Volume 63 - Number 3 - Fall 1997

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration. Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects.

63:30055 Denis, Eric; Moriconi-Ebrard, François. The spatial dynamics of the Egyptian population: new trends. [Dynamiques spatiales de la population égyptienne: les tendances nouvelles.] Méditerranée, Vol. 81, No. 1.2, 1995. 91-9 pp. Aix-en-Provence, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent changes in the spatial distribution of the population in Egypt are examined. The authors note that the government's efforts to encourage development in other areas than the Nile region are likely to conflict with the tendencies of the free-market development approach that has been adopted largely as a result of outside pressures. The resolution of this issue will affect the country's future patterns of population settlement.
Location: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, NH.

63:30056 Gozalvez Perez, Vicente. Spain: the geography of the population in the postindustrial era. [L'Espagne: une géographie de la population dans l'ère postindustrielle.] Méditerranée, Vol. 81, No. 1.2, 1995. 11-8 pp. Aix-en-Provence, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Using census data, the author analyzes the geography of the population of Spain over the period 1981-1991. An increase in regional differences is noted, with the population increasingly concentrated in the Madrid region and the coastal region between Alicante and Gerona. Natural increase has declined to below zero in the north; although it is still positive in the south, it continues to decline. Internal migration patterns have changed in comparison with the previous decade, and there is now a movement away from the major industrial centers. Provincial capitals experienced a growth in population at the expense of outlying areas.
Correspondence: V. Gozalvez Perez, Universidad de Alicante, Department of Geography, San Vicente del Raspeig, 03690 Alicante, Spain. Location: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, NH.

63:30057 Le Bras, Hervé. The settlement of Europe. [Le peuplement de l'Europe.] Délégation à l'Aménagement du Territoire et à l'Action Régionale, ISBN 2-11-003580-3. 1996. 204 pp. La Documentation Française: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of current population trends in the countries of the European Union, focusing on aspects of spatial distribution. Significant trends observed include the continued expansion of major metropolitan areas, which not only now dominate settlement patterns in the Netherlands, but are becoming increasingly important in England and Germany. The author charts the growth of a super metropolis along the Rhine valley from Basel in Switzerland to the North Sea coast, and suggests that this development may form the backbone of future demographic developments in the region. The book includes over 200 maps illustrating these trends.
Correspondence: La Documentation Française, 29-31 quai Voltaire, 75340 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30058 Lipshitz, Gabriel. Spatial concentration and deconcentration of population: Israel as a case study. Geoforum, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1996. 87-96 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The present study examines population concentration and deconcentration in Israel in 1948-1992, distinguishing between the local (the metropolitan areas of Tel Aviv, Jerusalem and Haifa) and national levels. It covers the periods of immigration in the 1950s and the late 1980s (in the latter mainly from the former Soviet Union) and the period in between, when the waves of immigration to Israel died down and internal migration became the main factor shaping population distribution in Israel. The end of the article examines the methodological and theoretical significance of the empirical results."
Correspondence: G. Lipshitz, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Geography, 52900 Ramat Gan, Israel. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:30059 Long, L.; Nucci, A. The "clean break" revisited: is U.S. population again deconcentrating? Environment and Planning A, Vol. 29, No. 8, Aug 1997. 1,355-66 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The Hoover index, calculated across counties and larger spatial units, is again declining--signalling a renewal of population deconcentration in the United States. After increasing for several decades, the index declined in the 1970s when nonmetropolitan population growth surged past metropolitan-area growth, but the index rose in the 1980s as metropolitan population growth recovered and surpassed nonmetropolitan growth. We update these trends, introducing careful controls for changes in metropolitan-area boundaries, and we incorporate a `functional urban region' approach. Although the nonmetropolitan population growth rate is still below the metropolitan rate, we conclude that in the 1990s some features of the `turnaround' of the 1970s have returned."
Correspondence: L. Long, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. E-mail: llong@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration.

