Volume 63 - Number 3 - Fall 1997

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration.

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

63:30403 Bopda, Athanase; Grasland, Claude. Regional nodes and territorial boundaries in Cameroon. Migration and population age structures in 1987. [Noyaux régionaux et limites territoriales au Cameroun. Migrations et structures par âge de la population en 1987.] In: Spatial analysis of biodemographic data, edited by Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel, Daniel Courgeau, and Denise Pumain. 1996. 187-224 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Using data from the 1987 census of Cameroon, the authors examine the spatial organization of age and sex structure and migration at the level of Cameroon's 49 departments. They focus on the similarities and differences between contiguous departments at the local level in order to map the regions where demographic similarities and exchange of population are greatest (regional nodes), and the boundaries separating areas of demographic dissimilarity and weak migratory exchange.
Correspondence: A. Bopda, Institut Français de Recherche pour le Développement en Coopération, B.P. 1857, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30404 Bredeloup, Sylvie. Migration dynamics and social reconstruction in West Africa. [Dynamiques migratoires et recompositions sociales en Afrique de l'ouest.] Mondes en Développement, Vol. 23, No. 91, 1995. 147 pp. Institut des Sciences Mathémathiques et Economiques Appliquées [ISMEA]: Paris, France; CECOEDUC: Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This special issue contains nine articles, eight of which are in French and one in English, on aspects of migration concerning Sub-Saharan Africa, with the focus on Senegal, Burkina Faso, and the Ivory Coast. There are articles on migration between the Ivory Coast and Senegal, the Senegalese in Cameroon, the Burkinabe in the Ivory Coast, and Africans in Paris and Marseilles (France), Andalusia (Spain), and Italy.
Correspondence: CECOEDUC, Avenue des Naiades 11, 1170 Brussels, Belgium. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30405 Castro Martignoni, Jorge. The measurement of the migratory phenomenon in the population census. Experiences of 1960-1990. [La captación del fenómeno migratorio en los censos de población. Experiencias 1960-1990.] Carta Económica Regional, Vol. 7, No. 38, Sep-Oct 1994. 27-34 pp. Guadalajara, Mexico. In Spa.
The author assesses the measurement of international and internal migration in the 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990 censuses of Mexico. Differences between questions included in the 1990 census and those in the earlier censuses are examined.
Correspondence: J. Castro Martignoni, Consejo Nacional de Población, Avenida Angel Urraza 1137, Col. Del Valle, C.P. 03100 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Stanford University Library, Stanford, CA.

63:30406 Coleman, David A. Migration as a primary force in demographic processes. [Le rôle majeur de la migration dans les processus démographiques.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 3. Apr 1997. 91-128 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Università degli Studi di Siena, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza: Siena, Italy. In Fre.
This study attempts to place modern migration patterns into the context of human migration behavior over the course of history. The author suggests that earlier migrations have had far more impact on human population than current migration trends, however significant these may seem to the modern observer.
This is a revised version of the English-language paper cited in 63:10452.
Correspondence: D. A. Coleman, University of Oxford, Department of Applied Social Studies, Barnett House, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2ER, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30407 Collins, William J. When the tide turned: immigration and the delay of the Great Black Migration. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 57, No. 3, Sep 1997. 607-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The hypothesis that nineteenth-century European immigration to the northern United States delayed the large-scale migration of blacks from the South to the North is examined using state- and city-level data. "The article suggests a Todaro-like interpretation of the Great Migration, which emphasizes the importance of job availability to blacks in determining their expected wages. The combination of mass European immigration and hiring practices that favored white immigrants over blacks may have delayed the Great Migration by decades."
Correspondence: W. J. Collins, Harvard University, Department of Economics, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30408 Darlu, Pierre; Degioanni, Anna; Zei, Gianna. Surnames and migration in human populations. [Patronymes et migration dans les populations humaines.] In: Spatial analysis of biodemographic data, edited by Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel, Daniel Courgeau, and Denise Pumain. 1996. 225-53 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors demonstrate the use of patronymic data for the study of relations among populations and migration. Various studies using French data, mostly historical, are presented and discussed.
Correspondence: P. Darlu, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, INSERM U155, Epidémiologie Génétique--Case 7041, Université Denis-Diderot, 75251 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30409 European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations (Utrecht, Netherlands). New migration in Europe: dilemmas of mobility and control. New Community, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1996. 197-[351] pp. Carfax Publishing: Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This special issue is devoted to articles on migration in Europe. Topics covered include migration in the twentieth century, future trends, migration policy options and limitations, and migration problems in selected European countries and regions.
Correspondence: Carfax Publishing, P.O. Box 25, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3UE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30410 Galtung, Johan. Global migration: a thousand years' perspective. In: Population and global security: environmental challenges II, edited by Nicholas Polunin and Mohammad Nazim. 1994. 141-53 pp. Foundation for Environmental Conservation: Geneva, Switzerland; Energy and Environment Society of Pakistan: Lahore, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author discusses trends in global migration. Aspects considered include increasing awareness of extreme differences in livelihood; the flow of massive migration; problems of entering underpopulated from overpopulated countries; directions of migrations; resultant population pressures; geopolitical realities and alternatives; recent ethnic movements; and counteracting migration pressures.
Correspondence: J. Galtung, Witten/Herdecke, 51 Bois Chatton, 01210 Versonnex (Ain), France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30411 Helliwell, John F. Convergence and migration among provinces. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 29, No. 2, Apr 1996. 324-30 pp. Downsview, Canada. In Eng.
"Have regional disparities in Canada changed over the past thirty years? This paper assesses the robustness of earlier findings of convergence in the levels and growth rates of provincial per capita GDP, and then estimates the extent to which interprovincial and international migration is being influenced by regional differences in incomes and employment."
Correspondence: J. F. Helliwell, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1W5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30412 Jiang, Zhenghua; Mi, Hong; Zhang, Yougan. An estimation of the out-migration from mainland China to Taiwan: 1946-1949. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1996. 403-19 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"With data from the 1953 Census and those from the 2% National Retrospective Sample Survey on Reproduction and Contraception, and using current demographic research methods, this study makes an estimation of the annual crude gender-specific and age-specific birth rate and mortality rate in mainland China in the period from early 1946 to the end of 1949. On the basis of the estimation, inverse projection--the latest method in historical demographic research--was made to provide a more accurate estimation of the population that out-migrated from mainland China to Taiwan in the 1946-1949 period. The result was then double-checked through comparison with the 1945-1955 demographic data of Taiwan province."
Correspondence: Z. Jiang, China's State Commission of Family Planning, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30413 Landry, Yves; Dickinson, John A.; Pasleau, Suzy; Desama, Claude. Migratory routes in Belgium and Quebec from the 17th to the 20th century. [Les chemins de la migration en Belgique et au Québec: XVIIe-XXe siècles.] ISBN 2-9803475-9-0. LC 95-227195. 1995. 287 pp. Academia-Erasme: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
This is a collection of 24 papers by various authors presented at a conference in Montreal on September 2 and 3, 1993. The papers are grouped into seven sections. The first, on migration and geographical itineraries, contains a paper on the relationship between mobility and migration. The second, on methodology, has papers on sources and methods for North American migration, spatial mobility in historical Quebec, and the use of names as a source for studying migration. The third, on migration and demographic behavior, has contributions on the French-Canadian gene pool, marriage and migration in Neuville, Irish migrants to Montreal, and professional structures in Quebec. The fourth section has papers on regional migration studies, and the fifth concerns labor migration. The sixth section has contributions on international and long-distance migration, and the seventh, on migration policy, contains a paper comparing Belgian and Canadian migration policy from 1901 to 1972.
Correspondence: Academia-Erasme, 25 Grand'Rue, Boîte 115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:30414 Michalos, Alex C. Migration and the quality of life: a review essay. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1997. 121-66 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper provides a review of the past 30 years of research on the relationships between migration or residential mobility and the quality of life broadly construed, mainly in Canada and the United States. In the final section a check-list of critical issues in quality-of-life research is given."
Correspondence: A. C. Michalos, University of Northern British Columbia, Faculty of Management and Administration, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia V2N 4Z9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30415 Michugina, A.; Rakhmaninova, M. National composition of migrants in the exchange of population between Russia and other countries. [Natsional'nyi sostav migrantov v obmene naseleniem mezhdu Rossiei i zarubezhnymi stranami.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 12, 1996. 44-8 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
This is an analysis of the ethnic composition of the migrant population between Russia and other former Soviet Union countries. Return migration and its causes are discussed. Some consideration is given to emigration to Western countries. Both legal and illegal migrations are examined.
Correspondence: A. Michugina, Goskomstat Russia, Izmailovskoe Shosse 44, 105679 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30416 Petit, Véronique. Society of origin and the logic of migration: the Dogon of Sangha (Mali). [Société d'origine et logiques migratoires: les Dogon de Sangha (Mali).] Population, Vol. 52, No. 3, May-Jun 1997. 515-43 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The migration system of the Dogon of Sangha (Mali) contains three components: a migration to agricultural lands in the Seno Gondo plain, an internal migration, and an international migration, the two latter being urban. The first of these migrations is an authentic colonizing movement and has to be analyzed in a socio-anthropological perspective, as a reflection of the organization of the extended family and the clan. Intense economic, religious and social exchanges take place between the villages of origin and those in the plain. The urban migrations, whether internal or international, are more individualistic. However, they should not be interpreted uniquely in economic terms, for although they do reflect a desire for personal gain, they are also the expression of a rejection by young people of the traditional social system in which men and elder sons monopolize power to the exclusion of young people and women. Migration is shown to have a heuristic value in revealing the functioning of the social system."
Correspondence: V. Petit, Université René Descartes (Paris V), Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Populations Africaines et Asiatiques, 28 rue Serpente, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30417 Poulain, Michel. Centralized population registers: an excellent tool for multi-level measurements. [Le registre de population centralisé: un excellent outil de mesure multi-niveaux.] In: Spatial analysis of biodemographic data, edited by Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel, Daniel Courgeau, and Denise Pumain. 1996. 63-77 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines centralized population registers as data sources for both individual (longitudinal) and aggregate (cross-sectional) studies of mobility. He suggests that because of the extent, coherence, and wealth of their data, they can profitably be used for various combinations of both types of study. As an example, he uses the Belgian national register to answer some questions about spatial mobility in a particular geographic zone.
Correspondence: M. Poulain, Université Catholique de Louvain, GEDAR, 28 rue du Fayt, 5150 Soye (Floreffe), Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

63:30418 Bade, Klaus J. From emigration to immigration: the German experience in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Central European History, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1995. 507-35 pp. Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author reviews the international migration experience of Germany in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. "Facing migration problems is a new and threatening experience to many Germans. Contemporary public debate has largely chosen to ignore the fact that throughout German history the movement of people across borders and the consequent clash of cultures was not the exception but the norm. It has also been forgotten that many native inhabitants are descendants of foreigners who immigrated to Germany, and that millions of German emigrants were strangers in foreign countries, just as many foreigners today are strangers in the united Germany."
