Volume 63 - Number 2 - Summer 1997

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration.

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

63:20264 Alcalá, Elio; Reyes Couturier, Teófilo. Migrants from Mixteca. The migration process from Mixteca Baja. [Migrantes mixtecos. El proceso migratorio de la Mixteca Baja.] Serie Antropología, ISBN 968-29-5126-7. 1994. 165, [8] pp. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This is an analysis of out-migration from the Mexican region of Mixteca Baja. The authors suggest that, in a dependent capitalist country like Mexico, there are regions whose primary function is to act as source of labor, and that this is such a region. They conclude that the individual decision to migrate is the result of a social process that is part of the life of the community. Three types of factors influencing migration are identified--the economic, the demographic, and the cultural--and their relative importance is considered.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Córdoba 45, Col. Roma, C.P. 06700, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:20265 Buccianti, Cinzia. Africa and demography: historical notes on migratory flows. [Africa e demografia: note storiche sulle correnti migratorie.] Studi e Documenti sulle Populazioni dei Paesi Sottosviluppati, No. 1, Jan 1994. 33-45 pp. Siena, Italy. In Ita.
This is a descriptive essay on migration in Africa in the twentieth century. After a summary of the main characteristics of African migration, consideration is given to international migration both within and outside the African continent, internal migration, and rural-urban migration. The causes, characteristics, and consequences of various migratory flows are briefly discussed.
Correspondence: C. Buccianti, Università degli Studi di Siena, Facoltà di Scienze Politiche, Piazza S. Francesco 17, 53100 Siena, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20266 Carballo, Manuel; Grocutt, Mandy; Hadzihasanovic, Asja. Women and migration: a public health issue. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 49, No. 2, 1996. 158-64 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Because in many societies women are marginalized from [basic human] rights, migration to more economically and educationally open societies can often help improve their personal situation and their professional opportunities. On the other hand...their social integration in new settings may be equally limited by their initial lack of education and occupational experience....Health monitoring of women in all migration-related situations has to be given greater priority. Similarly, much more attention at a health policy level is called for if the rights of women refugees and migrants are to be protected, and their contribution to health and social development is to be acknowledged and promoted."
Correspondence: M. Carballo, International Centre for Migration and Health, Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20267 Cohen, Robin. The Cambridge survey of world migration. ISBN 0-521-44405-5. LC 95-16842. 1995. xxi, 570 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This survey of world migration "begins in the sixteenth century with the establishment of European colonies overseas and covers the history of migration to the late twentieth century, when political conflict, global communications and transport systems stimulated immense and complex flows of displaced persons, labour migrants and skilled professionals. In ninety-five contributions leading scholars from twenty-seven different countries consider a wide variety of issues including regional migration patterns, the flights of refugees and illegal migration. Each entry constitutes a substantive essay, supported by up-to-date bibliographies, tables, plates, maps and figures." There are chapters on European colonization and settlement; Asian indentured and colonial migration; the great Atlantic migration to North America; migration in Europe, 1800-1950; migration in Africa; Latin and Central American migration; migration to North America after 1945; labor migration to Western Europe after 1945; repatriates and colonial auxiliaries; migration in Asia and Oceania; migration in the Middle East; refugees from political conflict; migrants and asylum-seekers in contemporary Europe; and emerging trends.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20268 Courgeau, Daniel; Lelièvre, Eva. The motivations for migratory behavior. [Les motivations des comportements migratoires.] In: Demografia: analisi e sintesi. Cause e conseguenze dei processi demografici, edited by Graziella Caselli. Apr 1996. 143-63 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Fre.
The factors that influence individual decisions about migration are explored in this chapter. Both the macro and micro aspects of migration motivation are considered. The authors note the value of an event-history approach, in which migration is analyzed in the context of various family and professional events experienced by the individual. The need to combine such micro-level approaches with macro-level migration analysis is discussed. These concepts are illustrated using French examples.
Correspondence: D. Courgeau, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20269 Domenach, Hervé. About "migratology". [De la "migratologie".] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1996. 73-86 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The building of supranational spaces, strongly segmented, underscores both the new outlooks of the migratory phenomenon and the growing human mobility into protected spaces. The current mutations of socio-economical structures are supported by three main effects introducing on migratory dynamics: the planetary demographic growth and its spatial distribution, the widespread marketing links, the technological and the new media revolution. The time is ripe to argue about a global discourse on migration, i.e. literally about `migratology', which would allow the understanding of migratory modernity according to the contemporary `societal' mutations and the consequential evolution of its two basic analytical references: `space-time' and `flows-stock'. Eventually the question of the epistemological existence of a scientific identity for the migration theme is clearly stated by this approach."
Correspondence: H. Domenach, Université de Provence, 15 chemin des Gardes, 13100 Aix-en-Provence, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20270 Lozano-Ascencio, Fernando; Roberts, Bryan R.; Bean, Frank D. The interconnectedness of internal and international migration: the case of the United States and Mexico. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 96-97-02, 1996-1997. 28 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"In this paper, we intend to explore the interconnections between...two types of migration: internal and international. The analysis emphasizes two themes. First, in the five year period 1985-90, the pattern of Mexican internal migration increasingly reflected an intensive movement of people from south to north, particularly to the northern border states and cities. This rising concentration of migrants in the north of Mexico constitutes important evidence of closer linkages between internal and international migration to the United States. Second, the internal migration trajectories of international migrants increasingly reflect the importance of Mexican metropolitan areas, as both receivers and providers, of internal and international migrants. "
Correspondence: University of Texas, Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20271 Mulder, Clara H. Cohort approaches to migration: when are they useful? [Cohortbenaderingen van migratie: wanneer zinvol?] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1994. 27-51 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article evaluates the extent to which migration research profits from cohort approaches. First, some cohort approaches from the literature are discussed and evaluated. Next, expectations are presented concerning cohort differences in migration behaviour. These expectations are based on theoretical considerations stressing the instrumentality of the migration career to other careers in the life course. It is shown how these expectations have been confirmed with recent empirical findings, based on [data from the Netherlands]....The conclusion is that the contribution of cohort approaches to migration research is rather limited, and mainly restricted to the study of specific migration events that tend to take place only once in a lifetime, such as leaving the parental home."
Correspondence: C. H. Mulder, University of Utrecht, Faculteit Ruimtelijke Wetenschappen, Vakgroep Algemene Sociale Geografie, Postbus 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20272 Rees, Philip; Stillwell, John; Convey, Andrew; Kupiszewski, Marek. Population migration in the European Union. ISBN 0-471-94968-X. LC 95-24756. 1996. xvi, 390 pp. John Wiley and Sons: Chichester, England. In Eng.
This collection of studies by various authors aims to provide a comprehensive picture of migration flows and their influence on population redistribution within each of the countries of the European Union prior to 1995. The book is divided into three sections. The first section examines international migration patterns from east-west and north-south perspectives, migration within the European Union, and asylum seeking. The second section concerns national perspectives; there are chapters on Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. The third section examines the impact of migration on population developments in the European Union, and includes papers on migration policy and population projections.
Correspondence: John Wiley and Sons, Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20273 Rybakovskii, L. L. The potential for migration by the Russian population living in the "near abroad". [Migratsionnyi potentsial Russkogo naseleniya v stranakh novogo zarubezh'ya.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 11, 1996. 31-42 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Data from recent opinion polls are used to examine the potential for migration among the Russian population living in the independent countries that were once part of the Soviet Union. The information on the size of the Russian population and on intention to migrate back to Russia is presented separately by country.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20274 Termote, Marc. The economic causes and consequences of migration. [Causes et conséquences économiques de la migration.] In: Demografia: analisi e sintesi. Cause e conseguenze dei processi demografici, edited by Graziella Caselli. Apr 1996. 165-82 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Fre.
This chapter has three objectives: to establish the significance of migration in the workings of an economic system, to build a theoretical framework permitting the assessment of various migration theories and models, and to identify the main methodological implications of such a framework.
Correspondence: M. Termote, Université du Québec, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique--Urbanisation, 3465 rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20275 Wallace, Suzanne B.; DeLorme, Charles D.; Kamerschen, David R. Migration as a consumption activity. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1997. 37-58 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"While a generalized utility maximization approach to migration decisionmaking is not innovative, the principal extensions of this paper involve the search for an instrument capable of measuring changes in utility levels consistent with all preferences (i.e., with all forms of utility functions), requiring only data on observed behaviour. Our approach is to construct a Location-Specific Utility Index (LSUI), whose component variables serve as proxies for the arguments in [U.S.] households' utility functions....The testable hypothesis is formulated as follows: Assuming constant household preferences and expansion of the household's feasible set over time, the household's utility level is greater following the migration decision....The results are compared with the households' migration decisions. The empirical evidence shows that migration may reasonably be modelled as a consumption activity by households to maximize utility."
Correspondence: S. B. Wallace, Central College, Pella, IA 50219. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20276 Wright, Richard A.; Ellis, Mark; Reibel, Michael. The linkage between immigration and internal migration in large metropolitan areas in the United States. Economic Geography, Vol. 73, No. 2, Apr 1997. 234-54 pp. Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the relationship between the internal migration of native-born workers and flows of immigrants to the United States using the 1980 and 1990 U.S. Census Bureau microsamples....Based on the estimation of three sets of regression models for five overlapping samples of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States and five mutually exclusive segments of the labor force, this analysis shows that the finding of a significant linkage between internal migration and immigration depends critically on the empirical experiment used. In direct opposition to previous published research, we conclude that net migration of the native born for metropolitan areas is either positively related or unrelated to immigration. Our models show that the net migration loss of unskilled native workers from metropolitan areas is probably a function of those cities' population size rather than immigrant flow to them. We conclude that the net migration loss of native-born workers from large metropolitan areas is more likely the result of industrial restructuring than of competition with immigrants."
Correspondence: R. A. Wright, Dartmouth College, Department of Geography, Hanover, NH 03755-3571. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

