Volume 63 - Number 3 - Fall 1997

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications. Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations, as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

63:30537 Ando, Albert; Moro, Andrea; Cordoba, Juan P.; Garland, Gonzalo. Dynamics of demographic development and its impact on personal saving: case of Japan. Ricerche Economiche, Vol. 49, No. 3, Sep 1995. 179-205 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A dynamic model of the demographic structure of Japan is summarized. It is capable of tracing the dynamic development of the Japanese population, including the distribution of families by age, sex, and marital status of the head, as well as by the number and age of children and other dependents. This model is combined with specification of the processes generating family income and consumption, and then used to generate the pattern of aggregate income, saving and asset accumulation for the period 1985-2050 under alternative fertility assumptions. The results suggest that the saving-income ratio for Japan will increase slightly in the immediate future as the number of children per family declines sharply, and then falls moderately as the proportion of older persons in the population increases. Qualitative results depend critically on the labour force participation rate of older persons and on the probability of older persons merging into younger households."
Correspondence: A. Ando, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30538 Biddlecom, Ann E.; Domingo, Lita J. Aging trends--the Philippines. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, Vol. 11, No. 1, Mar 1996. 109-14 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors investigate recent aging trends in the Philippines. Aspects considered include health and disability among the aged; education, work status, and income; and family support.
Correspondence: A. E. Biddlecom, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. E-mail: Abiddlecom@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30539 Cutler, David M.; Elmendorf, Douglas W.; Zeckhauser, Richard J. Demographic characteristics and the public bundle. Public Finance/Finances Publiques, Vol. 48, Suppl., 1993. 178-98 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper explores the relationship between the demographic characteristics of a community and the quantities of goods and services provided by its government, what we label the `public bundle'. We consider three models of public spending....To evaluate these models of spending, we examine how county and state spending in the United States is affected by the age and racial composition, and the total size of a jurisdiction. We find that the estimated effects of demographic characteristics in the state equations are strikingly different from the estimated effects in the county equations. One possible explanation for these differences is that a jurisdiction's spending is affected differently by its own demographic characteristics and by the characteristics of the surrounding area. We conclude that community preference is important in explaining local spending, but that its determination is more complex than simple theory suggests."
Correspondence: D. M. Cutler, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30540 de Beer, J. Is the number of newborn boys decreasing? [Worden er steeds minder jongens geboren?] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 4, Apr 1997. 11 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
This one-page article reports that "the number of newborn boys [in the Netherlands] exceeds that of girls by about 5%. This percentage varies over time. The sex ratio in the Netherlands reached a peak in 1942: 8% more boys than girls were born. After the Second World War the percentage of boys decreased. This decrease came to an end in the 1980s. Since then the percentage of boys has been fluctuating around a stable level."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30541 Dlugosz, Zbigniew. Differentiation of the age structure of the world population in light of the methods of its classification. [Zróznicowanie struktury wieku ludnosci na swiecie a metody jej klasyfikacji.] Przeglad Geograficzny, Vol. 68, No. 1-2, 1996. 151-65 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
"The author's aim was to [determine] the typology of the age structure of the world population, using some new suggested classification methods, containing different parameters....The suggested solutions were based on empiric data concerning 176 countries....All [the] classification solutions, although the parameters number was different, gave...similar images, being greater or smaller aggregations of the discussed population."
Location: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI.

63:30542 Gao, Ling. Sex ratio at birth in China: features and influences. Social Sciences in China, Vol. 17, Autumn 1996. 71-7 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The gradual increase in the sex ratio at birth (SRB) that has been recorded in China since 1980 is examined, and an attempt is made to identify the reasons for this increase. The author concludes that "such demographic variables as child-bearing age, parity and the sex of children have not determined the rising SRB since the 1980s in China. Rather, the traditional bias towards giving birth and reporting male offspring was responsible for the high SRB score and for the disparities in SRB between different socio-economic groups." The extent to which the birth of female babies is not reported is assessed, as is the extent of sex-selective abortion.
This is translated from the Chinese article published in Zhongguo Shehui Kexue, No. 1, 1995.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

63:30543 Liao, Tim F. Measuring population aging as a function of fertility, mortality, and migration. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, Vol. 11, No. 1, Mar 1996. 61-79 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"While insights from comparing only the values of an aging measure between two populations may be helpful, results from such comparison can be misleading due to the influences of fertility, mortality, and migration. To show the effects of these demographic processes on measures of population aging, rates of change in five measures of population aging as a function of fertility, mortality, and migration are developed. These rates of change are estimated for various stable populations, for stable populations disequilibrated by fertility and mortality declines and by net migration, and for the population in Japan, 1988-1989. The findings demonstrate that the five aging measures, in general, do not give consistent rate-of-change estimates; they also suggest that directly comparing values of aging measures without considering the levels and patterns of fertility, mortality and migration will lead to misleading conclusions."
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: T. F. Liao, University of Illinois, Department of Sociology, 326 Lincoln Hall, 702 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30544 Matkovic, Gordana; Vujnovic, Borka. War affected persons in the FR of Yugoslavia. Stanovnistvo, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 7-41 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng. with sum. in Scr.
The authors analyze the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the war-affected population in Yugoslavia. "There are 646,066 refugees and other war affected persons living in the FR of Yugoslavia....The sex and age structure of this population are relatively balanced. According to their nationality, over 90% of the war affected persons are Serbian....The majority of those who due to war conflict fled to Yugoslavia are unemployed. Approximately only 66 thousand persons [have] permanent or temporary employment. The majority of refugees and other war affected persons, i.e. over 80% of the total number of economically active persons, are by occupation either industrial or clerical related workers."
Correspondence: G. Matkovic, Economics Institute, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30545 Shantakumar, G. The aged population of Singapore. Census of Population, 1990, Monograph, No. 1, ISBN 9971-914-58-1. Sep 1994. xix, 212 pp. Department of Statistics: Singapore. Distributed by Singapore National Printers, Publications Sales Division, 8 Shenton Way, #B1-07, Treasury Building, Singapore 0106. In Eng.
