Volume 63 - Number 3 - Fall 1997

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications.

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

63:30114 Ballester, Ferran; Corella, Dolores; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sáez, Marc; Hervás, Ana. Mortality as a function of temperature. A study in Valencia, Spain, 1991-1993. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jun 1997. 551-61 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study assesses the relationship between daily numbers of deaths and variations in ambient temperature within the city of Valencia [Spain]....The daily number of deaths from all causes (total deaths and only those occurring in people aged over 70), as well as those deaths from specific causes (e.g. cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, malignant tumours and all causes except external ones) occurring within the city of Valencia were related to the average daily temperature using autoregressive Poisson regression....A statistically significant association has been found between temperature and mortality. This relationship is not monotonic, but mortality increases in proportion to the variance in ambient temperature from a range of temperatures that varies from winter to summer."
Correspondence: F. Ballester, Institut Valencià d'Estudis en Salut Pública, Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, C/ Joan de Garay 23, 46017 Valencia, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30115 Bennett, Stan; Donovan, John; Stevenson, Chris; Wright, Peter. Mortality surveillance, Australia, 1981-1992. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Mortality Surveillance Series, No. 2, ISBN 0-644-35396-1. 1994. vi, 349 pp. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This "is the second in a series of publications describing current trends in mortality in Australia. For the more important causes of death it gives a detailed statistical profile, including numbers of deaths and death rates at each age, and the annual rate of change in these rates. It shows trends in the numbers of deaths for conditions which are less frequently fatal."
For a previous report covering the period 1979-1990, see 59:30150.
Correspondence: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Publications Unit, G.P.O. Box 570, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30116 Brewer, Cynthia A.; MacEachren, Alan M.; Pickle, Linda W.; Herrmann, Douglas. Mapping mortality: evaluating color schemes for choropleth maps. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 87, No. 3, Sep 1997. 411-38 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study examines which colors for representing health data on maps allow the most accurate reading of the data, using the example of a recent atlas of U.S. mortality data. The results show that color is worth the extra trouble and expense involved because it permits greater accuracy in map reading.
For the atlas on mortality referred to, by Pickle et al., see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: C. A. Brewer, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Geography, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30117 Cárdenas, Rosario; Fernández-Ham, Patricia. Reductions in mortality. [Reducciones de la mortalidad.] Démos, No. 9, 1996. 11-2 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The authors discuss the recent mortality decline in Mexico, with a focus on causes of death at different ages by sex. They also describe the challenge of maintaining and improving health through preventive medicine and community participation.
Correspondence: R. Cárdenas, Dirección General de Estadística e Informática, Morelos, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30118 Fogel, Robert W. New findings on secular trends in nutrition and mortality: some implications for population theory. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 433-81 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This analysis of secular trends in nutrition and mortality integrates some recently developed biomedical techniques with several standard economic techniques. "The discussion that follows is divided into four parts. Section 2 briefly describes the evolution of thought on, and knowledge of, the secular decline in mortality. Section 3 deals with new evidence and new analytical techniques that have made it possible to switch attention from famines to chronic malnutrition as the principal link between the food supply and mortality. Section 4 proposes a new theory of the way that the food supply and population were brought into equilibrium between 1700 and the twentieth century. Section 5 is a brief conclusion which also suggests some implications of the theory for current population issues." Particular attention is given to the relations between height and body weight and morbidity and mortality.
Correspondence: R. W. Fogel, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30119 Fordyce, E. James; Shum, Roy; Singh, Tejinder P.; Berenson, Louise; Forlenza, Susan. Causes of death contributing to changes in life expectancy in New York City between 1983 and 1992. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 3, Jun 1997. 197-211 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Recent changes in life expectancy among race and sex groups in New York City were evaluated by analyzing the relative effects of different causes of death in 1983 and 1992, a period in which life expectancy at birth declined by 1.1 years among white males, remained unchanged among black males, and increased 1.2 years among white and black females. Heart disease was found to be the leading cause of death making positive contributions to changes in life expectancy regardless of race or sex, and HIV/AIDS was the leading negative contributor. Overall, deaths from infectious diseases and external causes are becoming more important compared to degenerative conditions in explaining trends in life expectancy in New York City. Past improvements in survival due to reductions in infant deaths are being reversed due to an increase in deaths from preventable causes such as violence and AIDS."
Correspondence: E. J. Fordyce, New York City Department of Health, Office of AIDS Surveillance, Box 44, 125 Worth Street, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30120 Góralczyk-Modzelewska, Malgorzata. Mortality among the population of the city and voivodeship of Lódz contrasted with death rates in other voivodeships and large and medium-sized cities in Poland in 1993. Polish Population Review, No. 8, 1996. 93-117 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The paper presents the problem of mortality in the Lódz area and the city of Lódz in 1993. The basis for this description is comparisons across voivodeships, and these between large and medium-sized cities in Poland. The comparisons were made allowing for the basic demographic features such as sex and age of the dead. Levels of mortality were identified for voivodeships and cities using fractional death rates for five year age groups, with the deaths among infants treated as a separate group."
Correspondence: M. Góralczyk-Modzelewska, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Economic and Statistical Research, Al. Niepodleglosci 208, 00-925 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30121 Leon, David A.; Chenet, Laurent; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.; Zakharov, Sergei; Shapiro, Judith; Rakhmanova, Galina; Vassin, Sergei; McKee, Martin. Huge variation in Russian mortality rates 1984-94: artefact, alcohol, or what? Lancet, Vol. 350, No. 9075, Aug 9, 1997. 383-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Mortality trends in Russia are analyzed over the period 1984-1994. "All major causes of death, with the exception of neoplasms, showed declines in mortality between 1984 and 1987 and increases between 1987 and 1994. In relative terms, these tended to be largest for the age-group 40-50 years; surprisingly, they were of the same magnitude among women and men. The largest declines and subsequent increases in proportional terms were observed for alcohol-related deaths and accidents and violence. However, pronounced effects were also seen for deaths from infections, circulatory disease, and respiratory disease. No substantial variations were seen for neoplasms. The stability of mortality from neoplasms in contrast to other causes over the period 1984-94 largely precludes the possibility that the changes in life expectancy are mainly an artefact, particularly one due to underestimation of the population. Although factors such as nutrition and health services may be involved, the evidence is that substantial changes in alcohol consumption over the period could plausibly explain the main features of the mortality fluctuations observed."
Correspondence: D. A. Leon, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30122 Murray, Christopher J. L.; Lopez, Alan D. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990-2020: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet, Vol. 349, No. 9064, May 24, 1997. 1,498-504 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is the last of four planned papers reporting results from the Global Burden of Disease Study, a project attempting to provide comparable and accurate estimates of causes of death for the year 1990 for the world's major regions by age group and sex. In this paper, the authors develop three scenarios of future mortality and disability for different age and sex groups, causes, and regions. "Life expectancy at birth for women was projected to increase in all three scenarios; in established market economies to about 90 years by 2020. Far smaller gains in male life expectancy were projected than in females; in formerly socialist economies of Europe, male life expectancy may not increase at all. Worldwide mortality from communicable maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders was expected to decline in the baseline scenario from 17.2 million deaths in 1990 to 10.3 million in 2020. We projected that non-communicable disease mortality will increase from 28.1 million deaths in 1990 to 49.7 million in 2020."
Correspondence: C. J. L. Murray, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30123 Nizard, Alfred. The three mortality revolutions since 1950. [Les trois révolutions de la mortalité depuis 1950.] Population et Sociétés, No. 327, Sep 1997. [4] pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Mortality trends in France are analyzed for the period since 1950. The author notes that, although the total number of deaths has remained relatively constant, there have been significant changes in the causes of death. Three key factors affecting mortality are identified: the use of antibiotics to reduce infant and child mortality; improved therapies to cope with cardiovascular diseases; and, in the 1990s, improvements in the treatment of cancer.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30124 Rószkiewicz, Malgorzata. Assessment of the impact of changes related to the system transformation on the evolution of the process of mortality in Poland. Polish Population Review, No. 8, 1996. 7-20 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The article presents an attempt to make a quantitative evaluation of the impact of the environment on the rate of mortality, focusing on the group of stress-bearing factors that, according to some hypotheses, make up the set of potential, indirect determinants in the process of mortality. According to these opinions, the environment can be a source of different forms of stress. One stressor can be the social and economic status of individuals, being the function of the economic development of the region, another the instability of the social situation in the region. Both types of stress sources seem to be particularly adequate in the evaluation of the impact of this type of factor on the process of mortality in Poland in the period of system transformation."
Correspondence: M. Rószkiewicz, Warsaw School of Economics, Al. Niepodleglosci 164, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30125 Scott, Susan; Duncan, C. J. The mortality crisis of 1623 in north-west England. Local Population Studies, No. 58, Spring 1997. 14-25 pp. Colchester, England. In Eng.
"One of the problems for an historical study of the effects of famine conditions on population dynamics is the dearth of appropriate and accurate data. However, a family reconstitution study has been carried out for the parish of Penrith (1557-1812) [in northwestern England]....The first part of this paper uses the demographic data assembled from the reconstitution of the community at Penrith to assess the scale of mortality, the age and sex composition of deaths and the fertility responses during the crisis period and makes comparisons with available information for modern-day famines....The second part of this paper...begins with an analysis of the crisis for other parishes in Cumberland, Westmorland, Lancashire and West Yorkshire using the same criteria of assessment and then suggests the dominant factors that may have been responsible for the variation in severity of mortality experienced by different regions."
Correspondence: C. J. Duncan, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30126 Sharma, Sanjay. Drought, mortality and social structure. Environmental Education and Information, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1995. 85-94 pp. Salford, England. In Eng.
The social aspects of drought-induced morbidity and mortality in India are analyzed in this study. "As a sample study, mortality trends in Rajasthan State in India in the 1980s were analysed to correlate the increased death rate with the drought of 1987. It is demonstrated that drought-induced malnutrition is the root cause of death. Sociologically, populations are divided into three sections--fragile, resilient and potent--which are differently affected by droughts, the fragile section suffering worst."
Correspondence: S. Sharma, 3/9 Jawahar Nagar, Jaipur 302 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30127 Twum-Baah, K. A.; Nyarko, Philomena E.; Quashie, S. E.; Caiquo, I. B.; Amuah, E. Infant, child and maternal mortality study in Ghana. Mar 1994. vii, 90 pp. Ghana Statistical Service: Accra, Ghana. In Eng.
The results of a survey carried out in Ghana in 1992 to estimate national and regional levels of infant, child, and maternal mortality are presented. The survey involved a nationally representative sample of 12,943 households, 30.3 per cent of which were urban and 69.7 per cent rural, and included 15,838 women aged 12-49. The report includes information on maternity care and who made use of the available services, as well as recommendations for improving those services.
Correspondence: Ghana Statistical Service, Accra, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30128 van Hoorn, W. D. Mortality: trends, background, and forecast. [Sterfte: trends, achtergronden en prognose.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 5, May 1997. 10-7 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article opens with a brief review of the trends in life expectancy and in mortality rates by age in the Netherlands. The most striking development in recent years is the continuous rise of life expectancy for men and the stagnation for women. A few methodological issues are discussed, such as selection processes and the possible use in forecasts of death rates by cause. Subsequently some important determinants of mortality and expert opinions, especially on future longevity, as well as hypotheses in forecasts of other developed Western countries, are reviewed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology, and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion. Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

63:30129 Nielsen, Birgitte B.; Liljestrand, Jerker; Hedegaard, Morten; Thilsted, Shakuntala H.; Joseph, Abraham. Reproductive pattern, perinatal mortality, and sex preference in rural Tamil Nadu, South India: community based, cross sectional study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 314, No. 7093, May 24, 1997. 1,521-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Some aspects of reproductive patterns and perinatal mortality in South India are explored using data collected in 1995 on 1,321 women and their offspring in rural Tamil Nadu. The results indicate that women give birth for the first time relatively late and have a limited number of children, indicating a controlled reproductive pattern. An excess neonatal mortality among girls indicates that the reduced number of children that couples now have may clash with the wish of families to have at least one son.
Correspondence: B. B. Nielsen, Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Perinatal Epidemiological Research Unit, 8200 Åarhus N, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30130 Zonta, L. A.; Astolfi, P.; Ulizzi, L. Heterogeneous effects of natural selection on the Italian newborns. Annals of Human Genetics, Vol. 61, No. 2, Mar 1997. 137-42 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"We have studied the impact of natural selection through stillbirth on the Italian population, taking into account the socio-economic heterogeneity of the country. The results suggest that older age at delivery and lower cultural level of the mothers, indicators of critical biological and socioeconomic conditions, even at present increase stillbirth risk. Moreover, in the less favourable environment of the southern regions, selection is still sex-specific."