Correspondence: K. J. Bade, University of Osnabrück, Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural Studies, 4500 Osnabrück, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30419 Baganha, Maria I. B. Passport registers: their limits and possibilities for the study of emigration. [Registros de pasaportes: sus limitaciones y sus posibilidades para el estudio de la emigración.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 11, No. 33, Aug 1996. 303-11 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"There are two main nominal sources of data on Portuguese emigration during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: the Rois de Confessados or Rois de Desobriga and the Livros de Registos de Passaportes....The major question regarding passport registers concerns the level of clandestine emigration. Thus a comparison with U.S. ship lists reveals two different pictures of Portuguese emigration [with regard to] sex ratio, occupations and age distribution. Data obtained point at a larger generalization: sources containing data on legal emigration only do not reflect `true' emigration in countries with important clandestine streams."
Correspondence: M. I. B. Baganha, Universidad de Coimbra, Paço das Escolas, 3000 Coimbra, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30420 Baily, Samuel. Possibilities and problems of linking nominal records to further the study of the Italian migration process. [Posibilidades y problemas del cruzamiento de registros nominativos en el estudio del proceso migratorio italiano.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 11, No. 33, Aug 1996. 269-85 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"[Based] on research on emigration from Agnone, Italy, to the United States and Argentina, the author analyzes the possibilities of linking different sources available at the countries of origin and destination, classified in three main groups: sources at origin, sources at destination and sources linking origin with destination. The members of an Agnone community in Pueblo, Colorado, are traced by using Agnone Census and Family Files, Agnone Passport Records, U.S. Census, Ships Passenger Lists and Naturalization Records, as well as interviews with members of the community."
Correspondence: S. Baily, Rutgers University, Department of History, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30421 Bean, Frank D.; Cushing, Robert G.; Haynes, Charles W.; Van Hook, Jennifer V. W. Immigration and the social contract. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 2, Jun 1997. 249-68 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"The specific purposes of this paper are (1) to develop a portrait of the recent major migration flows to the United States, (2) to assess their implications for the racial/ethnic composition of the U.S. population, and (3) to examine the economic context in which they have occurred. Our general goal is to try to explain not only why recent migration flows have come to be negatively perceived, but also why they appear increasingly to be seen as violating the prevailing sense of social contract in the United States." The authors conclude that "devising immigration policies that are fair as well as sensitive to their environmental, developmental, trade, and foreign-policy implications may prove difficult unless the public sense of economic security increases enough to strengthen what appears to be an increasingly fragile sense of social contract."
Correspondence: F. D. Bean, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30422 Bedford, Richard. International migration, 1995: some reflections on an exceptional year. New Zealand Journal of Geography, Oct 1996. 1-12 pp. Christchurch, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper examines the 1995 international migration statistics in the context of New Zealand's immigration policy, and with reference to the impact of migration on population change in 1995. Particular attention is focused on trying to unravel and interpret the statistics relating to net migration. Considerable confusion has arisen in the public debate about immigration because of uniformed and, at times, quite misleading use of information supplied by Statistics New Zealand and the Department of Labour....This is a reprinted version of an article originally published in the New Zealand Journal of Geography in April 1996. The article has been reprinted because a number of tables in the earlier version were incorrectly reproduced. Any inconvenience caused by this problem is regretted."
Correspondence: R. Bedford, University of Canterbury, New Zealand Geographical Society, Department of Geography, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30423 Bonifazi, Corrado; Ferruzza, Angela. Latin American women in Italy: a new reality of the international migration system. [Mujeres latinoamericanas en Italia: una nueva realidad del sistema de migraciones internacionales.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 11, No. 32, Apr 1996. 169-77 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
The authors examine characteristics of female migration from Latin America to Italy. Aspects considered include country of origin, fertility behavior, age, employment status, household characteristics, and marriage patterns.
Correspondence: A. Ferruzza, Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Via Cesare Balbo 16, 00184 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30424 Bourgey, André. Some remarks on migratory flows in the Middle-East. [Réflexions sur les flux migratoires au Moyen-Orient.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1997. 27-34 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Geopolitical issues and oil revenues account for the migratory movements in the Middle East. Since the end of the seventies individual immigration from Arab countries has been replaced by a massive Asian immigration. International work migrations are a main cause of social changes. They play an important role in the economic balance and have several geographical effects in both emigration and immigration countries."
Correspondence: A. Bourgey, Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales, 2 rue de Lille, 75343 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30425 Bouvier, Leon F.; Poston, Dudley L.; Zhai, Nanbin B. Population growth impacts of zero net international migration. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 2, Summer 1997. 294-311 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"In a country such as the United States, the contribution of net international migration to overall population change overshadows the contribution of natural increase....Some analysts have assumed that if the same number of people leave and enter the country each year, then the effect of net international migration will be zero. This article examines that assumption and shows that it is fallacious. Examining the direct, indirect, total, and negative demographic impacts of zero net international migration through simulations with demographic data, we demonstrate that zero net international migration is not the same and therefore does not have the same demographic results and implications as zero international migration. We conclude that zero net international migration should not be confused with zero international migration."
Correspondence: L. F. Bouvier, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30426 Brown, Richard P. C.; Foster, John. Remittances and savings in migrant-sending countries. Pacific Economic Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 2, Dec 1994. 27-34 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The authors "find that the official aggregate data on remittances, income and savings provide a highly misleading picture of the actual extent and forms of such flows and their uses. Their work indicates very little support for the remittance decay hypothesis. Instead, data demonstrate that remittance levels do not decline with length of absence away from the migrant's home country and a significant factor for migrants to remit is the accumulation of assets and investment in the home country. These findings open the way for Pacific island governments to increase and manage the flows of remittances to the benefit of their economies."
Correspondence: R. P. C. Brown, University of Queensland, Department of Economics, St. Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30427 Carling, Jørgen. International labour migration: consequences for countries of origin. Human Geography Occasional Paper, No. 21, 1996. 76 pp. University of Oslo, Department of Sociology and Human Geography: Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"In this paper I will give an overview of how contemporary international labour migration can affect the country of origin....[My approach] is to explore what effects are possible and who gains and profits under varying circumstances." Aspects considered include remittances, regional disparities and rural-urban migration, employment and production, family and gender, human capital, and political implications.
Correspondence: University of Oslo, Department of Sociology and Human Geography, P.O. Box 1096 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30428 Center for Immigration Studies (Washington, D.C.). Immigration-related statistics--1997. Backgrounder, No. 3-97, Jul 1997. 28 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This Backgrounder has been prepared to provide the reader with a ready reference for immigration-related statistics. Data are taken from a variety of sources. In some cases the numbers are estimates, as is necessary to project future demographic and population changes or the number of illegal immigrants....In addition to raw immigration numbers, some fiscal cost data related to immigration are included...." The focus is on the United States, with selected global data provided for comparative purposes.
Correspondence: Center for Immigration Studies, 1522 K Street NW, Suite 820, Washington, D.C. 20005-1202. E-mail: center@cis.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30429 Cizmic, Ivan. Emigration and emigrants from Croatia between 1880 and 1980. GeoJournal, Vol. 38, No. 4, Apr 1996. 431-6 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Croatia ranks among those parts of Europe which have taken very high part in all forms of emigration flows in almost all periods of the last few centuries. The emigration from Croatia was caused by different reasons, such as historical, political, national, religious, social and other. It started in the 16th century and has been going on more or less intensively in different historical periods up to now....We would like to emphasize that the problem of emigration was and is still actual for the Croatian nation, especially in view of the fact that emigration from Croatia did not stop and continues up to this day."
Correspondence: I. Cizmic, Institute for Applied Social Research, Zagreb, Croatia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:30430 Corten, André; Duarte, Isis. Five hundred thousand Haitians in the Dominican Republic. Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 3, Summer 1995. 94-110 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
The authors discuss reasons that "the number of Haitians and of Dominicans of Haitian descent in the Dominican Republic has almost doubled in the past 10-15 years, despite the expulsion order of June 1991 and the fact that, more than ever, migration takes place within a Caribbean-United States context....The presence of 500,000 Haitians and Dominico-Haitians on Dominican soil does not correspond to classical migration dynamics. It reflects the economic and political relations between the two countries, relations of undifferentiation that include the persistence of smuggling between the two countries. Suggesting a figure like this permits a better understanding of the Haitian question, which in turn may help identify the obstacles to a formalization of relations--political differentiation."
Correspondence: A. Corten, Université du Québec, C.P. 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30431 de Beer, J. International migration: backgrounds and developments. [Internationale migratie: recente ontwikkelingen, achtergronden en veronderstellingen over de toekomst.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 3, Mar 1997. 12-29 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Net migration [in the Netherlands] has fluctuated strongly during the past decades. In 1983 net migration (including net administrative corrections) was almost zero. In the early 1990s net migration rose to almost 50 thousand per year. In 1994 net migration dropped sharply to a level of 20 thousand, followed by a further decrease in 1995. In 1996 there was a moderate increase. One cause of the strong decline in immigration in the mid-1990s may be the increasingly strict immigration policy. Another explanation of fluctuations in immigration is the business cycle. A regression analysis for the period 1973-1995 shows that there is a negative relationship between immigration of non-Dutch nationals and the unemployment rate in the Netherlands and a positive relationship between emigration and the unemployment rate."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30432 Djajic, Slobodan. Illegal immigration and resource allocation. International Economic Review, Vol. 38, No. 1, Feb 1997. 97-117 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper studies the effects of illegal immigration and the associated expansion of the underground economy on the allocation of resources, commodity prices, and wages of workers, both in the short run (when occupational mobility is restricted) and in the long run (when the skill-composition of the labor force is endogenous). The paper goes on to consider some of the fiscal implications of illegal immigration and the related expansion of underground activity. Effects of sanctions against employers hiring illegal aliens and measures to legalize the status of clandestine foreign workers are also examined." The geographical focus is on developed countries, primarily the United States and Europe.
Correspondence: S. Djajic, Graduate Institute of International Studies, 24 rue Rothschild, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30433 Drbohlav, Dusan. The probable future of European "East-West" international migration. [Pravdepodobný vývoj evropské mezinárodní migrace "Východ-Západ"] Sborník Ceské Geografické Spolecnosti, Vol. 100, No. 2, 1995. 92-106 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
Probable future trends in East-West migration in Europe are examined using data from a two-stage survey of 109 European scholars and administrators. The opinions of those surveyed are summarized concerning the determinants of future migration, migration types and components, volumes and timings of migrations, and regional differences. Their recommendations for changes in migration policy in both sending and receiving countries are included.
Location: Indiana University Library, Bloomington, IN.

63:30434 Durand, Jorge. New scenarios for Mexican immigration to the United States. [Les nouveaux scénarios de l'immigration mexicaine aux Etats-Unis.] Revue Tiers Monde, Vol. 38, No. 150, Apr-Jun 1997. 359-69 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The economic changes that occurred in Mexico during the 1980s are described and their implications for emigration assessed. The author notes the concentration of economic development and population movement toward the area bordering the United States, and the growing impoverishment of much of the rest of the country, which is leading to either pressure to emigrate or to civil unrest. He observes that the United States has been attempting to limit emigration while economic pressures favoring emigration have been increasing.