63:20277 Baker, Susan G.; Cushing, Robert G.; Haynes, Charles W. Fiscal impacts of Mexican migration to the United States. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 96-97-07, 1996-1997. 31, [8] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This [paper] critically assesses the methodology and findings of 15 recent studies of the fiscal impact of immigration to the United States. With important exceptions, the literature concludes that the net effect of immigrants and immigration is negative....County/metropolitan and state data, drawn primarily from Los Angeles and San Diego Counties and from the states of California and Texas, give some indication of the fiscal impact of Mexican migration, but methodological issues compromise the utility of these estimates for anything more than the broadest interpretation. We conclude this assessment with a review of six persistent challenges that bear attention in any attempt to establish a serious basis for policy making or theory-building on questions of fiscal costs and benefits associated with U.S. immigration."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20278 Baldi, Stefano; Cagiano de Azevedo, Raimondo. Migration policies. In: Demografia: analisi e sintesi. Cause e conseguenze dei processi demografici, edited by Graziella Caselli. Apr 1996. 183-97 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Eng.
This chapter examines migration policies designed to affect and control labor migration. Separate consideration is given to the policies of receiving and sending countries, as well as to international organizations and international agreements. Some new issues in migration policy, such as transit migration, are also discussed.
Correspondence: S. Baldi, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Department of Economics, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20279 Bauer, Thomas; Zimmermann, Klaus F. Modelling international migration: economic and econometric issues. SELAPO Reprint, No. 5/95, 1995. 95-115 pp. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München: Munich, Germany. In Eng.
"Political and economic motives are the two main driving forces behind international migration. This contribution attempts to survey the economic and econometric approaches to deal with this issue. First, the migration decision is considered at the theoretical level using the standard neoclassical approach, the human capital approach, asymmetric information, family migration, and network migration....We survey recent empirical findings and discuss the principal available econometric approaches with their advantages and disadvantages....It is...proposed to build up a new European microsurvey data base."
Reprinted from Causes of International Migration. Proceedings of a Workshop, Luxembourg, 14-16 December 1994, edited by Rob van der Erf and Liesbeth Heering. Eurostat, 1995.
Correspondence: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, SELAPO, Ludwigstraße 28 RG, 80539 Munich, Germany. Author's E-mail: zimmermann@selapo.vwl.uni-muenchen.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20280 Bauer, Thomas; Zimmermann, Klaus F. Network migration of ethnic Germans. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring 1997. 143-9 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This study has argued that network migration is central to actual migratory movements, which suggests that its determinants should be carefully investigated. The analysis demonstrates that the network behavior of ethnic Germans can be explained, to a large degree, by observable characteristics. Two crucial variables were investigated, namely the connections to friends from the country of origin and the settlement close to relatives and friends. East Europeans, especially from Rumania, are significantly more connected to friends from the same country of origin than are East Germans. These connections strongly decline with duration of residence and presence in rural areas. Older people are more likely to settle close to friends or relatives at the time of immigration. Population density increases, education, length of stay in a reception camp, and per capita government expenditures decrease the likelihood of such a settlement."
Correspondence: T. Bauer, University of Munich, SELAPO, Ludwigstraße 28 RG, 8000 Munich 22, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20281 Bean, Frank D.; Cushing, Robert G.; Haynes, Charles W.; Van Hook, Jennifer V. W. Immigration and the social contract. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 96-97-08, 1996-1997. 22, [5] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Immigration issues have risen once again to a prominent place on the public policy agenda of the United States....To understand why policy makers and the public have grown increasingly concerned about immigration, it is helpful to examine recent trends in the magnitude of flows of persons coming into the country compared to those at earlier time periods....Thus, the specific purposes of this paper are: (1) to develop a portrait of the recent major migration flows to the United States, (2) to assess their implications for the racial/ethnic composition of the U.S. population, and (3) to examine the economic context in which they have occurred. The general goal is to try to explain not only why recent migration flows have come to be negatively perceived, but also why they appear increasingly to be seen as violating the prevailing sense of social contract in the United States."
Correspondence: F. D. Bean, University of Texas, Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20282 Cesarini, David; Fulbrook, Mary. Citizenship, nationality and migration in Europe. ISBN 0-415-13100-6. LC 95-38744. 1996. x, 225 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This collection of essays grew out of a conference held at University College, London, September 21-22, 1994. "Bringing together international experts from a range of disciplines, this volume explores key questions concerning patterns of migration and different national policies, and their relation to political, social and cultural processes. Part One begins by examining the broader global and European context. Parts Two and Three then focus on four selected countries--Britain, France, Germany and Italy--within the broader European context." The book addresses the following questions: "Who is a citizen? Who is entitled to be part of a `national' community, and who is to be excluded? Who may cross what boundaries and borders, reside and work within particular states, and who may not? What perceptions do insiders have of outsiders? How do different communities within states behave towards each other, define, manipulate and act upon their mutual perceptions?"
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:20283 Chandra, Vibha P. Remigration: return of the prodigals--an analysis of the impact of the cycles of migration and remigration on caste mobility. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring 1997. 162-70 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The focus of this research note is the migration of the Patidar community to East Africa--and remigration to Gujarat, India. The primary motive for migration of the immigrant Patidars was to work, accumulate money and return to India, claiming a higher caste status. By 1931, a sufficient number of the community had become economically affluent and were given a higher caste status by the census enumerators. This study illustrates the transient nature of Indian migration to East Africa and its impact on caste mobility."
Correspondence: V. P. Chandra, California State University, Hayward, CA 94542. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20284 Chavez, Leo R.; Hubbell, F. Allan; Mishra, Shiraz I.; Valdez, R. Burciaga. Undocumented Latina immigrants in Orange County, California: a comparative analysis. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring 1997. 88-107 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines a unique data set randomly collected from Latinas (including 160 undocumented immigrants) and non-Hispanic white women in Orange County, California, including undocumented and documented Latina immigrants, Latina citizens, and non-Hispanic white women. Our survey suggests that undocumented Latinas are younger than documented Latinas, and immigrant Latinas are generally younger than U.S.-citizen Latinas and Anglo women. Undocumented and documented Latinas work in menial service sector jobs, often in domestic services. Most do not have job-related benefits such as medical insurance....Despite their immigration status, undocumented Latina immigrants often viewed themselves as part of a community in the United States, which significantly influenced their intentions to stay in the United States. Contrary to much of the recent public policy debate over immigration, we did not find that social services influenced Latina immigrants' intentions to stay in the United States."
Correspondence: L. R. Chavez, University of California, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20285 de Tapia, Stéphane. Exchanges, transportation, and communication: Turkish circulation and migratory domain. [Echanges, transports et communications: circulation et champs migratoires turcs.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1996. 45-71 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this article, the author first describes and then analyzes how networks of exchange, transportation, and communication function to animate and irrigate the Turkish migratory domain, which currently covers Europe, the Middle East, and the CIS, and which has become transoceanic (North America and Australia)....The author suggests a dynamic vision of the migratory domain, based on the mobility of people and goods, and associated with various means of transportation (air, sea, rail, and road), as a complement to the static vision, which observes the emergence of immigrant communities undergoing a complex process of ethnicization (or assimilation) in highly diversified environments."
Correspondence: S. de Tapia, Université de Poitiers, UMR MIGRINTER-IERS, CNRS, 95 avenue du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20286 Doty, Roxanne L. The double-writing of statecraft: exploring state responses to illegal immigration. Alternatives, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1996. 171-89 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"I am...concerned here with the limitations that conventional approaches encounter in seeking to understand state responses to immigration. I also want to examine the more interesting openings that have been created despite these limitations, but that have not been pursued. Pursuing these openings, I suggest an alternative understanding that places tension and contradiction at the very core of statecraft....This article...is not an attempt to explain illegal immigration in a causal sense, but focuses on state responses to illegal immigration and how these responses can inform our understanding of statecraft."
Correspondence: R. L. Doty, Arizona State University, Department of Political Science, Tempe, AZ 85287-2001. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