63:30060 Batty, M.; Xie, Y. Preliminary evidence for a theory of the fractal city. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 28, No. 10, Oct 1996. 1,745-62 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, we argue that the geometry of urban residential development is fractal. Both the degree to which space is filled and the rate at which it is filled follow scaling laws which imply invariance of function, and self-similarity of urban form across scale. These characteristics are captured in population density functions based on inverse power laws whose parameters are fractal dimensions. First we outline the relevant elements of the theory in terms of scaling relations and then we introduce two methods for estimating fractal dimension based on varying the size of cities and the scale at which their form is detected. Exact and statistical estimation techniques are applied to each method respectively generating dimensions which measure the extent and the rate of space filling. These methods are then applied to residential development patterns in six industrial cities in the northeastern United States...."
Correspondence: M. Batty, University College London, Centre for Advance Spatial Analysis, 1-19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:30061 Becker, Charles M.; Hamer, Andrew M.; Morrison, Andrew R. Beyond urban bias in Africa: urbanization in an era of structural adjustment. ISBN 0-435-08091-1. LC 93-32405. 1994. ix, 294 pp. Heinemann: Portsmouth, New Hampshire; James Currey: London, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the rapid urbanization that is occurring in Africa. The authors note that this rapid growth is a natural consequence of the macroeconomic policies that have been pursued in order to promote economic development, despite the simultaneous adoption of policies specifically designed to reduce levels of rural-urban migration. The book focuses on the evolution of African city systems, charting the contribution of migration and other factors to urban growth. The authors attempt to provide answers to such questions as "What roles do urban areas play in Africa? What forces have caused their rapid growth in recent years? What determines the structure of incomes within urban areas, and their level relative to rural incomes? What public policies matter, and how do they affect urban growth and living standards? In addressing these questions, we will be able to suggest appropriate urban and macro policies, and also to assess likely patterns of future urban growth."
Correspondence: Heinemann, 361 Hanover Street, Portsmouth, NH 03801-3912. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30062 Bose, Ashish. India's urban population. 1991 census data: states, districts, cities and towns. ISBN 81-85814-19-8. LC 94-904982. 1994. xiv, 495 pp. Wheeler Publishing: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The objective of this report is to provide statistics on India's urban population as revealed by the three provisional Census Papers based on the 1991 census. Data are presented for India as a whole, for its states and districts, and for union territories and districts.
Correspondence: Wheeler Publishing, 411 Surya Kiran, 19 K. G. Marg, New Delhi 110 001, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:30063 Brockerhoff, Martin; Brennan, Ellen. The poverty of cities in the developing world. Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 96, 1997. 54 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study uses indicators of children's status and recent level of infant mortality to compare well-being across cities of one million or more residents, smaller cities, and towns within developing regions....Findings suggest that population variables of size and growth are critical components of sustainable urban development." This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30064 Gilbert, Alan. The mega-city in Latin America. ISBN 92-808-0935-0. 1996. xviii, 282 pp. United Nations University Press: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"[This] book contains chapters [by various authors] on each of Latin America's six largest cities (Mexico City, São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Lima, and Santa Fé de Bogotá). The book also has four thematic chapters. The first discusses the demography of urban growth in the region, and the other three focus on what are particularly sensitive issues in very large cities: public administration, transportation, and land, housing, and infrastructure." Several conclusions are drawn. "First, the largest cities of Latin America differ greatly in terms of their future prospects. It is far easier to be optimistic in Buenos Aires than in Lima. Second, whether urban problems improve or deteriorate has rather little to do with size of city and a great deal to do with trends in the wider economy and society. Increasingly, those trends are determined not just by local decisions but by decisions made outside the region. Third, Latin America's mega-cities are not going to grow to unmanageable proportions because their growth rates have generally slowed. Fourth, management is a critical issue for the future but it is difficult to know whether the quality of management will improve or deteriorate through time."