This analysis of the aged population of Singapore is based on data from the 1990 census. It includes chapters on the characteristics of the aged population; social characteristics; economic characteristics, including work, economic activity, income, and education; voluntary and leisure activities; housing; other characteristics, such as mobility; and probable future developments in the elderly population.
Correspondence: Department of Statistics, Census of Population Office, 5th Story, Fullerton Building, Singapore 0104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30546 Strickland, S. S.; Tuffrey, V. R. Parental investment theory and birth sex ratios in Nepal. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 3, Jul 1997. 283-95 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Parental investment theory postulates that where physical condition varies significantly then birth sex ratio will be correlated with social status. Application of this theory to man remains contentious. This study examines physique, wealth, and social status in relation to the sex of live births. It reports a female-biased sex ratio in high social and economic status Nepalese. Close consanguineous marriage, intended to conserve landed wealth within related lineages, and increased female work burdens accompanying larger farm size, are proximate factors which may underlie this finding. A differential payback hypothesis is one way of explaining this pattern."
Correspondence: S. S. Strickland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Public Health and Policy, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30547 Waite, Linda J. The demographic face of America's elderly. Inquiry, Vol. 33, No. 3, Fall 1996. 220-4 pp. Rochester, New York. In Eng.
Based on a 1996 U.S. census report on aging, the author discusses possible future trends in the aging of the U.S. population, with a focus on the consequences of significant changes in the number and proportion of elderly. The need to understand these trends in order to plan effectively for the future is emphasized.
For the U.S. census report on aging, see 62:30567.
Correspondence: L. J. Waite, University of Chicago, Department of Sociology, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637-2799. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30548 Wu, Bihu; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Rong. A study of the demographic characteristics of domestic tourists. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1996. 447-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A sample survey was conducted [in China]: more than 6,000 questionnaires were submitted and retrieved from domestic tourists in Shanghai, Xi'ian, Huangshan, and Huashan in order to provide data for demographic analysis of the special fluid population of tourists. The paper looks at the relationship between tourists' gender, age, income, occupation, education, and family structure, as well as their tourist activity, selection of destinations, shopping, and other tourist behaviors."
Correspondence: B. Wu, East China Normal University, Tourism Department, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

63:30549 Lai, Dejian; Tsai, Shan P.; Hardy, Robert J. Impact of HIV/AIDS on life expectancy in the United States. AIDS, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1997. 203-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The potential gains in life expectancy of the U.S. population by the partial and total elimination of deaths from HIV/AIDS were compared with that of deaths from heart disease and malignant neoplasms....For the total population of the United States in 1992, the gains in future life expectancy through the elimination of deaths from HIV/AIDS, heart disease and malignant neoplasms were 0.34, 3.25 and 3.21 years, respectively....The potential gains in life expectancy by reduction of deaths from heart disease and malignant neoplasms are more heavily influenced by increasing years after the working ages (15-64 years), whereas the potential gains in life expectancy by reducing deaths from HIV/AIDS make a greater contribution to those of working age."
Correspondence: D. Lai, University of Texas, School of Public Health, P.O. Box 20186, Houston, TX 77030. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30550 Mirowsky, John. Age, subjective life expectancy, and the sense of control: the horizon hypothesis. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 52, No. B-3, May 1997. 125-34 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article reports a test of the horizon hypothesis, which states that greater subjective life expectancy increases the sense of control over one's own life and in part accounts for the negative association between age and the sense of control. Results of a U.S. survey of 2,029 respondents aged 18 and older (934 aged 50 and older) support the hypothesis. Subjective life expectancy has a significant positive association with the sense of control that does not vanish with adjustment for race, sex, education, income, widowhood, inability to work because of a disability, physical impairment, and physical fitness. Adjustment for subjective life expectancy explains the part of the negative association between age and the sense of control that remains after adjustment for education and physical impairment. Adjusting the three factors together explains 93.1 percent of the total association between age and the sense of control, and renders the remaining association insignificant."
Correspondence: J. Mirowsky, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

63:30551 Ohsawa, Seiji; Ji, Cheng-Ye; Kasai, Naomi. Age at menarche and comparison of the growth and performance of pre- and post-menarcheal girls in China. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1997. 205-12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The median menarcheal ages (MMAs) of Chinese girls in 1991 were calculated by using the status quo method and probit analysis in 64,322 schoolgirls 8-18 years of age. The sample was randomly selected from 29 provinces of China....The associations between growth status and the timing of menarche were also analyzed by comparing of 10 indicators of somatic growth and motor ability between the pre- and post-menarcheal girls. Early maturers consistently have [higher] means of stature, weight, and vital capacity than late maturers. By contrast, the late maturers tend to have a linear physique and more potential of increasing stature and lower limbs into late adolescence. Late maturers also tend to have more potential in catching up in motor abilities, which were inferior to those of early maturers during early adolescence."
Correspondence: S. Ohsawa, Otuma Women's University, Institute of Human Living Sciences, Sanban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30552 Xiao, Zhenyu; Xu, Qin; Yuan, Ye. Solving the mystery of the status and longevity of centenarians in Bama. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1996. 385-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"With an investigation on the centenarians in Bama, Guangxi, [China] this study discusses the credibility [of] the ages of centenarians in the area and their longevity. The analysis of the census data shows that the longevity of the centenarians in Bama is not the product of some mysterious forces but actually the result of long-lasting interactions of many elements in their lifestyle, heredity, and environment."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population, and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation.

63:30553 Ahmad, S. Ehtisham. Poverty, demographic characteristics and public policy in CIS countries. Public Finance/Finances Publiques, Vol. 48, Suppl., 1993. 366-79 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The demographic characteristics of different regions in the former Soviet Union influence the nature of poverty in the newly successor independent states....Despite a common policy inheritance, major adjustments are needed in the major social protection instruments to reflect differences in demographics along with a changing resource base."