63:20287 Espinosa, Kristin E.; Massey, Douglas S. Determinants of English proficiency among Mexican migrants to the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring 1997. 28-50 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"We replicate prior research into the determinants of English language proficiency among immigrants using a dataset that controls for potential biases stemming from selective emigration, omitted variables, and the mismeasurement of key constructs. In general, we reproduce the results of earlier work, leading us to conclude that despite inherent methodological problems, research based on cross-sectional censuses and surveys yields fundamentally accurate conclusions. In particular, we find unambiguous evidence that English proficiency rises with exposure to U.S. society, and we reaffirm earlier work showing a clear pattern of language assimilation among Mexican migrants to the United States."
Correspondence: K. E. Espinosa, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20288 Greenwood, Michael J.; Young, Paul A. Geographically indirect immigration to Canada: description and analysis. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring 1997. 51-71 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article is concerned with geographically indirect immigration to Canada over the period 1968-1988. A geographically indirect immigrant is an individual legally admitted to Canada whose country of last permanent residence differs from country of birth. Records maintained by Employment and Immigration Canada on every immigrant legally admitted over the period were used in the study. Relative to geographically direct immigrants, geographically indirect immigrants tend to be older, more educated, and more highly skilled. Moreover, if they were not born in an English or French speaking country, indirect immigrants are more likely to speak English and/or French capably than direct migrants born in such countries. The study also contains bivariate logit estimates of a model of geographically indirect Canadian immigration. This model suggests that indirect migrants tend to be influenced by personal characteristics (age, sex, marital status, occupation, language ability), as well as by various characteristics of the country of birth (distance from Canada, income level, political conditions)."
Correspondence: M. J. Greenwood, University of Colorado, Department of Economics, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20289 Guengant, Jean-Pierre. International migration and development: the new paradigms. [Migrations internationales et développement: les nouveaux paradigmes.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1996. 107-21 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In the present context of economic crisis which prevails in most receiving countries, two paradigms dominate the approach of international migration issues: `control', as a means to contain them, and `development', as a means to suppress the need to migrate....The author [stresses] the need for research aimed at a better understanding of why consequences of international migration and refugee movements can be positive in certain cases, and negative in others, and more generally [emphasizes] the need for research on the relationships between international migration and development."
Correspondence: J.-P. Guengant, ORSTOM, MIGRINTER-CNRS, 95 avenue du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20290 Hart, G. H. T. The illegal alien question in South Africa: scope, issues and policy. GeoJournal, Vol. 39, No. 1, May 1996. 27-31 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Of the many problems facing South Africa, perhaps one of the most important is that of the illegal alien. The scope, issues and policy implications of the illegal alien problem are examined. Different geographical streams of alien immigration are identified and profiled. Official policy responses are reviewed. The pressures for action to be taken against the rising numbers of illegal aliens in South Africa are discussed. In particular, the cost implications of illegal aliens capturing scarce resources and employment opportunities are set against other pressing demands encapsulated in the Reconstruction and Development Programme."
Correspondence: G. H. T. Hart, University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa. Location: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, NH.

