Volume 63 - Number 3 - Fall 1997

A. General Population Studies and Theories

Works of a general and comprehensive nature. Studies that are limited to well-defined problems of demography are cited under the relevant topic and are cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

A.1. General Population

Global population studies.

A.1.1. General Population--Long Studies

Comprehensive, book-length surveys of the present status of demography and its principal branches, including the historical development of these studies, analytical studies of demography as a whole, and global population studies.

63:30001 Bandarage, Asoka. Women, population and global crisis: a political-economic analysis. ISBN 1-85649-427-6. LC 96-36915. 1997. xiii, 397 pp. Zed Books: Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
This book presents a critique of the common assumption that overpopulation is one of the root causes of the current global crisis. "The first part of the book looks at conventional ideologies of population control--from Malthusianism to the contraceptive revolution. In part two, the author develops an alternative analysis of `overpopulation'--exploring the roots of the environmental crisis, violence and inequality en route. Critiquing capitalism, industrialism, patriarchy and white supremacy, [the author] shows how population control acts as another dimension of our essentially hierarchical world-order--and one that is moving us inexorably towards violence and destruction. Finally [she] explores new global visions and efforts towards peace, justice and ecology--efforts that place human and planetary reproduction above economic production. Arguing for a new partnership paradigm which stresses the interconnectedness of life, the book's political significance lies in the synthesis of third world, feminist, socialist and ecological thinking and solutions."
Correspondence: Zed Books, 7 Cynthia Street, London N1 9JF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30002 Smith, Joseph W.; Lyons, Graham; Sauer-Thompson, Gary. Healing a wounded world: economics, ecology, and health for a sustainable life. ISBN 0-275-95601-6. LC 96-44682. 1997. xvi, 208 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This book argues for a limitationist approach to the problems of global development. The authors define limitationism as a branch of environmentalism asserting that there are limits to human population as well as economic and industrial growth, and that we are fast approaching those limits or have already exceeded them. In the first chapter, they outline the case for limitationism and rebut critiques from economist Julian Simon and others. The second chapter focuses on the problems of human population growth; the authors describe current and future environmental consequences of such growth and discuss concepts such as carrying capacity. The remainder of the book examines some philosophical issues relating to concepts of scientific progress and the crises of civilization.
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.1.2. General Population--Short Studies

Short (fewer than 100 pages), general works on population and global population studies. Items on activities of research institutions in demography are also included.