Correspondence: S. E. Ahmad, International Monetary Fund, Fiscal Affairs Department, 700 19th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20431. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30554 Allensworth, Elaine M. Earnings mobility of first and "1.5" generation Mexican-origin women and men: a comparison with U.S.-born Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic whites. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 2, Summer 1997. 386-410 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This study addresses the following questions: Are Mexican immigrants closing the earnings gap with greater time in the United States, compared to U.S.-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites? What factors are most important in determining their earnings? How are earnings determinants different for women versus men, and those who came to the United States as children, versus those who came as adults and those born in the United States?...With greater time in the United States, male immigrants achieve average earnings comparable to U.S.-born Mexican Americans, but not to non-Hispanic whites, controlling for human capital variables. With greater time in the United States, female immigrants approach the number of hours of paid work of U.S.-born women, but not the earnings received per hour. Gains in earnings associated with age, time in the United States, and English proficiency differ by gender, reflecting structural differences in the labor market."
Correspondence: E. M. Allensworth, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30555 Bishop, John A.; Formby, John P.; Smith, W. James. Demographic change and income inequality in the United States, 1976-1989. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 64, No. 1, Jul 1997. 34-44 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"The U.S. economy experienced significant increases in the degree of income inequality over the past two decades....In this paper we consider the effects of race, age, female headship, and college education on the distribution of family income by developing a multivariate methodology that allows us to gauge the influence of one factor while holding other determinants of family incomes constant. Over the period studied we find that race had only a minor effect on the overall size distribution of income. Age had a somewhat greater effect than race. In contrast, the impact of female heads and college education were quite substantial. The multivariate estimates reveal that the effects of female heads and college education both increase the Gini to a much greater extent than the progressivity of federal income taxes decreases it. The effects of college education and female headed families on inequality have grown larger across time, while the influence of age has declined. We find that the effects of race on inequality have changed little over the 1976 to 1989 period."
Correspondence: J. A. Bishop, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27850. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30556 Bommier, Antoine. Can you count on children to look after you when you are old? The example of Malaysia. [Peut-on compter sur ses enfants pour assurer ses vieux jours? L'exemple de la Malaisie.] Economie et Prévision, Vol. 121, No. 5, 1995. 75-86 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a microeconomic analysis of the transfer of resources by adults to their elderly parents in Malaysia, using data from the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey carried out in 1988-1989. The author concludes that such transfers from children within a family are independent of each other. The factors that lead a child to support elderly parents are examined; they range from agreements to repay money advanced previously to that child for education to altruistic support for a parent fallen into a position of need. The author notes the importance of joint decisions by a couple regarding support for an elderly parent, and the fact that the level of support depends on the distribution of income between spouses.
Correspondence: A. Bommier, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

63:30557 Chattopadhyay, Arpita. Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 2, Summer 1997. 338-52 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. Chattopadhyay, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30558 Díaz-Briquets, Sergio; Pérez-López, Jorge. Refugee remittances: conceptual issues and the Cuban and Nicaraguan experiences. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 2, Summer 1997. 411-37 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article assesses the notion that the determinants of remittances generated by refugee flows, particularly from Communist-inspired systems, are different from those associated with labor migrations....These differences have a major bearing on how labor migrants and refugees perceive their relationship with countries of origin. The propensity of labor migrants to dissociate themselves from the home country is considerably less than among refugees whose perceptions are mediated by opposition to the ruling regime and other factors, such as political relations between refugee-sending and refugee-receiving countries and whether or not there has been a regime change or one is expected to occur. The conceptual issues elaborated here are based on the Cuban-American experience, but also reflect an assessment of Nicaraguan emigration during the 1980s."
Correspondence: J. Pérez-López, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30559 Duleep, Harriet O.; Regets, Mark C. Measuring immigrant wage growth using matched CPS files. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 2, May 1997. 239-49 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper, we match Current Population Survey samples so that the wages of individual immigrant and native-born men can be followed for one year. We find that the wage growth of immigrants does exceed that of the native born. The general finding of faster immigrant wage growth also holds when imposing the foreign-born geographic distribution upon natives, but not when imposing the native-born geographic distribution on the foreign born--a result consistent with some theories of immigrant assimilation. In each comparison, however, the actual wage growth of immigrants relative to natives is similar to the predictions of cross-sectional regressions. This similarity suggests that either there is no cohort quality bias in the cross-sectional estimates of immigrant wage growth, or that there has been a coincidental increase in immigrant wage growth as the entry wages of immigrants have fallen."
Correspondence: H. O. Duleep, 4417 Yuma Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20016. E-mail: Harriet.O.Duleep@ssa.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30560 Duleep, Harriet O.; Regets, Mark C. Social Security and immigrant earnings. Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59, No. 2, Summer 1996. 20-30 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Immigrant cohorts have varied over time in many ways that have important implications for projecting the contributions immigrants make to the Social Security system. Using immigrant cohorts in the 1970, 1980, and 1990 decennial censuses, we find that immigrant men experience faster earnings growth than U.S.-born men; that there has been a large decline in initial immigrant earnings over time; and that there has been an accompanying large increase over time in immigrant earnings growth rates. Thus, recent reductions in immigrant entry earnings are significantly compensated for by faster immigrant earnings growth."
Correspondence: H. O. Duleep, Social Security Administration, Division of Economic Research, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20008. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

63:30561 Duleep, Harriet O.; Regets, Mark C. The decline in immigrant entry earnings: less transferable skills or lower ability? Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Vol. 37, No. Special issue, 1997. 189-208 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"By measuring the earnings growth of immigrant cohorts across the 1960-1980 censuses, we test two potential hypotheses for the decline in the education-adjusted entry earnings of immigrants. One hypothesis suggests that the decline has been caused by the immigration of lower ability immigrants: a result of the relatively unequal income distributions of the source countries currently dominating U.S. immigration. Another hypothesis is that the decline in immigrant entry earnings reflects a change in the extent to which immigrant skills are transferable to the United States. Our cohort analyses provide indirect evidence for the skills transferability hypothesis. We also introduce subsampling techniques that researchers may use to test the sensitivity of cohort-based results to biases caused by sampling error and emigration."