Correspondence: United Nations University Press, United Nations University, 53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30065 Gugler, Josef. Cities in the developing world: issues, theory, and policy. ISBN 0-19-874216-9. LC 96-38159. 1997. xviii, 396 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is an interdisciplinary, collective work on aspects of urbanization in developing countries. The contributions presented here "have been grouped to explore five aspects of urbanization: the strategies of rural-urban migrants and migration policies; the characteristics and problems of the urban labour-market; the survival strategies of the urban poor and attempts at social engineering so as to transform urban society; housing needs, environmental problems, and the policies designed to address them; and the various ways in which political actors in the urban arena co-opt, confront, and impose themselves on each other to shape local and national policies. These studies are preceded by a section exploring theoretical perspectives on urbanization--`modernization theory', `dependency theory', `world system theory', the `urban bias' approach--and related policies. Introductions to each of these six sections put the contributions into context."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30066 Guichard, François. Portugal and the urban challenge: the stakes and risks of metropolitanization. [Le Portugal au défi de l'urbain: enjeux et périls de la métropolisation.] Méditerranée, Vol. 81, No. 1.2, 1995. 5-10 pp. Aix-en-Provence, France. In Fre. with sum. in Por.
The rapid urbanization that has occurred in Portugal over the past 15 years is analyzed and the functional, demographic, and psychosocial implications are assessed. The author notes that this demographic change has occurred concurrently with a decline in emigration, the expansion of universal education, and the modernization of the economy.
Correspondence: F. Guichard, Université de Bordeaux III, Maison des Pays Ibériques, 33405 Talence Cedex, France. Location: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, NH.

63:30067 Hashiya, Hiroshi. Urbanization in the Republic of Korea and Taiwan: a NIEs pattern. Developing Economies, Vol. 34, No. 4, Dec 1996. 447-69 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper will present an analysis of urban structure in the Republic of Korea and Taiwan, which formed as these regions evolved into so-called `newly industrializing economies' (NIEs)....In Korea and Taiwan [the process of] over-urbanization and expansion of primate cities was already under way during the colonial period; but in the postwar process of rapid industrialization, their urban structures began to change again, giving rise to characteristics not observed in other developing countries. The first task of this paper is to analyze these characteristics in terms of a NIE....The second task...is to undertake comparative analysis of the two types....In Korea the rise of `regionalism' and the formation of an urban poor social stratum generated serious social conflict. Analyzing these problems is the third task of this paper."
Correspondence: H. Hashiya, Tokyo Keizai University, Faculty of Economics, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30068 Jones, Barclay G.; Koné, Solomane. An exploration of relationships between urbanization and per capita income: United States and countries of the world. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 75, No. 2, Apr 1996. 135-54 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"The relationship between urbanization and level of income has been the subject of considerable theoretical debate and empirical study for many years. However, little recent work has been done to determine whether or not previous findings still hold, and there has been even less multi-country analysis to explore the degree of generality. Analysis of data for metropolitan areas in the United States from 1970 to 1990 indicates per capita income increases directly with population size. For states of the United states and 113 countries for 1960 and 1980 a strong positive relationship exists and holds temporally between level of per capita Gross Domestic Product and percent of the population that is urban."
Correspondence: B. G. Jones, Cornell University, City and Regional Planning and Regional Science, West Sibley Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-6701. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:30069 Kano, Hiromasa. Urbanization in post-revolution Iran. Developing Economies, Vol. 34, No. 4, Dec 1996. 424-46 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"Post-revolution Iran adopted a development strategy centering around the three main tactics of controlling the expansion of Tehran, redistributing various functions to major regional cities, and promoting the growth of smaller cities in rural areas. The present paper will take up the problems pertaining to the urbanization ingredient of the new development plan by investigating if smaller regional cities have in fact during the post-revolutionary period been absorbing population surpluses created in Tehran; and if so, to what scale such population absorption is functioning."
Correspondence: H. Kano, Tsuda College, Department of International and Cultural Studies, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30070 Klein, Herbert S. The demographic structure of Mexico City in 1811. Journal of Urban History, Vol. 23, No. 1, Nov 1996. 66-93 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"In this study of Mexico City in the nineteenth century, I propose to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics of the city as seen in the last of the colonial and the first of the nineteenth-century censuses, that of 1811. This manuscript census includes the expected information on place of residence, age, sex, marital status, origin, and occupation." This census also included data on caste, which are used, where appropriate, to provide information on class and status in the analysis.
