Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce. Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate.
Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.
63:20222 Adler, Marina A. Social
change and declines in marriage and fertility in Eastern Germany.
Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 1, Feb 1997. 37-49 pp.
Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Between 1989 and 1994, the birth rate in Eastern Germany (the former German Democratic Republic) fell from 12.0 to 5.1 per 1,000, while fertility in the West remained stable at around 11.0 per 1,000. In addition, marriage rates in the East have been cut in half. The social and economic conditions surrounding marriage and parenthood have changed significantly since 1989 in postsocialist East Germany (e.g., higher unemployment and less generous family policies). Using a gender perspective, I argue that in the insecure economic times following German unification, East German women are likely to regard the responsibility of getting married and raising children as a risky, long-term commitment they are reluctant to enter. Evidence from various data sources shows that since 1989 changes in the nature of employment and reductions in state support for family leave, child care, and abortion have contributed to declining marriage and birth rates in the new German states."
Correspondence: M. A. Adler, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Department of Sociology, Room 355, Academic IV, Baltimore, MD 21250. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20223 Blossfeld, Hans-Peter.
The new role of women: family formation in modern societies.
Social Inequality Series, ISBN 0-8133-2306-1. LC 94-46250. 1995. xiv,
266 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This collective work examines the independence hypothesis of Gary Becker. The hypothesis suggests that the opportunity costs of marriage and motherhood are often prohibitively high for educated women, since their (potential) earnings are forgone in the context of families with a traditional sex-based division of labor. Following a general introduction, country-specific studies are presented on Sweden, West Germany, France, the Netherlands, Great Britain, the United States, Italy, Spain, and Hungary. Some consideration is also given to the family patterns of men in West Germany. Evidence is presented that "educational investments may not always depress rates of family formation because there is much variability within the modern world in the extent to which these investments have an economic payoff within the family and are therefore attractive to women intending to marry and have children. Although highly educated women in all countries will likely postpone marriage while still in school, it is only in `traditional' countries (in which work and family cannot be readily combined) that...women [may] continue to delay marriage and motherhood even during the post-schooling period."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
63:20224 Bouckaert, Andre; Boulanger,
Bruno. Marriage: distance between birthplaces and age
difference between mates. Human Biology, Vol. 69, No. 2, Apr 1997.
241-51 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"The methodology of potential mate analysis can be used to obtain information about the determinants of marriage. This study investigates the influence of the distance between birthplaces and of age difference between mates [in Belgium]. We use a new method of potential mate analysis that involves a sample of potential mates simulated from a sequence of actual mates. The differences between actual and potential mates are investigated using a logistic model and by direct comparison of distributions. The logistic model gives a poor fit. The comparison of distributions reveals no significant difference in distance between birth places for actual and potential mates or, at any rate, no difference large enough to be demonstrated by our small sample. A marked difference is observed for marriages in which the male is slightly older. The distance between birthplaces in our sample is shorter than in Great Britain."
Correspondence: A. Bouckaert, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Statistique, 72 avenue Mounier, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20225 Bracher, Michael; Santow,
Gigi. Economic independence and union formation in
Sweden. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 116, ISBN
91-7820-103-9. Jan 1997. 41 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit:
Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The view that economic independence weakens women's incentive to marry has probably been the most influential, although it has been subjected to few rigorous empirical tests with individual-level data. In the present paper we examine the predictors of forming a first cohabiting union, of progressing from this union to marriage, and of marrying without previously cohabiting, by applying hazard regression to event-history data from the 1992 Swedish Family Survey, supplemented by earnings data extracted from the national taxation register. We test a battery of measures that reflect people's past, current, and potential attachment to the labor market. We find that the correlates of union formation for women are largely indistinguishable from the correlates of union formation for men, and that far from being less likely than other women to cohabit or to marry, women with a greater degree of economic self-sufficiency are generally more likely to do so."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20226 Corijn, Martine.
Unmarried cohabitation in Flanders in a European context.