Correspondence: H. O. Duleep, 4417 Yuma Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30562 Fry, Richard; Lowell, B. Lindsay. The incidence of subminimum pay among native and immigrant workers. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 4, Aug 1997. 363-81 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper econometrically compares the subminimum wage propensities of immigrants and U.S. natives using 1989 microdata. A conventional expectation is that immigrants are more likely to earn subminimum wages because of their lesser education and knowledge of labor rights. However, immigrants also tend to participate full time in the labor market and field studies suggest they provide employers an `experienced' labor pool. Indeed, our findings indicate that immigrants by age, sex, and race/ethnic group are less likely than natives to receive subminimum wages. These findings imply that the foreign born do not contribute disproportionately to the informal economy."
Correspondence: R. Fry, U.S. Department of Labor, Division of Immigration Policy and Research, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Room S-5325, Washington, D.C. 20210. E-mail: pjg@cu.nih.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30563 International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP] (Liège, Belgium). Demography and poverty. [1996?]. [460] pp. Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This publication contains the papers presented at a seminar on Demography and Poverty, organized jointly by the IUSSP, UNICEF, and the University of Florence, held in Florence, Italy, March 1-4, 1995. The 16 papers are organized into sections on general issues; long-term issues, such as urbanization; resources and environment; fertility, including adolescent fertility and short birth intervals; family and households; mortality, AIDS, and famine; and the demographic outcomes of poverty. A contributed paper on the precarious position of women in rural Africa is also included.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30564 Jäntti, Markus. Inequality in five countries in the 1980s: the role of demographic shifts, markets and government policies. Economica, Vol. 64, No. 255, Aug 1997. 415-40 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) data to examine levels of and trends in income inequality in Canada, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Inequality increased in Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States but did not increase in Canada and the Netherlands. Increased inequality of household head's earnings and increased shares of spouse's earnings in family income account for much of the observed increases in income inequality. The public sector can, in general, be assigned a moderating effect on these changes. Demographic shifts are not assigned any major role in inequality changes."
Correspondence: M. Jäntti, Åbo Akademi University, Domkyrkotorget 3, 20500 Turku, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30565 Jenkins, Glenn P. Implications of economic transition and demographics for financing pensions in the former socialist economies. Public Finance/Finances Publiques, Vol. 48, Suppl., 1993. 253-65 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned primarily with the financing of pensions, or the old-age income maintenance portion of the social security system. While the discussion here will be limited to Hungary and Poland, most of the post-socialist countries of East and Central Europe and of the former Soviet Union face similar problems." The author suggests "a set of alternative pension financing strategies....A novel approach is to replace the payroll tax with part of a value-added tax, which may be a good short run solution to current financial crises of the pension systems in these countries."
Correspondence: G. P. Jenkins, Harvard University, Institute for International Development, Pound Hall 400, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30566 Laitner, John. Intergenerational and interhousehold economic links. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 189-238 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This chapter discusses two theoretical frameworks which economists use to analyze links between households. The first is based on altruistic preferences....The idea is that one household, say, a parent household, may transfer money, time, or services to a second, say, a grown child. The reason the parent unit `transfers' resources rather than selling them is that the child household's well-being directly affects the parent's felicity. The second framework falls under the heading `transactions cost approach'....In it, two households may share or exchange services, or provide credit or insurance to one another, not because, or strictly because, one's utility depends on the other's consumption, but rather on the basis of mutual perceived advantage in transacting, or engaging in joint production, outside of normal market channels."
Correspondence: J. Laitner, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30567 Lam, David. Demographic variables and income inequality. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 1,015-59 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper surveys a variety of areas in which demographic variables may play an important role in the distribution of income. The first issue considered is the relationship between age structure and inequality, analyzed in Section 2....Section 3 focuses on the large literature that has analyzed the effects on the distribution of income among married couples of marital sorting and the joint labor supply behavior of husbands and wives. Section 4 extends the analysis beyond married couples to the household....Section 5 analyzes the effects of differential fertility across income classes on the distribution of income. The analysis includes consideration of the role of intergenerational mobility across income classes. Section 6 discusses the attention given to the effects of population growth on the relative wages by the classical economists and considers theoretical issues in the link between changes in factor supplies and changes in the distribution of income....Section 7 discusses the substantial changes in wage inequality observed in the U.S. in recent decades, and considers evidence on the role of demographic variables, especially age structure, in those changes....Section 8 concludes the paper." Particular attention is given to Brazil and the United States.
Correspondence: D. Lam, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30568 Morocco. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Populations at risk: a demographic profile and spatial distribution. [Populations vulnérables: profil socio-démographique et répartition spatiale.] Etudes Démographiques, 1997. 315 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This is an analysis of poverty in Morocco, based on data from the national surveys on the family carried out in 1995 and on household standards of living carried out in 1990-1991. The analysis is organized around four main themes: the geographical distribution of poverty, the demographic behavior of the poor, their employment and migration, and their demographic characteristics.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques, Rue Mohamed Belhassan El Ouazzani Haut-Agdal, B.P. 178, 10001 Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30569 Peter, Matthew W.; Verikios, George. The effect of immigration on residents' incomes in Australia: some issues reconsidered. Australian Economic Review, No. 114, 1996. 171-88 pp. Parkville, Australia. In Eng.
"This article outlines the standard neoclassical model (SNM) of the impact of immigration on the incomes of the resident (pre-immigration) population. We augment the SNM to allow for foreign ownership of and government equity in the capital stock. Using the expanded model, the sensitivity of residents' incomes to immigration is tested in four scenarios....In our preferred long-run scenario, the 1991-92 Australian immigrant intake reduced residents' incomes. We believe the results based on the expanded SNM justify a more comprehensive study incorporating a range of other influential factors determining the impact of immigration on residents' incomes."
Correspondence: M. W. Peter, Monash University, Department of Economics, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30570 Powell, Mary A.; Parcel, Toby L. Effects of family structure on the earnings attainment process: differences by gender. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 2, May 1997. 419-33 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study compares how being raised in an original, two-parent family and being raised in other family structures affects educational achievement, occupational status, and earnings attainment for a national sample of 30- to 59-year-old women and men. Data are derived from the 1989 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Findings suggest that family structure has different effects by gender. Although both men and women from original, two-parent families earn more, on average, than those from other family structures, for women, this effect occurs through educational attainment. For men, the association between family structure and attainment is explained by other family background variables, including smaller family size, being Catholic, higher levels of parental education, and being White."