Correspondence: L. A. Zonta, Università degli Studi, Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, via Abbiategrasso 207, 27100 Pavia, Italy. E-mail: zonta@ipvgen.unipv.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

63:30131 Abdel-Latif, Moustafa M. A proposed computer programme for determining infant survival status in demographic surveys. Population Sciences, Vol. 14, Jan 1995. 1-6 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"Determining infant survival status in demographic surveys is of great importance in analysis of infant mortality. Missing data representing age at death in complete months and complete years, if any, will affect the accuracy of any related measurement. A computer programme to reduce the percentage of such missing data is proposed."
Correspondence: M. M. Abdel-Latif, Al-Azhar University, International Islamic Center for Population Studies and Research, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Demography, P.O. Box 1894-11651, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30132 Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mushtaque. The effect of divorce on child survival in a rural area of Bangladesh. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 1, Mar 1997. 57-61 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The data for this study come from Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh....A total of 11,95l first marriages of Muslims that took place in the area between 1975 and 1987 were followed until the end of 1989, to examine the relationship between parental marriage breakdown and survival of first live-born children. The impact of divorce on survival of children during infancy and childhood was examined, using hazard analysis....It is shown that the net odds of death among children of divorced mothers in infancy and childhood were respectively 3.2 and 1.4 times higher than those of mothers whose marriages continued. The paper also discusses the possible mechanisms which link divorce and child survival."
Correspondence: A. Bhuiya, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30133 Blum, Alain; Avdeev, Alexandre. Infant mortality in the states of the former Soviet Union. [La mortalité infantile dans les Etats issus de l'URSS.] In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 415-35 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Until recently, research on USSR infant mortality was mainly devoted to registration completedness and data validation. This paper offers a detailed analysis of the data themselves which permit a clearcut distinction between developed and underdeveloped States of the former Soviet Union. Furthermore, unpublished data gave us the opportunity to analyse the evolution of the Russian infant mortality over time and to present its regional pattern by distinguishing European Russia and Siberia."
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Études Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30134 Burban, Anne. Births outside marriage in Europe, social inequalities in infant mortality persist despite the evolution of legislation and attitudes. [Les naissances hors mariage en Europe, une inégalité sociale persistante en matière de mortalité infantile malgré l'évolution des législations et des mentalités.] In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 215-42 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Births out of wedlock have greatly increased for few decades. Now, they still have a higher risk of stillbirth and of infant mortality. After an outline of European laws of filiation, the evolution of live births out of wedlock in the 20th century will be analysed and connected with the relative risk of infant mortality according to legitimacy."
Correspondence: A. Burban, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1/17 Place Montesquieu, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30135 Carlson, Elwood; Tsvestarsky, Sergey. Rising Bulgarian infant mortality: fact or artifact? In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 469-73 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Unpublished statistics from the Bulgarian National Statistical Institute show that Bulgaria continues to use a restricted definition of live births in which an infant weighing less than 1,000 g must survive a week to be counted as a live birth. Thus the `spike' in infant mortality observed in that country in the early 1990s was altogether real. The same statistics show that the increase in infant mortality occurred generally at all birth weights and in the postneonatal as well as neonatal periods, and that the birthweight distribution itself worsened, despite the continued exclusion of high-risk births below a thousand grams that died in the first week of life."
Correspondence: E. Carlson, University of South Carolina, Department of Sociology, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30136 Chunkath, Sheela R.; Athreya, V. B. Female infanticide in Tamil Nadu: some evidence. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 32, No. 17, Apr-May 1997. 21-8 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper reports and discusses evidence from a field survey on the existence of the practice of female infanticide in Tamil Nadu [India]. Primary health centre records [for 1995] analysed, provide strong corroborative evidence that the phenomenon is not, as earlier thought, confined to a few blocks of Madurai and Salem districts but is seen in an almost contiguous belt from Madurai to North Arcot Ambedkar districts of Tamil Nadu."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30137 Costa Rica. Ministerio de Salud. Sección Otros Programas Prioritarios. Departamento Estadística (San José, Costa Rica). Indicators of infant mortality by canton, Costa Rica 1994. [Indicadores de la mortalidad infantil por canton, Costa Rica 1994.] Aug 1995. [vii], 44 pp. San José, Costa Rica. In Spa.
This report presents data on infant mortality by cause in Costa Rica by canton and province for 1994.
Correspondence: Ministerio de Salud, Sección Otros Programas Prioritarios, Departamento de Estadística, San José, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30138 Debuisson, Marc; Buekens, Pierre. World wars and maternal and infant preventive health: the case of Belgium. [Guerres mondiales et prévention maternelle et infantile: le cas de la Belgique.] In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 269-97 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Infant mortality rates observed in 1916 and 1943 [in Belgium] were lower than the pre-war ones. The war is not a crisis time for babies. These good results may have been the consequence of maternal and child health programs implemented during the wars. Such programs included nutritional supplements, prenatal and well-baby clinics, and breastfeeding promotion. Moreover, these programs have widely spread a better knowledge of appropriate infant care."
Correspondence: M. Debuisson, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1/17 Place Montesquieu, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30139 Deeb, M.; Khlat, M.; Courbage, Y. Child survival in Beirut during wartime: time trends and socio-religious differentials. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1997. 110-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Child mortality estimates in Beirut are presented for the late 1970s and the mid 1980s, and changes in socio-religious differentials of mortality across time are investigated....The regression analysis of the proportion dead among children ever born (1) confirmed the magnitude of the religious differentials in child mortality, and their reduction over time; (2) demonstrated the existence of an interaction between religion and social class, as the religious differentials in child mortality were found to be highly prevalent in the lower social classes, and almost insignificant in the middle and upper ones; (3) highlighted the decisive role of differential fertility in generating differential child mortality, with higher fertility and higher child mortality in Muslims, and with the disappearance of religious differentials in child mortality after adjustment for fertility."
Correspondence: M. Deeb, American University of Beirut, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Bliss Street, Beirut, Lebanon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30140 Defo, Barthelemy K. Effects of infant feeding practices and birth spacing on infant and child survival: a reassessment from retrospective and prospective data. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 3, Jul 1997. 303-26 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Retrospective and prospective data collected in Cameroon were used to reassess hypotheses about how infant and early childhood mortality is affected by birth spacing and breast-feeding. These data show that: (a) a short preceding birth interval is detrimental for child survival in the first 4 months of life; (b) full and partial breast-feeding have direct protective effects on child survival in the first 4-6 months of life, with the effects of the former stronger than those of the latter; (c) early subsequent conception significantly increases mortality risks in the first 16 months of life of the index child. These findings are robust to various controls, e.g. study design, data defects, child's health conditions at/around birth, postnatal maternal and child recurrent illnesses, patterns of utilisation of health care services, and immunisation status of the child."
Correspondence: B. K. Defo, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30141 Gaiha, Raghav; Spinedi, Marco. Infant mortality and public policy. Public Finance/Finances Publiques, Vol. 48, Suppl., 1993. 63-77 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Arguing that conventional indices of poverty (such as the head-count ratio) do not capture all aspects of deprivation that large segments of the population experience in developing countries, the present paper concentrates on progress in reducing infant and child mortality, and the underlying factors. The role of public policy in reducing infant and child mortality is emphasised. While income matters, (independently) aspects of maternal care and access to certain basic health services also have a significant role. In particular, female literacy (as a proxy for mother's literacy) has a substantial negative effect. In the context of the concern for cost-effectiveness of public expenditure during structural adjustment, a case is made for reordering of priorities in educational and health expenditure, and for specific policy interventions designed to promote female literacy."
Correspondence: R. Gaiha, University of Delhi, Faculty of Management Studies, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30142 Gárdos, Eva; Rychtaríková, Jitka. Recent trends in infant health and mortality in Central and Eastern Europe. In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 437-67 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The evolution and structure of mortality for children under one year of age have been, in recent years, very different within countries that before were called socialist. The Czech and Slovak Republics, Poland and Hungary continue their decline in infant mortality. On the other hand a rise of the infant mortality rate was observed in Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, as well as in republics of the former Soviet Union and the former Yugoslavia. The rise was partly due to the increasing incidence of low birthweight. This fact can be associated with an increase in the proportion of births from young and poorly educated mothers and with a worsening of the medical infrastructure."
Correspondence: E. Gárdos, Központi Karoly Utica 5-7, 1525 Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30143 Gärtner, Karla. Development of infant mortality in Germany and some international comparisons. [Die Entwicklung der Säuglingssterblichkeit in Deutschland und im internationalen Vergleich.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1996. 441-58 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author "describes the development of infant and perinatal mortality over the past 30 years in the [Federal Republic of Germany] and takes into account the factors gender, legitimacy, nationality and length of life. The first section concludes with a discussion of several regional differences, particularly those evident between the old federal territory and the former GDR. The second section examines the development of infant mortality in the member states of the EU during the past two decades with reference to a variety of influencing factors. To the extent possible, the definitions currently in effect in the different countries are taken into account."
Correspondence: K. Gärtner, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30144 Gourbin, Catherine. Social inequalities in fetal-infant health and mortality: available national sources in Europe. [Inégalités sociales en santé et mortalité foeto-infantiles: les sources nationales disponibles en Europe.] In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 67-96 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"When social inequalities are expressed in terms of infant mortality and morbidity it implies the identification of the factors which may induce more important risks against foeto-infant survival. Which are the variables provided by the various national data bases, especially the Vital Registration forms, and do they allow to adequately measure them? Which are the limits of the available information and to which extent are they comparable across the European countries? Although other national data bases (Medical Birth Registries, national surveys, record linkage between census data and other data sets) provide additional information, Vital Registration remains a privileged information system in this field."
Correspondence: C. Gourbin, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1/17 Place Montesquieu, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30145 Grant, J. C.; Bittles, A. H. The comparative role of consanguinity in infant and childhood mortality in Pakistan. Annals of Human Genetics, Vol. 61, No. 2, Mar 1997. 143-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"As part of the 1990/1991 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, data were collected on the outcome of 26,408 births to 6,611 women, with mortality rates investigated at specific age intervals during the first 5 years of life. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the comparative roles of consanguineous marriage and a number of demographic and socioeconomic factors, including the sex of the child, maternal age, maternal education, birth interval and birth order, as determinants of early death. The results indicate that, even after controlling for these non-genetic variables, inbreeding at the level of first cousin exerted a significant adverse effect on survival in four of the five age intervals examined, neonatal, post-neonatal, infant and under 5 years."
Correspondence: A. H. Bittles, Edith Cowan University, Department of Human Biology, Joondalup Campus, Perth, 6027 WA, Australia. E-mail: A.Bittles@cowan.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30146 Haines, Michael R.; Preston, Samuel H. The use of the census to estimate childhood mortality: comparisons from the 1900 and 1910 United States census Public Use Samples. Historical Methods, Vol. 30, No. 2, Spring 1997. 77-96 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this article we present estimates of childhood mortality, calculated by indirect methods, for the whole United States...in conjunction with data from the 1900 and 1910 PUMS....The estimates are for the entire nation and relate to the period just prior to the censuses of 1900 and 1910....The present 1910 indirect mortality estimates are made for the total population as well as for the white, black, native-white, and foreign-born white populations....The results reported in this article are presented entirely as probabilities of child death between birth and given ages {q(x)'s} along with the implied expectations of life at birth and approximate dates to which the estimates applied."
Correspondence: M. R. Haines, Colgate University, Department of Economics, Hamilton, NY 13346. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30147 Holdsworth, Clare. Women's work and family health: evidence from the Staffordshire Potteries, 1890-1920. Continuity and Change, Vol. 12, No. 1, May 1997. 103-28 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This article will use data on women's employment and infant mortality in Stoke-on-Trent [England] for the period 1900 and 1920 to extend previous research on the link between infant mortality and mothers' work....This study also examines how attitudes towards women's employment influenced local public health policy....The article begins by addressing women's employment in the pottery industry: the number of women employed, their conditions of employment and the potential risks to infant health associated with their employment. Using survey data it is then possible to identify how many mothers were employed, the level of infant deaths among working women and the impact of employment on women's reproductive health."
Correspondence: C. Holdsworth, University of Manchester, Cathie Marsh Centre for Census and Survey Research, Manchester M60 1QD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30148 Huang, Wenyoung; Yu, Huachun; Wang, Fuying; Li, Guanchong. Infant mortality among various nationalities in the middle part of Guizhou, China. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 7, Oct 1997. 1,031-40 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes infant mortality, leading causes of death, and some associated factors among the Han, the Miao, the Bouyei and other minority nationalities in three counties of the middle part of Guizhou Province, China. The results showed that the overall infant mortality rate (IMR) in these areas was 125.7 per 1,000 live births during 1985-1987. There existed a great disparity in IMR among different nationalities. The rate was 103.1 (Han), 148.8 (Miao), 161.2 (Bouyei) and 145.0 (other ethnic groups) per 1,000 live births, respectively. The five leading causes of death in infants were respiratory diseases, neonatal tetanus, birth asphyxia, infectious diseases and diarrhoea." The relations between infant mortality on the one hand and maternal and child health care and maternal education on the other are analyzed.