Correspondence: H. S. Klein, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30071 Kojima, Reeitsu. Urbanization from the perspective of developing countries. Developing Economies, Vol. 34, No. 4, Dec 1996. 349-549 pp. Institute of Developing Economies [IDE]: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This special issue is devoted to articles on urbanization in developing countries. Topics considered include population migration and urbanization, restrictive migration policies, political aspects of urbanization, labor markets, and regional variations in urbanization.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Maruzen, P.O. Box 5050, Tokyo 100-31, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30072 Levinson, David M.; Kumar, Ajay. Density and the journey to work. Growth and Change, Vol. 28, No. 2, Spring 1997. 147-72 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper evaluates the influence of residential density on commuting behavior across U.S. cities while controlling for available opportunities, the technology of transportation infrastructure, and individual socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The measures of metropolitan and local density are addressed separately....Regressions are conducted to predict commuting time, speed, and distance, by mode of travel on a cross-section of individuals nationally and city by city. The results indicate that residential density in the area around the tripmaker's home is an important factor: the higher the density the lower the speed and the shorter the distance....The paper suggests a threshold density at which the decrease in distance is overtaken by the congestion effects resulting in a residential density between 7,500 and 10,000 persons per square mile (neither the highest nor lowest) with the shortest duration auto commutes."
Correspondence: D. M. Levinson, University of California, Institute of Transportation Studies, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30073 Linden, Eugene. The exploding cities of the developing world. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 75, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 52-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Some problems posed by the rapid urbanization of the developing world are reviewed. The author suggests that the fate of these rapidly growing cities will determine the fate of both nations and regions. He notes that rather than continuing to swell the megacities, such as Mexico City, recent demographic trends have been favoring secondary cities, which are facing increasing problems with proportionally fewer resources at their disposal. The problems of disease in crowded urban environments are discussed. The author presents examples of cities with declining services and quality of life, such as Kinshasa, as well as examples of more successful city development, such as Curitiba. Prospects for the successful resolution of urban problems are assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:30074 Ogura, Mitsuo. Urbanization and apartheid in South Africa: influx controls and their abolition. Developing Economies, Vol. 34, No. 4, Dec 1996. 402-23 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This study will take up the particular aspects and characteristics of urbanization [in South Africa] from the standpoint of the effects exerted by the apartheid system. It will then examine the trends which have taken place since abolition of the pass laws and restrictions on the influx of blacks into urban areas....[The author considers] the relationship between restrictions on the movement of blacks into urban areas on the one hand and the maintenance of low-wage migrant labor and retention of farmland in home districts on the other."
Correspondence: M. Ogura, Tsuda College, Department of International and Cultural Studies, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30075 Pérez, César. Urbanization and the city in Santo Domingo. [Urbanización y municipio en Santo Domingo.] Serie Investigaciones, No. 10, ISBN 84-89525-53-6. 1996. 234 pp. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo [INTEC]: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
This is a study of urbanization in the Dominican Republic; the focus is on the growth of Santo Domingo, its capital city. The author explores the problems of urbanization, as well as the political issues involved in administering and controlling such a major urban conglomeration.
Correspondence: Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo, Avenida de los Próceres, Galá, Apartado 342-9, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30076 Pick, James B.; Butler, Edgar W. Mexico megacity. ISBN 0-8133-8983-6. 1997. xviii, 412 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This book describes and analyzes growth, change, and spatial patterns in Mexico City, looking at urbanization, population, marriage and fertility, health and mortality, migration, environment and housing, social characteristics, the economy, labor force, and corporate structure. Applying modern techniques of geographic information systems and spatial analysis, the authors reveal many previously unknown or unrecognized trends and patterns. In a capstone chapter, they summarize the spatial patterns in a series of cluster analyses that identify distinctive zones within the metropolis--a prosperous core, surrounding complex ring patterns, an impoverished zone, and semi-rural arms. They also compare the pattern of Mexico City's cluster zones to the classical and developmental literature on cities. In closing, the authors suggest government policies that would foster optimal future development of an even larger metropolis."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30077 Pumain, Denise. The urbanization process. [Le processus d'urbanisation.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 3. Apr 1997. 69-89 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Università degli Studi di Siena, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza: Siena, Italy. In Fre.