Correspondence: J. Durand, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30435 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Fu, Haishan. An analysis of English-language proficiency among U.S. immigrants. American Sociological Review, Vol. 62, No. 2, Apr 1997. 288-305 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We examine factors that influence the process by which foreign-born persons whose mother tongue is not English acquire English-language proficiency. We argue that the determinants of English-language proficiency include cultural and other traits that U.S. immigrants acquire either at birth or while growing up in their home countries, the human capital and other endowments they possess at the time they migrate to the United States, and the skills and other experiences they accumulate after their arrival in this country. Based on data from the November 1989 Current Population Survey, our results confirm that both pre- and post-immigration phases of the life cycle contain elements that are associated with how well immigrants to the United States speak English."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30436 Filho, João L. Immigrants from Cape Verde to Portugal. [Inmigrantes caboverdianos en Portugal.] Arbor, Vol. 154, No. 607, Jul 1996. 151-70 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author analyzes the Cape Verde community in Portugal. Aspects considered include the routes taken by migrants, their modes of organization, places of refuge, lifestyle, employment, leisure time, and behavior. Strategies of social assimilation developed by the migrants are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30437 Franz, Wolfgang. International migratory movements: the German experience. Nota di Lavoro, No. 12.93, 1993. 24 pp. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei: Milan, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"This paper is concerned with the experience of the Federal Republic of Germany with migratory movements. It presents, firstly, quantitative magnitudes and describes some institutional regulations concerning the immigration and remigration of foreign workers, including some remarks on more recent developments. Secondly, an econometric analysis of economic determinants of inflows and outflows is carried out taking into account several legal regulations. Thirdly, simulation experiments with a macroeconometric rationing model may highlight some effects of migration on the German economy."
Correspondence: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, via S. Sofia 27, 20122 Milan, Italy. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30438 Gabaccia, Donna R. The U.S. census: source for an international history of immigrant women, family, and gender? [El censo de los Estados Unidos: ┐fuente para una historia internacional de mujeres inmigrantes, familia y genero?] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 11, No. 33, Aug 1996. 249-68 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The author discusses the fruitful use of nominal lists for a gendered analysis of international migration. [U.S.] studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s produced interesting information as to female work for wages outside the home, but found the census a flawed source for work done by women within their homes. Combination with other nominal sources [has revealed] the role played by women in the organization and maintenance of kin and neighborhood networks. The approach to the Italian diaspora abroad requires the linkage of different nominal sources at origin and in the different places of destination."
Correspondence: D. R. Gabaccia, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC 28223. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30439 Garnier, Philippe. International trade in services: a growing trend among highly skilled migrants with special reference to Asia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1996. 367-97 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"An essential component of trade in services is cross-border movements of service providers....On the one hand, there are international movements of skilled transients who emigrate for individual reasons in a long term perspective. On the other hand, there are skilled temporary migrants who perform services abroad without the intention or right to settle or seek employment in the host country. This study aims to clarify these differences using the example provided by the Asian Pacific region. Moreover, this study shows that the dynamics of skilled international migration is largely determined by the circulatory movement of skills of international service providers and has emerged as an essential component of economic development strategy of the countries in the region."
Correspondence: P. Garnier, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30440 González Martínez, Elda E.; Giobellina Brumana, Fernando. Immigration to Spain in the 1990s. [La inmigración en la España de los 90.] Arbor, Vol. 154, No. 607, Jul 1996. 170 pp. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This special issue contains articles on aspects of immigration to Spain in the 1990s. Articles are included on European immigrants, migration from and to Latin America, Portuguese and African migrants, sociocultural aspects of Moroccan migration, and the integration of migrants and multiculturalism.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Vitruvio 8, Madrid 28006, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30441 González Martínez, Elda E. Spaniards in America and Latin Americans in Spain: both sides of a phenomenon. [Españoles en América e iberoamericanos en España: cara y cruz de un fenómeno.] Arbor, Vol. 154, No. 607, Jul 1996. 15-33 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author examines recent trends in Spanish migration to Latin America, Central Europe, and Africa, as well as the corresponding movement of Latin Americans to Spain.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30442 Gupta, Manash R. Immigration in less developed countries: a theoretical note. Journal of Economic Integration, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep 1994. 416-25 pp. Seoul, Republic of Korea. In Eng.
"The effects of an inflow of immigrant labour force on unemployment and social welfare are analyzed in a Harris-Todaro economy. It is shown that an inflow of immigrant labour force lowers unemployment, improves the income-distribution and raises the social welfare if there is perfect capital-mobility between the urban sector and the rural sector. But the results will be opposite to these in the non-shiftable capital model."
Correspondence: M. R. Gupta, Jadavpur University, Department of Economics, Calcutta 700 032, West Bengal, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30443 Gutiérrez, David G. Between two worlds: Mexican immigrants in the United States. Jaguar Books on Latin America, No. 15, ISBN 0-8420-2473-5. LC 95-26564. 1996. xxvii, 271 pp. Scholarly Resources: Wilmington, Delaware. In Eng.
This is an anthology of previously published papers by various authors on aspects of Mexican immigration to the United States. The 11 papers included are organized under three headings: historical antecedents, political and cultural contestation, and contemporary perspectives. This last section includes the following three papers: U.S. immigration policy toward Mexico in a global economy, by Saskia Sassen. Implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement for Mexican migration into the United States, by Dolores Acevedo and Thomas J. Espenshade. Mexican migration and the social space of postmodernism, by Roger Rouse.
Correspondence: Scholarly Resources, 104 Greenhill Avenue, Wilmington, DE 19805-1897. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30444 Hezel, Francis X.; Levin, Michael J. New trends in Micronesian migration: FSM migration to Guam and the Marianas, 1990-1993. Pacific Studies, Vol. 19, No. 1, Mar 1996. 91-114 pp. Laie, Hawaii. In Eng.
"On the basis of...survey data for Guam and the CNMI [Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands], this article will provide a comparative view of the characteristics of the FSM [Federated States of Micronesia] migrant populations and their economic well-being in these two destinations. Moreover, this article offers, for the first time, a comparison between the educational attainments of migrants and those of the population still resident in the FSM in order to establish whether the vaunted `brain drain' is reality or myth. Finally, drawing on data from the 1994 FSM census, the article also quantifies the economic impact of this migration on the FSM in the form of remittances."
Correspondence: M. J. Levin, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30445 Hoffmann, Eivind. Administrative records and surveys as basis for statistics on international labour migration. International Statistical Review/Revue Internationale de Statistique, Vol. 65, No. 2, Aug 1997. 221-46 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper discusses possible sources for statistics to be used for describing and analysing the number, structure, situation, development and impact of migrant workers. The discussion is focused on key, intrinsic features of the different sources, important for the understanding of their strengths and weaknesses, and draws the reader's attention to features which may tend to undermine the quality of statistics produced as well as ways in which the impact of such features can be evaluated and, if possible, reduced....The paper is organized around three key groups of migrant workers: (a) Persons who are arriving in a country to work there, i.e. the inflow of foreign workers; (b) Persons who are leaving their country to find work abroad, i.e. the outflow of migrant workers; [and] (c) Stock of foreign workers in the country."
Correspondence: E. Hoffmann, International Labour Office, Bureau of Statistics,1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30446 Hung Hui, Juan. Chinese immigration to the Caribbean. [La immigración china en el Caribe.] Cuadernos Americanos, Vol. 4, No. 58, Jul-Aug 1996. 193-216 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author investigates the reasons for the large number of Chinese living in the Caribbean, with a focus on economic explanations. The impact on the region's social and economic characteristics is considered.
Correspondence: J. Hung Hui, Tamkang University, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30447 Jacobson, David. Rights across borders: immigration and the decline of citizenship. ISBN 0-8018-5150-5. LC 95-16657. 1996. x, 181 pp. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
This study looks at the growing concept of international human rights, as opposed to human rights within nations. In particular, it examines how modern states are handling the transnational challenges posed by international migration. It also addresses the institutional changes taking place within states, international organizations, and nongovernmental entities. After discussing the development of migration policies designed to control international migration, illegal immigration, and guest workers, the author argues that international migration is steadily eroding citizenship, which is the traditional basis for nation-state membership. Increasingly, he notes, rights are being claimed based on residency rather than citizenship, and this trend is strengthening the development of the idea of international human rights. The geographical focus is on Western Europe and the United States.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4319. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:30448 Kennedy, David M. Can we still afford to be a nation of immigrants? Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 278, No. 5, Nov 1996. 52-68 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Current trends in U.S. immigration are compared to the situation in the late nineteenth century, another period of large-scale immigration to the United States. "With respect to immigration...I intend to explore two sets of questions. Why did people migrate to America in the past, and what were the consequences, for them and for American society, once they landed? Why are people migrating to America today, and what might be the consequences, for them and for American society, of their presence in such numbers?" The author concludes with some thoughts on the political and cultural implications of the increasing population of Mexican origin in the southwestern states.
Correspondence: D. M. Kennedy, Stanford University, Department of History, Stanford, CA 94305-2024. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

63:30449 Kim, Joon Kium. An international labour migration to developing countries in Asia: a case study of Korea. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 25, No. 2, Dec 1996. 287-332 pp. Seoul, Republic of Korea. In Eng.
"Unlike the past labour migration from underdeveloped to developed regions of the world, the recent labour migration to developing countries in Asia reveals that the illegalization of foreign labourers is an integral part of their temporary labour importation schemes. Based on a survey research in Korea, this paper points out the inadequacies of existing labour migration theories in explaining labour migration to developing countries in Asia, identifies unique features of labour migration to developing countries, and brings to light specific state strategies for maintaining control over both legal and illegal labourers."
Correspondence: J. K. Kim, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30450 Lalonde, Robert J.; Topel, Robert H. Economic impact of international migration and the economic performance of migrants. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 799-850 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In the following section of this chapter, we begin by documenting the numbers and characteristics of international migrants to selected developed countries. We next survey some of the economic factors motivating international migration. We find empirical research on the determinants of international migration lags far behind work on the determinants of domestic migration. In light of this, we devote a larger portion of this section to examining how developed countries' regulatory policies affect the composition of their immigrant populations. Section 3 examines the impact of immigration on the receiving country's labor markets....In Section 4, we examine the extent to which immigrants `assimilate' to the receiving country's labor market....Finally, in Section 5, we survey several studies of immigrants' effects on the social welfare system." The primary geographic focus is on the experiences of Australia, Canada, and the United States.
Correspondence: R. J. Lalonde, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30451 Lapinski, John S.; Peltola, Pia; Shaw, Greg; Yang, Alan. The polls--trends: immigrants and immigration. Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 61, No. 2, Summer 1997. 356-83 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This report summarizes attitudes and opinions in the United States concerning aspects of immigration based on searches of survey archives and both published and unpublished sources. It includes information on attitudes toward legal and illegal immigrants and toward immigrants from different countries, evaluation of immigrant characteristics, why Americans are reluctant to admit more immigrants, the perceived impact of immigrants on U.S. culture and language, and evaluation of immigration policies. Particular attention is given to attitudes and opinions on immigration in California.
Correspondence: J. S. Lapinski, Columbia University, Department of Political Science, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:30452 Li, Xiaoxiong. Economic reform, social change, and illegal Chinese emigrants. Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 5, No. 11, 1996. 93-104 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Focusing on current human smuggling operations in China, this article analyzes and attempts to explain the background of illegal Chinese emigrant activities. It argues that, contrary to the common representation of these illegal emigrants as hopeless, destitute people who have no choice but to flee from their country, in truth many are young people driven by restlessness and ambition, from various social origins. Recent political, economic, and social reforms within China provide those dreaming of a better life in foreign countries the opportunity to leave."