Correspondence: W. Huang, Guiyang Medical College, Department of Public Health, Guiyang, Guizhou, China. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30149 Huck, Paul. Shifts in the seasonality of infant deaths in nine English towns during the 19th century: A case for reduced breast feeding? Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 34, No. 3, Jul 1997. 368-86 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
The seasonality of infant deaths in a sample of industrial parishes in northern England is compared for the beginning and end of the nineteenth century. Data are from official sources and burial registers. The author finds that "a winter peak in deaths was replaced by a summer peak and that mortality became more responsive to hot summers during the course of the century. I show that reduced breast feeding is a plausible explanation for the increased summer mortality and can help explain the failure of infant mortality to fall alongside child mortality after mid-century."
Correspondence: P. Huck, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 200 South Michigan Avenue, Suite 1500, Chicago, IL 60604-2482. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30150 Knudsen, Lisbeth B. Social differences in fertility pattern and the impact on infant mortality in Denmark during the 1980s. In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 201-14 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Based on data from the Fertility Database in Danmarks Statistik, which covers all of the population in the fertile age-span in Denmark 1981-88, changes in social characteristics of delivering women are described and infant mortality is analyzed according to the changing age/parity structure among delivering women belonging to different educational and socioeconomic groups....No clear cut trends were seen in maternal age-specific neonatal and infant mortality rates among infants born to primiparous women, aged 25-29. When observed age-specific mortality was compared to mortality calculated by using a standard population of 1981 as regards education and socioeconomic position, it was indicated that the changes have not had any substantial impact on the neonatal and infant mortality in this maternal age-group."
Correspondence: L. B. Knudsen, Danmarks Statistik, Sejrøgade 11, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30151 Kodio, Belco; Etard, Jean-François. Recent evolution of infant mortality in Bamako, Mali. [Evolution récente de la mortalité infantile à Bamako, Mali.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1997. 381-98 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"A follow-up study of 4,575 live births to 4,718 pregnant women in the Bankoni neighbourhood of Bamako is the basis for estimating the various risk factors of infant mortality. The cohort was formed in 1989-1992, and the last birth was in August 1993. Neonatal, post-neonatal and infant death rates were estimated at, respectively, 15, 40 and 55.6 per 1,000 live births....This estimate of infant mortality, based on a short and recent period, is lower than earlier estimates from the 1980s for Bamako city. But it is comparable to urban infant mortality in the period 1983-1992 for Senegal, where a strong fall has been observed since the mid-1980s."
Correspondence: B. Kodio, Institut National de Recherche en Santé Publique, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30152 Krishnan, Parameswara; Jin, Yan. A statistical model of infant mortality. Janasamkhya, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1993. 67-71 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"We have developed here a statistical model for describing infant deaths. Even though the model is tested with Canadian data, it will be a good approximation of the relationship between infant deaths and age in any population. The model needs improvement when high risk populations are studied."
Correspondence: P. Krishnan, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30153 Larson, Eric H.; Hart, L. Gary; Rosenblatt, Roger A. Is non-metropolitan residence a risk factor for poor birth outcome in the U.S.? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jul 1997. 171-87 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The association between non-metropolitan residence and the risk of poor birth outcome in the United States was examined using the records of 11.06 million singleton births in the United States between 1985 and 1987. Rates of neonatal and post-neonatal death, low birth weight and late prenatal care among non-metropolitan residents were compared to the rates among metropolitan residents....Residence in a non-metropolitan county was not found to be associated with increased risk of low birth weight or neonatal mortality at the national level or in most states, after controlling for several demographic and biological risk factors. Non-metropolitan residence was associated with greater risk of post-neonatal mortality at the national level. Non-metropolitan residence was strongly associated with late initiation of prenatal care at both the national level and in a majority of the states."
Correspondence: E. H. Larson, University of Washington, Department of Family Medicine, WAMI Rural Health Research Center, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30154 MacFarlane, Alison. Health inequalities among children in Europe: an epidemiologic perspective. [Inégalités en santé des enfants en Europe: une perspective épidémiologique.] In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 35-64 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The factors responsible for differences in infant and child health and mortality among the countries of Europe are examined. "Although the classifications used to group parents' occupations vary between countries, they show differences in mortality and ill health among babies and children even in countries such as Sweden where they may not be expected. Suggested explanations for these differences include that they might be artefacts of the process of data collection and classification, or that they might be the consequences of selection in social mobility, consequences of the political and social structure or the consequences of culture and life styles. Although artefact and selection processes play a part, they do not explain all the differences observed, and both the social structure and life styles associated with this contribute to the differences observed. Effective strategies are needed to decrease these inequalities, or at the very least, to diminish their effects on the health of babies and children."
Correspondence: A. MacFarlane, Radcliffe Infirmary, National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Oxford OX2 6HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30155 Masuy-Stroobant, Godelieve. Infant health and mortality in Europe: victories of yesterday and tomorrow's challenges. [Santé et mortalité infantile en Europe: victoires d'hier et enjeux de demain.] In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 337-66 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"According to the hypothesis of an existing `model' of the foeto-infant mortality decline in Europe, infant mortality rates and their components (stillbirth rate, early neonatal, late neonatal and postneonatal mortality risks) are analyzed for twenty-seven European countries from 1900 to 1990. One of the most striking differences between Eastern and Western infant mortalities is the very low stillbirth rate of the Eastern countries. The higher mortality in the Eastern countries is associated with a higher incidence of low and very low birthweight births."
Correspondence: G. Masuy-Stroobant, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1/17 Place Montesquieu, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30156 Mendonça, Elisabeth F.; Goulart, Eugênio M. A.; Machado, José A. D. Reliability of the medical certificates of underlying causes of infant deaths in a metropolitan region of southeastern Brazil. [Confiabilidade de declaração de causa básica de mortes infantis em região metropolitana do sudeste do Brasil.] Revista de Saúde Pública, Vol. 28, No. 5, 1994. 385-91 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The quality of official information on underlying causes of infant deaths was studied on the basis of data collected for a population-based study of the surveillance of infant mortality in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil in 1989. The survey included the analysis of a sample of infant deaths carried out by comparing the underlying causes of death as coded on death certificates to those recorded by a group of doctors who abstracted information from hospital records. We verified that 11.7% of neonatal deaths did not have the underlying cause of death confirmed by the investigation...and neither did 44.0% of post-neonatal deaths....It is believed that this major disagreement among post-neonatal deaths is due to the close correlation observed among the major causes of death within this group (pneumonia, diarrhoea and malnutrition)....It was concluded that the quality of the death certificates is not satisfactory."
Correspondence: E. F. Mendonça, Universidade Federal de Mina Gerais, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva e Social, Faculdade de Medicina, Av. Alfredo Balena 190, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30157 Meslé, France. Infant mortality in Europe during the two world wars. [La mortalité infantile en Europe pendant les deux guerres mondiales.] In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 245-68 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes the impact of the two world wars on infant mortality in Belgium, France, England and Wales, Italy, the Netherlands, and Germany. "The impact of the first World War...appears to be rather weak in comparison with the very important crises in 1911 (hot summer) and in 1918 (Spanish influenza). On the contrary, the second World War is responsible, in 1945, for the last important crisis of infant mortality of the century. As well in 1914-1918 as in 1939-1945, the excess mortality of illegitimate children increased dramatically....In the depth of the wars, increase or stagnation of infant mortality is especially due to a crisis of the first month mortality, related to endogenous causes, which is probably linked to a deterioration of the health status of the mothers."
Correspondence: F. Meslé, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30158 Roberts, Ian. Cause specific social class mortality differentials for child injury and poisoning in England and Wales. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 3, Jun 1997. 334-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We examined social class injury mortality differentials [among children in England and Wales] for [the] period 1985-92....Despite the overall decline in child injury mortality, steep social class mortality differentials persist. Moreover, the results of recent analyses show that these gradients have widened."
Correspondence: I. Roberts, University of London, Child Health Monitoring Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 30 Guildford Street, London WC1N 1EH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30159 Schoendorf, Kenneth C.; Kiely, John L. Birth weight and age-specific analysis of the 1990 U.S. infant mortality drop. Was it surfactant? Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 151, No. 2, Feb 1997. 129-34 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Data from the 1983-1991 National Linked Birth and Infant Death files are used to examine birth-weight-specific and age-specific mortality among U.S. infants to determine if the large decrease in infant mortality recorded in 1990 was due to surfactant use. "The hypothesis that surfactant was partially responsible for the overall infant mortality drop in 1990 is supported by the lower than expected mortality among infants weighing 750 to 1749 g. However, the unexpected improvement in postneonatal mortality among infants weighting 2500 g or more was responsible for a substantial portion of the overall decline and suggests that other factors also acted to decrease U.S. infant mortality in 1990."
Correspondence: K. C. Schoendorf, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Infant and Child Health Studies Branch, Room 790, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. E-mail: KXS2@NCH07A.EM.CDC.GOV. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30160 Vasey, Daniel E. An estimate of neonatal tetanus mortality in Iceland, 1790-1839. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1997. 49-69 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Neonatal tetanus mortality is estimated in 21 clusters of Icelandic parishes, beginning as early as 1790, mostly ending in 1839, using a method which Boerma and Stroh (1993) developed with contemporary data. Icelandic rates averaged about 60 per thousand, ranging from less than 10 to more than 250. Analysis and historical evidence suggest farming and especially fowling contributed to exposure to infection at birth. The need to obtain ages at death in selected intervals by days posed several methodological problems, but similar work on other historic European population is invited."
Correspondence: D. E. Vasey, Divine Word College, Department of Cross-Cultural Studies, Epworth, IA 52045. E-mail: dvasey@aol.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30161 Wegman, Myron E. Infant mortality: some international comparisons. Pediatrics, Vol. 98, No. 6, Pt. 1, 1996. 1,020-7 pp. Elk Grove, Illinois. In Eng.
"IMRs [infant mortality rates] have been declining around the world and recent progress among many industrialized countries has been substantial. In 1994, there were 26 countries, each with population greater than 1,000,000, that had IMRs lower than 10 per 1,000 live births....Twenty-one countries currently have an IMR lower than the U.S. but the differences are relatively small in absolute terms, particularly when compared with the developing world....Success in the developed countries underlines the far more serious situation in the developing world. Although complete data on infant mortality are lacking for the 100 odd countries that comprise three fourths of the world's population, it is reliably estimated that IMRs among these countries vary from 20 to 190 per 1,999 live births."
Correspondence: M. E. Wegman, 2760 Overridge Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4049. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30162 Wolpin, Kenneth I. Determinants and consequences of the mortality and health of infants and children. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 483-557 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This chapter critically surveys the literature pertaining to two central issues in population studies related to infant and child mortality. The first issue concerns the extent to which human fertility is affected by the existence of (and changes in) infant and child mortality....The second issue is concerned with the determinants of infant and child mortality." The effects of various parental behaviors (such as breast-feeding, prenatal care, and maternal age) on infant health and mortality are described.
Correspondence: K. I. Wolpin, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30163 Zakharov, Sergei V. The Second World War as a turning point of infant mortality decline in Russia. In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 311-33 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A critical turning point in the reduction of infant mortality [in Russia] was achieved in the war years after a temporary sharp rise in 1941-1942. By 1945, the rate was considerably lower than before the war. In the paper three major causes of the decline are highlighted: intensive introduction into medical practice of the sulphonamide therapy, as well as improvements in health care services provided to infants and pregnant women, and changes in individual behaviour of mothers. The problems associated with the quality of data available for the analysis of the wartime infant mortality patterns are discussed. Also, emphasis is made on the regional aspects of the infant mortality evolution during the war."