Correspondence: M. A. Powell, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. E-mail: powell.130@osu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30571 Reschovsky, Andrew. The aging of the population and the financing of local governments. Public Finance/Finances Publiques, Vol. 48, Suppl., 1993. 199-213 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper explores the residential property tax burdens faced by elderly homeowners in the United States. The results demonstrate that the use of annual data in income and property tax liabilities to calculate tax burdens overstates the regressivity of the property tax. The magnitude of the bias created by using annual income is determined by comparing tax burdens calculated from annual data with burdens calculated from tax liabilities and income data covering a 12-year period. The results indicate that while the residential property tax on the non-elderly is approximately proportional, the pattern of burdens on the elderly remains regressive."
Correspondence: A. Reschovsky, University of Wisconsin, Department of Agricultural Economics, 1225 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30572 Rossi, Nicola. Demographics and debt service. Public Finance/Finances Publiques, Vol. 48, Suppl., 1993. 228-38 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The discussion on the effects of the ongoing demographic transition on government behaviour has never mentioned its likely effect on an expenditure item (apparently non age specific) such as the debt service. This paper attempts to show that such effects could be non-negligible in countries (such as most European countries) where social security wealth arises from mandatory participation in pension schemes."
Correspondence: N. Rossi, University of Modena, Department of Political Economy, Via Giardini 454, 41100 Modena, Italy. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30573 Sartor, Nicola. On the role of budgetary policy during demographic changes. Public Finance/Finances Publiques, Vol. 48, Suppl., 1993. 217-27 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The paper investigates the relationship between old age income maintenance and budgetary policy when a growing proportion of the population is retired. Special attention is paid to the different kinds of adjustment required under pay-as-you-go (PAYG) and fully-funded (FF) pension schemes. The paper shows that FF schemes reach spontaneously a new equilibrium while PAYG systems need policy action. With reference to PAYG systems, the paper shows that the tax increase called for by most governments is appropriate in the short-run, when the dependency ratio plays a dominant role. In the long-run, however, the increase in the tax rate is smaller, as the effects of the changes in the dependency ratio is offset by the lower need of public savings required for financing capital accumulation." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: N. Sartor, Bank of Italy, Research Department, Rome, Italy. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30574 Wolfe, Barbara L. On the role of budgetary policy during demographic changes. Public Finance/Finances Publiques, Vol. 48, Suppl., 1993. xii, 392 pp. Foundation Journal Public Finance: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
This volume contains papers from the 48th Congress of the International Institute of Public Finance, held in Seoul, Republic of Korea, in 1992. The theme of the volume is the role of budgetary policy during times of demographic change. Papers are grouped under seven headings: intergenerational transfers; investment in human capital; immigration and public finance; budgetary policy; pensions and retirement; political forces and demographic change; and a summary of the proceedings.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Foundation Journal Public Finance, NE Goethestraße 13, 61462 Königstein, Germany. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

63:30575 Cammelli, Andrea; di Francia, Angelo; Guerriero, Angelo. Declining admissions to Italian universities by 2008. [Le déclin des entrées à l'université italienne d'ici 2008.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1997. 365-80 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"For the first time since Italian Unification (1861), the number of potential entrants to Italy's universities is declining rapidly. This situation is due to the fall in the birthrate which began in the 1960s, first and most dramatically in the northern regions, later and less spectacularly in the rest of the country. The present study, based on the population of young people of university age, shows that their number will fall by 31-35% between 1995 and 2008. An international comparison brings to light the unique nature of the problems that characterize the Italian context."
Correspondence: A. Cammelli, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, Via delle Belli Arti 41, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30576 Day, Jennifer C.; Curry, Andrea E. Educational attainment in the United States: March 1996 (update). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 493, Jul 1997. 1 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This short report, updating the March 1995 report on educational attainment in the United States, summarizes major findings from the Current Population Survey. In accordance with Census Bureau policy to reduce the number of printed reports and instead provide more information in electronic format, the detailed tabulations will be updated annually, and are available on the World Wide Web (http://www.census.gov). A paper version of these tables is available for a fee on request.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, P.O. Box 277943, Atlanta, GA 30384-7943. E-mail: jday@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30577 Djamba, Yanyi K. Financial capital and premarital sexual activity in Africa: the case of Zambia. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 3, Jun 1997. 243-57 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines two theoretical perspectives on sexual behavior in Africa using the 1992 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey data on never-married adolescent females. The results offer more support to the rational adaption hypothesis which assumes that many young women may be entering into sexual relationships to obtain money and material goods they cannot get within the financial capital of their families. There are, however, indications that some adolescents are sexually active before marriage as a result of the breakdown of traditional social controls that elders had over the younger people. The way in which this assumption of the social disorganization theory can be further explained is examined under the conceptual model of social capital."
Correspondence: Y. K. Djamba, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, 126 Stubbs Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5411. E-mail: sodjam@lsuvm.sncc.lsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30578 Jonsson, Jan O.; Gähler, Michael. Family dissolution, family reconstitution, and children's educational careers: recent evidence for Sweden. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 2, May 1997. 277-93 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses on a large and recent Swedish data set demonstrate that, compared to children in intact families, children who have experienced family dissolution or reconstitution show lower educational attainment at age 16. Time constraints do not seem to be an important mechanism behind the negative effect of separation. Economic deprivation affects children's attainment negatively, but downward social mobility appears to be an even more important causal mechanism: Losing the parent with the higher social position probably reduces social capital and aspirations. When we control for socioeconomic characteristics, a small net effect of separation and reconstitution remains."
Correspondence: J. O. Jonsson, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: janne@sofi.su.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30579 Khasiani, Shanyisa A. The impact of migration on women's status in Kenya. Wajibu, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1993. 5-7 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"In analyzing the impact of migration on the status of women [in Kenya], this paper uses a simple and general definition of status according to its various dimensions: economic status pertaining to access to resources like income, employment and property; social status based on values such as physical and mental well being, and education and training; and political status involving participating in decision making."