[Ongehuwd samenwonen in Vlaanderen in Europees perspectief.] Bevolking
en Gezin, No. 2, 1994. 59-107 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum.
"The fifth Family and Fertility Survey (NEGO V) offers a rich data source for a picture of unmarried cohabitation in Flanders. The prevalence of unmarried cohabitation is growing but still at a low level. As such, unmarried cohabitation cannot fully compensate for the declining marriage rates. The duration of unmarried cohabitation varies strongly and depends on the kind of cohabitation. Most cohabitants ultimately expect to marry. Preferences for unmarried cohabitation exceed strongly the actual prevalence and the experience with it....Some Flemish data are put in a European context."
Correspondence: M. Corijn, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20227 Cready, Cynthia M.; Fossett, Mark A.;
Kiecolt, K. Jill. Mate availability and African American
family structure in the U.S. nonmetropolitan South, 1960-1990.
Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 1, Feb 1997. 192-201
pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We examine structural determinants of African American marriage and family formation for a sample of nonmetropolitan counties in the U.S. South over three decades. As predicted, higher sex ratios are associated with a higher prevalence of marriage for women, a higher prevalence of husband-wife families, higher percentages of children living in husband-wife families, and higher percentages of marital births. Men's socioeconomic opportunities and status have positive effects on these variables, whereas women's socioeconomic opportunities and status, public assistance levels, and community size have negative effects. Finally, mate availability has different effects on the prevalence of marriage for women and men. Our results show that recent changes in African American family patterns are occurring in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan settings and that the same structural factors operate in similar ways in both contexts."
Correspondence: C. M. Cready, Texas A&M University, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843. E-mail: email@example.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20228 Dyson-Hudson, Rada; Meekers,
Dominique; Dyson-Hudson, Neville. Women and "children
of the dancing ground" in Turkana society: an ethno-demographic
analysis of marital and non-marital unions. Population Research
Institute Working Paper in African Demography, No. AD96-01, Feb 1996.
44,  pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research
Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"It is fairly widely recognized that in many patrilineal African societies, men as well as women need to be married before being considered full and mature members of society....Marriage has important symbolic value because it helps define person-hood...even though the consequences of not marrying vary from society to society, as does the prevalence of informal non-marital unions. This paper uses genealogical and ethnographic data on South Turkana women [in Kenya] to address the dynamics and negotiability of both conjugal and non-conjugal union formation, and the implications for women and children."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20229 Festy, Patrick. Analysis
of the formation and dissolution of couples. [Analyse de la
formation et de la dissolution des couples.] In: Demografia: analisi e
sintesi. Cause e conseguenze dei processi demografici, edited by
Graziella Caselli. Apr 1996. 1-24 pp. Università degli Studi di
Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In
Some methodological aspects of the quantitative analysis of nuptiality are explored in this chapter. This involves analysis of the frequency and timing of events such as marriage or the formation of unions; divorce, widowhood, or separation; and remarriage or formation of further marital unions. The author concludes that the methodological aspects of the study of nuptiality are relevant to the study of many other aspects of population dynamics, such as employment and health, rather than to purely demographic events such as births and deaths. The relevance of this approach to other disciplines, such as sociology, economics, and epidemiology, is noted. The geographical focus is on Europe and particularly on France.
Correspondence: P. Festy, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20230 Goodkind, Daniel. The
Vietnamese double marriage squeeze. International Migration
Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring 1997. 108-27 pp. Staten Island, New
York. In Eng.
The impact of differences in the size of the male and female Vietnamese population at home and abroad on both marriage patterns and the control of structural resources is explored. "The unique dual case study presented here illuminates the state political institutions and other contextual conditions under which both dyadically disadvantaged men and women have been unable to garner...structural resources. Young women in Vietnam during the 1970s and 1980s faced a severe deficit of male partners due to population growth, war, and excess male migration. At the other end of the Vietnamese diaspora, overseas Vietnamese men during the 1980s and 1990s have faced an even greater shortage of Vietnamese women. In each area, the sex in surplus has not only been forced to delay or [forgo] marriage, but has also lost structural power."