This is a general introduction to the concept of urbanization. There are sections on the city and urbanization, the urban transition, the dynamics of habitat systems, and migration and urbanization.
Correspondence: D. Pumain, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30078 Pumain, Denise; Saint-Julien, Thérèse. Urban networks in Europe. [Réseaux urbains en Europe.] Congresses et Colloquia, No. 15, ISBN 2-7420-0066-6. 1996. viii, 252 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Eng; Fre.
This work contains revised versions of papers presented at an international colloquium on urbanization in Europe held in Saint-Cloud, France, October 21-22, 1993. The 16 papers, which are in English or French, are organized into four sections examining the emerging structure of a European urban system, new linkages among European cities, the development of urban policies, and improving comparability in research about cities in Europe.
Correspondence: John Libbey Eurotext, 127 avenue de la République, 92120 Montrouge, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30079 Rowland, Richard H. Patterns of dynamic urban population growth in Russia, 1989-1996: a research report. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1997. 171-87 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to investigate locations in which rapid urban growth occurred in Russia over the period 1989 to 1996....Particular emphasis will be given to the geographical patterns, economic functions, and population size of rapidly growing towns. In addition, the discussion of trends for 1989-1996 also will be briefly preceded by and compared to those of 1979-1989, although the paper will emphasize trends during the 1990s. Furthermore, the topic of `new towns', which themselves often are rapidly growing centers, will be addressed as well."
Correspondence: R. H. Rowland, California State University, Department of Geography, 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA 92407-2397. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30080 Sánchez-Salazar, María T.; Coll-Hurtado, Atlántida. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area at the beginning of the nineties: demographic and socioeconomic indicators in the urban space. Revista Geográfica, No. 121, Jan-Jun 1995. 65-78 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Eng. with sum. in Spa.
"Currently, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is not only the most populated city of Mexico, but also perhaps worldwide. The population's size and the space it occupies are the result of a process of rapid growth that has occurred during the last fifty years, unbalanced industrialization, and accelerated population growth. The purpose of this study is to present an analysis of demographic and socioeconomic indicators of the urban space."
Correspondence: M. T. Sánchez-Salazar, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Instituto de Geografía, Ciudad Universitaria, Del Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30081 Shinoda, Takashi. Morphology of India's urbanization. Developing Economies, Vol. 34, No. 4, Dec 1996. 520-49 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper is aimed at presenting the salient features of the morphology of India's urbanization paying due attention to interstate variations. We will find a lot of variations among the states in terms of their basic indices of urbanization. There are six sections in this paper. Section II deals with how to define an urban area. Section III presents a picture of the patterns of population transformation in India with due consideration to changes in the birth and death rates over time. Section IV examines the main features of the morphology of India's urbanization, discussing the level of urbanization, primacy patterns, interstate differences in urbanization, and the components of urban growth. Section V deals with the structure and pattern of migration in order to explain the background to India's slow urbanization."
Correspondence: T. Shinoda, Daito Bunka University, Faculty of International Relations, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30082 Sigg, Timm; Koch, Norbert; Weidlich, Wolfgang. Urban evolution in interaction with population dynamics. In: Spatial analysis of biodemographic data, edited by Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel, Daniel Courgeau, and Denise Pumain. 1996. 267-80 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
"The task of the present paper is the creation of a mathematical model describing the qualitative phenomena which appear during such city developments....The choice of an appropriate configuration space will be the subject of section 2. All appearing parameters and variables of the closed system without hinterland are also interpreted there. The next section treats the transition to open area and the addition of migratory equations. These represent the relationship between the city and the hinterland. In section 4, some numeric results of the examined effects will be shown. Finally, a short summary is given in section 5."
