Volume 63 - Number 2 - Summer 1997

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

63:20440 Blayo, Yves. Population policies in China. [Des politiques démographiques en Chine.] Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 137, ISBN 2-7332-0137-9. 1997. xviii, 409 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
China's population policies since 1948 are described and their demographic effectiveness assessed. The author suggests that the policies aimed at controlling internal migration succeeded in postponing the impact of rapid urbanization until the mid-1980s, at a price that included restricting the free movement of the rural population and deporting illegal urban in-migrants. The birth control policies of 1971 probably accelerated a fertility decline that was already underway. The coercive measures adopted after 1979 had the negative effects of lowering the status of women by increasing induced abortion (particularly of female fetuses), and by encouraging the infanticide of female babies. In conclusion, the author notes that some of the measures designed to promote the Four Modernizations have in fact made reaching the demographic goals set for the year 2000 less likely. The recent increase in fertility and acceleration of uncontrolled urbanization indicate that Chinese efforts to control demographic trends have had only a temporary impact.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

63:20441 Donovan, Patricia. Can statutory rape laws be effective in preventing adolescent pregnancy? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1997. 30-4, 40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The new focus on statutory rape laws [in the United States], which have been on the books in every state for decades but have been largely ignored, has prompted public debate over the effectiveness of this approach as a potential remedy for the ongoing problem of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing. Advocates of tougher enforcement assert that adult men who `prey' on minor women will avoid these involvements if they believe that prosecution and severe punishment will follow violation of the law....Most experts, however, do not believe that greater enforcement of statutory rape laws can significantly reduce adolescent pregnancy and birth rates....Many providers...cautioned that such efforts could discourage some teenagers from obtaining reproductive health care, for fear that disclosing information about their partners could lead to a statutory rape charge and the man's incarceration. Moreover, statutory rape prosecutions could jeopardize the support that young mothers receive from their partners, and could make it less likely that these men would develop relationships with their children."
Correspondence: P. Donovan, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 2010 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20442 Fargues, Philippe. State policies and the birth rate in Egypt: from socialism to liberalism. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 1, Mar 1997. 115-38, 224, 226-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This note explores the influence that state policies have had on the decline of the birth rate in Egypt during the second half of the twentieth century. The three successive political regimes over this period have pursued similar policies seeking to extend the practice of birth control. Despite this continuity in population policy, the birth rate has exhibited several shifts, alternatively downward and upward, indicating the influence of other factors. The erratic variations of the birth rate, in the short term, appear to parallel the resources available to households, which in turn change in relation to public policies affecting the distribution of income and, more recently, the increasing dominance of market processes in the economy. On the other hand, the long-term trend toward a decrease in the birth rate is paralleled by an increase in the average level of education among women, which for its part results from state policies extending schooling to girls. These results suggest that the analysis of population policies should not be isolated from the global political economy that forms the context of the fertility transition."
Correspondence: P. Fargues, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20443 Lesotho. Ministry of Economic Planning. Population and Manpower Division (Maseru, Lesotho). Lesotho national population policy. Jun 1994. 23 pp. Maseru, Lesotho. In Eng.
The population policy adopted in Lesotho in 1994 is outlined. "The Population Policy clearly envisages [an] intermediate demographic goal within the framework of its long term goal of achieving two children norm per couple...by the year 2011 and a series of policy strategies to achieve those goals. Adequate provision of family planning/MCH services coupled with information, education and communication (IEC) and a series of policy measures to create an enabling environment for adoption of small family norm are the centralities of the present policy."