63:20291 Huang, Fung-Yea. Asian and Hispanic immigrant women in the work force: implications of the United States immigration policies since 1965. Garland Studies in the History of American Labor, ISBN 0-8153-2615-7. LC 96-42261. 1997. xix, 302 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This study examines the labor force experience of women from two of the largest contemporary immigrant groups in the United States, Asians and Hispanics. In particular, the author attempts to answer two questions: Does migration selection contribute to the observed ethnic difference in the labor market performance of Asian and Hispanic immigrant women? If so, what role does immigration policy play in the selection of women from Asia and Latin America? Marital status at migration and migration pattern are proposed as empirical measures of migration selectivity. Data are primarily from the Current Population Survey. "The results show that migration selectivity significantly differentiates immigrant women in labor supply, but not in earnings. Among women who are married at the time of arrival in the United States, those who migrate before their husbands are most likely to participate in the labor force, while those who migrate after their husbands are least likely to do so."
Correspondence: Garland Publishing, 717 Fifth Avenue, Suite 2500, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20292 Hui, Weng-Tat. Regionalization, economic restructuring and labour migration in Singapore. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1997. 109-30 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper documents the impact of economic development on changes in employment and labour migration in Singapore. High export-led growth and the relaxation of immigration policies in the late 1960s enabled employment of substantial numbers of unskilled foreign labour in manufacturing, construction and domestic service sectors....Economic development in the 1990s, characterized by the regionalization drive which relocates relatively resource-intensive operations of Singapore-based companies overseas, has led to increased retrenchments and a moderation of demand for foreign workers. The upgrading of remaining production operations in Singapore is expected to increase demand for workers with higher skill levels. Emigration of highly educated and skilled professionals from Singapore became a national concern in the late 1980s. However, with regionalization, the new challenge in the 1990s has become one of encouraging Singaporeans to temporarily take up overseas positions."
Correspondence: W.-T. Hui, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics and Statistics, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20293 Hyer, Eric. Dreams and nightmares: Chinese trade and immigration in the Russian Far East. Journal of East Asian Affairs, Vol. 10, No. 2, Summer-Fall 1996. 289-308 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
The author discusses possible future trends in Chinese migration to the Russian Far East. Aspects considered include the historical setting; an overview of migration in the area; Chinese immigration to the region; the economic impact of Chinese in the Russian Far East; and cultural and language issues.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