Correspondence: S. V. Zakharov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Economic Forecasting, Center of Demography and Human Ecology, Krasikova str. 32, Moscow 117418, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

63:30164 Bernard, Shulamit L.; Kincade, Jean E.; Konrad, Thomas R.; Acury, Thomas A.; Rabiner, Donna J.; Woomert, Alison; DeFriese, Gordon H.; Ory, Marcia G. Predicting mortality from community surveys of older adults: the importance of self-rated functional ability. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 52, No. B-3, May 1997. 155-63 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1990 baseline of the National Survey of Self-Care and Aging (NSSCA), and nearly three years of follow-up mortality data, we examined the association between self-rated functional ability, a global measure of perceived ability to function independently, and mortality among a national sample of older [U.S.] adults. The study included 3,485 subjects selected from the Medicare Beneficiary Files according to a stratified random sampling design, with approximately equal numbers of adults by gender in each of three age categories, 65-74, 75-84, and 85 and over. Self-rated functional ability was found to have an independent contribution to the subsequent risk of death among older adults. Using multivariate models that accounted for self-rated health, age, gender, medical conditions, functional status, and assistance from others, poor self-ratings on this single item nearly doubled the risk of death during the follow-up period. These findings suggest the importance, for both researchers and clinicians, of measuring the potential prognostic importance of self-ratings of health and self-ratings of functional ability among older adults."
Correspondence: S. L. Bernard, University of North Carolina, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, Department of Health Policy and Administration, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

63:30165 Brui, B.; Kozeeva, G. The situation concerning mortality of the economically active population in the Russian Federation. [O situatsii so smertnost'yu naseleniya trudosposobnogo vozrasta v Rossiiskoi Federatsii.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 12, 1996. 48-51 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The authors analyze the mortality of the economically active population in Russia, with particular reference to the recent increases in mortality levels. Differences in mortality by region and by sex are noted. Possible causes of the rise in mortality, such as alcohol consumption, are discussed.
Correspondence: B. Brui, Goskomstat Russia, Izmailovskoe Shosse 44, 105679 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30166 Huijbregts, Patricia; Feskens, Edith; Räsänen, Leena; Fidanza, Flaminio; Nissinen, Aulikki; Menotti, Alessandro; Kromhout, Daan. Dietary pattern and 20 year mortality in elderly men in Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands: longitudinal cohort study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 315, No. 7099, Jul 5, 1997. 13-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "investigate the association of dietary pattern and mortality in international data [using data for]....five cohorts in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy....Dietary intake varied greatly in 1970 between the three countries. In Finland and the Netherlands the intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol was high and the intake of alcohol was low; in Italy the opposite was observed....After adjustment for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption, the relative risk in the group with the healthiest diet indicator compared with the group with the least healthy was 0.87....Estimated relative risks were essentially similar within each country."
Correspondence: P. Huijbregts, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Department of Chronic Diseases and Environmental Epidemiology, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30167 Kannisto, Väinö; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W. No increased mortality in later life for cohorts born during famine. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 145, No. 11, Jun 1, 1997. 987-94 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of extreme nutritional deprivation in utero and during infancy and early childhood on mortality in later life. The authors analyzed the survival of the cohorts born in Finland during the severe 1866-1868 famine and during the 5 years immediately preceding and 5 years immediately following the famine. The study included 331,932 individuals born prior to the famine, 161,744 born during the famine, and 323,321 born after the famine. The authors assessed survival by cohorts from birth to age 17 years and from age 17 to 40, 60, and 80 years, as well as average length of life after age 80 years." The results suggest that "although cohorts subjected to prolonged and extreme nutritional deprivation in utero and during infancy and early childhood suffer an immediate rise in mortality, after the crisis has passed, they carry no aftereffects that influence their survival in later life."
Correspondence: K. Christensen, Odense University Medical School, Winslowparken 17, 5000 Odense C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30168 Kannisto, Väinö. The advancing frontier of survival: life tables for old age. Monographs on Population Aging, No. 3, ISBN 87-7838-185-1. 1996. 145, [115] pp. Odense University Press: Odense, Denmark. In Eng.
Old-age mortality in 28 developed countries in the period 1950-1990 is analyzed by means of life tables based on 52 million deaths of which 122,000 occurred above age 100. Death rates have fallen most rapidly at ages near 80 and less rapidly among the oldest old, but some decline is observed even at ages 105-109. Any given death rate has in the last 20 years shifted to an age 2-3 years older. The modal length of life has reached 87 years for women and 81 for men in the leading countries, and if present trends continue, the figures will be 92 and 85, respectively, by 2050. The probability of dying keeps rising with age and there is no sign of a plateau by age 110. With age, women outnumber men in ever-increasing proportions. The growth of the old-age population is amply documented. Evidence shows that this epoch-making mortality decline has been caused by period factors and not by supposedly healthier cohorts advancing in age.
Correspondence: Odense University Press, 55 Campusvej, 5230 Odense M, Denmark. E-mail: Press@forlag.ou.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30169 Nusselder, Wilma J.; Mackenbach, Johan P. Rectangularization of the survival curve in the Netherlands: an analysis of underlying causes of death. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 52, No. B-3, May 1997. 145-54 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study analyzed the contribution of selected causes of death to rectangularization of the survival curve of Dutch men and women above age 60 in the 1980s, and determined why rectangularization took place in the 1980s but not in the 1970s. The contribution of causes of death was determined by means of a decomposition analysis, using mortality data by underlying cause of death, sex, and age from Statistics Netherlands. Our results show that mortality reductions from ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, and lung cancer (men only) and mortality increases from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (men only) and mental disorders (women) contributed to rectangularization in the 1980s. Comparison with the 1970s, in addition, demonstrated that in particular changes in mortality at advanced ages...were responsible for the reversal from a decreasingly rectangular shape of the survival curve in the 1970s curve to rectangularization in the 1980s. The combination of increased survival to advanced ages and reduced survival at advanced ages explains why rectangularization of the survival curve took place recently in The Netherlands."
Correspondence: W. J. Nusselder, Erasmus University Medical School, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

63:30170 Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Tilburg, Theo; Kriegsman, Didi M. W.; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Boeke, A. Joan P.; van Eijk, Jacques T. M. Effects of social support and personal coping resources on mortality in older age: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 6, Sep 15, 1997. 510-9 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study focuses on the role of social support and personal coping resources in relation to mortality among older persons in the Netherlands. Data are from a sample of 2,829 noninstitutionalized people aged between 55 and 85 years who took part in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam in 1992-1995. Social support was operationally defined by structural, functional, and perceived aspects, and personal coping resources included measures of mastery, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Mortality data were obtained during a follow-up of 29 months, on average. Cox proportional hazards regression models revealed that having fewer feelings of loneliness and greater feelings of mastery are directly associated with a reduced mortality risk when age, sex, chronic diseases, use of alcohol, smoking, self-rated health, and functional limitations are controlled for."
Correspondence: B. W. J. H. Penninx, National Institute on Aging, Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry, 7201 Wisconsin Avenue, Gateway Building, Suite 3C-309, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30171 Sickles, Robin C.; Taubman, Paul. Mortality and morbidity among adults and the elderly. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 559-643 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a review of the literature on the determinants of morbidity and mortality among adults in developed countries, with particular focus on the elderly. The authors first review trends in, and cross-sectional country comparisons of, life expectancy and mortality in the twentieth century. Associations among mortality and aggregate per capita income, sex, ethnicity, and health care systems are described. The structural microeconomic models used to characterize the determinants of adult health status are then reviewed. "In the theoretical sections of the chapter, the alternative ways in which adult mortality is endogenized in a choice-theoretic framework are discussed. The basic structure of these models is used to assess the empirical studies of the relationships between adult health and schooling level, occupation, marital status and such `lifestyle' variables as smoking, exercise, and alcohol consumption. Considerable space is devoted to assessing the adequacy of data sources on adult health and mortality. The problem of measuring health or `quality of life' is considered and particular attention is paid to the use and validity of subjective measures of health that are found in survey-based data. In the final section of the chapter, [the authors] review the literature on the statistical modeling of mortality."
Correspondence: R. C. Sickles, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30172 Sverre, Jan M. A comparative study of trends in mortality rates of the ageing population in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland, 1966-1986. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1995. 227-32 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"The populations of Finland and the three Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway and Sweden) have experienced relatively marked differences regarding trends in mortality rates since the Second World War. To assess factors that might contribute to these differences, a cohort analysis was performed based upon vital statistics for the age category 45 years to 89 years, from the four countries, for the period 1966-86. The results of log-linear modelling, which included the effects of age, period, and cohort, on mortality rates, revealed differences in the effect of age parameters on mortality between Finland and the three Scandinavian countries. These differences may be related to a genetic component. Differences in patterns of mortality rates over time relating to period and cohort effects indicate a differential development in lifestyle-related risk factors associated with the major causes of death."
Correspondence: J. M. Sverre, Universitetseksjonen, Klinikk for Geriatri og Rehab, Ullevål Sykehus, 0407 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30173 Vermelho, Letícia L.; Jorge, Maria H. P. de M. Youth mortality: 1930-1991 period analysis (the epidemiological transition to violence). [Mortalidade de jovens: análise do período de 1930 a 1991 (a transição epidemiológica para a violência).] Revista de Saúde Pública, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1996. 319-31 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"Youth (15 to 24 years old) mortality in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and S. Paulo [Brazil] from 1930 to 1991 is studied. The objective is the recovery of historical data covering the period from the third decade of this century up to the present so as to evaluate mortality profile changes based on causes of death and to compare them with international indicators. Results show that S. Paulo experienced a rapid decline in the death rate for the group up to 1970, as also happened in Rio de Janeiro city up to 1980....However, during the past decade a higher proportion of deaths occurred in S. Paulo....After 1960 a transition took place and violent deaths, such as accidents and homicide, became the leading causes."
Correspondence: L. L. Vermelho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Núcleo de Estudos de Saúde Coletiva, Avenida Brigadeiro Trompowsky, s/n Hospital Universitário 5o andar, Ilha do Fundão, 21941-590 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

63:30174 Argentina. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos [INDEC] (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Complete life tables for Argentina by sex, 1990-1992. [Tabla completa de mortalidad de la Argentina por sexo, 1990-1992.] Serie Análisis Demográfico, No. 3, 1995. 25 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
Complete life tables are provided for Argentina by sex for the period 1990-1992.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, Centro Estadístico de Servicios, Julio A. Roca 615 P.B., 1067 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30175 Millar, W. J.; David, P. Life tables, Canada and provinces, 1990-1992. [Tables de mortalité, Canada et provinces, 1990-1992.] Pub. Order No. 84-537. ISBN 0-660-54896-8. May 1995. xxii, 48 pp. Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
This report contains life tables by sex and single year of age for Canada and its provinces using official mortality data for the period 1990-1992. Abridged life tables for five-year age groups by sex are also presented. The methodology used to produce the tables is described. The report is also available on diskette.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Publications Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Yale University, Social Science Library, New Haven, CT.

63:30176 Turpeinen, Oiva; Kannisto, Väinö. Abridged life tables for Finland, 1751-1880. Väestö/Befolkning/Population, No. 1997:5, ISBN 951-727-339-8. 1997. 37 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This publication contains the abridged life tables for Finland in each decade from 1751 to 1880. Together with full-length life tables regularly published for periods beginning in 1881, they form an uninterrupted series of life tables spanning nearly 250 years." The tables describe a regime of high death rates even in normal times, punctuated by sharp, often devastating peaks caused by epidemics, famines, and wars. However, the scattered settlement pattern of an almost totally rural country bestowed some health benefits, and the mortality of young adults and the middle-aged compared favorably with the more urbanized Sweden and England of the same epoch. During the period, mortality declined significantly in infancy but not at other ages, although the magnitude of annual fluctuations had clearly subsided before the demographic transition.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, P.O. Box 3B, 00022 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: mauri.nieminen@stat.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30177 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). Vital statistics of the United States, 1993. Preprint of Volume II, mortality, Part A, Section 6. Life tables. No. DHHS (PHS) 97-1104, ISBN 0-16-048039-6. Aug 1997. iv, 20 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
The official U.S. life tables for 1993 are presented. The tables show abridged life tables by race and sex, 1993; number of survivors at single years of age out of 100,000 born alive, by race and sex, 1993; expectation of life at single years of age, by race and sex, 1993; and retrospective data on life tables and life expectancy from 1900 to the present.
For the 1992 tables, see 62:20157.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

63:30178 Bidoli, Ettore; Franceschi, Silvia; Simonato, Lorenzo; Piffer, Silvano; Tognazzo, Sandro; Vian, Paolo; Prati, Sabrina; Fascioli, Silvia; Cristofolini, Mario. Differences in cancer mortality trends between four neighboring north-eastern areas and Italy, 1970-1990. Tumori, Vol. 81, No. 6, 1995. 399-404 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"The present report combines descriptive statistics...on four neighboring areas of north-eastern (NE) Italy...and all Italy (1970-89). The aim was to highlight potential differences in mortality trends....Death certificates stratified by cause, sex, age and residence were obtained from official publications....Absolute numbers of deaths from different causes, age-standardized rates...and percentage of change over the examined period for both sexes were computed for each geographic area....Unfavorable trends were seen for neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract, lung, breast, colo-rectum, bladder, kidney and pancreas and cutaneous malignant melanoma. Increases in most of these neoplasms were more marked in the 4 NE areas than in Italy [as a whole]....The analysis of mortality trends across areas is consistent with elevated and still increasing cancer rates in the 4 NE areas considered, especially for tobacco and alcohol-related neoplasms and skin melanoma."