63:30003 Dahlberg, Kenneth A. Population dynamics and global change: the need for new conceptual maps. GeoJournal, Vol. 39, No. 3, Jul 1996. 311-20 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author criticizes current approaches to the study of global population problems as typified by the discussions at the International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. "Current approaches to population: (1) focus too much on humans and not on their interactions over time with populations of other species; (2) focus too much on the number of humans and not on their differential resource use and environmental impact; (3) accept uncritically the assumptions and concepts of industrial society regarding the nature of progress and the neutrality of technologies, markets, and trade. Broader and more integrated approaches are needed to address current international and global realities and trends." Some conceptual datasets that would illustrate a more effective approach to population problems are introduced.
Correspondence: K. A. Dahlberg, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:30004 Ehrlich, Isaac; Lui, Francis. The problem of population and growth: a review of the literature from Malthus to contemporary models of endogenous population growth and endogenous growth. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1997. 205-42 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper deals with the evolution of the literature on the problem of population and growth from the classical period to the recent literature on endogenous growth and development. The `problem' concerns two distinct issues: 1. how to explain the observed covariation of the levels and rates of growth of per capita income and population size over time and space, and 2. how to improve the human condition represented by these variables through an accomodating social policy. The evolution of the literature we survey is reflected by the progressive treatment of key variables as endogenous, rather than exogenous to the growth process. It is also reflected by a shift from the historical concern about population explosion, and its implications for growth, to the more recent concern about the association between growth and population implosion in many developed countries."
Correspondence: I. Ehrlich, State University of New York, Department of Economics, 415 Fronczak Hall, North Campus, Buffalo, NY 14260-1520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30005 Macunovich, Diane J. A conversation with Richard Easterlin. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1997. 119-36 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"After an introduction touching on various biographical highlights, this paper summarizes a wide-ranging discussion with Richard Easterlin which occurred in the Autumn of 1996. We considered the Easterlin Hypothesis--its genesis and current status, together with Easterlin's views on attempts to develop measures of relative income--and then moved on to `The Fertility Revolution' and questions regarding the applicability of the theory of household choice in modernizing societies. This was followed by a discussion of his early career development and influences on him at that time, ending with ruminations regarding the current state of economics, and the validity of training given to young economists today."
Correspondence: D. J. Macunovich, Williams College, Department of Economics, Fernald House, Williamstown, MA 01267. E-mail: diane.macunovich@williams.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30006 Pavlík, Zdenek. Population and development. Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 30, No. 1-2, 1995. 43-51 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng. with sum. in Cze.
The author discusses the development of human population throughout history. Aspects considered include technological progress, agricultural development, population growth, fertility control, economic change, and the demographic transition.
Correspondence: Z. Pavlík, Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Demography and Geodemography, Albertov 6, 12 843 Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30007 Presser, Harriet B. Demography, feminism, and the science-policy nexus. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jun 1997. 295-31, 463, 465 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article argues that whereas gender issues have become central in the population policy arena, they remain marginal to the demographic field, and that this marginality has harmful consequences for the development of demography as a science. This predicament has arisen because of ideological, not scientific, constraints on the field of demography--constraints that have a history in how the discipline was formed and financed and in how key demographic agendas become rationalized. The rise of modern feminism, with its commitment to greater gender equality and female empowerment, presents a challenge in this context; it has limited appeal to those who control key resources for demographic research. The article argues for the incorporation of a gender systems approach that directly addresses gender differences in power, autonomy, and well-being, at both the macro and micro levels, and for an expansion of data collection that will permit such analyses. By making gender central to the field, demography will become a more relevant science for understanding social inequality and population change."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: H. B. Presser, University of Maryland, Department of Sociology, Center on Population, Gender, and Social Inequality, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30008 Schoumaker, Bruno; Tabutin, Dominique; Willems, Michel. Population trends and differences in the world (1950-1995). [Dynamiques et diversités démographiques dans le monde (1950-1995).] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 3. Apr 1997. 129-61 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Università degli Studi di Siena, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza: Siena, Italy. In Fre.
The authors summarize global population developments over the course of the second half of the twentieth century. They suggest that this period has seen the most significant demographic changes ever recorded in human history, in that the total population has grown from 2.5 to 5.8 billion, the spatial distribution of the world's population has shifted from the developed to the developing world, urbanization has proceeded apace, and a global demographic transition from high to low levels of mortality and fertility has largely been achieved.
Correspondence: B. Schoumaker, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30009 Smail, J. Kenneth. Averting the 21st century's demographic crisis: can human numbers be reduced by 75%? Population and Environment, Vol. 18, No. 6, Jul 1997. 565-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Within the next half-century, it will be essential for the human species to have fully operational a flexibly designed, essentially voluntary, broadly equitable and internationally coordinated set of initiatives focussed on reducing the then-current world population by at least 75%. Given that even with the best of intentions it will take considerable time, exceptional patience and consummate diplomatic skill to develop and implement such an undertaking, probably on the order of 25 to 50 years, it is important that this process of voluntary consensus building--local, national and global--begin now....In order better to appreciate the scope and ramifications of this still partly-hidden crisis, I shall briefly call attention to ten essential, incontrovertible and inescapable realities that must not only be fully understood but soon confronted."
Correspondence: J. K. Smail, Kenyon College, Department of Anthropology, Olof Palme House, Gambier, OH 43022-9623. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.2. Population Theory

Discussions of the main principles of demography and population theory not applied to actual data, including such concepts as Malthusianism, the demographic transition, overpopulation, optimum population, and stable and stationary population models as distinct from methodological studies and models using data, which are classified under N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models.

63:30010 Broome, John. The welfare economics of population. Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 48, No. 2, Apr 1996. 177-93 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Intuition suggests there is no value in adding people to the population if it brings no benefits to people already living: creating people is morally neutral in itself. This paper examines the difficulties of incorporating this intuition into a coherent theory of the value of population. It takes three existing theories within welfare economics--average utilitarianism, relativist utilitarianism, and critical-level utilitarianism--and considers whether they can satisfactorily accommodate the intuition that creating people is neutral."
Correspondence: J. Broome, University of St. Andrews, Department of Moral Philosophy, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9AL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30011 Jackson, William A. Population growth: a comparison of evolutionary views. International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 22, No. 6, 1995. 3-16 pp. Bradford, England. In Eng.
"Economists are divided about population growth: the pessimism of neo-Malthusians contrasts strongly with the optimism of cornucopians. Despite their differences, however, both schools of thought reject economic orthodoxy and prefer evolutionary forms of theory. Their interpretations of evolution are different: the neo-Malthusians appeal to the entropy law, whereas the cornucopians emphasize human creativity expressed through markets. [The author argues] that both schools are right to adopt an evolutionary outlook, but that they are too restrictive in their conception of evolution. A more complete evolutionary view, which allows properly for social institutions, could give a more balanced account of population growth."
Correspondence: W. A. Jackson, University of York, Department of Economics and Related Studies, Heslington, York YO1 5DD, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30012 Toye, John. Keynes on population and economic growth. Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1997. 1-26 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper provides an account of the development of Keynes's writings on population, the subject which many of his contemporaries saw as his intellectual Achilles' heel. In particular, it shows the central role of Keynes's unpublished manuscript entitled `Population' in the evolution of his later work on this topic....This has hitherto been underestimated. The content of Keynes's early neo-Malthusianism is explored. His defeat in debate with Beveridge in 1923-24 and the phases of his subsequent recantation of neo-Malthusianism are then considered, as are his views on birth control. The paper concludes with an assessment of whether Schumpeter's negative judgement of Keynes on population can be sustained."
Correspondence: J. Toye, University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton BN1 9RE, England. E-mail: ids@sussex.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.3. Interrelations with Other Disciplines