Correspondence: Ministry of Economic Planning, Population and Manpower Division, Maseru, Lesotho. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20444 O'Connor, Karen. No neutral ground? Abortion politics in an age of absolutes. Dilemmas in American Politics, ISBN 0-8133-1945-5. 1996. xv, 208 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The example of abortion is used to illustrate how major policy decisions are made in the United States in areas where people express little agreement but strong feelings. The author "builds on the history of abortion as a political issue--how it was first defined in the early 1800s and how it got on the political agenda--and takes us through the tug-of-war development of abortion politics to the present, using the policy process framework. Examining key court cases, institutions, dramatic events, and opinions from the public to the Supreme Court, [the author] highlights the dilemma of how a polity attempts to make decisions about issues on which agreement or compromise is unlikely. She questions whether such divisive issues can ever be satisfactorily resolved, but gives us the tools to explore every avenue toward potential resolution."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:20445 Sen, Amartya. Population policy: authoritarianism versus cooperation. DERP Discussion Paper, No. 63, Sep 1995. 37 pp. London School of Economics and Political Science, Development Economics Research Programme: London, England. In Eng.
"The `cooperative' route to reducing fertility (through female literacy, employment and decisional power, and through expanded health care) seems to act more securely--and often much faster--than the use of `coercion' in reducing family size and birth rates (through such means as `one child family' or the alienation of economic or political rights of families with more than the approved number of children). This essay examines the comparative evidence from India and China on this subject as well as the interregional contrasts within India. It emerges that cooperation can contribute something that coercion cannot provide."
Correspondence: London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20446 Sollom, Terry. State actions on reproductive health issues in 1996. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1997. 35-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Although a majority of the hundreds of reproductive health-related legislative initiatives launched [in the United States] in 1996 were not implemented or even considered by the end of the year, significant trends emerged that heightened awareness of fertility-related matters and their impact on women's reproductive lives. An examination of these issues and events shows the power of the states to shape reproductive health policy and to control the availability of services." Information is provided on abortion, family planning, maternal and child health, and sex education. "In 1996, there was minimal movement overall toward ensuring access to the full range of reproductive health care services to all those who want and need them. There was no significant backtracking in this area either, despite the predominance of conservative strongholds in a majority of state legislatures."
Correspondence: T. Sollom, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 2010 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

63:20447 Adelman, Howard. Canadian immigration and refugee policy and practice. Migration, Vol. 21-22, No. 1-2, 1994. 230 pp. Verlagsabteilung des Berliner Instituts für Vergleichende Sozialforschung: Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This special issue contains seven articles by various authors on aspects of Canadian immigration and refugee policy. Consideration is given to the extent to which the Canadian experience can be applied to the situation in Europe.
Correspondence: Verlagsabteilung des Berliner Instituts für Vergleichende Sozialforschung, Editions Parabolis, P.O. Box 30 11 25, 10722 Berlin, Germany. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

63:20448 Avery, Donald H. Reluctant host: Canada's response to immigrant workers, 1896-1994. ISBN 0-7710-0827-9. 1995. 342 pp. McClelland and Stewart: Toronto, Canada. In Eng.
This is a history of the evolution of Canadian immigration policy over the period 1896-1994. "The focus is threefold: how pressure groups--business, labour, ethnic, political, bureaucratic--determined immigration policies; the experiences of immigrants as shaped by racial and ethnic considerations; and official policy in relation to the race, ethnicity, and political background of immigration workers."
Correspondence: McClelland and Stewart, 481 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2E9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:20449 Baker, Susan G. The "amnesty" aftermath: current policy issues stemming from the legalization programs of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring 1997. 5-27 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) created two one-time only legalization programs affecting nearly 3 million undocumented immigrants. Legalization has produced important changes among immigrants and in immigration policy. These changes include new patterns of immigrant social and economic adaptation to the United States and new immigrant flows through family ties to IRCA-legalized aliens....This article combines data from a longitudinal survey of the IRCA-legalized population with qualitative field data on current immigration issues from key informants in eight high-immigration metropolitan areas. It reviews the political evolution and early implementation of legalization, the current socioeconomic position of legalized aliens, and changes in the immigration `policy space' resulting from legalization."