Correspondence: E. Bidoli, Servizio di Epidemiologia, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Via Pedemontana Occ., 33081 Aviano (PN), Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30179 Everson, Susan A.; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kaplan, George A.; Goldberg, Debbie E.; Julkunen, Juhani; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Salonen, Jukka T. Hostility and increased risk of mortality and acute myocardial infarction: the mediating role of behavioral risk factors. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 2, Jul 15, 1997. 142-52 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This study examines the relationship between hostility and risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and incident myocardial infarction using data on 2,125 men aged 42 to 60 from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study in eastern Finland. "Men with hostility scores in the top quartile were at more than twice the risk of all-cause mortality...and cardiovascular mortality...relative to men with scores in the lowest quartile. Among 1,599 men without previous myocardial infarction or angina, high scores also had an increased risk of myocardial infarction....Biologic and socioeconomic risk factors, social support, and prevalent diseases had minimal impact on these associations, whereas adjustments for the behavioral risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index substantially weakened the relations. Simultaneous risk factor adjustment eliminated the observed associations. Results show that high levels of hostility are associated with increased risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality and incident myocardial infarction and that these effects are mediated primarily through behavioral risk factors."
Correspondence: S. A. Everson, Human Population Laboratory, Public Health Institute, 2151 Berkeley Way, Annex 2, Suite 300, Berkeley, CA 94704-1011. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30180 Fang, Jing; Madhavan, Shantha; Alderman, Michael H. Nativity, race, and mortality: influence of region of birth on mortality of U.S.-born residents of New York City. Human Biology, Vol. 69, No. 4, Aug 1997. 533-44 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Among non-Hispanic black and white residents of New York City the association between birthplace by region (South, West/Midwest, and Northeast) within the United States and mortality was determined by linking mortality records for 1988-1992 with the 1990 United States census data for New York City. Age-adjusted death rates computed by birthplace for blacks and whites were examined and also compared with total U.S. data. The results indicate that death rates for New Yorkers generally exceed those of the United States overall, and black rates exceed those of whites. Moreover, Southern-born blacks have substantially higher death rates than do blacks born in the Northeast. The most striking variations are for cancer and diseases of the heart."
Correspondence: J. Fang, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30181 Fiscella, Kevin; Franks, Peter. Poverty or income inequality as predictor of mortality: longitudinal cohort study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 314, No. 7096, Jun 14, 1997. 1,724-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors aim to "determine the effect of inequality in income between communities independent of household income on individual all cause mortality in the United States. [Data are from] a nationally representative sample of 14,407 people aged 25-74 years...from the first national health and nutrition examination survey....Community income inequality showed a significant association with subsequent community mortality, and with individual mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and mean income in the community of residence. After adjustment for individual household income, however, the association with mortality was lost." A comment by Richard G. Wilkinson is included (pp. 1,727-8).
Correspondence: K. Fiscella, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Family Medicine, Rochester, NY 14620-2399. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30182 Gorey, Kevin M.; Holowaty, Eric J.; Fehringer, Gordon; Laukkanen, Ethan; Moskowitz, Agnes; Webster, David J.; Richter, Nancy L. An international comparison of cancer survival: Toronto, Ontario, and Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan areas. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 7, Jul 1997. 1,156-63 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study examines differences in cancer mortality by socioeconomic status between the United States and Canada. "The Ontario Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program provided a total of 58,202 and 76,055 population-based primary malignant cancer cases for Toronto, Ontario, and Detroit, Mich, respectively....In the U.S. cohort, there was a significant association between socioeconomic status and survival for 12 of the 15 most common cancer sites; in the Canadian cohort, there was no such association for 12 of the 15 sites. Among residents of low-income areas, persons in Toronto experienced a survival advantage for 13 of 15 cancer sites at 1- and 5-year follow-up. No such between-country differentials were observed in the middle- or high-income groups. The consistent pattern of a survival advantage in Canada observed across various cancer sites and follow-up periods suggests that Canada's more equitable access to preventive and therapeutic health care services is responsible for the difference."
Correspondence: K. M. Gorey, University of Windsor, School of Social Work, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30183 Hoyert, Donna L.; Kung, Hsiang-Ching. Asian or Pacific Islander mortality, selected states, 1992. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 46, No. 1, Suppl, Aug 14, 1997. 64 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
This publication presents data on the mortality of the Asian and Pacific Islander (API) population of the United States in greater detail than has been available previously. "In 1992 a total of 19,478 deaths occurred in the Asian or Pacific Islander population in the seven States examined in this report. Heart disease and cancer were the two leading causes of death for each of the Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups. By age there is striking variation in leading causes among the race groups. Among the API subgroups in these States, age-adjusted death rates are greatest for the Samoan and Hawaiian populations and smallest for the Asian Indian, Korean, and Japanese populations. Life expectancy is lowest for the Hawaiian and Samoan populations."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30184 Joossens, J. V.; Kesteloot, H. Fourty years of evolution of mortality in Belgium and the Netherlands. Verhandelingen--Koninklijke Academie voor Geneeskunde van Belgie, Vol. 58, No. 4, 1996. 439-77 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Dut.
"Age adjusted mortality in Belgium (B) and The Netherlands (NL) was calculated from 5 yearly age-specific death rates between the ages 45-74 and 75-85+ years. Mortality was available in Belgium from 1954 to 1991 or 1994 (depending on the cause of death) and from 1950 to 1993 in The Netherlands. In the 45-74 years age class all-cause mortality decreased in B between 1955 and 1992 with 33% in men and 48% in women. In NL this was 11% and 40%, respectively....Life expectancy in 1992 was compared in the 15 EU countries. For both sexes together B ranked 8th, NL 3rd....Changes in life style--fat, salt, fruit and vegetable intake and smoking habits--which occurred since 1960 in B, its regions and in NL are consistent with the changes in mortality and life expectancy."
Correspondence: J. V. Joossens, Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Sint-Rafaël, Department of Epidemiology, Capucijnenvoer 33, 3000 Louvain, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30185 Kai, Xin. An analysis of the Chinese regional mortality differential model. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1996. 379-84 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Through an analysis of China's regional mortality differential, this paper proposes a nonlinear model of mortality and socioeconomic development level, in order to achieve...a better understanding of the pattern of change for mortality in different areas of the country and a more accurate projection of future trends of regional mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30186 Kawachi, Ichiro; Kennedy, Bruce P. The relationship of income inequality to mortality: does the choice of indicator matter? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 7, Oct 1997. 1,121-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The extent to which mortality differentials associated with income inequalities are influenced by the choice of indicator is explored. "Using a cross-sectional, ecologic design, we tested the relationships of six different income inequality indicators to total mortality rates in the 50 U.S. states. The following summary measures of income distribution were examined: the Gini coefficient; the decile ratio; the proportions of total income earned by the bottom 50%, 60%, and 70% of households; the Robin Hood Index; the Atkinson Index; and Theil's entropy measure. All were highly correlated with each other...and all were strongly associated with mortality...even after adjustment for median income and poverty. Thus, the choice of income distribution measure does not appear to alter the conclusion that income inequality is linked to higher mortality. Furthermore, adjustment for taxes and transfers, as well as household size (using equivalence scales), made no difference to the income inequality/mortality association."
Correspondence: I. Kawachi, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Health and Social Behavior, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30187 Korenman, Sanders; Goldman, Noreen; Fu, Haishan. Misclassification bias in estimates of bereavement effects. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 145, No. 11, Jun 1, 1997. 995-1,002 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Prospective studies that examine marital status differences in health and mortality frequently fail to update information on marital status in statistical models. The authors illustrate how the resulting misclassification of marital status can produce substantial bias in estimates of bereavement effects associated with widowhood. They use as their main source of data the [U.S.] Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA), 1984-1990, a national survey of persons aged 70 years and older. The estimates are based primarily on 3,192 respondents who were married and cohabiting with their spouses at the time of the baseline survey and who could be matched to their spouses' records."
Correspondence: N. Goldman, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30188 Kunst, Anton E.; Mackenbach, Johan P. Measuring socioeconomic inequalities in mortality. In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 97-127 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for the choice of the most appropriate methods in specific studies on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality. Part 2 discusses the measurement of socioeconomic status....Part 3 discusses the choice of inequality indices by which the size of mortality differences between high and low socioeconomic groups is summarized into a single figure....Part 4 illustrates the application of the framework of twelve indices to data from Finland on trends in mortality by occupational class and educational level in the period 1971 to 1990."
Correspondence: A. E. Kunst, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30189 Laake, Knut; Sverre, Jan M. Winter excess mortality: a comparison between Norway and England plus Wales. Age and Ageing, Vol. 25, No. 5, 1996. 343-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using data from Norway and England plus Wales, this study compares the effect of age, temperature and influenza on winter excess mortality in the two countries. Bivariate analyses showed that the excess winter mortality (December-March) in England and Wales was nearly twice as high in old as in middle-aged people, and also markedly higher than in Norway, while the association between excess winter deaths and influenza was of a similar magnitude. In the British data only, a marked and statistically significant negative relationship existed between outdoor temperature and excess winter mortality...."
Correspondence: K. Laake, Ullevaal Hospital, Department of Geriatric Medicine, 0407 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30190 Leonard, William R.; Keenleyside, Anne; Ivakine, Evgueni. Recent fertility and mortality trends among aboriginal and nonaboriginal populations of Central Siberia. Human Biology, Vol. 69, No. 3, Jun 1997. 403-17 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"We examine mortality and fertility patterns of aboriginal (primarily Evenki and Keto) and Russian (i.e., nonaboriginal) populations from the Baykit District of Central Siberia for the period 1982-1994....The results presented here indicate that the health of indigenous Siberian groups continues to lag well behind that of Russians living in the same region and northern aboriginal populations of Canada. Indeed, both the infant and total mortality profiles of the Baykit aboriginal population are comparable to those observed among developing world countries. The disparity in mortality levels between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal populations of the Baykit District is similar to that seen in other regions of Siberia and can be attributed to differences in living conditions and access to health care...."
Correspondence: W. R. Leonard, University of Florida, Department of Anthropology, 1350 Turlington Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30191 Lindsted, Kristian D.; Singh, Pramil N. Body mass and 26-year risk of mortality among women who never smoked: findings from the Adventist mortality study. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 1, Jul 1, 1997. 1-10 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this study, we present the 26-year all-cause mortality experience of 12,576 non-Hispanic white Seventh-day Adventist women (aged 30-74 years). This study of women who never smoked and who also reported a relatively low consumption of alcohol and animal products provides a unique opportunity to examine the independent effect of body weight on the mortality patterns of women. To investigate changes in the mortality patterns due to age at baseline and duration of follow-up, we determined age-specific risk of all-cause mortality across levels of BMI [body mass index] during specified intervals of the 26-year follow-up period." The findings "implicate overweight as a risk factor for fatal disease among women throughout adulthood and raise the possibility that lean, apparently healthy, middle-aged women may experience a higher risk of death during old age due to their lower body weight."
Correspondence: K. D. Lindsted, Loma Linda University, Center for Health Research, Nichol Hall, Room 2008, Loma Linda, CA 92350. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30192 Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.; Cavelaars, Adriënne E. J. M.; Groenhof, Feikje; Geurts, José J. M. Socioeconomic inequalities in morbidity and mortality in western Europe. Lancet, Vol. 349, No. 9066, Jun 7, 1997. 1,655-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Previous studies of variation in the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in health between countries have methodological drawbacks. We tried to overcome these difficulties in a large study that compared inequalities in morbidity and mortality between different countries in western Europe....Data on four indicators of self-reported morbidity by level of education, occupational class, and/or level of income were obtained for 11 countries, and years ranging from 1985 to 1992. Data on total mortality by level of education and/or occupational class were obtained for nine countries [from] about 1980 to about 1990....Countries in western Europe were generally similar in the size of socioeconomic inequalities in health. In all countries, risks of morbidity and mortality were higher in the lower socioeconomic groups. Surprisingly, we found that relative inequalities were larger than average in Sweden and Norway (both for morbidity and mortality). France had the highest inequality for mortality."