Correspondence: D. Goodkind, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20231 Jones, Gavin W.
Modernization and divorce: contrasting trends in Islamic Southeast
Asia and the West. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No.
1, Mar 1997. 95-114, 224, 226 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum.
in Fre; Spa.
The author investigates differences in divorce rates in Western countries and in Southeast Asia. "First, the general divorce rate trends...are elucidated using more-refined measures. Then the likely causes of the separate trends in Western countries and in Islamic Southeast Asia are examined, to determine whether there is a unified explanation for the trends that is consistent with broader theories about divorce, or whether the idiosyncratic features of the Malay-Muslim and Western settings restrict us to ad hoc interpretations of the trends."
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, Demography Programme, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20232 Klein, Thomas. Age
difference between spouses. A critical discussion of theoretical
approaches in family sociology. [Der Altersunterschied zwischen
Ehepartnern. Eine kritische Diskussion familiensoziologischer
Theorieansätze.] Zeitschrift für
Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1996. 281-302 pp.
Munich, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article provides a critical discussion of the theoretical approaches of family sociology to an explanation of age difference between marriage partners. A precise theoretical discussion suggests that the factor age in the choice of a partner is strongly dependent upon marital opportunity. An examination of various theoretical models and the available empirical data supports in particular the contention that the stable difference in mean age between marital partners has astonishingly little to do with social norms and in no way represents the result of normative constraints."
Correspondence: T. Klein, Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Soziologie, Sandgasse 9, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20233 Murphy, Mike; Glaser, Karen; Grundy,
Emily. Marital status and long-term illness in Great
Britain. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 1, Feb
1997. 156-64 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study investigates the relationship between health and marital status, focusing particularly on older persons, using data on reported long-term illness rates from the Sample of Anonymised Records (SARs) drawn from the British census. Until about age 70, long-term illness rates are generally lowest for those in first marriage, followed by the remarried, with intermediate values for the widowed and divorced, and highest for the single. Beyond age 75 for both sexes, single people in the private household population report the lowest illness rates, but when the institutionalized population is included, single people at older ages no longer appear to be the healthiest group. This is because at older ages increasingly high proportions of those with long-term illness are in institutions, disproportionately so for single people, explaining why such crossovers have been found in analyses of private household populations. The health status of cohabitors is generally closer to the married than to other groups for both sexes."
Correspondence: M. Murphy, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20234 Rabusic, Ladislav. On
marriage and family trends in the Czech Republic in the mid-1990s.
Sociální Studia, No. 1, 1996. 29-42 pp. Brno, Czech
Republic. In Eng.
"The paper discusses latest trends in marriage and family behaviour in the Czech Republic. These trends show profound changes as compared with the situation before 1989. It is argued that decrease of marriage rate and fertility rate, and gradual increase of the mean age at first marriage and increase of illegitimacy rate are normal characteristics of modern democratic societies."
Correspondence: L. Rabusic, Masaryk University, School of Social Studies, Department of Social Policy and Social Work, 660 88 Brno, Czech Republic. E-mail: email@example.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20235 Roy, Parimal; Hamilton, Ian.
Interethnic marriage: identifying the second generation in
Australia. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring
1997. 128-42 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Studies in Australia show that an increasing proportion of the population have ancestors from more than one country. Evidence regarding differences in the marriage patterns of first and second generation migrants has been restricted in scope as published marriage registration data includes only birthplace of partners. Marriage registration records include information about the birthplace of parents of partners, but is available only through specially produced tabulations. Changes in the census for 1986 and 1991 make it possible to identify the second generation in households, and this article examines the use of census data as an alternative to marriage registration records in tracing changes in intermarriage patterns and differences between urban and rural areas."