Correspondence: S. G. Baker, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20450 Cohen, Steve. The mighty state of immigration controls. Social Policy Review, No. 7, 1995. 129-50 pp. Canterbury, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter has been to show how absurd, cynical and ahistorical it is to consider that there can be immigration controls minus racism. It is a bizarre hypothesis whereby the antisemitic, eugenicist, racist, proto-fascist progenitors of immigration controls might be removed whilst keeping controls intact. Quite apart from anything else, the realisation of this fantasy would mean rolling back history to the point of repealing nine decades of welfare legislation. The relationship of the imperialist state and of ideology to immigration controls means the latter must inevitably be racist." The primary geographical focus is on the United Kingdom, but the argument applies to developed countries in general.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:20451 Drbohlav, Dusan. Migration policy objectives for European East-West international migration. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1997. 85-108 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The study contains selected results of Delphi research (subjective judgements concerning the future on a collective expert basis) on international migration between Central/Eastern (C/EEc) and Western European countries. Taking part in the research were 109 scholars and officers....from all over Europe....Results indicate growing problems and tensions in societies, the division of Europe into two parts, and the triggering rather than pacifying of further antagonisms and hostile anti-immigrant attitude on the Western side....Concerning policy objectives, the two most important general aims were how to contribute to migration stabilization in the East, and how to maintain and further develop stable democratic order and promote economic development."
Correspondence: D. Drbohlav, Charles University, Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Ovocny trh 5, 116 36 Prague 1, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20452 Duleep, Harriet O.; Wunnava, Phanindra V. Immigrants and immigration policy: individual skills, family ties, and group identities. Contemporary Studies in Economic and Financial Analysis, Vol. 79, ISBN 0-7623-0076-0. LC 95-54003. 1996. xiv, 378 pp. JAI Press: Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This volume is the product of a conference held at Middlebury College, Vermont, April 2-3, 1993. "All of the papers are relevant to the ongoing debate concerning the direction U.S. immigration policy should take. More generally, these papers add to our basic knowledge about the complex interactions of immigrant admission policies, individual skills, human capital investment, group strategies, and immigrant-native labor market competition. The papers--by historians, sociologists, anthropologists, and economists--reflect diverse methodological and theoretical perspectives...." The papers are divided into five parts. Part 1 examines the importance of individual human capital, particularly language skills, among immigrants to both the United States and Canada. Part 2 investigates how the ethnic group concerned affects migration motivation. Part 3 considers entrepreneurship and the importance of social capital in migration. Part 4 discusses the labor market consequences of family versus skills as a criterion for immigrant admissions. In Part 5, the contributors explore past, present, and future aspects of U.S. immigration policy.
Correspondence: JAI Press, 55 Old Post Road, No. 2, Greenwich, CT 06836. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:20453 Farmer, Ruth S. J. New Zealand's "targeted" immigration policy, 1991 to 1996. People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1997. 1-15 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"The tide of economic rationalism which has swept over New Zealand since 1984 included a new enthusiasm for business migrants and other well-qualified immigrants. In 1991 a points test was introduced to target these groups for selection but, while the overall intake had a nominal cap of 25,000 per annum, keen demand for places in the new program meant that the cap was soon exceeded by more than 100 per cent. Immigration became increasingly controversial. In October 1995 the points system was adjusted so that annual caps would not be exceeded, selection criteria were tightened, and steep fees were introduced for applicants with inadequate English."
Correspondence: R. S. J. Farmer, University of Waikato, Department of Geography, Private Bag, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20454 Fitzgerald, Keith. The face of the nation: immigration, the state, and the national identity. ISBN 0-8047-2485-7. LC 95-23066. 1996. xii, 285 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
This study examines the changes in U.S. immigration policy over time from the late nineteenth century to the present. "This book has two complementary goals. One is to contribute to recent work in political science that places political institutions at the center in explaining public policy. The second is to explain important features of United States immigration policy. An understanding of how institutions influence the content of public policies helps solve the most puzzling features of immigration policy. Immigration policy, in turn, illuminates central issues and implications for recent institutional political theories." The author's main hypothesis is that "the explanation for these contrasting patterns of immigration policy and politics lies in their institutionalization, that is, in the legacies of the policies themselves and the political battles that surround them. Contingent institutional developments that took place before the New Deal and World War II established the policy and politics of immigration that would prevail long after the postwar era. These same patterns created the problems that critics and reformers of immigration policy addressed in the 1980s and 1990s."