Correspondence: X. Li, Plymouth State College, Social Science Department, Plymouth, NH 03264. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30453 Lobo, Arun P.; Salvo, Joseph J. Immigration to New York City in the '90s: the saga continues. Migration World, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1997. 14-7 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The author examines recent immigration flows to New York City, with a focus on their impact on the city's population. Information is included on immigrants by area of the world and country of birth, demographic characteristics, and migration law.
Correspondence: A. P. Lobo, New York City Department of City Planning, 22 Reade Street, New York, NY 10007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30454 López Trigal, Lorenzo. Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking Africans migrating to Spain. [Portugueses y africanos lusoparlantes en la inmigración en España.] Arbor, Vol. 154, No. 607, Jul 1996. 91-102 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The recent migration of Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking Africans to Spain is analyzed. Particular attention is given to migrants originally from Cape Verde.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30455 Lututala, Mumpasi B. Expanding the lebensraum of Africans: how the "country of European uncles" also became the country of African nephews. [L'élargissement de l'espace de vie des Africains: comment le "pays des oncles" européens devient aussi celui des neveux africains.] Revue Tiers Monde, Vol. 38, No. 150, Apr-Jun 1997. 333-46 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author analyzes migration from Africa to the developed countries of the north, focusing on the underlying logic and methods of such migration. He suggests that Africans see migration to the northern countries as a survival strategy and as an attempt to integrate themselves into the world economic system. The methods employed by African migrants to circumvent the increasing efforts to limit their numbers are described, with a focus on their use of regulations designed to aid the reunification of families. The author suggests that rich countries may have a moral obligation to allow migration from Africa, since its causes lie in the history of colonialism and the present and past exploitation of the developing countries by those of the north.
Correspondence: M. B. Lututala, Université de Kinshasa, Département de Démographie, B.P. 176, Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of Congo. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30456 Mac Laughlin, Jim. Emigration and the peripheralization of Ireland in the global economy. Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, Spring 1994. 243-73 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"This paper critiques behavioral and geographical explanations of new wave Irish emigration. It suggests that the former traces emigration to the aspirations and social attributes of Irish young adults, thereby locating its causes and consequences in Irish youth enterprise culture. The latter explains emigration in simple geographical terms, attributing it to locational factors and Ireland's peripherality relative to the European Community. This paper adopts a world-system perspective, arguing that Irish emigration can be traced to the peripheral status of the Irish economy, in the global economy....It suggests that world-system theory allows for a political geography of emigration by recognizing the centrality of place to the process of emigration. It also stresses the importance of emigration in the construction and destruction of socio-economic space."
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30457 Martin, Jack; Garling, Scipio. Behind the curtain: Julian Simon's manipulation of immigration studies. Population and Environment, Vol. 18, No. 6, Jul 1997. 533-59 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The Cato Institute-published study by Julian Simon, Immigration: The Demographic and Economic Facts (1995), is a fifty page amalgam of Simon's analysis, extracts from studies by other immigration researchers, and tables and charts that might intimidate some readers into believing that it is a work of original scholarship and represents new academic research findings on the effects of immigration. Rather it is a repackaging of arguments and selective earlier data, often out of date or meaningless because of the way that it is selected and manipulated....To substantiate the conclusion...that policymakers, opinion shapers, and the public should shun Simon's argumentation--we will take a detailed look at Simon's deceptions and misrepresentations."
Correspondence: J. Martin, FAIR, 1666 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30458 Mazza, Isidoro; van Winden, Frans. A political economic analysis of labor migration and income redistribution. Public Choice, Vol. 88, No. 3-4, Sep 1996. 333-63 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"We present a two-country political economic model of income redistribution with internationally mobile labor. Migration can be exogenous and/or endogenous (i.e., determined by labor income differentials). Political influence is determined by the size and homogeneity of the groups, where the latter can be affected by immigration. We show that immigration can increase the transfers to, and the income of, the mobile group. We also investigate the possibility of migration regulation, tax-transfer policy competition and coordination and, finally, coordination of regulation policies. It is shown that the selection of any of those regimes will depend on the particular distribution of political influence among the relevant social groups in the two countries."
Correspondence: I. Mazza, University of Amsterdam, CREED and Tinbergen Institute, Roetersstraat 11, 1018 WD Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30459 Morozova, Galina F. Emigration--a real threat to the country's future. Sociological Research, Vol. 36, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1997. 81-91 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
In the period 1990-1994, more than half a million people emigrated from Russia. This trend is analyzed and its consequences for Russia considered. The author notes that more than half the emigrants are of working age, almost one-third are children, and that the highly skilled and well-educated are overrepresented. The case is made for social and economic reforms that would decrease the attraction of emigration. This article was originally published in Obshchestvennye Nauki i Sovremennost', No. 3, 1996.
Correspondence: G. F. Morozova, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Sociopolitical Sciences, Center for Demography, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30460 Morris, Lydia. A cluster of contradictions: the politics of migration in the European Union. Sociology, Vol. 31, No. 2, May 1997. 241-59 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to explore the contradictions inherent in policy approaches to migration in the EU--the logic of the market is weighed against welfare protectionism; welfare and labour market regulation against demands for cheap labour; national resource concerns against transnational rights. The outcome is presented in terms of an increasingly complex system of civic stratification, which raises a further set of contradictions; discriminatory exclusion alongside assertions of equal treatment. The implications of these cross-cutting pressures for a sociological understanding of migration are considered throughout, and doubt is cast on the validity of any single overarching perspective."
Correspondence: L. Morris, University of Essex, Department of Sociology, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30461 Münz, Rainer. A continent of migration: European mass migration in the twentieth century. New Community, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1996. 201-26 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article gives an overview of the size and geography of migration to and within Europe. Changing causes, patterns and trends of international migration, as well as key periods, are discussed. It also analyses the composition of foreign resident populations in Europe. The article covers the second half of the twentieth century. Different types of mass migration as well as links between particular sending and receiving countries are analysed. The article also looks at public opinion concerning ethnocentric attitudes and the number of foreigners in Europe. Finally, policy options are discussed."
Correspondence: R. Münz, Humboldt-Universität, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30462 O'Lear, Shannon. Migration and the environment: a review of recent literature. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 2, Jun 1997. 606-18 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"The purpose of this essay is to review recent literature that deals with the mutual impacts of international migration and the environment, with specific attention to the United States." Separate consideration is given to environmental problems as a cause of emigration and to the impact of immigration on the environment in the United States.
Correspondence: S. O'Lear, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30463 Ouédraogo, Dieudonné. Afro-European migrations: the need for co-management. [Les migrations afro-européennes: l'indispensable cogestion.] Revue Tiers Monde, Vol. 38, No. 150, Apr-Jun 1997. 347-57 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author analyzes contemporary international migration from Africa to Europe from an African perspective, and assesses its implications for the development strategies of the countries of origin. In order for the current situation to be improved, he stresses the need for cooperation between the governments of both sending and receiving countries, and suggests that helping migrants to return to their countries of origin is preferable to helping them settle permanently in the country of destination. Ways to reduce the motivation to emigrate in the first place are also examined.
Correspondence: D. Ouédraogo, CNRST, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30464 Palazon Ferrando, Salvador. Latin Americans in Spain (1981-1994). Estimation of a recent migratory phenomenon. [Latinoamericanos en España (1981-1994). Aproximación a un fenómeno migratorio reciente.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 11, No. 32, Apr 1996. 179-210 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
The author analyzes characteristics of Latin American migration to Spain during the period 1981-1994. Aspects considered include causes of the increase of Latin American migration to Spain; policies limiting migration to Spain; spatial distribution and sex of immigrants; labor force activity; and country of origin.
Correspondence: S. Palazon Ferrando, Universidad de Alicante, Departamento Geografía Humana, San Vicente del Raspeig, 03690 Alicante, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30465 Peach, Ceri. Postwar migration to Europe: reflux, influx, refuge. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 2, Jun 1997. 269-83 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The author presents a general analysis of migration trends in Europe from 1945 to 1993, a period during which about 31 million migrants and refugees crossed international borders in Western Europe. "The essence of the account is that the first phase was one of reflux: an ethnic European retreat from colonisation (typified by Germans from Slavic lands, French from North Africa, Dutch from Indonesia, and British from their colonies). The second was influx: worker immigration caused by expanding economies and aging populations (typified by Turks to Germany, Algerians to France, West Indians and Indians to Britain). The third is overflow and refuge: the flight of refugees and asylum seekers into Europe (typified first by Iranians and North Africans fleeing the Islamic revolutions and second by eastern Europeans fleeing the breakup of the former socialist bloc)."
Correspondence: C. Peach, Oxford University, School of Geography, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30466 Perea, Juan F. Immigrants out! The new nativism and the anti-immigrant impulse in the United States. ISBN 0-8147-6627-7. LC 96-25258. 1997. xv, 342 pp. New York University Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies by various authors giving an interdisciplinary review of nativism, or anti-immigrant attitudes, in the United States. The 18 contributions are divided into six parts. "Part I introduces the twin themes developed throughout this book, the historical context that enables an understanding of present nativism, and the critical assessment of the symbolism and langauge of our discourse on nativism, immigration, and citizenship....Part II identifies the new nativism, its features and effects....Part III discusses the complex causation of the nativism....Part IV places the new nativism in historical context, enabling striking comparisons between what we know to have been nativism before and what we can confidently identify as nativism now....Part V discusses the new nativism and the significance of borders, national and ideological....The final part analyzes the discourse of nativism, citizenship, and community membership in the United States."
Correspondence: New York University Press, 70 Washington Square South, New York, NY 10012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30467 Ramírez Goicoechea, Eugenia. European immigrants. The near distance. [Inmigrantes europeos. La distancia próxima.] Arbor, Vol. 154, No. 607, Jul 1996. 65-89 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The characteristics of Eastern European migrants to Spain are examined in this study, which looks at their migration history, occupation, cultural background, and self-identification as Europeans.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30468 Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. International migration and international trade. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 851-87 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This chapter attempts to combine the literature concerning international trade and international migration into a consistent analytical framework. "Section 2 explains how different trade models account for either substitution or complementarity patterns between labor mobility and commodity trade....In Section 3 we analyze some dissimilarities between capital mobility and labor mobility, which can break down the substitution between the flows of labor and capital driven by the underlying international distribution of relative endowments....Section 4 [presents] a benchmark framework in which all people are treated alike. This framework enables us to characterize the global dispersion of population. Section 5 identifies welfare gains and losses to the major participants in the migration process....Section 6 considers a two-skill model within which we examine the role of wage rigidity in explaining resistance towards inmigration. Section 7 considers the social burden brought by migration onto the modern welfare state, as another important anti-migration force. Section 8 concludes our survey."
Correspondence: A. Razin, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69 978 Tel Aviv, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30469 Reitz, Jeffrey G.; Sklar, Sherrilyn M. Culture, race, and the economic assimilation of immigrants. Sociological Forum, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1997. 233-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The economic assimilation of European-origin immigrants is fairly rapid but selectively culture contingent; the economic assimilation of racial minority immigrants is less rapid and less culture contingent. Regression analysis of survey data examines occupational status and earnings effects of eight ethnic attachments among men and women in seven ethnic and racial minorities in mainstream and enclave employment in Toronto (N=1,792), controlling for foreign and domestically acquired human capital. Assimilationist pressures that the survey showed to be widely perceived may apply more to Europeans than to racial minorities. Economic assimilation is affected when `forgiveness' is most pronounced: very selectively for European immigrants and universally for racial minorities treated as `foreign', presumably based on skin color, regardless of specific culture, identity, behaviors, or network affiliations."