Correspondence: P. Roy, Monash University, Gippsland Campus, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20236 Salvat, Montserrat; Vigo, Marta;
Macbeth, Helen; Bertranpetit, Jaume. Seasonality of
marriages in Spanish and French parishes in the Cerdanya Valley,
Eastern Pyrenees. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 1,
Jan 1997. 51-62 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The Cerdanya valley in the eastern Pyrenees has a physical unity into which a political frontier has been imposed to divide it. The social and cultural repercussions of this Franco-Spanish border have created obstacles to marriage which are not due to topography. Choice of month of marriage is under cultural control and the study of seasonality in marriages recorded in the registers of all the Cerdan parishes on both sides of the border demonstrated differences over time and between French and Spanish sectors. It is suggested that these changes demonstrate the process of distancing of the two populations. Cluster and correspondence analysis showed progressive differentiation of the seasonality patterns of the French and Spanish Cerdans despite the geographic unity of the valley. Sociocultural factors are presumed responsible."
Correspondence: M. Salvat, Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Biologia, Laboratori d'Anthropologia, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20237 van Poppel, Frans.
Family breakdown in nineteenth-century Netherlands: divorcing
couples in The Hague. History of the Family, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1997.
49-72 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
This is an analysis of divorce trends in the Netherlands in the second half of the nineteenth century. "Use was made of a case-control research design in which the social characteristics of all marriages which ended in divorce were compared with those of a random sample from the marriages which ended in widowhood. The author analyzed a group of 2,300 marriages contracted in The Hague from their inception until their dissolution by death or divorce. All migrants were followed to their new place of residence. Multivariate (proportional hazards) analysis showed that the highest probability of divorce was found among persons who had already gone through a divorce before. Other factors related to divorce were high mobility, low ages at marriage, and large age and religious differences between spouses. Higher social classes had relatively high divorce risks."
Correspondence: F. van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
63:20238 Whittington, Leslie A.; Alm,
James. 'Til death or taxes do us part: the effect of
income taxation on divorce. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 32,
No. 2, Spring 1997. 388-412 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The effect of taxes on divorce has not been considered in previous empirical work on divorce. In this paper we examine the impact of the individual income tax on the likelihood of divorce. Using data from the [U.S.] Panel Study on Income Dynamics, we estimate a discrete-time hazard model of the probability of divorce from the first marriage. We find that couples respond to tax incentives in their decision to divorce, although these responses are typically small. We also estimate the impact of taxes on the separate divorce decisions of men and women. These results indicate that women clearly respond to tax incentives in their divorce decisions; the results for men are not always statistically significant."
Correspondence: L. A. Whittington, Georgetown University, Graduate Public Policy Program, 3600 North Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, D.C. 20007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).
Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control.
63:20239 Baanders, Arianne N.
Leave or linger: responses to economic conditions. [Uitvliegen
of uitstellen: reacties op het economische klimaat.] Bevolking en
Gezin, No. 1, 1995. 1-26 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in
"In this article changes in the probability of leaving the parental home [in the Netherlands] during the 1980's were studied by comparing three different calendar years....Contrary to our expectations, it was found that the probability of leaving home increased between 1981 and 1989. Part of this increase could be attributed to the `flight into education' by an increasing number of adolescents. Surprisingly, those unemployed showed a remarkable increase in the tendency to leave home. However, instead of awaiting better times, homeleavers seemed to respond to restricted opportunities by adjusting living arrangements and housing accommodations. It is suggested that for some young adults other factors than the situation context that is studied here are significant in the transition to independent living."
Correspondence: A. N. Baanders, Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen, Vakgroep Huishoudstudies, Ritzema Bosweg 32a, 6703 AZ Wageningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20240 Bouchard, Gérard.
Family reproduction in new rural areas: outline of a North American
model. Canadian Historical Review, Vol. 75, No. 4, Dec 1994.
475-510 pp. North York, Canada. In Eng.
