risk groups, estimation and evaluation of interventions in Mexico during the last twelve years....Epidemiological patterns of transmission are found primarily among men with homosexual and bisexual practices. The male/female ratio is 6 to 1. In 1992 AIDS was the 19th cause of death among the general population....Evaluation of interventions has been accomplished by demonstrating positive results in the prevention of blood transmission and sexual transmission among female commercial sex workers; prevention efforts directed to men with homosexual practices have not been successful."
Correspondence: J. L. Valdespino-Gómez, Instituto Naciónal de Salud Pública, Secretaría Académica, Avenida Universidad 655, Colonia Santa María, Ahuacatitlán 62508, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40200 Wenger, Nanette K. Coronary heart disease: an older woman's major health risk. British Medical Journal, Vol. 315, No. 7115, Oct 25, 1997. 1,085-90 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author notes that coronary heart disease is the major cause of death in postmenopausal women in many industrialized countries, and suggests it will become epidemic in elderly women as the population ages, unless preventive methods are taken across the lifespan. There are sections in the paper on coronary risk factors and their modification in older women, and on sex differences in the clinical characteristics of coronary heart diseases.
Correspondence: N. K. Wenger, Emory University, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Atlanta, GA 30303. E-mail: nwenger@emory.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40201 Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, Judith H.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; van Poppel, Frans W. A.; Mackenbach, Johan P. Cause-specific mortality trends in the Netherlands, 1875-1992: a formal analysis of the epidemiologic transition. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 4, Aug 1997. 772-81 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this study is to produce a detailed yet robust description of the epidemiologic transition in The Netherlands....National mortality data on sex, age, cause of death and calendar year (1875-1992) were extracted from official publications. For the entire period, 27 causes of death could be distinguished....Three important clusters were found: (1) infectious diseases which declined rapidly in the late 19th century (e.g. typhoid fever), (2) infectious diseases which showed a less precipitous decline (e.g. respiratory tuberculosis), and (3) non-infectious diseases which showed an increasing trend during most of the period 1875-1992 (e.g. cancer)....The results suggest that the conventional interpretation of the epidemiologic transition, which assumes a uniform decline of infectious diseases and a uniform increase of non-infectious diseases, needs to be modified."
Correspondence: J. H. Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40202 Xu, Xiping; Gao, Jun; Dockery, Douglas W.; Chen, Yude. Air pollution and daily mortality in residential areas of Beijing, China. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 321-31 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The relationship between air pollution and daily mortality in 1989 was examined in two residential areas in Beijing, China...A highly significant association was found between [sulfur dioxide] and daily mortality....The association of [total suspended particulates] with total daily mortality was positive but not significant....In the cause-specific analysis, the strongest effects on mortality were consistently seen for respiratory diseases in both [summer and winter]."
Correspondence: Y. Chen, Ministry of Health, Center for Health Statistics Information, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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