Location: University of Iowa Library, Ames, IA.

63:30580 Liu, Dalin; Ng, Man Lun; Zhou, Li Ping; Haeberle, Erwin J. Sexual behavior in modern China: report on the nationwide survey of 20,000 men and women. ISBN 0-8264-0886-9. LC 96-1072. 1997. 568 pp. Continuum: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This is a report on the nationwide survey of sexual behavior conducted in China in the period ranging from February 1989 to April 1990. In our survey, we included data on adolescent sexual physiological development, the extent and source of sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes and their changes, marital relationships, family planning, and sexual offenses." The survey was organized by the Shanghai Sex Sociology Research Center. It was conducted in 28 regions in 15 Chinese provinces and included a total of 19,559 students, married couples in cities and rural areas, and sex offenders. Results show increases in premarital and extramarital sex, sexual disharmony in marriage, sex offenses, prostitution, and sexually transmitted diseases, among other things. The issues addressed in the report include the relationship between sexuality and sociocultural factors, the sexual commonalities and differences among various groups, the quality of marriage, adolescent sexual problems, women's problems, and sexual control.
Correspondence: Continuum Publishing Company, 370 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30581 Mare, Robert D. Differential fertility, intergenerational educational mobility and racial inequality. Social Science Research, Vol. 26, No. 3, Sep 1997. 263-91 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
A model that takes into account fertility differences among women with varying levels of educational attainment and patterns of intergenerational educational mobility is developed to examine the hypothesis that the higher fertility of poorly educated women tends to reduce the average intellectual qualifications of the population as a whole. The model is applied to U.S. data for the period 1925-1995. "Although fertility rates are generally higher for women at the lower end of the educational distribution, this has had a negligible effect on the trend in average educational attainment. These fertility differences are neither large enough nor consistent enough to lower educational attainment. More important, high rates of intergenerational educational mobility almost completely offset the effects of differential fertility. Although black women have historically had more children than white women, fertility differences within and between the races have not had much effect impact on educational inequality between the races."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. D. Mare, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. E-mail: mare@ssc.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30582 Mensch, Barbara S.; Lloyd, Cynthia B. Gender differences in the schooling experiences of adolescents in low-income countries: the case of Kenya. Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 95, 1997. 82 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the school environment in Kenya and the ways it can help or hinder adolescents. We focus on gender differences with a view toward illuminating some of the factors that may present particular obstacles or opportunities for girls. The paper reviews what is known about schooling and adolescence, focusing on what the literature can tell us about the relationship between adolescent schooling and `successful' transitions to adulthood...."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30583 Pillai, Vijayan K.; Barton, Thomas; Benefo, Kofi. Sexual activity among junior secondary school girls in Zambia. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 3, Jul 1997. 297-301 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper proposes a causal model of sexual activity among a randomly selected sample of 305 Junior secondary school girls in Zambia. The results indicate that liberal sexual attitudes influence romantic involvement with boys. Emotional involvement is likely to result in sexual activity. Traditional courtship forms are slowly being replaced by modern patterns of courtship behaviour. Policy and programme implications are discussed."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of North Texas, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Denton, TX 76203-3826. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30584 Sandiford, P.; Cassel, J.; Sanchez, G.; Coldham, C. Does intelligence account for the link between maternal literacy and child survival? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 8, Oct 1997. 1,231-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effect of maternal intelligence on child health and looks at the degree to which it can explain the literacy associations with child survival and risk of malnutrition. The data are from a retrospective cohort study of 1,294 mothers and their 7,475 offspring [undertaken in Nicaragua]....Acquisition of literacy was strongly related to intelligence. Statistically significant associations with maternal literacy were found for under five mortality, infant mortality, and the risk of low mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) for age....Under five, child (one to four years), infant and post-neonatal mortality plus the risk of low height for age were significantly correlated with intelligence, but only with infant and under [five] mortality rates did the association remain significant after controlling for socio-economic factors....This study provides evidence that intelligence is an important determinant of child health among the illiterate, and that education may have the greatest impact on child health for mothers of relatively low intelligence."
Correspondence: P. Sandiford, Institute for Health Sector Development, 27 Old Street, London EC1V 9HL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

63:30585 Abbotts, Joanne; Williams, Rory; Ford, Graeme; Hunt, Kate; West, Patrick. Morbidity and Irish Catholic descent in Britain: an ethnic and religious minority 150 years on. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 1, Jul 1997. 3-14 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Ethnic and religious minorities often suffer disadvantages both in socio-economic status and in health. Data from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study suggest some differences in morbidity between those descended from Irish Catholic migrants of the great emigration from 1840 onwards and others....Higher proportions of `Catholics' are in manual social classes. Differences between `Catholics' and `non-Catholics' in one or more age cohorts are observed for [several] aspects of health and physical development....For [most] aspects...significant differences remain after accounting for sex and social class. For each measure where a difference is observed, it is those respondents with a Catholic parent or who were born Catholic who experience poorer health or physical development. This suggests that those of Irish Catholic descent are at some disadvantage compared with the rest of the population, with respect to health as well as social class, 150 years after the start of the main migration."
Correspondence: J. Abbotts, MRC Medical Sociology Unit, 6 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow G12 8RZ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30586 Bennett, Claudette. The black population in the United States: March 1996 (update). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 498, Jun 1997. 1 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This short report, updating the March 1995 report on the black population of the United States, summarizes major findings from the Current Population Survey. In accordance with Census Bureau policy to reduce the number of printed reports and instead provide more information in electronic format, the detailed tabulations will be updated annually, and are available on the World Wide Web (http://www.census.gov). A paper version of these tables is available for a fee on request.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, P.O. Box 277943, Atlanta, GA 30384-7943. E-mail: cbennett@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30587 Cohen, Yinon; Haberfeld, Yitchak. The number of Israeli immigrants in the United States in 1990. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 2, May 1997. 199-212 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper we estimate the size of several categories of `Israeli' immigrants in the United States. According to the 1990 U.S. census, there were about 95,000 Israeli-born immigrants in the United States in that year. Using the language and ancestry information available in the Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) of the 1990 census, we estimate that of this total, about 80,000 are Jews and 15,000 are Palestinian Arabs born in Israel. In addition to the Israeli-born, we present a range for the number of Jewish immigrants from Israel who are not Israeli-born (about 30,000-56,000). Thus our estimate for the total number of Jewish immigrants from Israel in the United States in 1990 is between 110,000 and 135,000. Fertility information available in the PUMS also enabled us to provide estimates for the number of second-generation Israelis in the United States in 1990 (about 42,000). Finally, using both the 1980 and 1990 PUMS, we provide estimates for the rate of return migration among Israeli-born Jewish immigrants in the United States."