63:20294 Lianos, Theodore P. Factors determining migrant remittances: the case of Greece. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring 1997. 72-87 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"In this study we review the literature regarding the theory and the empirical evidence regarding migrants' remittance behavior, and we examine the flow and determinants of remittances from Greek migrants for the period 1961 to 1991. The main body of data is for remittances to Greece from Germany, but for some years data are available for remittances from Belgium and Sweden as well. The objective of this study is to test the significance of certain factors in terms of their effects on remittances to Greece. These factors are the migrant's income, the migrant's family income, the rate of unemployment, the rate of interest, the exchange rate, and the rate of inflation. The study attempts to see if these factors have had any effect on the volume of remittances. It also attempts to see if there are any structural changes during this period that affect migrants' propensity to remit."
Correspondence: T. P. Lianos, Athens University of Economics and Business, Odos Patission 76, 104 34 Athens, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20295 Lucas, David; Mok, Magdalena; Parr, Nick. Branch migration, split migration and anastomosis. Actuarial Studies and Demography Research Paper, No. 001/97, ISBN 1-86408-355-7. Mar 1997. 14 pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper discusses a type of migration apparently ignored in...demographic literature: the migration of related persons from the same source country to different destination countries....This paper begins by proposing terminology for the international dispersion of families due to migration to [and] from the same source country to different destination countries. Some examples of such dispersed families from family histories are presented and it is suggested that such dispersal was not uncommon in families that emigrated in the past. Analyses of the Sydney student survey data and also of a sample of 1,011 students in Hong Kong are presented to indicate...the prevalence of internationally dispersed families in these two cities. Finally, the discussion focuses on the relevance of migration theory to such dispersal and vice versa."
Correspondence: N. Parr, Macquarie University, School of Economics and Financial Studies, Actuarial Studies and Demography Department, NSW 2109, Australia. E-mail: lschalch@efs.mq.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20296 Martin, Philip. Migrants on the move in Asia. Asia Pacific Issues, No. 29, Dec 1996. 8 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The author outlines characteristics of migration in Asia. Aspects considered include reasons for migration; Asian governments' responses to migration; policies affecting the flow of migrants; and economic implications of labor migration.
Correspondence: East-West Center, Publications Office, 1601 East-West Road, Burns Hall, Room 1079, Honolulu, HI 96848-1601. Author's E-mail: martin@primal.ucdavis.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20297 Merli, M. Giovanna. Estimation of international migration for Viet Nam, 1979-1989. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 97-4, Jan 1997. 39, [19] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper details the various steps adopted in the estimation of international emigration from Vietnam by sex and age between the dates of the first two modern censuses conducted in 1979 and 1989. The measurement of Vietnamese emigration is based on existing intercensal projection methods. The procedure is applied to Vietnamese census data to obtain preliminary estimates of Vietnamese intercensal emigration. A separate estimate of intercensal emigration is derived from a combination of data on the Vietnam-born population in the censuses of the United States, Canada, and Australia, three major receiver countries of Vietnamese emigration, and of data on refugee movements collected by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The paper evaluates the two sets of estimates and discusses the relative appropriateness of the data sources for the estimation of intercensal emigration."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Seattle, WA 98195. Author's E-mail: giovanna@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20298 Murphy, Jill; Williams, Lynne S. A brief overview of the initial location decisions of immigrants. People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1997. 16-23 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"The current longitudinal survey of recent migrants has provided information on the factors shaping their locational choices within Australia. The main finding is that family and friends are the dominant influence. Job opportunities are much less influential, even amongst Independent migrants."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20299 Poulain, Michel. Migration in Belgium: some demographic data. [Migrations en Belgique: données démographiques.] Courrier Hebdomadaire, No. 1438-1439, 1994. 71 pp. Centre de Recherche et d'Information Socio-Politiques [CRISP]: Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
This is a general review of international migration in Belgium, with a focus on trends in 1992 and 1993. There are sections on the numbers of the foreign population, the characteristics of the foreign population, immigration and emigration, naturalizations, marriage and fertility, the nationality of the immigrant population, asylum seekers, work permits, and unemployment in the foreign population. Extensive statistical data are also included.
Correspondence: Centre de Recherche et d'Information Socio-Politiques, rue du Congrès 35, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

63:20300 Rédei, Mária. International population mobility in Hungary between 1956 and 1992. [Az 1956-1992 közötti nemzetközi népességmozgások jellemzoi Magyarországon.] Földrajzi Ertesíto, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, 1994. 57-74 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in international migration affecting Hungary from 1956 to 1992 are explored. The author notes that over this period, Hungary changed from a country of emigration to a country of migrant destination, with most of the immigrants coming from other Eastern Bloc countries. The author suggests that regional development planning should pay more attention to actual migration trends, rather than using ideal migration patterns.
Translated from the Hungarian by D. Lóczy.
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