Correspondence: J. G. Reitz, University of Toronto, Centre for Industrial Relations, 121 St. George Street, Toronto M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30470 Richards, D. G. Household migration in the Southern Cone: the case of Paraguay. Applied Economics, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan 1996. 87-95 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The phenomenon of individual migration from Paraguay to Argentina is examined. This work differentiates itself from the substantial literature that already exists on Latin American migration in three important ways. First, it focuses particular attention on the issue of urban-urban as compared to rural-rural or rural-urban migration. Second, the data examined are derived from household interviews rather than from national censuses. The database for the study is a set of over 1,200 interviews conducted with Paraguayan families from September 1983 to May 1984. Half of the sample consists of families residing in Asunción, Paraguay and half of families residing in Buenos Aires. A one-equation logistic regression model is specified that discriminates between the two samples as a function of demographic and occupational variables."
Correspondence: D. G. Richards, Indiana State University, Department of Economics, Terre Haute, IN 47802. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30471 Romaniszyn, Krystyna. The invisible community: undocumented Polish workers in Athens. New Community, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1996. 321-33 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article describes the development of an economic migration from Poland to Greece and the creation of a migrant community in Athens. It presents the development of a new migration route by political immigrants. It then describes how the Polish political emigrants heading for Greece in the mid-1980s established the pillar institutions which were inherited by the Polish undocumented workers who have followed, and which have served the latter well. The article proceeds to highlight the work milieu of the Polish undocumented workers in Athens, and discusses the role played by the `Polish church', i.e., the Roman Catholic church to which Poles were given access. It concludes by considering the future prospects of this migration and of the Polish migrant community in Greece."
Correspondence: K. Romaniszyn, Jagiellonian University, Institute of Sociology, Golebia 24, 31-007 Kraków, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30472 Samers, Michael. The production of diaspora: Algerian emigration from colonialism to neo-colonialism (1840-1970). Antipode, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan 1997. 32-64 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper is part of a larger project investigating the production and regulation of North African immigrants in the greater Paris automobile industry. Its aims are twofold. First, to reverse the emphasis placed on immigrants in the receiving countries and to (re-)explore the historical production of Algerian emigration into metropolitan industry, more specifically within the automobile industry....Second, in adopting an `articulation of modes of production' (AMOP) narrative as an alternative to other Eurocentric approaches, the first part of this paper emphasizes the contradictory layering of various modes which have produced an Algerian colonial diaspora. The latter half of the paper argues that the history of post-independence Algeria confirms that emigration was reinforced through a complex neocolonial relationship during a period of rapid acceleration of Algerian migration to France."
Correspondence: M. Samers, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Roxby Building, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England. E-mail: samers@liv.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30473 Sassen, Saskia. Immigration in the world economy. [Die Immigration in der Weltwirtschaft.] Journal für Entwicklungspolitik, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1995. 261-84 pp. Frankfurt, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Immigration is at least partly an outcome of the actions of the governments and major private economic actors of the developed countries. The case of Japan is of interest here because it allows us to capture the intersection of economic internationalization and immigration in its inception....This paper argues that [Japan's] new immigration is part of the globalisation of [its] economy. Japan is a major presence in a regional Asian economic system where it is the leading investor, foreign aid donor, and exporter of consumer goods (including cultural products). The new immigration to Japan is not unrelated to these processes of internationalization. Internationalization provides a context within which bridges are built with the countries of origin of potential emigrants and internationalization contributes to make the Japanese economy more porous, particularly so in the case of large cities."
Correspondence: S. Sassen, 410 Avery Hall, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027. E-mail: Sassen@columbia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30474 Schiff, Maurice. Trade policy and international migration in the short and medium term. [Politique commerciale et migration internationale à court et moyen terme.] Revue d'Economie du Développement, No. 1, 1995. 3-25 pp. Evry, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper, the author presents three scenarios and related models to explain the complementarity between migration and trade in a South-North context. The first one incorporates migration costs as a constraint, the second one considers factor specificity, and the third one examines the fact that the most protected sectors in a number of reforming LDCs are labor intensive. The results, especially those of the first scenario, suggest that the impact of NAFTA may very well be to increase migration rather than to reduce it."
Correspondence: M. Schiff, World Bank, Department of International Economy, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30475 Skirbekk, Sigurd. The immigration debate: sociology and utopia. [Innvandringsdebatten: sosiologi og utopi.] Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1996. 534-53 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the contemporary Norwegian media debate on immigration and presents several examples illustrating the difference between an analytical and utopian approach to the issues. "Examples of analytical antagonism, not acceptable to utopians, are the contradiction between the idea of a `multicultural society' and specific cultural conditions for a common community, between claiming full integration of immigrants and at the same time full respect for an alien culture, and certain assumptions about immigrant culture as harmonious expression of the interests of all immigrants. When the program for full integration fails, this is often explained as an effect of assumed racist attitudes in the population. Contemporary radical mass mobilization against racism and fascism may possibly disguise public attention to more real totalitarian challenges to our civilization."
Correspondence: S. Skirbekk, University of Oslo, Department of Sociology and Human Geography, P.O. Box 1096, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30476 Slany, Krystyna. Between pressure and choice. Continental and overseas emigration from the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (1939-1989). [Miedzy przymusem a wyborem. Kontynentalne i zamorskie emigracje z krajów Europy Srodkowo-Wschodniej (1939-1989).] Rozprawy Habilitacyjne, No. 295, ISBN 83-233-0855-1. 1995. 163 pp. Nakladem Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego: Kraków, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
Emigration from the countries of Eastern and Central Europe is analyzed over the period from 1939 to 1989. The countries considered include Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, the Soviet Union, and East Germany. "The aim of the book is to present characteristics, size and dynamics of changes in international movements from the countries of Central and Eastern Europe to selected countries of continental and overseas immigration, starting from the outbreak of World War II till the late eighties (1989), with the particular emphasis on changes in migratory movements taking place in the last years of the decade analysed. Emigration to capitalist countries only is analysed, whereas movements within the former socialist countries are omitted." There are chapters on theoretical aspects of migration, the psychosocial aspect of migration theory, refugee movements, migration flows, and migrant characteristics.
Correspondence: Nakladem Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego, Dzial Wydawnictw, ul. Marszalka J. Pilsudskiego 13, 31-110 Kraków, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30477 Slany, Krystyna. The emigration orientations of the Poles. [Orientacje emigracyjne Polaków.] ISBN 83-906637-1-6. 1997. 150 pp. Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut Socjologii: Kraków, Poland; Kwadrat: Kraków, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
Current and possible future trends in emigration from Poland are analyzed using data from a recent survey of migration intentions and the characteristics of potential and actual emigrants. Three alternative scenarios are considered, based on different assumptions concerning economic developments in Poland, and estimates of total emigration varying from 1 to 3 million for the period 1991-2010 are presented. The author notes that emigrants tend to be better off materially, have a stronger desire for personal happiness, and have less strong feelings about their native country than nonmigrants. It is concluded that emigration, though substantial, will not reach catastrophic levels, and that economic developments in Poland's private sector should create job opportunities that will reduce the outflow of better qualified, younger workers.
Correspondence: Kwadrat, ul. Beskidzka 37/9, 30-611 Kraków, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30478 Smith, Paul J. The strategic implications of Chinese emigration. Survival, Vol. 36, No. 2, Summer 1994. 60-77 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The paradox of modern China is that despite unprecedented economic growth, averaging around 13% per year, hundreds of thousands of Chinese are leaving their homeland every year in search of economic opportunities or political freedom....The evidence of criminal gangs either organising or facilitating illegal migration from China suggests that the phenomenon cannot be viewed as merely an immigration issue." Reasons for this widespread emigration are discussed, and possible policy options are considered.
Correspondence: P. J. Smith, Pacific Forum/CSIS, Honolulu, Hawaii. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30479 Somers, Patricia; Gordy, Sondra. Don't send us your huddled masses! Current World Leaders, Vol. 38, No. 2, Apr 1995. 35-44 pp. Santa Barbara, California. In Eng.
"The notion of the United States as `the mother of exiles' is an illusion, a legend perpetuated during an era when cheap immigrant labor was necessary to fuel the development of the country. The truth is that immigrants have been shunned for much of our history, tolerated only because their semiskilled labor was needed. Immigrant bashing was common, especially during times of economic distress. This article details the history of U.S. immigration and squarely places the current nativist sentiments in perspective."
Correspondence: P. Somers, University of Arkansas, Department of Educational Leadership, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30480 Southwestern Social Science Association (Austin, Texas). Immigrants and refugees. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 2, Jun 1997. 249-624 pp. University of Texas Press: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
This is a special issue on immigrants and refugees around the world. The first part has three general papers on the ethnic and racial changes in immigration to the United States, immigration to Europe, and forced migration. The second part has five papers on attitudes toward migration in receiving countries, particularly the United States and France. The third part has 13 papers examining the consequences of immigration in the United States and elsewhere. The issue concludes with a review essay on migration and the environment.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: University of Texas Press, 2100 Comal, Austin, TX 78722-2550. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30481 Swierenga, Robert P. International record linkage of Dutch immigrants in the United States in the nineteenth century. [Cruzamiento internacional de registros de inmigrantes holandeses en los Estados Unidos en el siglo XIX.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 11, No. 33, Aug 1996. 357-83 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Nominative sources both at origin (Netherlands' emigration records) and at destination (U.S. Ship Passenger Customs Lists) [in the 1800s] are compared on a nominal basis and thus the omission in each series evaluated. The results show both an underestimation of immigration figures and a bias in international migration statistics. Single, young working-class males prevail in nonlinked records, probably corresponding to clandestine emigration. In other respects, however, the passenger manifests seem reasonably reliable, since social structural biases are minimal in this source."
Correspondence: R. P. Swierenga, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30482 Vazquez Gonzalez, Alejandro. The use of personal sources for the study of emigration from Galicia: present state and perspectives. [El uso de fuentes personales para el estudio de la emigración de Galicia: estado presente y perspectivas.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 11, No. 33, Aug 1996. 313-55 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Spanish sources for the study of emigration are sparse and fragmentary....Mortgage documents for the payment of ocean transportation enable us to appreciate the spreading action of shipping agents; official listings of draft dodgers reveal that in general the River Plate was a favorite destination, rather than Cuba or Brazil. People from Galicia emigrated from rural origins to urban destinations in America; the analysis of place of birth of emigrants residing in A Coruña at the time of emigration show that there was also, in some cases, a first stage of rural-urban migration within Galicia. The general picture of emigration from Galicia is built [up] through the combination of the existing sources in Spain."
Correspondence: A. Vazquez Gonzalez, Universidad de Vigo, Vigo, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30483 Verhaeren, Raphaël-Emmanuel. Emigration from the Maghreb since 1946. [L'émigration maghrébine depuis 1946.] Mondes en Développement, Vol. 23, No. 89-90, 1995. 163-72 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Just after the Second World War, during the period of rapid economic growth, North African emigration, to France in particular, increases considerably. Later on, during the crisis, emigration still increases, but is directed towards other European countries. The crisis moreover reveals that these workforce migrations not only play a major role of regulation of the conditions [of] the job market, but also play a role of structural complementarity of national workforces, at least as far as certain levels of the market are concerned; and this to the extent that a high national unemployment rate can co-exist with a high rate of employment of foreign workers."