Interdisciplinary studies of demographic problems and studies of the interaction of demography with other disciplines. This coding is also used for reports, studies, and surveys from other disciplines that include information of demographic interest.

63:30013 Stojanovic, Branislav; Mihajlovic, Slavica. Basic elements for demo-geographic regionalization. [Osnovni elementi za demogeografsku regionalizaciju.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 99-116 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Slv. with sum. in Eng.
The authors discuss the growth of the discipline of demo-geography. "Among the major theoretic and methodological issues of demogeography are the problems relating to regional distribution and classification of the population....By combining several geodemographic regionalizations...it is possible to acquire a new quality, that is general geodemographic regionalization. This regionalization...may be used for formation of the base for general geographic regionalizations as an objective expression of the actual differentiation of the space observed into separate territorial complexes in which no element or segment is overemphasized."
Correspondence: B. Stojanovic, Geografski Institut Jovan Cvijic SANU, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.4. Textbooks and Teaching Programs

Major demographic textbooks and teaching aids, general surveys and collections of readings that are particularly suitable as supplements to coursework, studies on the organization and coverage of training programs in demography, and selected items on population education.

63:30014 Bueno Sánchez, Eramis. Population and development: alternative foci for population studies. [Población y desarrollo: enfoques alternativos de los estudios de población.] ISBN 959-7005-01-8. 1994. 237 pp. Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demográficos [CEDEM]: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
This is a textbook on demography developed by the author while teaching courses at universities in Bolivia and Mexico. The first part focuses on basic demographic variables, the demographic transition, and the world population situation. The second part examines economic aspects of population, concentrating on the labor force and its reproduction. The third part looks at the relationship between population and development, and includes consideration of population policy issues.
Correspondence: Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demográficos, Avenida 41 Número 2003, Playa 13, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30015 Matthews, Stephen A.; Rosenberg, Mark. Teaching medical geography. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, Vol. 19, No. 3, Nov 1995. 317-34 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"A `Teaching Medical Geography' workshop was held at the 1994 Meeting of the Association of American Geographers (AAG), co-sponsored by the Medical Geography Specialty Group of the AAG and the International Geographical Union (IGU) Commission on Health, Environment and Development....The workshop included eight modules (six of which are presented here)." The focus was on practical ways to teach specific aspects of medical geography. The modules were the following. Vital statistics: rates, ratios and proportions, by Dona Schneider. The importance of teaching basic statistics in medical geography, by Robert Earickson. The diffusion of epidemics on networks, by James Wilson. Teaching medical geography students about seasonal affective disorder, by Alan Baker. Applying social theory in medical geography, by Will Gesler. Collecting and presenting data on women's health, by Stephen A. Matthews.
Correspondence: S. A. Matthews, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30016 Pol, Louis G.; Thomas, Richard K. Demography for business decision making. ISBN 1-56720-014-1. LC 96-46087. 1997. x, 270 pp. Quorum Books: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This book is intended as an introduction to the concepts and methods of business demography, defined as the application of demographic data and methods to business decision-making. The authors introduce basic concepts, then present an overview of recent and future demographic trends. They elaborate on the application of current demographic methods to planning and marketing in the contemporary business environment, and illustrate their points with numerous charts, maps, and sidebars. They also provide many examples of real-world situations in which demographic methods, data, perspective, and theory are actively applied. With sections on sources of health-care data, the calculation of demographic rates, the demographic resources available, and up-to-date statistics on current demographic trends, the book is intended as a resource for professionals as well as those in the academic community. The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Quorum Books, Greenwood Publishing Group, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.