63:20301 Santel, Bernhard. Migration within and to Europe: experiences, structures, and policy. [Migration in und nach Europa: Erfahrungen. Strukturen. Politik.] ISBN 3-8100-1395-1. 1995. 249 pp. Leske und Budrich: Opladen, Germany. In Ger.
After several brief sections introducing the topic of European migration and the background of its scholarly study, this dissertation is organized into five parts. The first provides a historical overview of European emigration, immigration, and internal displacements. In the second, the current migratory situation is analyzed separately for each of the European states, distinguishing asylum-seeking from illegal immigration. The third lays out the global framework, discussing developmental and demographic trends in the developing countries as well as urbanization. The fourth posits the de-regionalization of migration as a consequence of increasing global integration; the author sees transcontinental migration from the developing to the industrialized world as a global form of migration from the periphery to the center. In the final section, the development and integration of Europe's recent immigration policies are charted.
Correspondence: Leske und Budrich, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Straße 27, Postfach 300406, 51379 Leverkusen 3, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20302 Sassen, Saskia. Transnational economies and national migration policies. ISBN 90-5589-038-3. 1996. 32 pp. University of Amsterdam, Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This study examines migration to the developed world in the context of the growth of international economic systems. In particular, the author notes the contrast between the drive to create border-free economic spaces and the drive for renewed border controls to keep immigrants and refugees out. "The first section discusses some of the main implications of economic internationalization for migration processes and for migration policy. The second section examines the role of the state in the implementation of a global economic system and the transformation of the state as a result of that work of implementation. The third section discusses the general implications of these conditions for immigration policy design and implementation. The final section examines the implications of economic restructuring for an expanded demand for immigrant workers in advanced urban economies."
Correspondence: University of Amsterdam, Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies, Rokin 84, 1012 KX Amsterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: IMES@PSCW.UVA.NL. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20303 Schor, Ralph. The French far right and immigrants in times of crisis: the 1930s and the 1980s. [L'extrême droite française et les immigrés en temps de crise: années 1930-années 1980.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1996. 241-60 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Like the 1930s, the 1980s were characterized, in France, by a profound economic, social, and moral crisis....The far right exploited the general mood of anxiety to place immigrants in the center of the debate, blaming the immigrant communities for the country's problems....In the 1930s, the group designated as most dangerous was the Jews; in the 1980s, it was the North Africans. As a result, the extreme right urges that borders be closed, that access to citizenship be restricted, that as many foreigners as possible be turned away. Although racist ideas were commonly expressed in the 1930s, they are no longer openly espoused today, with the exception of certain fringe groups. But, aside from this difference and the origin of the groups perceived as most threatening, the modus operandi of the xenophobic process has varied little in 50 years."
Correspondence: R. Schor, Université de Nice, Faculté de Lettres et Sciences Humaines, 98 boulevard Edouard Herriot, P.O. Box 369, 06007 Nice Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20304 Siebert, Horst. Migration: a challenge for Europe. Symposium 1993. ISBN 3-16-146198-3. 1994. xi, 290 pp. J. C. B. Mohr: Tübingen, Germany; Universität Kiel, Institut für Weltwirtschaft: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Kiel, Germany, June 23-24, 1993, on the causes and effects of migration in Europe. Particular attention is given to the consequences for economic policy. The 12 papers are divided into four sections. The first section examines international migration pressures on Europe, international security issues, and immigrants' performance in comparison with the native-born. The second section discusses the impact of immigration in Germany on the one hand, and in France, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands on the other. The third section explores the relation between the transformation of socialist economies to capitalist economies and migration. Policy issues are analyzed in the fourth section.
Correspondence: J. C. B. Mohr, Postfach 2040, 72010 Tübingen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:20305 Simon, Gildas. France, the European migratory system, and globalization. [La France, le système migratoire européen et la mondialisation.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1996. 261-73 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The overwhelming trend of migratory flows to become globalized, which is manifesting itself in all the major immigrant countries and the planet's main pools of employment, henceforth concerns France and Europe. One of the main challenges confronting these two entities is related to the spatial expansion and rising diversity of their recruitment spaces, and the great difficulty involved in controlling mobility which increasingly tends to function on a global scale. It is essential to revise analytic paradigms based on a strictly national vision which is blind to and repressive of phenomena that are more planetary every day. The global approach will have to combine national management, the functioning of the community's migratory space, relations with increasingly distant and increasingly `foreign' lands of origin, and the globalization of migratory dynamics."
Correspondence: G. Simon, Université de Poitiers, UMR MIGRINTER-IERS, CNRS, 95 avenue du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20306 Sohoni, Deenesh. Asian immigration to the West Coast of the United States: an application of theoretical models of migration to residential choice. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 97-6, Jan 1997. 45 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"This study examines how well economic and network theories of immigration explain the choice of SMSA [Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area] destination among Asian immigrant groups. The study looks at the choice of SMSAs on the West Coast of the United States among four different Asian immigrant groups, comparing census data from 1980 and 1990. There are two main goals that drive this study. The first is to compare how well different theoretical models of immigration can be applied to understanding what determines choice of destination within countries by immigrants. The second goal is to see if these models are consistent across different status groups....The results suggest that neither economic nor network models alone adequately explain settlement choice of immigrants. The results instead support the gravity model of migration as the best predictive model of immigrant settlement patterns."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20307 Sowell, Thomas. Migrations and cultures: a world view. ISBN 0-465-04588-X. LC 95-44316. 1996. xii, 516 pp. BasicBooks: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the cultural aspects of international migration. The first chapter examines some general patterns of migration and how these patterns vary over time. "Such patterns include differences among the migrants themselves, in the circumstances from which they come, and in the changing settings in which their lives evolve." The author then examines the histories of particular migrant groups, including Germans, Japanese, Italians, Chinese, Jews, and Indians. A final chapter sums up the implications of the cultural differences among migrant groups that were identified in the six previous chapters.
Correspondence: BasicBooks, 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY 10022-5299. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:20308 Thunø, Mette. Chinese emigration to Europe: combining European and Chinese sources. Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1996. 275-96 pp. Poitiers, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa; Chi.
"Research into the history of Chinese immigration to Europe has so far basically been conducted on a country-by-country basis and normally restricted to national sources. In order to comprehend early Chinese immigration to Europe, however, a wider approach is necessary with the inclusion of Chinese sources and closer co-operation between Western and Chinese scholars....This article contains a translation of a chapter in the Qingtian County Gazetteer as an example of the information on immigration that can be found in this kind of Chinese local sources. Finally, the information is discussed and, despite some problems concerning the origin and reliability of the Chinese sources, they are still found to provide European researchers with valuable historical information on the Qingtian phenomenon in European immigration history."
Correspondence: M. Thunø, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Leifsgade 33, Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20309 Tribalat, Michèle. Immigration chronicle: the foreign population in metropolitan France. [Chronique de l'immigration: les populations d'origine étrangère en France métropolitaine.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1997. 163-219 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
An analysis of the resident foreign population in metropolitan France is presented, using data from the 1992 survey on geographical mobility and social assimilation and a number of official sources. The author examines such questions as the impact of immigration on the size and characteristics of the population over the course of the twentieth century, and the number of current French citizens with some foreign blood. Trends in immigration since World War II are described, focusing on the changes resulting from the legislation on migration adopted in 1974. The author also examines trends in refugee migration and the problems associated with the assimilation of immigrants into French society.
Correspondence: M. Tribalat, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20310 Zimmermann, Klaus F. European migration: push and pull. SELAPO Reprint, No. 4/95, 1995. 313-42 pp. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München: Munich, Germany. In Eng.
"Whereas pull migration [in Europe] has been seen as economically beneficial, there is concern that push migration will accelerate the employment crisis. This article qualifies this view by arguing that migration may erode institutional constraints....A review of empirical studies for Europe concludes that migration was largely beneficial in the past. New econometric investigations suggest that immigration from countries that are targeted for recruitment was strongly driven by business cycle effects (demand-pull) and chain migration (supply-push), but that the processes changed with the halt in recruitment in 1973."
Reprinted from the Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics 1994. World Bank, 1995.
Correspondence: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, SELAPO, Ludwigstraße 28 RG, 80539 Munich, Germany. Author's E-mail: Zimmermann@selapo.vwl.uni-muenchen.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