"This [is a] comparative overview of family reproduction during periods of settlement [from the seventeenth century onward] in the agricultural regions of Quebec, English Canada, and the United States....[with] two stated objectives: to identify the elements of the most representative reproduction model of `frontier' societies that it is possible to construct, assuming that such a model can be constructed, and to discredit a long-standing Quebec stereotype by qualifying the discourse of difference in at least one respect. The first section of this article is devoted to presenting the model as constructed from data pertaining to the Saguenay and other regions of Quebec. In two subsequent sections, this model is confronted with data collected in other Canadian provinces and in the United States."
Correspondence: G. Bouchard, Université du Quebec, Centre Interuniversitaire SOREP, 555 Boulevard de l'Université, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
63:20241 Charbit, Yves; Petit,
Véronique. Migration and family roles: demographic
measurement and cultural contexts. [Migrations et rôles
familiaux: mesure démographique et contextes culturels.] Revue
Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1996.
25-43 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Demographers explain the fact that women are heads of households in the countries of origin by the shortage of men created by labour migration (the so-called sex-ratio argument). Empirical testing using census or survey data pertaining to a large number of countries proves disappointing. No significant statistical correlation can be established between sex ratios and various characteristics of the households. In order to understand the failure of the methodology used, one must shift from demography to the sociology of migrations and take into account the cultural contexts, and more specifically roles and statuses of women, as is shown in the case of the Caribbean and of the Dogon, one of the ethnic groups in Mali."
Correspondence: Y. Charbit, Université de Paris V, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Populations Africaines et Asiatiques, 12 rue Cujas, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20242 Chen, Jieming; Wang, Feng.
Generations in urban China: cohort-related economic and attitudinal
differences in a Chinese city. In: Seminar on intergenerational
economic relations and demographic change: papers. . 1-24, 
pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP],
Commitee on Economic Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper, we explore the presence of generational differences in economic inequalities and values differentials in contemporary urban China. Our emphases are on the economic position of the elderly and attitudinal differences regarding intergenerational relations. The purpose of the study is to see whether the turbulent history of the recent past in China has created a cleavage between different generations in the distribution of economic resources and in value orientations regarding attitudes toward intergenerational relations and social support for the elderly. We are interested to learn whether the differences between generations, if any, have or potentially [will] have detrimental effects on the well-being of urban China's older population."
Correspondence: F. Wang, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20243 Chrominska, Maria. The
dwelling conditions and procreative behaviours (a causal study on the
example of individual farmers). Polish Population Review, No. 9,
1996. 45-74 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The objective of the research was to identify relationships between the size of the dwelling place as defined by the number of its rooms and area, on one hand, and the parity attained in families of individual farmers who entered into marriages in the years 1926-84, on the other. The source material was derived from a sampling questionnaire survey conducted [in Poland] among 1,621 families of individual farmers keeping agricultural accountancy as on 1 January 1985....The size of the dwelling expressed by its average size in the period from the day of the marriage to the birth of the last child and at the moment of observation is more significant for explaining the parity of families than the size of the dwelling in the first year following the marriage."
Correspondence: M. Chrominska, University of Economics, Family Research Center, Al. Niepodleglosci 10, 60-967 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20244 Crommentuijn, Léon E.
M. Regional household differentials: structures and
processes. PDOD Publication, Series A, ISBN 90-5170-416-X. 1997.
[ix], 139 pp. Thesis Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with
sum. in Dut.
This study is about the problems of improving regional household projections in the Netherlands, and it aims "to bridge the gap between demographic analysis and demographic forecasting with respect to regional household structures and processes." The author shows that "regional differences in age structure are important in explaining differences in household structure, while regional differences in socio-economic structure are important in explaining differences in household processes. These findings are important for possible further advancements in household projection models. The concept of the escalator region is introduced in order to explain the selectivity in migration. An escalator region is an ideal location for people to improve their chances of social advancement. The Randstad region in the Netherlands can be considered an escalator region. People migrate to this region at a younger age, experience social mobility there, and then move away at an older age."
Correspondence: Thesis Publishers, Prinseneiland 305, 1013 LP Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20245 Csonka, Yvon. To start a
family and become a parent. [Fonder une famille, devenir parent.]