Correspondence: J. P. Mackenbach, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30193 Mäkelä, Pia; Valkonen, Tapani; Martelin, Tuija. Contribution of deaths related to alcohol use to socioeconomic variation in mortality: register based follow up study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 315, No. 7102, Jul 26, 1997. 211-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The contribution of excessive alcohol use to variations in mortality by socioeconomic class in Finland is analyzed using data from the 1985 and 1990 censuses over the follow-up period 1987-1993. The results indicate that "alcohol related mortality constituted 11% of all mortality among men aged [20 and over] and 2% among women and was higher among manual workers than among other classes. It accounted for 14% of the excess all cause mortality among manual workers over upper non-manual employees among men and 4% among women and for 24% and 9% of the differences in life expectancy, respectively. Half of the excess mortality from accidents and violence among male manual workers and 38% among female manual workers was accounted for by alcohol related deaths, whereas in diseases the role of alcohol was modest. The contribution of alcohol related deaths to relative mortality differentials weakened with age."
Correspondence: P. Mäkelä, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Population Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: pia.makela@helsinki.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30194 Merino, Cristina; Vallejo, Francisco; Aguinaga, Lenin. Differential mortality by sex in three regions of Ecuador. [Mortalidad diferencial por sexos en tres regiones del Ecuador.] Correo Poblacional y de la Salud, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1997. 20-7 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
The authors present information on general and infant mortality by sex. They analyze the principal causes of death at the national, regional, and provincial level in an attempt to identify regional inequalities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30195 Murray, John E. Standards of the present for people of the past: height, weight, and mortality among men of Amherst College, 1834-1949. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 57, No. 3, Sep 1997. 585-606 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Data for 2,500 male students attending Amherst College, Massachusetts, during the nineteenth century are used to examine whether the anthropometric-mortality relationships that have been found in present-day populations also characterized populations in the past. "This article finds U-shaped body mass index (BMI)-mortality risk relationships among nineteenth-century men that were similar to such relationships as found in twentieth-century men. No relationship between height and mortality could be detected. This article infers from the socioeconomic homogeneity of the sample that the BMI-mortality risk relationship, although apparently invariant with respect to time, is driven by noneconomic factors."
Correspondence: J. E. Murray, University of Toledo, Department of Economics, Toledo, OH 43606-3390. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30196 Mustard, Cameron A.; Derksen, Shelley; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Wolfson, Michael; Roos, Leslie L. Age-specific education and income gradients in morbidity and mortality in a Canadian province. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 3, Aug 1997. 383-97 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this study was to describe age-specific socioeconomic differentials in mortality and morbidity for a representative sample of a single Canadian province. The study sample was formed from the linkage of individual respondent records in the 1986 census of vital statistics records and comprehensive records of health care utilization for a 5% sample of residents of the province of Manitoba....Mortality was inversely associated with both income and education....The general findings of this study of a representative Canadian population support observations from other developed country settings that socioeconomic differences in relative rates of mortality and morbidity over the life course are greatest in the adult years."
Correspondence: C. A. Mustard, Manitoba Centre for Health Policy and Evaluation, St. Boniface General Hospital Research Centre, Suite 2008, 351 Tache Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R2H 2A6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30197 O'Shea, Eamon. Male mortality differentials by socioeconomic group in Ireland. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 6, Sep 1997. 803-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Differential male mortality by socioeconomic group and by cause of death is analyzed for Ireland using official mortality data for the period 1986-1991. Methodological issues associated with trend analysis are highlighted. "There is some discussion on both causal relationships and policy implications arising from analysis of the data. The results confirm international trends in this area: poorer people have higher mortality relative to people in more advantaged circumstances."
Correspondence: E. O'Shea, University College Galway, Department of Economics, Galway, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30198 Osler, Merete; Schroll, Marianne. Diet and mortality in a cohort of elderly people in a North European community. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1997. 155-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Despite an increase in the movement of food around the world, there is still a wide spectrum of dietary patterns and the aim of the present study was to examine the association between a Mediterranean dietary pattern and mortality in a cohort of elderly people living in a [Danish municipality]....A diet score, with seven dietary characteristics of the Mediterranean diet, was associated with a significant reduction in overall mortality....A Mediterranean diet score predicts survival in a North European population. Plasma carotene may serve as an intermediate factor in this association."
Correspondence: M. Osler, University of Copenhagen, Department of Social Medicine, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3, 2220 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30199 Pelletier, François; Légaré, Jacques; Bourbeau, Robert. Mortality in Quebec during the nineteenth century: from the state to the cities. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 1, Mar 1997. 93-103 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to explore mortality in Quebec during the nineteenth century from a demographic perspective. During the nineteenth century, there was excess urban mortality in various countries; in order to identify such mortality differentials, we compared mortality indicators for the province of Quebec and then for the urban areas of Montreal and Quebec City....According to the data we analyzed, mortality is undoubtedly higher in urban areas even though a convergence in trends took place towards the end of the century, resulting in an overall reduction in mortality....Life expectancy estimates based on a cross-sectional approach were systematically lower than those resulting from a cohort-specific one."
Correspondence: F. Pelletier, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, Groupe de Recherche sur la Démographie Québécoise, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30200 Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B. Premature mortality among U.S. Puerto Ricans, 1989. New England Journal of Public Policy, Vol. 11, No. 2, Spring-Summer 1996. 143-53 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The indicator `years of potential life lost' (YPLL) points out the extent to which premature death among Puerto Ricans residing in the United States is a function of behaviors and social conditions. The computation of YPLL for various causes of death highlights the devastating effect of HIV infection, which emerges as the leading cause of premature death for both genders....Accidents and homicides follow HIV as leading causes of YPLL. This indicator also underscores gender-specific vulnerabilities. Men comprise less than half the U.S. Puerto Rican population, but they account for 61.1 percent of all deaths and 73 percent of YPLL."
Correspondence: A. B. Ramírez de Arellano, University of Massachusetts, John W. McCormack Institute of Public Affairs, Harbor Campus, Boston, MA 02125. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30201 Sundquist, Jan; Johansson, Sven-Erik. Self-reported poor health and low educational level predictors for mortality: a population based follow up study of 39,156 people in Sweden. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 1, Feb 1997. 35-40 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "analyse the relative risk (RR) of mortality for people who reported poor health or had low educational level [in] Sweden....A random sample of 39,156 people was interviewed face to face by Statistics Sweden from 1979-85....Men and women in both age groups who reported poor health status at the interview had a strongly increased risk of dying during the follow up period....Living alone, renting an apartment, and low educational level...were also associated with increased mortality risks for men and women in both age groups....Poor self reported health was a strong predictor for total mortality."
Correspondence: J. Sundquist, University of Lund, Department of Community Health Sciences Dalby/Lund, Helgeandsgatan 16, 223 54 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30202 Sundquist, Jan; Johansson, Sven-Erik. The influence of country of birth on mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease in Sweden, 1979-1993. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1997. 279-87 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The present study highlights the relation between country of birth, adjusted for other social variables, and total mortality and mortality from circulatory diseases and coronary heart disease (CHD). [Data are from] interviews with 21,420 males and 21,977 females aged 20-74 [in Sweden]....Men born in Finland had an increased mortality from all causes of death. Women born in Finland had an increased mortality risk for circulatory diseases....The increased mortality risk for Finnish males and females and, in addition the increased circulatory disease mortality risk for Finnish females and the strongly increased risk for CHD mortality for females born in Finland and Eastern Europe could not be explained by confounding by age, marital status or socioeconomic position."
Correspondence: J. Sundquist, University of Lund, Department of Community Health Sciences Dalby/Lund, Helgeandsgatan 16, 223 54 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30203 Tabutin, Dominique; Willems, Michel. Excess mortality of girls up to 1940: a good example of sexual inequalities in Western history. [La surmortalité des filles jusqu'en 1940: un bel exemple des inégalités sexuelles dans l'histoire occidentale.] In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 129-77 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"On the basis of a large set of mortality data by age and sex from 24 industrialized countries of Europe, America and Oceania, we try to relate the history of sex inequalities from birth to puberty, between 1800 and 1940....Using the ratio of male to female mortality rates (%) as indicator of excess mortality, we confirm the excess male mortality during the first year of life, but especially the extension of the excess female mortality between 5 and 15 years....The data by causes of death show the impact of infectious and parasitic diseases in the excess female mortality observed in childhood and young ages. This will only disappear with the dramatic change occurring in the causes-of-death structure following the disappearance of these diseases. The frailty of the young girl's situation from 5 to 15 years and the importance of tuberculosis at these ages are tackled in detail."
Correspondence: D. Tabutin, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1/17 Place Montesquieu, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30204 Vågerö, Denny. Region of birth and mortality among black Americans. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 5, May 1997. 724-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses recent research on the relation between place of birth and mortality among blacks in the United States. The impact of social class at birth is also considered.
Correspondence: D. Vågerö, Stockholm University, Department of Sociology, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30205 Valkonen, Tapani. Social inequalities in mortality. In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 3. Apr 1997. 51-67 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Università degli Studi di Siena, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza: Siena, Italy. In Eng.
The author reviews the reasons why people of lower socioeconomic status generally have lower life expectancies than those of higher socioeconomic status. He reviews some national studies on this subject, considers age differences in mortality, and notes some studies that make international comparisons. Trends in such differentials over time are also examined. In order to arrive at a better understanding of the reasons for these differentials, causes of death are analyzed. The author concludes with a discussion of the explanations for socioeconomic mortality differentials.
Correspondence: T. Valkonen, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 33 (Yliopistonkatu 4), 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30206 Vallin, Jacques. Mortality differentials by sex. [Les différences de mortalité entre sexes.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 3. Apr 1997. 21-50 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Università degli Studi di Siena, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza: Siena, Italy. In Fre.
The various factors contributing to differential mortality by sex are examined. The author identifies four paradoxes concerning such differentials. The first is that males generally survive the period following their birth more frequently than females, but over the long term, males die sooner. The second is that, despite the fact that women's lifestyles are becoming more like those of men, the gap between female and male life expectancy is increasing. The third is that although the sex differential in mortality increases with increasing life expectancy, the sex differential in mortality is lowest where life expectancy is highest. The final paradox is that male excess mortality may go hand in hand with a reduction in differences in life expectancy by sex.
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30207 Velkova, Angelika; Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, Judith H.; Mackenbach, Johan P. The East-West life expectancy gap: differences in mortality from conditions amenable to medical intervention. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1997. 75-84 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Although mortality from conditions amenable to medical intervention has frequently been shown to be higher in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CCEE) than in the countries of Western Europe (CWE), the contribution of these mortality differences to the East-West gap in life expectancy is unknown....The specific objectives of our study were: (i) to describe the differences in mortality from conditions amenable to medical intervention between CCEE and CWE; (ii) to estimate the contribution of these differences in mortality to the difference in life expectancy between CCEE and CWE; (iii) to compare this contribution with that of the differences in mortality from the four major cause-of-death groups (cancer, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, external causes)." The authors conclude that "although the contribution of conditions amenable to medical intervention should not be taken as a direct estimate of the contribution of medical care to the East-West life expectancy gap, [the] results suggest that reducing differences in the effectiveness of medical care may be more important for narrowing the life expectancy gap than has hitherto been assumed."
Correspondence: A. Velkova, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30208 Wannamethee, S. Goya; Shaper, A. Gerald. Lifelong teetotallers, ex-drinkers and drinkers: mortality and the incidence of major coronary heart disease events in middle-aged British men. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jun 1997. 523-31 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors aim "to determine the risk of all cause mortality and the incidence of major coronary heart disease (CHD) events in lifelong teetotallers and in ex-drinkers compared with occasional and regular drinkers [using data from] a prospective study of...7,735 [British] middle aged 40-59 years....Ex-drinkers exhibited increased cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality; lifelong teetotallers showed the lowest cardiovascular mortality but a significantly increased non-cardiovascular mortality....In men without a diagnosis of CHD, lifelong teetotallers and ex-drinkers showed similar increased relative risk (RR) of heart attacks, with regular drinkers (combined) having a significantly decreased risk compared to occasional drinkers...and non-drinkers...."
Correspondence: S. G. Wannamethee, Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30209 Wannamethee, S. Goya; Shaper, A. Gerald. Socioeconomic status within social class and mortality: a prospective study in middle-aged British men. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jun 1997. 532-41 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We have examined the relationship between social class and mortality using home and car ownership as additional indices of socioeconomic status within social class. [Data are from] a prospective study of a cohort of [7,735 men aged 40-59 years], representative of the social class distribution of middle-aged men in Great Britain....During the follow-up period there were 946 deaths from all causes among the 7,262 men....Mortality differences within society are greater than indicated by social class based on occupation alone. Irrespective of social class, men with greater material assets have lower rates of mortality from all causes than men less well endowed, independent of a wide range of lifestyle and biological factors. These findings suggest that mortality differences within our society are closely related to relative wealth."