63:20311 Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Quiroga, Ricardo E.; Brea, Jorge A. Migration decisions, agrarian structure, and gender: the case of Ecuador. Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 30, No. 4, Jul 1996. 463-76 pp. Macomb, Illinois. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to estimate a migration model and to test several hypotheses concerning the decision to migrate in Ecuador. Special attention is given to the influence of agrarian structure and to gender differentials. In this manner, our aim is to incorporate into one empirical model several variables suggested in the literature as being important in migration decisions."
Correspondence: B. E. Bravo-Ureta, University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Storrs, CT 06269. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:20312 Brown, Lawrence A.; Sierra, Rodrigo. Frontier migration as a multi-stage phenomenon reflecting the interplay of macroforces and local conditions: the Ecuador Amazon. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 73, No. 3, Jul 1994. 267-88 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper considers frontier migration to the Ecuador Amazon as a multistage phenomenon, examining the entire migration stream from its origins in highland and coastal locales of Ecuador, to intermediate stops outside and within the Amazon, to final Amazon destinations. The approach is one where models pertaining to regional development, migration, and pioneer activity are treated as complementary to one another and meshed with a qualitative knowledge of place. It is shown that frontier settlement patterns reflect the composite of these models, a maturing space-economy, and the interaction of local characteristics with exogenous circumstances representing national and international contexts."
Correspondence: L. A. Brown, Ohio State University, Department of Geography, Columbus, OH 43210-1361. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:20313 Brown, Lawrence A.; Mandel, Jennifer L.; Lawson, Victoria A. The uprooting of people, migration, and labor force experiences: Ecuador 1982 and 1990. Journal für Entwicklungspolitik, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1995. 331-48 pp. Frankfurt, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"Moving beyond traditional theories of migration, this paper considers how actual economic, socio-political, and natural events impacted uprooting of people in Ecuador since the 1950s. Major eras of economic growth and economic devolution are represented by Census data for 1982 and 1990. Through these, individual labor force experiences of migrants and stayers, and gender differentials within each group, are considered. Uprooting of people persists forty to fifty years after events initiating its occurrence, and differentially impacts each population group. Gender differentials are noticeably significant among occupational sectors of employment, less so for economic sectors. Predominance and continual growth of informal activities also is apparent, a trend which impacts women more strongly."
Correspondence: L. A. Brown, Ohio State University, Department of Geography, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1361. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20314 Chan, Kam Wing; Yang, Yunyan. Inter-provincial migration in China in the post-1949 era: types, spatial patterns, and comparisons. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 96-14, 1996. 23, [10] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"The main objective of this paper is to document the spatial, and, to a less extent, temporal patterns of inter-provincial migration (IPM) in China in the last 40 plus years....Our project...involves first generating a set of IPM estimates for the pre-1982 period....The estimates are then used to produce a series of tables and maps showing net migration or flows in different times. Our research on IPM points to two different situations in the reform and pre-reform eras. Taking into account migratory patterns observed elsewhere, the author makes some broad generalizations about the two different migration regimes in the post-1949 period and hypothesizes as to their underlying factors. [The authors hope] to contribute to a better understanding and theorization of Chinese migration through a study of regional population change over a long period of time."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Author's E-mail: kwchan@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20315 de Santiago Hernando, Rafael. Migration, income, and unemployment: a model for the Spanish economy. [Migraciones, salarios y desempleo: un modelo para la economía española.] Economía, No. 16, ISBN 84-7762-406-2. 1994. 163 pp. Universidad de Valladolid, Secretariado de Publicaciones: Valladolid, Spain. In Spa.
This is an analysis of the relations among interregional migration, income, and unemployment in Spain. The author uses official data for the period 1946-1986 to construct a model of these relations, and uses it to present estimates of what employment opportunities need to be created in specific regions in order to reduce the level of migration.
Correspondence: Universidad de Valladolid, Plaza de Santa Cruz 8, 47002 Valladolid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20316 Heleniak, Timothy. Internal migration in Russia during the economic transition. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, Vol. 38, No. 2, Feb 1997. 81-104 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"A World Bank demographer analyzes patterns of migration among Russia's regions from shortly before the break-up of the Soviet Union and the onset of economic reforms through the first five years of independence. The analysis focuses on two large migration streams currently occurring in Russia--the return migration of Russians, as well as Russian speakers, to Russia from the other republics of the former Soviet Union and massive out-migration from the Russian North to the western and southern portions of the country. These migration streams are assessed in terms of both their impacts on current population numbers in Russia's regions and as a basis for projections of population change into the early 21st century."
Correspondence: T. Heleniak, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:20317 Japan. Statistics Bureau (Tokyo, Japan). Time series report on the internal migration in Japan derived from the basic resident registers, 1954-1995. Jan 1997. 368 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
This report contains time series data on internal migration in Japan for the period 1954-1995. The data are from the basic resident registers maintained by all municipalities.
Correspondence: Statistics Bureau, Management and Coordination Agency, 19-1 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20318 Ma, Z.; Liaw, K.-L.; Zeng, Y. Migration in the urban-rural hierarchy of China: insights from the microdata of the 1987 National Survey. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 29, No. 4, Apr 1997. 707-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Microdata from the 1987 National Population Survey are used to analyze internal migration in China in the 1980s. The focus is on the impact of migration policies on rural-urban migration. "There are two main findings. First, although the migration policy resulted in a very low migration level and systematic distortions in migration schedules, its encouragement of downward migrations was very ineffective, whereas its control on rural-to-urban migrations was partially weakened by the strong upward aspirations of rural families awakened by recent economic reform. Consequently, net in-migration contributed substantially to the growth both of city and of town populations. Second, although the level of education had a strong positive effect on the migration propensities both of males and of females in general, it had a strong negative effect on the migration propensities of females at the time of marriage, a finding which suggests that the families at subsistence income level tended to marry their daughters to grooms in other communities in order to reduce the risk of familial income shortfalls."
Correspondence: Z. Ma, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Division of Social Science, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. E-mail: sojohnma@usthk.ust.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:20319 Ma, Zhongdong; Liaw, Kao-Lee. Explaining hierarchical and interprovincial migrations of Chinese young adults by personal factors and place attributes: a nested logit analysis. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1997. 217-39 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper uses a two-level nested logit model to explain the inter-stratum (city, town and rural county) and interprovincial migration behaviors of the young adults (aged 17-29) in China during a three-year period (1985-87), based on the micro data of the 1987 National Population Survey. The migration propensity of each person is represented by a departure probability and a destination choice probability. These probabilities are then expressed as functions of personal factors and place attributes. The main findings are that personal factors are of paramount importance in explaining the departure behaviors, and that both departure and destination behaviors responded to market forces in a sensible way, despite government control on territorial movements."
Correspondence: Z. Ma, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Division of Social Science, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20320 Newbold, K. Bruce. Determinants of elderly interstate migration in the United States, 1985-1990. Research on Aging, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec 1996. 451-76 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article applies a three-level nested logit model to the microdata of the 1990 U.S. census to explain the 1985 to 1990 return and onward interstate migration patterns of the elderly aged 65+ by personal factors and state attributes. The elderly were split into three groups defined by age: 65 to 69, 70 to 74, and 75+. Analysis reveals that both return and onward migrants were sensitive to amenity factors, racial similarity, and the distance decay effect, although return migrants were less affected by the distance decay effect than onward migrants. The motivations for a return or onward migration were also observed to vary with respect to age groups, with amenity effects more important for the young elderly. Several personal characteristics also were found to systematically influence the migration choice process, including level of education and marital status."
Correspondence: K. B. Newbold, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, 220 Davenport Hall, MC-150, 607 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20321 Newbold, K. Bruce. The ghettoization of Quebec: interprovincial migration and its demographic effects. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1996. 1-21 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Drawing upon the 1991 Statistics Canada Public Use Micro File (PUMF), this paper describes the nature of the interprovincial migration flows originating within Quebec and arriving in Quebec between 1986 and 1991. Both the overall population and specific personal attributes such as level of education, mother tongue and age are considered in order to determine the demographic impacts of migration on the province of Quebec. Results suggest that migration flows into and out of the province continue a trend observed between 1976-81 and 1981-86, with an overall loss of population through migration. English speaking migrants represented a large proportion of the outmigrants and a small proportion of the inmigrants to Quebec. Quebec must rely upon return migrants as a source of population growth."
Correspondence: K. B. Newbold, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, 607 S. Mathews, 220 Davenport Hall, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20322 Papadakis, Georgios; Stillwell, John. Greece: population change components and internal migration. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 95/1, 1995. 23 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"Annual national and sub-national population estimates for Greece since 1981 have been adjusted recently by the National Statistical Service of Greece to take account of the results of the 1991 Census of Population. The rebased population counts have been used in this paper, together with births and deaths data to generate a time series of net migration estimates for the...regions of Greece. These estimates present a very different picture of net migration patterns to that published by Eurostat during the 1980s. Time series of natural change and net migration rates for 1980-92 are outlined and the importance of the net migration component in explaining regional population growth in Greece is quantified. Published migration data from the 1991 Census is not yet available, so the paper contains an analysis of internal migration in Greece using data from the 1981 Census."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20323 Schwarze, Johannes; Büchel, Felix. Migrations from East to West Germany. [Wanderungen von Ost- nach Westdeutschland.] Wochenbericht des Deutschen Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung, Vol. 61, No. 9, 1994. 128-32 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The number of relocations from East to West Germany has been steadily decreasing since 1990. The authors posit that this decline is a result of the poor employment conditions now prevailing in West Germany. They indicate that the potential for migration is still high: one quarter of adult East Germans would consider moving to West Germany. The fact that young, qualified persons are the most prone to leave the region should be cause for concern. The main factor in this decision is not the current situation, but expectations for the future. Data on migration potential are drawn mainly from annual socioeconomic panel surveys conducted in West Germany since 1984 and in East Germany since 1990; in 1993, 6,500 private households comprising over 13,000 individuals were surveyed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