Correspondence: Y. Cohen, Tel Aviv University, Department of Sociology, Tel Aviv, Israel. E-mail: yinonc@spirit.tau.ac.il. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30588 Dumortier, Brigitte. People of the Arab Middle East. [Les populations de l'Orient arabe.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1997. 119 pp. Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, U.F.R. de Géographie: Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This issue contains six papers on the populations of the Arab countries of Northern Africa and Western Asia. Apart from the two articles on the demographic situation and migration (which are cited elsewhere), there are also papers on the quality of life in Arab countries in general, state violence and urban growth in the Sudan, languages in the Lebanon, and the Kurds in Syria and Iraq.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, U.F.R. de Géographie, avenue Paul Langevin, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30589 Ericksen, Eugene P. Problems in sampling the Native American and Alaska Native populations. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Apr 1997. 43-59 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The goal of this paper is to identify key design choices a statistician must face when selecting a sample of [Native American and Alaska Native] populations, and to discuss alternative strategies. I also provide commentary on sampling plans that have been used for previous surveys, and explain why these plans, while sufficient for the purposes of their particular surveys, do not provide general solutions. Of particular importance is a careful definition of the study population....I conclude that there is no sampling strategy that is appropriate for all surveys, but also provide suggestions for certain survey situations."
Correspondence: E. P. Ericksen, Temple University, Department of Sociology (0-25-23), 12th and Berks Mall, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30590 Goldstein, Sidney; Goldstein, Alice. Lithuanian Jewry, 1993: a demographic and sociocultural profile. Jewish Population Studies, No. 28, ISBN 965-90154-1-0. 1997. xii, 115 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics of the Jewish population of Lithuania, developed using data from a survey of that population carried out in 1993. There are chapters on the history of Lithuanian Jewry, demographic characteristics, marriage and fertility, housing and family concerns, behavioral indicators of Jewish identity, going beyond Lithuania, and future prospects for this community.
Correspondence: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Gaster Building, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. E-mail: DATABANK@HUM.HUJI.AC.IL. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30591 Gregory, Robert G.; Abello, Annie C.; Johnson, Jamie. The individual economic well-being of Native American men and women during the 1980s: a decade of moving backwards. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Apr 1997. 115-45 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The study examines whether the income opportunities of Native Americans over the 1980s improved in response to stronger aggregate job growth or deteriorated in response to declining wage and employment opportunities, particularly for the less-skilled....The study concludes that the economic circumstances of Native American men and women further deteriorated relative to whites over the decade, chiefly due to the declining valuation given to Native American human capital, particularly for men....Almost all of the adverse movements in average hourly earnings against Native Americans can be attributed to changes in economy-wide hourly earnings structures (with the least-skilled being paid less), whereas the large fall in relative annual hours is due to changes specific to Native Americans."
Correspondence: R. G. Gregory, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Economics and Politics, Economics Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: rgg302@coombs.anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30592 Kalibová, Kveta. Population census and ethnic groups. Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 30, No. 1-2, 1995. 147-55 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng. with sum. in Cze.
The author discusses the difficulties involved in collecting data on nationality in population censuses, as well as problems of international comparability of such data. Examples are provided from the Czech and Slovak Republics, Europe, and selected immigration states, including the United States, Canada, and Australia.
Correspondence: K. Kalibová, Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Demography and Geodemography, Albertov 6, 12 843 Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30593 Kesteloot, Christian; van Weesep, Jan; White, Paul. Minorities in West European cities. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 88, No. 2, 1997. 97-195 pp. Royal Dutch Geographical Society [KNAG]: Utrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This special issue contains eight articles on issues concerning minority populations in West European cities. The table of contents is as follows. Foreigners in Brussels 1981-1991: spatial continuity and social change, by Christian Kesteloot and Herman van der Haegen. Pluralist and assimilationist models of ethnic settlement in London 1991, by Ceri Peach. Foreign residents, housing market and local government strategies, by Elke Tharun. Urban economic restructuring and ethnic segregation in Düsseldorf, by Günther Glebe. Ethnic segregation and the role of public housing in Amsterdam, by Sako Musterd and Rinus C. Deurloo. The geography of survival: household strategies in urban settings, by Henk Meert, Pascale Mistiaen, and Christian Kesteloot. Segregation in European cities: patterns and policies, by Sako Musterd, Wim Ostendorf and Matthijs Breebaart. Segregation, housing and ethnicity in Dutch cities, by Ronald van Kempen and Jan van Weesep.
Correspondence: Royal Dutch Geographical Society, P.O. Box 80123, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. E-mail: KNAG@FRW.RUU.NL. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30594 Maharidge, Dale. The coming white minority: California's eruptions and America's future. ISBN 0-8129-2289-1. 1996. xii, 331 pp. Times Books: New York, New York. In Eng.
This book discusses the implications of the fact that, sometime between the years 1998 and 2000, the point will come when whites will make up less than half of the total population of California; the author suggests that similar demographic changes are likely to occur in much of the rest of the United States in due course. The politics, trends, and events of the period 1992-1996 in California are discussed; the growing residential separation of the population by race and class is noted, as is the increasing potential for conflict posed by these changes. A positive, politically moderate approach to these challenges is encouraged. "Given the nature of American culture, the best that can be hoped for is a multiracial capitalist society without a white majority--one that has some compassion for ethnic differences and one (unlike present society) that allows all of its citizens to partake in economic benefits, essentially a form of free-market integration."