Correspondence: T. Sigg, University of Stuttgart, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Pfaffenwaldring 57/III, 70550 Stuttgart, Germany. E-mail: sigg@theo2.physik.ini-stuttgart.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30083 Waldinger, Roger; Bozorgmehr, Mehdi. Ethnic Los Angeles. ISBN 0-87154-901-8. LC 96-20380. 1996. xiv, 497 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This volume contains 15 studies by various authors on the city of Los Angeles, California, and on the ethnic transformation that the city has experienced over the course of the twentieth century. The data are primarily taken from the U.S. censuses of 1970, 1980, and 1990. "The first part, consisting of [an] introductory essay and a historical chapter that takes the reader from 1900 to 1970, sets the stage for what will follow. Part 2 examines the implications of the region's recent ethnic shifts for the jobs its residents hold, the neighborhoods in which they live, the languages they speak, and the incomes they earn. Part 3 focuses on the new ethnic mosaic itself, with chapters on each of the region's major ethnic groups. The last part sums up the volume's lessons and peers into the future to see where ethnic Los Angeles might be heading."
Correspondence: Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30084 Zhou, Daming. On rural urbanization in China. Chinese Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 28, No. 2, Winter 1995-1996. 9-46 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews "the debate regarding rural urbanization in the Chinese literature and the political factions that support different positions. He also introduces us to the complexity of defining `urbanization' in a Chinese context. He cautions us in the use of the common but important yardsticks for measuring basic data, such as growth in the officially registered urban population or an increase in the number of rurally registered people who change to nonagricultural registration status, that is, urban-registered status (nong zhuan fei)." A comparison of urbanization in different prosperous areas is made.
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

63:30085 Cawley, Mary E. Desertification: measuring population decline in rural Ireland. Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 10, No. 4, Oct 1994. 395-407 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the issue of rural population decline in the Republic of Ireland during the past two decades having regard to size of place and estimated net migration for key age groups. The analysis is pursued at the level of some 160 Rural Districts. The results of the analysis confirm expected relationships between peripheral locations, small population size and a depletion of the young working age groups. The method used, however, permits the links between size of place, population change and the composition of that change to be identified with some precision."
Correspondence: M. E. Cawley, University College, Department of Geography, Galway, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30086 Gale, H. Frederick. Age cohort analysis of the 20th century decline in U.S. farm numbers. Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jan 1996. 15-25 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"The demographic component of the decline in U.S. farm numbers is analysed by tracking the size of farm operator age cohorts....Cohort profiles indicate an inverted U-shape in the relationship between farm numbers and cohort age. Successive cohorts have been smaller than their predecessors, and withdrawal rates of older operators have fallen in recent years. Projections based on entry-withdrawal patterns for 1987-1992 suggest decline in farm numbers from 1.93 million in 1992 to 1.48 million in 2002 and 1.29 million in 2007. Imbalance between withdrawing older operators and younger new entrants could encourage a broadening of the pool of farm entrants and changes in farm ownership, operating and financing arrangements."
Correspondence: H. F. Gale, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Rural Economy Division, Economic Research Service, 1301 New York Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20005-4788. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30087 Racine, Jean-Luc. Peasant moorings: village ties and mobility rationales in South India. Publications du Département de Sciences Sociales, No. 4, ISBN 0-8039-9349-8. LC 96-34882. 1997. 400 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India; Institut Français de Pondichéry: Pondicherry, India. In Eng.
This collective work is about the dynamics of rural population in southern India, and particularly the system of temporary migration that has evolved to cope with the problems of extreme poverty. The data are from surveys conducted in villages in southern Karnataka. The authors analyze the various factors that influence the local population to stay or to migrate, the system of support that families provide to individual migrants, and how the desire to remain in the place of origin can compete with the lure of the city and result in the retention rather than out-migration of a population.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, M-32 Greater Kailash Market I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.