No citations in this issue.

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

63:20324 Waldorf, Brigitte S. Assimilation and attachment in the context of international migration: the case of guestworkers in Germany. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 73, No. 3, Jul 1994. 241-66 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"Immigrants' attachments to home and their assimilation into the host society have been identified as major factors influencing international return migration. This paper provides an empirical analysis of the determinants of attachment and assimilation, with a special focus on the impact of duration of stay. Using survey data on guestworkers in West Germany in 1984 and 1989, the study finds that assimilation increases at a decreasing rate as the duration of stay is extended. The relationship between attachment and length of stay is less strong, but shows a general trend of decreasing attachment levels as guestworkers prolong their stay in Germany. The resulting trends for return migration are characterized by an overall decline in the propensity to return as the duration of stay is extended. However, the rate of decline varies by gender, marital status, and nationality. Overall, the results allude to the importance of distinguishing between short term and long term immigrants."
Correspondence: B. S. Waldorf, Indiana University, Department of Geography, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

63:20325 Afsar, Rita. Internal migration and women: an insight into causes, consequences and policy implications. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1994. 217-43 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
Data from a survey carried out by the author are used to analyze aspects of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh. The survey comprised 710 migrants and nonmigrants living in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The focus of the analysis is on the motives and conditions affecting the migration of both men and women. The author explores how women migrants cope with the demands and stresses of urban living in unfavorable socioeconomic conditions, and how migration affects the well-being of migrants and their families. Policy implications are also examined.
Correspondence: R. Afsar, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Adamjee Court, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:20326 Croes, M. M.; van Huis, L. T. Big-city migration in historical perspective. [Grootstedelijke migratie in historisch perspectief.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 1, Jan 1997. 13-5 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The migration flows to and from the four largest Dutch municipalities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht) show a number of similarities. During the past few decades internal migration has been characterized by a move away from the large cities, while the much smaller international migration flow had an opposite direction. This has resulted in a net decrease of the total population in the largest cities."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20327 Croes, M. M.; van Huis, L. T. Migration to and from sections of Rotterdam. [Migratiestromen van en naar Rotterdamse wijken.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 1, Jan 1997. 16-20 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The number of people that move to, from or within large cities is, in a relative sense, far greater than the corresponding figure for the other parts of the Netherlands. Big city mobility concerns mostly internal migration. The 1995 migration statistics on sections of Rotterdam show dissimilarities between the different sections of the city with respect to composition and intensity of population flows. This article focuses on the differences between two sections of Rotterdam."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20328 Cusa, Ana T. Rural-urban migration in Tucumán: its impact on the deterioration of the environment. [Migración rural-urbana en Tucumán: su repercusión en el deterioro ambiental.] Revista Geográfica, No. 120, Jul-Dec 1994. 119-31 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author looks at rural-urban migration in Latin America as a whole, and in Argentina and the province of Tucumán in particular. She describes the negative effect this migration has had on the Argentine city of San Miguel de Tucumán, in that it has given rise to the growth of urban poverty and slum areas.
Correspondence: A. T. Cusa, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Instituto de Estudios Geográficos, Ayacucho 491, 4000 San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).


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