Correspondence: Times Books, Random House, 400 Hahn Road, Westminster, MD 21157. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30595 National Association of Hispanic Publications (Washington, D.C.); United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Hispanics--Latinos: diverse people in a multicultural society. A special report: second edition. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, 1995. iv, 40 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chartbook extends and updates a previous chartbook `Hispanic Americans Today' published in 1993 by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. This report, however, adds more detail about the diverse peoples that are of Hispanic or Latino origin using tabulations from the March 1994 Current Population Survey (CPS)....It includes information on the population distribution and composition, family, education, language and immigration, labor force, income, poverty, hospital insurance coverage and non-cash benefits, housing, business ownership, voting, elected officials, and imports and exports."
For the 1993 report referred to, see 59:40576.
Correspondence: National Association of Hispanic Publications, National Press Building, 529 14th Street NW, Suite 652, Washington, D.C. 20045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30596 Passel, Jeffrey S. The growing American Indian population, 1960-1990: beyond demography. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Apr 1997. 11-31 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Since 1960, the Native American population has exhibited explosive growth, increasing from 552,000 to 1,959,000, or 255 percent....This paper expands on previous work to illustrate with demographic techniques how such extraordinary growth was achieved through changing patterns of racial self-identification on the part of people with only partial or distant American Indian ancestry, coupled with relatively high fertility and improving mortality. It also provides some basic demographic background on the size, growth, and geographic structure of the American Indian population, while exploring both demographic and geographic underpinnings of the changing population."
Correspondence: J. S. Passel, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. E-mail: jpassel@ui.urban.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30597 Prins, C. J. M. Population born in Indonesia or in the former Dutch East-Indies. [In Indonesië of het voormalig Nederlands-Indië geboren bevolking.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 4, Apr 1997. 6-10 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The number of persons born in Indonesia or in the former Dutch East Indies and residing in the Netherlands decreases every year. This is primarily caused by ageing. Moreover, immigration from Indonesia has been at a relatively low level for many years. About 178 thousand persons born in Indonesia or in the former Dutch East Indies were living in the Netherlands on 1 January 1996." Information is included on parents' nationality, length of time in the Netherlands, migration policy, and spatial distribution.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30598 Ratcliffe, Peter. Ethnicity in the 1991 census. Volume Three. Social geography and ethnicity in Britain: geographical spread, spatial concentration and internal migration. 1996. viii, [307] pp. Office for National Statistics: London, England. In Eng.
This is the third in a planned series of four volumes presenting analyses of data from the ethnic group question included in the 1991 United Kingdom census. This volume has nine chapters by various authors organized into two parts. The first part examines issues at the national level such as spatial distribution, segregation, internal migration, and intergenerational differences in settlement patterns of ethnic minorities. The second part looks at the local dimension, with studies on London, the Midlands, and the Pennine cities.
Correspondence: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, P.O. Box 376, London SW8 5DT, England. Location: Stanford University Library, Stanford, CA. Source: APLIC Census Network List, No. 168, Dec-Jan, 1996-1997.

63:30599 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Sandefur, Gary D.; Cohen, Barney. Demography of American Indians and Alaska Natives. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Apr 1997. 192 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"American Indians trace their roots in the geographic area that now comprises the USA to an earlier point in time than any other racial or ethnic group, yet ironically, we know less about their current demographic and health situation than that of African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, or European Americans. This issue has two goals: first, to achieve a better understanding of the reasons for this relative paucity of knowledge, and second, to review and extend our knowledge of the contemporary demographic and health situation of American Indians....[The papers were] prepared for a workshop on the demography and health of American Indians, conducted by the National Research Council's Committee on Population in May 1995."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, Spuiboulevard 50, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30600 Saenz, Rogelio. Ethnic concentration and Chicano poverty: a comparative approach. Social Science Research, Vol. 26, No. 2, Jun 1997. 205-28 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"Chicanos represent one of the few racial and ethnic groups in this country that have experienced consistent increases in poverty since 1980 [but] little empirical and policy attention has focused on Chicano poverty and its areal variation across the nation. This research uses data from the 1990 Summary Tape File 4C (STF4C) to examine Chicano poverty in U.S. counties containing at least 500 Chicanos. Two hypotheses are examined: (1) there is a positive relationship between the relative size of the Chicano population and the group's poverty rate, and (2) this association is stronger in the Southwest. The results from multivariate analyses provide support for both hypotheses. For comparative purposes, the analysis is also conducted for Anglos and African Americans."
Correspondence: R. Saenz, Texas A & M University, Department of Rural Sociology, College Station, TX 77843-2125. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30601 Snipp, C. Matthew. The size and distribution of the American Indian population: fertility, mortality, migration, and residence. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Apr 1997. 61-93 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper is a descriptive analysis of the basic demographic characteristics that determine the size and distribution of the American Indian population. The data reported are obtained from the 1990 Census, the National Center for Health Statistics, and the Indian Health Service. Among the findings reported in this paper is that American Indians have higher levels of fertility than other groups, especially whites. Mortality due to accidents, diabetes, and alcohol-related illness is especially high for American Indians. And despite relatively high levels of residential mobility, the distribution of the American Indian population has been relatively stable since 1970."
Correspondence: C. M. Snipp, Stanford University, Department of Sociology, Building 120, Stanford, CA 94305. E-mail: snipp@leland.stanford.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30602 Thornton, Russell. Tribal membership requirements and the demography of "old" and "new" Native Americans. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Apr 1997. 33-42 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the twentieth-century population recovery of Native Americans with reference to urbanization, intermarriage, and differing definitions of the Native American population from census and tribal enrollment data. The recent increase in the Native American population reflected in regular U.S. decennial censuses since 1960 is discussed in terms of changing self-identification of individuals as `Native American'. Also discussed are criteria for enrollment in Native America tribes, particularly blood quantum requirements. Census enumerations are compared with tribal enrollment data, and it is illustrated that a large proportion of those identifying as `Native American' in the census are not enrolled in Native American tribes. Special attention is given to how Native American tribal enrollment criteria might impact future population size."
Correspondence: R. Thornton, University of California, Department of Anthropology, 341 Haines Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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