Correspondence: S. G. Wannamethee, Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

63:30210 Archibald, C. P.; Lee, Hin Peng. Smoking-associated mortality in a cohort of Singaporeans observed for 20 years. Annals: Academy of Medicine, Singapore, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan 1996. 123-8 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"This study is the first to provide data specific to Singapore on the increased mortality among smokers, and is one of the few such studies on Asians....Relative risk values were clearly elevated for male and female smokers for all-cause mortality (1.42 and 1.52, respectively), lung cancer (13.2, 6.37) and death due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (4.71, 8.50). Relative risk values for death from cancer of the larynx or oesophagus, ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were elevated but not significantly different from 1.0. A trend of increasing risk with increasing smoking intensity was seen for all-cause mortality among men and for lung cancer and COPD mortality, among both sexes. Ethnicity was associated with ischaemic heart disease mortality among men...."
Correspondence: H. P. Lee, National University of Singapore, Department of Community and Occupational Family Medicine, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30211 Bourbeau, Robert; Courville, Valérie. Violent death according to age, sex, and cause: a classification of the industrial countries, 1985-1989. [La mortalité violente selon l'âge, le sexe et la cause: un essai de classification des pays industrialisés, 1985-1989.] European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1997. 71-94 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Using cluster analysis, groupings of countries can be made on the basis of the level of violent death, its age-composition and its causes. It is possible to show that some countries with heavy and with light burdens of violent death have characteristic profiles of mortality according to age and cause of death. For example, surmortality in some Eastern (Hungary and Czechoslovakia) and in some Northern and Western countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Norway and Switzerland) produces a kind of horizontal corridor in Europe. Differences between countries in respect of mortality from motor vehicle traffic accidents, falls and suicide account to a considerable degree for the patterns observed."
Correspondence: R. Bourbeau, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30212 Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Schuberth, Stephan; Fraisse, Eckart; Fliedner, Theodor M. The association between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality in a cohort of male employees in the German construction industry. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1997. 85-91 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, we present analyses on the relation between self-reported alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality in a cohort of construction workers from Southern Germany...." It is found that "prevalence of pre-existing diseases was highest among heavy drinkers, while no major differences were observed between abstainers and men who consumed 1-49 g of alcohol per day. Overall, 172 men died during the follow-up period. There was a strong U-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and total mortality....Strongly increased mortality was also found among heavy drinkers. Exclusion of non-drinkers with pre-existing diseases did not change the U-shaped association."
Correspondence: H. Brenner, University of Ulm, Department of Epidemiology, 89069 Ulm, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30213 Burnley, I. H. Disadvantage and male cancer incidence and mortality in New South Wales 1985-1993. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 3, Aug 1997. 465-76 pp. Oxford, Engalnd. In Eng.
"Male premature mortality variations from cancers by socioeconomic status and marital status were analysed for the periods 1986-1989 and 1990-1993 for New South Wales [Australia]. Cancer incidence and mortality were also surveyed by statistical local areas within metropolitan Sydney between 1985 and 1991 and correlation and regression analyses were undertaken with socioeconomic indicators and the modified Jarman 8 disadvantage indicator. Marital status variations were found with most major cancers, with not currently married men being more at risk....An unexpected finding with mortality was an occupational status bipolarity with several cancers, notably with managerial and manual workers. There are implications for the more precise targeting of populations at risk."
Correspondence: I. H. Burnley, University of New South Wales, School of Geography, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30214 Chevarley, Frances; White, Emily. Recent trends in breast cancer mortality among white and black U.S. women. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 5, May 1997. 775-81 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Time trends in breast cancer mortality were analyzed from 1970 to 1992 among White and Black U.S. women aged 25 and over....For White women of all ages, breast cancer mortality decreased by 1.6%...per year on average during 1989 to 1992, in contrast to the flat mortality rates observed during the 1970s and a 0.5% average annual increase during 1980 to 1988. The decline was observed for White women under age 60, among whom breast cancer mortality had been decreasing, and for White women aged 60 to 79, among whom breast cancer mortality had been increasing, but it was not observed among Black women."
Correspondence: F. Chevarley, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Survey, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30215 Corrao, Giovanni; Ferrari, Pietro; Zambon, Antonella; Torchio, Pierfederico; Aricò, Sarino; Decarli, Adriano. Trends of liver cirrhosis mortality in Europe, 1970-1989: age-period-cohort analysis and changing alcohol consumption. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1997. 100-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The object of our study was to describe liver cirrhosis mortality in European countries between 1970 and 1989. We used an age-period-cohort log-linear Poisson model to assess the effect of early environmental exposure on the geographical distribution and on the temporal pattern of mortality rates. In particular, we have attempted to clarify whether the recent trend in mortality data represents a short-term fluctuation or an emerging long-term trend, possibly related to the changes in alcohol consumption....The current application of age-period-cohort analysis on European liver cirrhosis mortality gives additional evidence about the different role of aetiological and prognostic factors in the European areas, the changing levels of exposure to the aetiological and prognostic factors in different populations, and makes it possible to hypothesize future trends in liver cirrhosis mortality."
Correspondence: G. Corrao, Università degli Studi di Milano, Istituto di Scienze Statistiche e Matematiche Marcello Boldrini, Via Conservatorio 7, 20122 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30216 Dyker, Alexander G.; Weir, Christopher J.; Lees, Kennedy R. Influence of cholesterol on survival after stroke: retrospective study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 314, No. 7094, May 31, 1997. 1,584-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "investigate the association between serum cholesterol concentration and cerebrovascular disease....[Data are from Glasgow, Scotland, and concern] 977 patients with acute stroke....After adjustment for known prognostic factors, higher serum cholesterol concentrations were associated with reduced long term mortality after stroke....independently of stroke type, vascular territory and extent, age, and hyperglycaemia. Three month outcome was also influenced independently by serum cholesterol....Our data suggest an association between poor stroke outcome and lower serum cholesterol concentration. Until a prospective controlled study has confirmed the benefits of lowering cholesterol concentration in elderly subjects, the application of cholesterol lowering guidelines cannot be justified as secondary prevention of acute stroke."
Correspondence: A. G. Dyker, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Acute Stroke Unit, Glasgow G11 6NT, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30217 Garenne, Michel; Mbaye, Khadidiatou; Bah, Mohamed D.; Correa, Paul. Risk factors for maternal mortality: a case-control study in Dakar hospitals (Senegal). African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1997. 14-24 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study was conducted in the three main hospitals of Dakar, the capital city of Senegal....[It] was conducted to identify the most significant risk factors (institutional, behavioural, biological, and socio-demographic) of maternal deaths, and how the knowledge of those risk factors could be used to prevent maternal deaths....The estimated level of maternal mortality in the city (lower bound) is high by international standards, but matches other estimates in sub-Saharan Africa....The causes of deaths were varied, as usually found in other studies, but the role of infections appeared larger than in other studies....According to empirical findings, a lot could be gained by simple prevention, in particular regular antenatal visits, vaccinations, and quick referral in case of complications."
Correspondence: M. Garenne, Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. E-mail: garenne@ceped.ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30218 Garenne, Michel L.; Madison, Maria; Tarantola, Daniel; Zanou, Benjamin; Aka, Joseph; Dogoré, Raymond. Mortality impact of AIDS in Abidjan, 1986-1992. AIDS, Vol. 10, No. 11, 1996. 1,279-86 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "quantify the mortality impact of AIDS in the city of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) by a full scale analysis of mortality trends before and after the onset of the epidemic....Data on deaths registered in the 10 vital registration centers of the city between 1973 and 1992, and data on causes of deaths in the four public hospitals were coded and investigated....There was a marked increase in death rates starting in 1986, date of the first diagnosed AIDS cases in the city. This increase was significant for both sexes, but more pronounced among men. It was concentrated primarily among young adults (aged 25-44 years) and among older children (aged 5-14 years), and most of it was considered to be attributable to AIDS and related infections, tuberculosis in particular. When data were cumulated from 1986 to 1992, approximately 25,000 persons were estimated to have died of AIDS."
Correspondence: M. L. Garenne, Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30219 Grodstein, Francine; Stampfer, Meir J.; Colditz, Graham A.; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Joffe, Marshall; Rosner, Bernard; Fuchs, Charles; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Hennekens, Charles H.; Speizer, Frank E. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and mortality. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 336, No. 25, Jun 19, 1997. 1,769-75 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We examined the relation between the use of postmenopausal hormones and mortality among participants in the Nurses' Health Study, who were 30 to 55 years of age at base line in 1976. Data were collected by biennial questionnaires beginning in 1976 and continuing through 1992....After adjustment for confounding variables, current hormone users had a lower risk of death...than subjects who had never taken hormones; however, the apparent benefit decreased with long-term use...because of an increase in mortality from breast cancer among long-term hormone users. Current hormone users with coronary risk factors...had the largest reduction in mortality...with substantially less benefit for those at low risk....On average, mortality among women who use postmenopausal hormones is lower than among nonusers; however, the survival benefit diminishes with longer duration of use and is lower for women at low risk for coronary disease."
Correspondence: F. Grodstein, Channing Laboratory, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30220 Harrison, Kelsey A. Maternal mortality in Nigeria: the real issues. African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1997. 7-13 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng.
"High maternal mortality in Nigeria, estimated to be 1,000 per 100,000 births, will not go away as long as three fundamental issues prevail: mass poverty with gross inequalities, unbooked emergencies, and illiteracy, which bestrides and underlies both. Here, the focus is on the first two factors, as well as on structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) which, together with rampant corruption, constitute a major aggravator of poverty."
Correspondence: K. A. Harrison, University of Port Harcourt, Obstetrics and Gynæcology, PMB 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30221 Heck, Katherine E.; Wagener, Diane K.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Devesa, Susan S.; Breen, Nancy. Socioeconomic status and breast cancer mortality, 1989 through 1993: an analysis of education data from death certificates. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 7, Jul 1997. 1,218-22 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examined whether more highly educated women were at greater risk of dying of breast cancer [in the United States] during 1989 through 1993. Breast cancer mortality rates were calculated through death certificates and Current Population Survey data. Breast cancer mortality rates were highest among women with 12 and with 16 or more years of education. Non-Hispanic Black women had the highest mortality rates and Asian women the lowest. Positive relationships between mortality and education were found for Hispanic women as well as non-Hispanic Black and Asian women. The previously seen positive relationship between breast cancer mortality and education was found among U.S. women of color but not non-Hispanic White women."
Correspondence: K. E. Heck, National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 730, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30222 Hong Kong. Census and Statistics Department (Hong Kong). Mortality and morbidity of heart diseases in Hong Kong, 1971-1994. Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics, Feb 1997. 1-15 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng; Chi.
This the second of two feature articles at the end of this issue. "In Hong Kong, heart diseases have been the second leading cause of death, after cancer, since the 1960s....The purpose of this article is to examine the trends of mortality and morbidity of heart diseases in Hong Kong from 1971 to 1994. Age and sex differentials of deaths due to heart diseases are also analysed....In general, the number of deaths due to heart diseases increased with age for either sex and males were more vulnerable to heart diseases than females. The age-specific death rates of either sex were quite stable over time and no increasing trend was observed. Compared with the crude death rate due to heart diseases, the standardized death rate showed a marked downward trend. These suggest that the increase in deaths due to heart diseases was mainly due to the ageing population."
Correspondence: Census and Statistics Department, 19/F Wanchai Tower, 12 Harbour Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30223 Izsák, János. Analyzing changes in cause-specific mortality by age using dissimilarity indices. [A haláloki struktúra változásainak vizsgálata disszimilaritási indexekkel.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 75, No. 2, Feb 1997. 130-40 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"Cause of death structure exhibits considerable changes with age. Calculating dissimilarity indices for pairs of five year age groups of cause of death statistics, we obtained a picture on the age dependence of the scalarized structural changes. Some dissimilarity measures accentuate mainly the differences between case numbers in the range of dominant causes of death. Others are sensitive also to changes in smaller frequencies....We performed calculations on causes of death statistics of some European countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30224 Kao, Senyeong; Chen, Li-Mei; Shi, Leiyu; Weinrich, Martin C.; Miller, C. Arden. Maternal mortality in Taiwan: rates and trends. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 1, Mar 1997. 34-5, 38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The development of a strategy for collection of accurate data on maternal deaths featured an interview census of families of women of reproductive age who died in Taiwan during 1984-1988. The census found 101 maternal deaths in addition to the 173 deaths identified as such in vital statistics records. The maternal mortality rate for the five-year period was 16.4 deaths per 100,000 live births, which is 58% higher than the official rate of 10.3 per 100,000. Taiwan's maternal mortality rate, which was 20.3 deaths per 100,000 in 1984, declined by 20% over the period studied."