Démos, No. 1/97, Jan 1997. 27 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik:
Bern, Switzerland. In Fre.
This analysis of current trends in families and households in Switzerland is based on data from a survey on the family. The survey was carried out in 1994-1995 by the Federal Statistical Office. Topics discussed include leaving the parental home and setting up a household with a partner; the birth of the first child; the timing of family formation; desired family size; factors for and against having a new baby; and what is known and unknown about the family.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20246 Curran, Sara.
Intra-household exchange relations: explanations for gender
differentials in education and migration outcomes in Thailand.
Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 96-12, 1996. 45,
 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center:
Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle,
Washington. In Eng.
"This study is an analysis of the simultaneous choices of education and migration for young adults in a rural Thai setting. The primary focus is upon the role of both gender and sibling order as they characterize the most important elements of intra-household relations in this context. The study develops a theoretical perspective about exchange relations and the risk environment surrounding decision making to describe the dynamics of internal household relations and to predict education and migration outcomes. Results show that one of the sources of the paradox of women's status in Thailand is the exchange relations between daughters and parents as they are conditioned by the risks [of] farming and labor."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: S. Curran, University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20247 Deboosere, Patriek.
Household status of individuals according to the censuses of 1981
and 1991. [De huishoudenspositie in de volkstellingen van 1981 en
1991.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1994. 1-28 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In
Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes the household status of individuals in Belgium using census data for the period 1981-1991. "The census results, based on legal domiciles, are equally compared to those provided by surveys that come closer to the sociological rather than the legal reality. For this the NEGO V-survey for Flanders and Brussels was used."
Correspondence: P. Deboosere, VUB, Centrum voor Sociologie, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Gérard-François. The sociology of the family
in the European Union. [La sociologie de la famille dans l'Union
européenne.] Ethique, Vol. 21, No. 3, Mar 1996. 59-75 pp. Paris,
France. In Fre.
The author reviews factors affecting the family in the countries of the European Union. Topics examined include changes in marriage patterns, nuptiality, births outside of marriage, the devaluation of marriage, fertility and family policy, the decline in the number of large families, and household characteristics. He concludes that, despite the differences that exist among the countries concerned, the basic aspiration among individuals to be part of a family is almost universal.
Correspondence: G.-F. Dumont, Université de Paris-Sorbonne, Institut de Démographie Politique, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20249 Fratczak, Ewa. Family
and fertility careers of Polish females: a semi-parametric and life
table approach. Polish Population Review, No. 9, 1996. 7-32 pp.
Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"In this paper an evaluation has been made using the semi-parametric analysis and life table method of changes in the process of formation and dissolution of families in Poland, and changes in fertility careers by cohorts. An answer was sought to the following questions: What are the factors significantly determining the process studied? What differences appear between cohorts?"
Correspondence: E. Fratczak, Warsaw School of Economics, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20250 Glick, Jennifer E.; Bean, Frank D.;
Van Hook, Jennifer V. W. Immigration and changing patterns
of extended family household structure in the United States:
1970-1990. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 1, Feb
1997. 177-91 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"The long-term downward trend in the percentage of extended family households in the U.S. came to a halt during the 1980s, a change that coincided with a growing gap between immigrants and natives in the percentages of households adopting extended family structures. Using 1970, 1980, and 1990 census data, this research assesses the degree to which changes in the volume and composition of immigration have contributed both to the increase in the proportion of the U.S. population residing in extended family households and to the widening gap between immigrants and natives. Our results demonstrate that immigration explains only a little of the total increase in extended living arrangements in the total population, but that the increasing differential between immigrants and natives during the 1980s resulted from increases in horizontally extended households among immigrants. Mexican, Guatemalan, and Salvadoran immigrants accounted for most of this increase, primarily because of increases in the proportion of young, single adults living with relatives and increases in poverty rates among immigrants from these countries."