Correspondence: R.-E. Verhaeren, Université de Grenoble II (Université Pierre Mendès-France), B.P. 47X, 38040 Grenoble Cedex, France. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30484 Wallace, Claire; Chmouliar, Oxana; Sidorenko, Elena. The eastern frontier of Western Europe: mobility in the buffer zone. New Community, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1996. 259-86 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The post-Communist countries of Poland, Hungary, [and] the Czech and Slovak Republics have become a buffer zone between East and West. In this article we analyse the way in which this occurs in terms of migration in and out of the region. Our analysis focuses upon the emerging role which this region plays in relation to other parts of Western and Eastern Europe and the way in which economic and political developments there have encouraged particular forms of migration. We attempt to build a picture of some of the different kinds of migration taking place in relation to the social and ethnic characteristics of migrants. The article concludes that these movements are better understood as part of the mobility and circulation of people rather than as one-way migration."
Correspondence: C. Wallace, Vienna Institute for Advanced Studies and Scientific Research, Stumpergasse 56, 1060 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30485 Weber, René; Straubhaar, Thomas. Immigration and the public transfer system: some empirical evidence for Switzerland. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Vol. 132, No. 2, 1996. 330-55 pp. Tübingen, Germany. In Eng.
"Do immigrants subsidize the native population or vice versa? Is immigration a cost factor or a net benefit for the public transfer system? On the basis of the 1990 Swiss Consumer Survey, an attempt is made to answer these questions empirically....The degree of participation of foreigners in the Swiss welfare state is estimated....To this end, the public transfer balance (difference between government revenue and government expenditure) is empirically estimated for both native and foreign households. The method chosen covers public monetary transfers as well as the supply of goods and services by the government (real transfers). Social security insurance, redistribution through taxes, infrastructure investment (club goods) and immaterial goods such as the legal system (public goods) are thus covered."
Correspondence: R. Weber, Eidgenössisches Finanzdepartement, IWF und Internationale Finanzierungsfragen, Bundesgasse 3, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30486 Weiner, Myron. The global migration crisis: challenge to states and to human rights. HarperCollins Series in Comparative Politics, ISBN 0-06-500232-6. LC 94-38941. 1995. xiv, 253 pp. HarperCollins: New York, New York. In Eng.
This book "examines the turbulence that has been caused by the worldwide increase of migration across national boundaries. Through its global perspective, the book considers the consequences of international migration and refugee flows for both developed and developing countries, focusing on how governments and their citizens define the problems posed by international migrations, including security issues and ethnic conflict. At the same time, the book also seriously evaluates the concerns of human rights advocates searching for greater global social justice and protecting those who flee persecution, violence, and poverty. Finally, [it] considers the ways in which movement of people across international boundaries is changing our understanding of the meaning of sovereignty."
Correspondence: HarperCollins, 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

63:30487 Bolan, Marc. The mobility experience and neighborhood attachment. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 2, May 1997. 225-37 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this study, I consider variables associated with an individual's most recent move into his or her current residence as predictors of neighborhood attachment. Using the 1978-1979 Seattle Community Attachment Survey, I find that elements of the mobility experience such as an individual's past history of migration, the motivations for moving, the amount of time involved in the move, and the distance traveled during the move have an effect on short and long-term neighborhood attachment patterns independent of residential stability and investment predictors. The findings imply that psychosocial factors such as familiarity with the environment, increased premove exposure to the new environment, and perceived control during instances of transition have some impact on individuals' postmove attitudes and behaviors, and suggest that researchers should look beyond traditional `types of people' explanations of urban neighborhood attachment."
Correspondence: M. Bolan, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. E-mail: marcb@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30488 Chun, Jinsuk. Interregional migration and regional development. Bruton Center for Development Studies Series, ISBN 1-85972-461-2. LC 96-085507. 1996. xiv, 179 pp. Avebury: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
The interrelationship between migration and regional development in the United States is examined. "The book deals with three issues: (1) the causal relationships between migration and employment change, (2) the factors influencing migration, and (3) the consequences of migration." The study concludes by considering the implications for regional policy.
Correspondence: Avebury Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hampshire GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30489 Croll, Elisabeth J.; Ping, Huang. Migration for and against agriculture in eight Chinese villages. China Quarterly, No. 149, Mar 1997. 128-46 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The results of a study on the relations between migration and agriculture are presented. The study covered eight villages in four different provinces of China. "The village studies suggest that it is possible to identify a range of conditions in which migration has come to variously supplement, subsidize or substitute for village agriculture. Indeed they suggest that migration is a supplement to agriculture and non-agriculture activities in richer regions, a subsidy for agriculture and non-agriculture activities in mid-income regions, and a substitute for agriculture in poor and remote regions. In all the villages studied the farmers themselves have concluded that agriculture is an unprofitable, unattractive and even redundant economic activity."
Correspondence: E. J. Croll, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H 0XG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30490 Dang, Anh; Goldstein, Sidney; McNally, James. Internal migration and development in Vietnam. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 2, Summer 1997. 312-37 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article is a step toward understanding the nature of the interrelationship between population movement and development as Vietnam continues to move toward intensive market reforms. Underutilized tabulations from the 1989 census and national statistical data on characteristics of provinces were explored to gain insights into the roles of development in interprovincial migration within a context of institutional intervention. The overall results of OLS regression indicate that more developed provinces attracted higher volumes of inmigrants, whereas less developed provinces produced more outmigrants, other things being equal. Most of the migrants, especially females, moved to more urbanized and industrialized areas, regardless of their origin home provinces....The study results suggest the importance of interpreting population movement in Vietnam within the broader context of its current transition to a market economy."
Correspondence: A. Dang, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30491 De Jong, Gordon F.; Johnson, Andrea G.; Richter, Kerry. Determinants of migration values and expectations in rural Thailand. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1996. 399-416 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Based on the argument that values and expectations underlie behavioral motives, this study explores the determinants of migration-related values and expectations, and whether they are intervening factors in explaining intentions to move among residents of rural northeast Thailand. Data from the 1992 National Migration Survey of Thailand identify four migration-related value-expectancy dimensions: income, affiliation, stimulation, and comfort. Logistic regression analysis shows that landownership and being married are associated with higher expectations, while a diversified village economy, a village economy development program, and a younger and extended household structure are associated with lower expectations of attaining valued goals in the local rural village. The analysis also shows that value-expectancy concepts are only partial intervening explanations for intentions to move or stay."
Correspondence: G. F. De Jong, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, Population Research Institute, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30492 Fielding, A. J. Migration and the metropolis: an empirical and theoretical analysis of inter-regional migration to and from South East England. Progress in Planning, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1993. 72-166 pp. Pergamon Press: Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study is in two parts: the first and larger part is entirely empirical and consists of detailed analyses of migration flows to and from South East England over the 1970s and 1980s....[It monitors] the year-on-year changes in the migration flows between South East England and the counties of England and Wales, and includes some analyses of age-specific migration streams. [It also examines] the social composition of the migration flows to and from the South East, and includes analyses of the effects of these migrations on the social class structure of the region. The second part of the study is more theoretical and speculative. It interprets these migration flows in terms of: (i) the effects of the housing-market-related business cycle; (ii) the effects of labour market restructuring; and (iii) the role that the South East plays as an `escalator region' within the British `space-economy'."
Correspondence: Pergamon Press, Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10253. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30493 Glaser, James M.; Gilens, Martin. Interregional migration and political resocialization: a study of racial attitudes under pressure. Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 61, No. 1, Spring 1997. 72-86 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this article we take advantage of the differing racial environments of the northern and southern United States to examine the behavior of racial attitudes in response to changes in adult political context. Specifically, we ask whether white adults who move from the more racially conservative South to the more racially liberal North (or vice versa) maintain the racial attitudes they developed as adolescents, or whether these interregional migrants embrace the racial views of their new neighbors. We also examine differences in the persistence of different kinds of racial attitudes in response to the same changes in racial-political environment, allowing us to draw some lessons regarding the applicability of alternative theoretical understandings to different dimensions of racial attitudes."
Correspondence: J. M. Glaser, Tufts University, Department of Political Science, Medford, MA 02155. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:30494 Golaz, Valérie. Internal migration in Kenya, 1979-1989. [Les migrations internes au Kenya, 1979-1989.] Documents et Manuels du CEPED, No. 6, ISBN 2-87762-104-9. May 1997. viii, 126 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of internal migration in Kenya over the course of the 1980s is presented using data from the censuses of 1979 and 1989. In view of the problems concerning the quality of census data, particularly in the 1989 census, the author uses indirect methods to estimate migration at the district level. "The analysis of net migration not only puts forward some weaknesses in the last census, particularly an underevaluation of the population which varies according to the district, but also provides information on the migration processes involved in Kenya. New types of migration appeared in the 80s: return migration at young age, and settlement migration, involving whole households, towards less and less hospitable areas."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement (CEPED), 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30495 Greenwood, Michael J. Internal migration in developed countries. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 647-720 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This chapter examines the literature on the causes and consequences of internal migration in developed countries. It considers such questions as who migrates, where such migrants come from and where are they going, when they migrate, and what consequences result. The impact of unemployment on the migration of both the unemployed and those seeking new jobs is emphasized. The author also suggests that factors other than earnings, such as location-specific amenities, tax structures, and leisure, need to be taken into account in the analysis of such migration. The subject of return migration is also addressed. Finally, the relations between migration and the occurrence of demographic events, such as the birth and aging of children, changes in marital status, and retirement, are examined.
Correspondence: M. J. Greenwood, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30496 Greenwood, Michael J.; McClelland, Gary H.; Schulze, William D. The effects of perceptions of hazardous waste on migration: a laboratory experimental approach. Review of Regional Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2, Fall 1997. 143-61 pp. Knoxville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This study develops a methodology that allows migration decision-making to be studied in a laboratory experimental setting. Moreover, this methodology permits an examination of the importance of natural and man-made hazards in migration decisions--factors that have not been extensively studied as determinants of migration. The specific application is to the location of the U.S. nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Empirical results suggest that the repository may influence employment-related migration, but probably not retirement migration."
Correspondence: M. J. Greenwood, University of Colorado, Department of Economics, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30497 Hampl, Martin; Müller, Jan. Regional organization of long-term migration processes in the Czech Republic. [Regionální organizace dlouhodobých migracních procesu v ceské republice.] Sbornik Ceské Geografické Spolecnosti, Vol. 100, No. 2, 1995. 67-77 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"The article deals with the assessment of relations between the living place and the place of birth [in the Czech Republic]. Relations are examined by districts....As regards territorial organization, migration processes and other regional processes show a great degree of similarity. Chief regional centres tend to be quite stable."
Correspondence: M. Hampl, Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Indiana University Library, Bloomington, IN.

63:30498 Jacobsen, Joyce P.; Levin, Laurence M. Marriage and migration: comparing gains and losses from migration for couples and singles. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 3, Sep 1997. 688-709 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"We calculate and compare the monetary returns to interstate mobility [in the United States] during the mid to late 1980s by sex and marital status, both overall and for college graduates....We analyze data from the Surveys of Income and Program Participation....Returns exhibit high variance, with a negative mean for couples and single men, while single women and single college graduates receive positive returns from moving. Married women experience a large reduction in personal income upon moving because of their reduced employment rates, which reflects their status as `tied' movers. The findings of lower returns to migration compared with studies using data from the 1960s and the 1970s reflects fundamental changes in economic motivations for migrating."