Correspondence: Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA 94305-2235. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20455 Kotzé, Hennie; Hill, Lloyd. Emergent migration policy in a democratic South Africa. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1997. 5-35 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article sets recent debates on migration policy in South Africa against broader historical realities that have shaped patterns of population movement on the subcontinent since the end of the nineteenth century. During the course of the last century, most forms of population movement were the result of disjointed regional economic development which can be traced to two epochal events at the end of the nineteenth century: the creation of the modern African state system and the discovery of mineral wealth in Southern Africa. Although regulation of migrant labour was a fundamental feature of the colonial period, it was only after 1950, when independent states began to define specific migration priorities, that states began to restrict significantly the flow of transnational labour. From this point notions such as internally displaced person, refugee and illegal immigrant become increasingly appropriate to the study of regional migration."
Correspondence: H. Kotzé, University of Stellenbosch, Department of Political Science, Stellenbosch 7600, Cape Province, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20456 Marie, Claude-Valentin. The European Union and the migrations of populations. Government logic and human rights. [L'Union Européenne face aux déplacements de populations. Logiques d'etat face aux droits des personnes.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1996. 169-209 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The first part of this article consists of a summary of the major [immigration] reforms undertaken by the EU [European Union] states over the past decade. The second chapter discusses the ways in which these reforms were drafted, and, in particular, the influence of intergovernmental negotiations on national policy. The third part, relative to the regulation of job markets, underscores the contrast between the tough restrictions on permanent employment of foreigners and flexibility...for administering seasonal immigration or entry visas granted within the context of temporary work contracts. The fourth part, which analyzes the impact of these legislative changes on individual rights, logically leads to a discussion of the foundation of the procedure followed by the wealthy countries, and points out the shortcoming of a strictly punitive or even military solution to what is chiefly a problem of development and democracy."
Correspondence: C.-V. Marie, 3 rue des Petites Ecuries, 75010 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20457 Suro, Roberto. Watching America's door: the immigration backlash and the new policy debate. A Twentieth Century Fund Report, ISBN 0-87078-383-1. LC 96-30397. 1996. vii, 81 pp. Twentieth Century Fund Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
Recent trends in immigration to the United States are examined, and the contemporary political debate concerning responses to immigration is discussed. In particular, the author updates and expands on his 1995 study on immigration, with particular emphasis on the political reactions at the grass-roots level to immigration. "He argues that the sweeping immigration bills of the past, designed to guide U.S. policy for decades at a time, have proven woefully ineffective and calls for a new national immigration policy--one that is more responsive. Washington should be prepared to adjust its priorities regularly, and shift resources in response to new needs at home and changes in the immigration flow from abroad. The question is not one of keeping people out, but rather shaping the flow so it meets our needs in a changing global economy."
For the 1995 study, see 62:30499.
Correspondence: Twentieth Century Fund Press, 41 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20458 Zimmermann, Klaus F. Tackling the European migration problem. SELAPO Reprint, No. 9/95, 1995. 45-62 pp. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München: Munich, Germany. In Eng.
"The threat of further increases of unemployment caused by immigration is the essence of the European migration problem....This paper will begin by examining the historical pattern of migration and the empirical dimension of western Europe's migration problem. A next step examines the labor market issues and impacts on natives as western Europe perceives them. The paper concludes with a discussion of policy issues and options."
Reprinted from Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 9, No. 2, Spring 1995.
Correspondence: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, SELAPO, Ludwigstraße 28 RG, 80539 Munich, Germany. Author's E-mail: zimmermann@selapo.vwl.uni-muenchen.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.