Correspondence: J. E. Glick, University of Texas, Population Research Center, Main 1800 Building, Austin, TX 78712-1088. E-mail: email@example.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20251 Hertrich, Véronique.
Continuity and change in rural Africa: family dynamics among the
Bwa of Mali. [Permanences et changements de l'Afrique rurale:
dynamiques familiales chez les Bwa du Mali.] Les Etudes du CEPED, No.
14, ISBN 2-87762-101-4. 1996. xxii, 548 pp. Centre Français sur
la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In
Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is a study of demographic and family trends in a rural African population, using data from eight villages in Mali inhabited by people from the Bwa ethnic group, where the demographic transition is not complete and the population has been growing rapidly due to lowered mortality and continued high fertility. The author notes changes in marriage patterns and family structures and the beginning of a trend toward individual control of nuptiality. There are chapters on background information and methodology, changes in infant mortality and fertility, migration, age at marriage and length of union, family control over the formation of couples, the premarital period, polygamy, divorce, and family structures. The author concludes that, even in this traditional society, new family dynamics are emerging that are affecting the relationships between generations and the possibility for couples to control their marital lives.
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20252 Keilman, Nico.
Households, families and housing. In: Demografia: analisi e
sintesi. Cause e conseguenze dei processi demografici, edited by
Graziella Caselli. Apr 1996. 25-50 pp. Università degli Studi di
Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In
The aim of this chapter is to give a broad overview of trends in family and household development in Europe. The author first discusses some concepts and definitions covering households, families, consensual unions, children, one-parent families, and reconstituted families. He then addresses issues surrounding the measurement of family and household development. "The strengths and weaknesses of various data sources often used to map household and family developments are discussed....The main trends in family and household developments in Europe after World War II are summarized....Finally, a short review is given of the consequences of these developments for housing...."
Correspondence: N. Keilman, Statistics Norway, P.O. Box 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20253 Laferrère, Anne.
The use of housing inheritance: an empirical analysis on French
data. In: Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and
demographic change: papers. . 1-25 pp. International Union for
the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic
Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author investigates determinants of housing inheritance in France. "The probability to receive housing transfers is a function of the social class and wealth of parents, the number of siblings and the timing of the death. Investment housing is inherited by the children of the self-employed. Farmers keep their parents' home, it is less likely to be kept if it comes late in life, households with children keep the second home....Among the inheriting households 33 percent sold the property, 40 percent kept it for living in as first or second home."
Correspondence: A. Laferrère, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 15 boulevard Gabriel Péri, 92245 Malakoff Cedex, France. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20254 Lee, Yean-Ju. Sibling
comparisons in adult children's support for rural elderly parents in
Korea. In: Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and
demographic change: papers. . 1-22,  pp. International Union
for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic
Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This study examines...hypotheses on children's support for their elderly parents. Particularly, the focus of this study is on exploring between-family differences as well as within-family differences, using data on financial exchanges between elderly parents in rural areas and all of their surviving children living elsewhere in [South] Korea....Descriptive statistics show that, contrary to the findings of previous studies in Asian countries, a smaller number of siblings does not necessarily increase children's probability of financial assistance to their elderly parents....We hypothesized that adult children's financial assistance to their elderly parents will be determined by their positions within the family, which are characterized by gender, birth order, and marital status. This hypothesis is confirmed....Family characteristics such as average education among children were found to have a significant effect, but controlling of those factors does not affect the findings on the patterns of within-family differences."
Correspondence: Y.-J. Lee, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. E-mail: email@example.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20255 Lillard, Lee A.; Willis, Robert
J. Intergenerational transfers in Malaysia. In:
Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change:
papers. . 1-27,  pp. International Union for the Scientific
Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic Demography:
Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with the timing of monetary and time transfers over the life cycle....The paper both verifies the life cycle patterns of transfer empirically and attempts to distinguish a number [of] behavioral motives for these life cycle patterns of transfer. The theoretical framework emphasizes the interplay between the roles of the family in determining its fertility, its investment in the human capital of its children, its use of intra-family transfers to smooth consumption over the life cycles of its members and across uncertain states..., and the role of transfers in determining the distribution of welfare among different generations within the family....The empirical work includes an analysis of the patterns of intergenerational transfers within families [in Malaysia]."