Correspondence: J. P. Jacobsen, Wesleyan University, Department of Economics, Middletown, CT 06459. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30499 Kojima, Reeitsu. Breakdown of China's policy of restricting population movement. Developing Economies, Vol. 34, No. 4, Dec 1996. 370-401 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"A notable distinction between population movement in China and that in other countries is that the former has been regulated by administrative authority....In this paper, population movement forced by administrative power is referred to as policy-induced movement, whereas that caused by economic factors or disasters is regarded as spontaneous movement....This paper will analyze China's population movement over a forty-five-year period since the early 1950s by comparing policy-induced and spontaneous movement patterns."
Correspondence: R. Kojima, Daito Bunka University, Faculty of International Relations, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30500 Kühnl, Karel; Cermák, Zdenek. Some features of the long-term development of migration in the Czech Republic. Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 30, No. 1-2, 1995. 71-93 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng. with sum. in Cze.
"[This] contribution is...aimed at the age structure of migration movement, based on the relationship between the district of birth and the district of the current place of residence. The objective of the contribution is, first and foremost, to document the interdistrict variability of the age structure of migrants and the net migration, depending on age. Another objective...is to prove that the assessment of the age structure of migration in its regional variability can be used to define the basic evolutionary migration stages and turning points. A typology of Czech districts with respect to their long-term migration development is one of the results of the contribution."
Correspondence: K. Kühnl, Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Albertov 6, 12 843 Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30501 Lee, Seong Woo; Roseman, Curtis C. Independent and linked migrants: determinants of African American interstate migration. Growth and Change, Vol. 28, No. 3, Summer 1997. 309-34 pp. Malden, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Through kinship and other links to destinations, many African American interstate migrants in the United States join other people in destination households. These `linked' migrants contrast to `independent migrants' who move as individuals or intact groups and set up their own households at the destination. Using U.S. Census Public Use Micro Sample data, this paper first shows that, in the 1985-90 period, about 45 percent of all Black interstate migrants were independent, compared to 38 percent who were linked to housing at the destination and 17 percent who moved into group quarters. Second, a multinomial logit model, incorporating individual and state-level variables, is specified that contrasts the determinants of independent and linked migration.... It is concluded that the understanding of Black migration must take into account a variety of factors beyond traditional labor market conditions, including links to the destination and individual housing circumstances."
Correspondence: S. W. Lee, University of Southern California, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0035. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30502 Lucas, Robert E. B. Internal migration in developing countries. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 721-98 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This chapter first reviews the recent literature on internal migration in developing countries, including studies examining relevant theory, empirical evidence, and policy experience. "The balance of the introduction is taken up with a brief review of some basic concepts and patterns of internal migration. The remainder of the chapter is then divided into four. Section 2 is about the causes of migration--earnings opportunities and job search, information and financing, family strategies and the contextual setting, and displaced persons. Section 3 takes up the economic consequences of internal migration--the direct and indirect effects of rural emigration on rural production, the overall effects upon national product in the light of various market pathologies, and the much disputed consequences for income inequality. In the light of the foregoing sections, Section 4 [reviews] the literature on policy experiences, and Section 5 offers a few closing thoughts."
Correspondence: R. E. B. Lucas, Boston University, 147 Bay Street Road, Boston, MA 02215. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30503 Pandey, Himanshu. On human outmigration model. Janasamkhya, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1993. 123-7 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This paper provides a probability model for the total out-migration pattern from the rural areas [of India]. The suitability of [the] model [is] tested through observed data."
Correspondence: H. Pandey, Gorakhpur University, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Gorakhpur, UP 273 009, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30504 Pandit, Kavita. Cohort and period effects in U.S. migration: how demographic and economic cycles influence the migration schedule. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 87, No. 3, Sep 1997. 439-50 pp. Washington, D. C. In Eng.
The influence of demographic and economic cycles on the migration propensities given in the migration age schedule is examined. Following a review of the relevant literature, the author examines "the influence of generation size on the migration intensities seen in a cohort (longitudinal) migration schedule and that of economic conditions on the intensities of a period (cross-sectional) migration schedule. [The author also specifies] a model that incorporates both cohort and period effects in order to understand their relative importance in shaping the migration schedule. Empirical analyses based on [U.S.] Current Population Survey data for the 1949-1993 period reveal that the level of the migration schedule is sensitive to demographic and economic cycles, with the effect of generation size being relatively more influential."
Correspondence: K. Pandit, University of Georgia, Department of Geography, Athens, GA 30602-2502. E-mail: kkpandit@uga.cc.uga.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30505 Plane, David A.; Mulligan, Gordon F. Measuring spatial focusing in a migration system. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 2, May 1997. 251-62 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Equality indexes used in other geographical contexts may be used to gauge the degree of spatial focusing in an entire migration system or within the gross in- and out-migration fields of specific regions. They provide useful indicators of overall shifts in the patterns of interregional migration and can help give insight into the population redistributive roles played by specific regions. Perhaps the most common equality index used to measure income distribution is the Gini coefficient, yet it appears almost never to have been applied in migration research. In this paper we set forth a variety of Gini indexes to be used for different migration analyses and illustrate their application with recent data on U.S. interstate movements. We argue that the Gini index provides some singularly useful insights that differ from those afforded by other measures more commonly found to date in the migration analyst's toolkit."
Correspondence: D. A. Plane, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Harvill Building, Box 2, Tucson, AZ 85721. E-mail: plane@U.Arizona.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30506 Potrykowska, Alina. A study of intra-urban migration: the case of Warsaw. In: Spatial analysis of biodemographic data, edited by Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel, Daniel Courgeau, and Denise Pumain. 1996. 351-67 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
"This paper presents an analysis of some factors that are responsible for the widespread regularities in age profiles exhibited by empirical schedules of migration in the Warsaw urban region....The analysis of the disaggregated migration flows by sex, marital status, education and causes of migration (employment, education, housing, family, etc.) within the Warsaw urban region has confirmed the remarkably persistent regularities."
Correspondence: A. Potrykowska, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30507 Rebhun, Uzi. Changing patterns of internal migration 1970-1990: a comparative analysis of Jews and whites in the United States. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 2, May 1997. 213-23 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Independently conducted yet complemetary sets of data from the 1970/1971 and 1990 National Jewish Population Surveys and the U.S. censuses of the same years were used to analyze changes in the internal migration of Jews and whites during the periods 1965-1970 (1971) and 1985-1990. Interstate lifetime and five-year migration rates among Jews increased to levels significantly surpassing those of whites. Adjusting Jewish migration rates for the educational achievement of their white counterparts did not have much of an effect on lifetime migration or on the recent migration of the 1970/1971 Jewish population; however, it accounted meaningfully for the migration propensities of Jews in the period 1985-1990. These findings suggest that socioeconomic status has begun to play a larger role in promoting different migration patterns than in promoting ethnic group differences. Further, the direction of Jewish migrations followed those of whites (i.e., from the Northeast and Midwest to the South and West); and due to their higher migration rates, Jews have considerably narrowed the regional distribution differences between themselves and whites. I interpret these results as evidence of the weakening role of ethnicity in present-day America."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: U. Rebhun, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Gaster Building, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. E-mail: uzir@vms.huji.ac.il. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30508 Roberts, Kenneth D. China's "tidal wave" of migrant labor: what can we learn from Mexican undocumented migration to the United States? International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 2, Summer 1997. 249-93 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to place Chinese labor migration from agriculture within the context of the literature on labor mobility in developing countries by comparing it to undocumented Mexican migration to the United States. The similarities fall within three general areas: the migration process, the economic and social position of migrants at their destination, and the agrarian structure and process of agricultural development that has perpetuated circular migration. The last section of the article draws upon these similarities, as well as differences between the two countries, to generate predictions concerning the development of labor migration in China."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. D. Roberts, Southwestern University, Georgetown, TX 78627-0770. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30509 Serow, William J.; Friedrich, Klaus; Haas, William H. Residential relocation and regional redistribution of the elderly in the USA and Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, Vol. 11, 1996. 293-306 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper reviews some of the principal differences and similarities in the migration and spatial redistribution behavior of the older populations of the USA and of Germany....The paper is divided into three distinct parts. The paper first reviews actual and prospective redistribution of the older population, with regard to interregional shifts of population as well as to changes in concentration along an urban-rural continuum. Following these macroscopic elements, the paper then moves to a presentation of the results of two ex post facto surveys (one taken in the USA and the other in Germany) of recent older movers in order to compare the motivations expressed for the move and the present degree of satisfaction with it. The concluding section considers the implications of redistribution at both geographic levels and of mover satisfaction in light of political developments as they are presently unfolding in Europe."
Correspondence: W. J. Serow, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 659-C Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. E-mail: wserow@coss.fsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30510 Wang, De. Internal migration in 1955 in Japan: an analysis based on a spatial interaction model. Jimbun Chiri/Human Geography, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1993. 5-23 pp. Kyoto, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of the present paper is to evaluate the influence of economic level of origin and destination on migration [in Japan using] an unconstrained gravity model....First, the whole migration flow is analyzed and it is found that income [at] both destination and origin has a positive effect on migration....Secondly, inter-prefectural migration is divided into four kinds by metropolitan types....Thirdly, the same analysis was made on 15 kinds of migration classified by income difference between origin and destination....It is found that destination income elasticity for out-migration [from] one specified origin is negatively related to income [in] that specified [place of] origin."
Location: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI.

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

63:30511 Haines, David W. Refugees in America in the 1990s: a reference handbook. ISBN 0-313-29344-9. LC 95-50902. 1996. x, 467 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This volume presents a selection of original articles by various authors on the current situation concerning refugees in the United States. Following two general studies on refugee resettlement and adaptation, there are chapters on various refugee groups, including Afghans, Chinese, Cubans, Eastern Europeans, Ethiopians and Eritreans, Haitians, Hmong, Iranians, Khmer, Lao, Soviet Jews, and Vietnamese. A final part has comparative material on resettlement patterns, public and political opinion on the admission of refugees, the changes in attitude occurring in the 1990s, documentary films on refugees, and an annotated introduction to the literature.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30512 Schmeidl, Susanne. Exploring the causes of forced migration: a pooled time-series analysis, 1971-1990. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 2, Jun 1997. 284-308 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper (1) develops a theoretical model of refugee migration that builds on existing research in early warning and preventive diplomacy, and (2) empirically tests this model in order to assess the role played by generalized structural factors in the formation of forced migration." The data come from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR). "The results suggest that, first, measures of institutional human rights violations have weaker predictive power than do measures of generalized violence. Second, civil wars with foreign military interventions are more important in producing large refugee populations and prolonged migrations than are civil wars without outside influence. Third, ethnic rebellion is important as a cause of small refugee migrations, but cannot significantly predict mass exodus. Finally, economic and intervening variables have little impact on predicting refugee migration."