Correspondence: S. Kao, National Defense Medical Center, School of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30225 Koonin, Lisa M.; MacKay, Andrea P.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Atrash, Hani K.; Smith, Jack C. Pregnancy-related mortality surveillance--United States, 1987-1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 46, No. SS-4, Aug 8, 1997. 17-36 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report summarizes surveillance data for pregnancy-related deaths in the United States for 1987-1990....During 1987-1990, 1,459 deaths were determined to be pregnancy-related. The overall pregnancy-related mortality ratio was 9.2 deaths per 100,000 live births. The pregnancy-related mortality ratio for black women was consistently higher than for white women for every risk factor examined by race....Older women, particularly women aged [35 years or over], were at increased risk of pregnancy-related death. The gestational age-adjusted risk for pregnancy-related death was 7.7 times higher for women who received no prenatal care than for women who received `adequate' prenatal care."
Correspondence: L. M. Koonin, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health (C06), Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30226 Kravdal, Øystein. The attractiveness of an additive hazard model: an example from medical demography. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1997. 33-47 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"With the intention of studying sociodemographic differentials in the elevated mortality from cancer, a mixed additive-multiplicative continuous-time hazard model with categorical covariates is suggested. This model is a simple and plausible extension of the multiplicative hazard model demographers are well acquainted with. As an empirical example, survival from prostate cancer among Norwegian men is examined on the basis of individual register and census data. The model has some advantages compared to the models based on an additive mortality structure that have previously been used in studies of cancer survival. In other demographic research areas, it could be an interesting alternative to the commonly employed multiplicative hazard model."
Correspondence: Ø. Kravdal, University of Oslo, Department of Economics, P.B. 1095, 0317 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30227 Le Bacq, F.; Rietsema, A. High maternal mortality levels and additional risk from poor accessibility in two districts of Northern Province, Zambia. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1997. 357-63 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Maternal mortality ratios in Kasama and Kaputa Districts, two remote rural areas of Northern Province, Zambia, were suspected to be very high. In order to evaluate the impact of a referral system baseline maternal mortality levels and additional maternal mortality risk arising from poor accessibility were estimated....The sisterhood method was applied to a random population sample of 3,123 respondents in Kasama District and to 2,953 in Kaputa District during May and June 1995....This study suggests that solving the accessibility problem would decrease the mortality burden from maternal causes with at least 29% in Kasama District and 65% in Kaputa District."
Correspondence: F. Le Bacq, Kasama District Health Services, P.O. Box 410056, Kasama, Zambia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30228 Lee, John A. H. Declining effect of latitude on melanoma mortality rates in the United States: a preliminary study. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 5, Sep 1, 1997. 413-7 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The gradient of mortality from melanoma of the skin with latitude among U.S. whites was estimated from the slopes of semilogarithmic models fitted to the state-specific mortality rates and the latitudes of the states' capital cities. The upward gradient of mortality from north to south for malignant melanoma of the skin has been decreasing since 1950-1959, when data first became available, through 1960-1969, 1970-1979, and 1988-1992. By the early years of the 21st century, rates of melanoma mortality in the contiguous United States are expected to be unaffected by latitude."
Correspondence: J. A. H. Lee, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, MP474, Seattle, WA 98109-1024. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30229 Maheswaran, Ravi; Elliott, Paul; Strachan, David P. Socioeconomic deprivation, ethnicity, and stroke mortality in Greater London and south east England. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 2, Apr 1997. 127-31 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "examine geographical variation in stroke mortality in Greater London compared with the surrounding South East Region of England....In the 45-54 years age band, stroke mortality rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) relative to the surrounding south east were 2.09 (1.81, 2.4) for Inner London and 1.31 (1.15,1.5) for Outer London for men and 1.64 (1.4,1.93) and 1.13 (0.98,1.31) respectively for women. This gradient diminished and reversed with increasing age....Carstairs deprivation index and the percentages of Afro-Caribbean men and women and Irish born men were significantly and positively correlated with stroke mortality at the ward level. The Carstairs effect diminished with increasing age. Adjustment for these variables diminished or abolished the higher stroke mortality risks in London for younger people but had little effect on the lower risks for older Londoners."
Correspondence: R. Maheswaran, Imperial College School of Medicine at Saint Mary's, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30230 Maheswaran, Ravi; Strachan, David P.; Elliott, Paul; Shipley, Martin J. Trends in stroke mortality in Greater London and south east England--evidence for a cohort effect? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 2, Apr 1997. 121-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In 1951, stroke mortality was lower in Greater London than the surrounding South East Region in all age bands over 45. It has been declining in both areas but the rate of decline has been significantly slower in Greater London (p<0.0001). The differences in rates of decline were such that stroke mortality is now higher in Greater London for people under 75. The crossover of age specific stroke mortality rates occurred at different periods in different age bands and is consistent with a cohort effect, with similar rates in Greater London and the surrounding south east for men and women born around 1916-21. This cohort effect does not appear to be consistent with past maternal and neonatal mortality rates in these areas, nor, within the limitations of the data, with the ethnic composition of cohorts."
Correspondence: R. Maheswaran, Imperial College School of Medicine at Saint Mary's, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30231 Nicholson, K. G. Impact of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus on mortality in England and Wales from January 1975 to December 1990. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 116, No. 1, 1996. 51-63 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The effects of influenza A and B and RSV [respiratory syncytial virus] on mortality in England and Wales were assessed by regression analysis for the period 1975-90....Deaths correlated strongly with influenza A and B reports, temperature, and interactions between aggregated URTI [upper respiratory tract infections] and temperature, and RSV outbreaks and temperature....Estimated excess mortality associated with influenza was considerable even during years without major epidemics. Overall during the 15 winters the estimated mortality associated with RSV was 60-80% more than that associated with influenza."
Correspondence: K. G. Nicholson, Leicester University, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Leicester LE1 9HN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30232 Peto, Richard; Lopez, Alan D.; Boreham, Jillian; Thun, Michael; Heath, Clark. Mortality from smoking in developed countries, 1950-2000: indirect estimates from national vital statistics. ISBN 0-19-262619-1. 1994. 103, 553 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"For each major developed country, and for various groups of such countries, tables and graphs are provided that describe the extent to which smoking is now causing death in middle age and in old age. The chief purpose of this book is to facilitate effective communication, first to the reader and then by the reader, of the extraordinary magnitude of the number of deaths that smoking is now causing. In developed countries alone, the habit is currently responsible for about two million deaths a year, about half of which are deaths in middle age. There is, however, wide variation between one developed country and another in the current death rates from smoking, and in the trends in those death rates."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30233 Pickle, Linda W.; Mungiole, Michael; Jones, Gretchen K.; White, Andrew A. Atlas of United States mortality. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 97-1015-P. ISBN 0-8406-0521-8. LC 96-45521. Dec 1996. vii, 209 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This monograph presents maps of the leading causes of death in the United States for the period 1988-92....In this atlas, information previously available only in tabular form or summarized on a single map is presented on multiple maps and graphs. Broad geographic patterns by age group are highlighted by application of a new smoothing algorithm, and the geographic unit for mapping is defined on the basis of patterns of health care. These new features allow the public health researcher to examine the data at several geographic levels--to read an approximate rate for an area, to discern clusters of similar-rate areas, to visualize broad geographic patterns, and to compare regional rates." Separate maps are included showing mortality from all the leading causes of death by sex and race.
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30234 Porras Gallo, M. Isabel. Repercussions of the influenza pandemic in 1918-1919 on mortality in Madrid. [Las repercusiones de la pandemia de gripe de 1918-19 en la mortalidad de la ciudad de Madrid.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1996. 75-116 pp. Bellaterra, Spain. In Spa.
The author analyzes variations in general mortality and specific causes of death, as well as differences by age and sex, during 1918 and 1919 in Madrid, Spain. Mortality rates due to influenza, pneumonia, bronchitis, and tuberculosis are examined, and the impact of the influenza epidemic is assessed.
Correspondence: M. I. Porras Gallo, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Unidad de Historia de la Medicina, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30235 Rosso, Stefano; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Zanetti, Roberto; Costa, Giuseppe. Social class and cancer survival in Turin, Italy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 1, Feb 1997. 30-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study aimed to investigate social differences in cancer survival in residents of Turin, Italy....The relative risk of dying, compared with people who had only primary school education, decreased from 0.91 for those with middle school education to 0.67 for those who held a university degree....There were major differences in cancer survival showing a poorer outcome for those from the lower social stratum, particularly in sites for which effective treatments are available. Since it is unlikely that the observed differences could be totally explained by extraneous factors, such as competing mortality, it is concluded that even in a country where the health system offers universal coverage, non-financial barriers act by creating differences in opportunities for better care."
Correspondence: S. Rosso, Registro Tumori Piemonte, Via San Franseco da Paola 31, 10123 Turin, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30236 Stanecki, Karen A.; Way, Peter O. The demographic impact of HIV/AIDS. Perspectives from the world population profile: 1996. IPC Staff Paper, No. 86, Mar 1997. ix, 43 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report presents estimates and projections of AIDS mortality worldwide and of the demographic impact of HIV/AIDS trends. Graphs provide regional information on crude death rates, infant and child mortality rates, population growth rates, life expectancy, and HIV seroprevalence.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30237 Stojiljkovic, Dejan; Pekmezovic, Tanja; Jarebinski, Mirjana. Malignant neoplasms of the respiratory tract in Belgrade, 1980-1993. [Smrtnost od malignih tumora respiratornog trakta u populaciji beograda, 1980-1993.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 83-97 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Slv. with sum. in Eng.
"The aim of this study is to appraise [the] importance of lung and laryngeal neoplasms as the most frequent among the respiratory tract neoplasms. Malignant neoplasms are the second death cause just after...cardiovascular diseases....Among men, the most frequent was lung cancer....Among women, lung cancer was [in] second place, just after...breast cancer."
Correspondence: D. Stojiljkovic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut za epidemiologiju Medicinskog fakulteta, 11001 Belgrade 6, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30238 Switzerland. Bundesamt für Statistik (Bern, Switzerland). Statistics on causes of death, 1994 tables. [Todesursachenstatistik, Tabellen 1994/Statistique des causes de décès, tableaux 1994/Statistica delle cause di morte, tabelle 1994.] Statistik der Schweiz, ISBN 3-303-14030-8. 1995. 83 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Ger; Fre; Ita.
Data are presented on the 61,987 deaths that occurred in Switzerland in 1994 by age, sex, and cause of death.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30239 Tarone, Robert E.; Chu, Kenneth C.; Gaudette, Leslie A. Birth cohort and calendar period trends in breast cancer mortality in the United States and Canada. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 89, No. 3, Feb 5, 1997. 251-6 pp. Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
"Breast cancer mortality rates from 1969 through 1992 for white women and black women in four regions of the United States and for all women throughout Canada were compared to identify racial, regional, and temporal differences. Differences and trends in the rates were evaluated in view of breast cancer risk factors and relevant medical interventions....Breast cancer mortality rates for white women were significantly higher in the Northeast than in any other region of the United States...; the rates for black women were not....Looking at temporal effects, we found that the slope of the mortality calendar period trend increased in the 1980s compared with the 1970s for all women. In the last calendar period, 1991-1992, a trend of decreasing mortality rates was found for white women in the United States and for Canadian women."
Correspondence: R. E. Tarone, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Executive Plaza North, Room 403, Bethesda, MD 20892-7368. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30240 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost--United States, 1984. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 46, No. 20, May 23, 1997. 444-51 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"Smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost (YPLL) [in the United States] for 1984 are analyzed in this report....An estimated 315,120 deaths and 949,924 YPLL before age 65 years resulted from cigarette smoking in 1984....The smoking-attributable mortality rate among men is more than twice the rate among women, and the rate among blacks is 20% higher than the rate among whites....The smoking-attributable YPLL rate among men is more than twice the rate among women, and the rate among blacks is more than twice the rate among whites...."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30241 Zahl, Per-Henrik; Tretli, Steinar. Long-term survival of breast cancer in Norway by age and clinical stage. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 13, Jul 15, 1997. 1,435-49 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"In this paper 25-year survival for 8,802 Norwegian women with breast cancer diagnosed during the period 1965-1974 is studied. It is suggested that some of the contradictory reports in the literature of the prognostic effect of age and clinical stage on long-term survival may be caused by interactions and time varying effects of covariates. When using a linear non-parametric regression model that allows the covariates to vary over time, age and clinical stage are found to be significant long-term prognostic factors. A significantly higher excess mortality for women less than 35 years at diagnosis disappeared after 8 years, while for those above 55 years an important effect of age on the long-term survival, especially for those with regional cancer, was seen. The effect of clinical stage on survival varies strongly over time, and was significant between 15 and 20 years."
Correspondence: P.-H. Zahl, University of Oslo, Section of Medical Statistics, P.O. Box 1122, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.