Correspondence: S. Schmeidl, York University, Centre for Refugee Studies, York Lanes, 3rd Floor, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. E-mail: schmeidl@YorkU.CA. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30513 Soguk, Nevzat. Politics of resistance and accommodation: managing refugee and immigrant movements in the post-Cold War era. Current World Leaders, Vol. 38, No. 2, Apr 1995. 102-18 pp. Santa Barbara, California. In Eng.
"In recent years, the refugee and immigrant phenomena have unmistakably come to the fore. Enormous political, social, and technological changes, transformations, and numerous ethnic conflicts trigger mass movements of people in search of `better' and `safer' places....Refugee and immigrant movements have both resistant (disruptive) and accommodative (recuperative) effects on a range of relations and institutions--community, citizenship, democracy, and welfare--that lie at the heart of a stable and secure national governance in the West. Responses to refugee and immigrant movements are thus significant in their implications for national polities and their governance in the future."
Correspondence: N. Soguk, Arizona State University, Department of Political Science, Tempe, AZ 85287-1104. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30514 Wirakartakusumah, Djuhari; Mundiharno. Perceptions on community participation in population and environment in transmigration areas: a case study of Lampung, Indonesia. In: Population, environment, and development, edited by R. K. Pachauri and Lubina F. Qureshy. 1997. 95-103 pp. Tata Energy Research Institute [TERI]: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors assess the impact of transmigration on the environment in the province of Lampung, Indonesia. Aspects considered include conflicts of land use and community participation in sustaining the environment.
Correspondence: D. Wirakartakusumah, University of Indonesia, Faculty of Economics, Demographic Institute, Jalan Salemba Raya 4, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

63:30515 Baccaïni, Brigitte. Periurban commuters in the Île-de-France region. [Les navettes des périurbains d'Île-de-France.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1997. 327-64 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article examines the consequences of urban sprawl beyond the Paris urban area...for home-workplace journeys of the economically active population. The large employment shortfall in the periurban zone (despite employment decentralization), means that the economically active living here commute on average twice as far as their counterparts living in Paris itself....The impact of spatial constraints and sensitivity to distance vary with sex, household structure (particularly whether or not double-income), socio-professional category, and stage in family and professional life cycle....The article shows that the spatial behaviour of individuals can only be understood by considering the often complicated interaction between different types of mobility."
Correspondence: B. Baccaïni, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30516 Cervero, R.; Wu, K.-L. Polycentrism, commuting, and residential location in the San Francisco Bay area. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 29, No. 5, May 1997. 865-86 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The San Francisco Bay Area has taken on a distinct polycentric metropolitan form, with three tiers of hierarchical employment centers encircling downtown San Francisco....In this paper it is found that polycentric development is associated with differentials in suburban and urban commute trip times: commute trips made by employees of suburban centers are shorter in duration than commute trips made by their counterparts in larger and denser urban centers. Differentials were even greater, however, with respect to commuting modal splits. Lower density, outlying employment centers averaged far higher rates of drive-alone automobile commuting and insignificant levels of transit commuting....The effects of housing availability and prices on the residential locational choices of those working both in urban and in suburban employment centers are also investigated...."
Correspondence: R. Cervero, University of California, Department of City and Regional Planning, 228 Wurster Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720. E-mail: rob@ced.berkeley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:30517 Dustmann, Christian. Return migration, uncertainty and precautionary savings. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 52, No. 2, Apr 1997. 295-316 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper presents a life-cycle model where migrants determine re-migration and consumption simultaneously in a stochastic environment. Whether precautionary savings of migrants are above or below those of natives is ambiguous in general--the sign depends on the risk in host- and home-country labor markets and on the correlation of labor market shocks. Furthermore, the effect of an uncertain environment on migration and re-migration plans cannot be unambiguously signed for the general case. It depends on the size of the wage differential as well as the relative risk the migrant exhibits in the two labor markets."
Correspondence: C. Dustmann, University College London, Department of Economics, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:30518 Dustmann, Christian. Return migration: the European experience. Economic Policy, No. 22, Apr 1996. 215-50 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The analysis here concentrates on the case for temporary immigration of workers [in Europe]....Section 2 examines the experience with temporary migration and related policies of France, Germany and Switzerland, three key European countries. Section 3 investigates the theoretical background to return migration and provides an empirical analysis of return intentions, return behaviour and return evaluations. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and policy implications."
Correspondence: C. Dustmann, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30519 Stamenkovic, Srboljub D. Daily migrations of population in geographic research of settlements in Serbia. [Dnevne migracije stanovnistva u geografskim proucavanjima naselja srbije.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 43-60 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes daily migrations of the population in Serbia, particularly the mobility of the labor force. Aspects considered include systematic monitoring of daily migrations; analysis in terms of total movements and seasonal variations; daily movements in urban and rural areas; political considerations; and data collection.
Correspondence: S. D. Stamenkovic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Geografski Fakultet PMF, Studentski trg 1, 11001 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

63:30520 Alamgir, Jalal. Rural-urban migration in Bangladesh: theoretical approaches to understanding the internal and external dynamics. Journal of Social Studies, No. 59, Jan 1993. 26-49 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The author discusses theoretical approaches to analyzing the dynamics of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh.
Correspondence: J. Alamgir, St. Lawrence University, Department of Economics, Canton, NY 13617. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30521 Baccaïni, Brigitte. Types and causes of recent growth in the suburban districts of Île-de-France. [Modalités et causes de la croissance récente des communes périurbaines d'Île-de-France.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1997. 291-325 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"After highlighting the specific situation of suburban development in the Île-de-France, which has served as a point of transition between urban areas and the country side, and the special features of the population who lived there in 1990 (over-representation of families with children and underprivileged social groups with housing primarily belonging to owner-occupiers) this paper deals with recent migration of the suburban population in order to explain the causes and types of demographic growth in this type of environment. Decongestion of the Paris urban area is responsible for nearly three quarters of new suburban dwellers....The occupational distribution of recent in-migrants to the suburbs also varied significantly in different geographical areas and selection effects have reinforced the existing specificity of various sectors."
Correspondence: B. Baccaïni, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30522 Belenky, V. R. Return migration from cities to countryside: illusion or reality? Land Reform, Land Settlement and Cooperatives, 1993. 75-82 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"The paper reports on a sociological research project carried out in 1990 on migration of rural populations to Moscow. Field research was conducted in several regions of origin--Kursk, Kostroma, Orel and Vologda--and among Muscovites who had migrated from these regions. The study found that often the living conditions in Moscow were worse than those the migrants had experienced in the rural home villages. Yet the interviewers found that migrants did not want to return. The paper then examines the sociological profile of possible return migrants, concluding that any probability of such reverse flow would depend on improving health, education and social infrastructure in the rural areas."
Correspondence: V. R. Belenky, All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Economics, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30523 Delgadillo Macías, Javier. Economy and migration. The new geography of population mobility in Mexico. [Economía y migración. La nueva geografía de la movilidad poblacional en México.] Problemas del Desarrollo, Vol. 24, No. 94, Jul-Sep 1993. 113-32 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author investigates trends in rural-urban migration in Mexico, using data from the 1990 census. Motivations for migrating and for choosing particular destinations are considered.
Correspondence: J. Delgadillo Macías, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, Torre 11 de Humanidades 1er Piso, Apartado Postal 20-721, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30524 Hoggart, Keith. Rural migration and counterurbanization in the European periphery: the case of Andalucía. Sociologia Ruralis, Vol. 37, No. 1, Apr 1997. 134-53 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The extent to which counterurbanization is affecting rural population dynamics in southern Europe is explored using the example of Andalucía, Spain. "The purpose of this paper is to ask, in the context of Andalucía, whether an emergent counterurbanization trend is evident in a traditional area of rural population decline in southern Europe. More broadly, it raises questions about whether the concept counterurbanization helps or hinders our understanding of rural migration."
Correspondence: K. Hoggart, University of London, King's College, Department of Geography, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30525 Rao, M. Koteswara. Determinants of rural-urban migration in Andhra Pradesh: an inter-district analysis. Asian Economic Review, Vol. 36, No. 2, Aug 1994. 369-90 pp. Hyderabad, India. In Eng.
"This paper is an attempt to analyze the process of rural-urban migration based on the data relating to the `Place of Birth' for Andhra Pradesh [India]. The specific objective of this study is to present a rigorous economic analysis of the process of inter-district rural-urban male migration as seen from 1971 migration data. With the help of a simple model...the direction and magnitude of relationships between selected explanatory variables and migration have been identified."
Correspondence: M. K. Rao, Nagarjuna University, Department of Economics, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh 522 510, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30526 Skeldon, Ronald. Rural-to-urban migration and its implications for poverty alleviation. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1997. 3-16 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article discusses whether rural-to-urban migration can improve the well-being of the rural areas of origin of migration [in the ESCAP region] or impoverish those areas because of the exodus to urban centres while pauperizing the migrants who move to the cities. It also considers the gender implications of migration in terms of the experience of women migrants and those left behind. It concludes by drawing out policy implications of the impact of rural-to-urban migration on poverty alleviation."
Correspondence: R. Skeldon, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamontol, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30527 Twumasi-Ankrah, Kwaku. Rural-urban migration and socioeconomic development in Ghana: some discussions. Journal of Social Development in Africa, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1995. 13-22 pp. Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
"This article considers the situation regarding rural-urban migration within Ghana, suggesting that migration has the effect of precipitating major social and behavioural change. The nature of Ghanaian urbanisation is examined together with the motivational factors that cause many to leave their rural homes. A distinction is made between those `committed urbanites' who readily adapt to urban life and the `situational urbanites' who experience greater problems in adjustment to the city. Following this discussion certain policy implications are then examined, including that of fertility control, models of development and protection of the status of the rural communities in the face of a `brain drain' to urban areas."
Correspondence: K. Twumasi-Ankrah, Fayetteville State University, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1200 Murshison Road, Fayetteville, NC 28301. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30528 Wong, Linda. China's urban migrants--the public policy challenge. Pacific Affairs, Vol. 67, No. 3, Fall 1994. 335-55 pp. Vancouver, Canada. In Eng.
"Since the mid-1980s, urban migrants have emerged as a new status group in Chinese society. This study examines the complexity of urban migration from the angle of public policy with the aim of presenting an overview of the current situation regarding urban migrants. The focus of the paper is on the challenges that migrants pose to the state and civil society and the policy responses adopted during the period from the late 1980s to 1993. The paper first analyzes the problems and contributions brought by urban migrants. Second, using Guangdong as an example, the paper examines the measures taken by state agencies and their effectiveness. The final section discusses the problems and prospects related to urban migration. The paper concludes that current policy is plainly inadequate and that urban migrants are still relegated to the margins of Chinese society. It is argued that unless their claims are recognized, urban migrants are likely to remain a thorn in governance and a threat to social stability."
Correspondence: L. Wong, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Yuk Choi Road, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30529 Zang, Xiaowei. Labor market and rural migrants in post-Mao China. American Asian Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, Fall 1995. 78-108 pp. Jamaica, New York. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to analyze the social background of rural migrants and patterns of rural outmigration in post-Mao China. In the following, I will first discuss the data for this study. Next, I will briefly examine the Chinese government's policies on rural-to-urban migration and the general patterns of population movement since the early 1950s. Then I will study the dynamics of rural outmigration, analyze the data, and present findings. I will conclude this study with some thoughts on rural migration in post-Mao China." The data are from a large-scale survey conducted in 222 villages in 1986-1987.
Correspondence: X. Zang, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.