Correspondence: L. A. Lillard, RAND, Center for Aging Studies, Economics, and Statistics, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20256 Lillard, Lee A.; Willis, Robert
J. Motives for intergenerational transfers: evidence from
Malaysia. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 1, Feb 1997. 115-34 pp. Silver
Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper we discuss a number of hypotheses about motives for intergenerational transfers within the family. We use data on time and money transfers between generations in Malaysia, where there is neither Social Security nor Medicare, to explore these hypotheses empirically. We find evidence supporting the hypotheses that children are an important source of old age security and that old age security is, in part, children's repayment for parental investments in their education. This repayment is partly a function of the children's income and, in the case of females, a function of their spouse's income. We also find evidence supporting the hypotheses that parents and children engage in the exchange of time help for money."
Correspondence: L. A. Lillard, RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. E-mail: Lee_Lillard@rand.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20257 Roeske-Slomka, Iwona.
Differentiation of voivodeships in terms of the number of children
in the household. Polish Population Review, No. 9, 1996. 33-44 pp.
Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
The author attempts to answer the question, "Are the numbers of households [in Poland] with specific numbers of supported children (structures) in the total number of households similar or dissimilar in all voivodeships, and where [are these] identical (similar) or dramatically different?" Results indicate that "the most differentiated voivodeships, in terms of the number of children below 24 years of age supported by households, were voivodeships of north-eastern and south-eastern Poland. In the case of male heads of households the number of voivodeships making up areas of the highest differentiation regarding the number of children below 24 years is definitely bigger than for the female heads of households."
Correspondence: I. Roeske-Slomka, University of Economics, ul. Niepodleglosci 10, 60-967 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20258 Schulz, Reiner.
Reciprocity as a constitutive feature of social networks. [Die
Reziprozität als konstitutives Netzwerkmerkmal.] Zeitschrift
für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1996. 263-80
pp. Munich, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article attempts to establish the significance of reciprocity in family help and support networks, not by comparing aggregate values, such as exchange balances, but through an analysis of direct relationships at the individual level within specific networks. This discussion is preceded by an examination of the need for help on the part of the initial person and the viability of the family network. The analyses concur not only in confirming the importance of the closest family members as providers of assistance and support but also in demonstrating the significance of reciprocity in exchange networks." Data are from surveys of German women.
Correspondence: R. Schulz, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20259 Thailand. National Statistical Office
(Bangkok, Thailand). 1990 population and housing census.
Subject Report No. 6: household head characteristics and factors
affecting size of household. ISBN 974-236-312-9. . 47, 36
pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This is one in a series of reports analyzing data from the 1990 census of Thailand. This report analyzes the characteristics of male and female heads of household, and investigates the effects of demographic and socioeconomic factors on household size.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20260 Vu, Manh Loi.
Female-headed households in Vietnam. Seattle Population
Research Center Working Paper, No. 96-11, 1996. 37 pp. University of
Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington;
Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to study the determinants and consequences of female-headship in Vietnam. Using data from the 1991 Vietnam Life History Survey, the determinants and consequences of household headship in Vietnam [are analyzed]....The question of who can take the household head position should be examined in the context of: (1) the intra-familial power relationships, including both economic and decision-making power; (2) the life cycle of the household, and the process of its formation, evolution, and dissolution; (3) the household composition; and (4) the need of the household to adapt to constraints imposed by the local setting. While not all of these aspects can be examined with the available data, some of the most important indicators of these components of household headship [are] analyzed. In addition, household well-being [is] analyzed to clarify the relationship between poverty and female household headship."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20261 Zarnowska, Anna. Social
change, women, and the family in the era of industrialization: recent
Polish research. Journal of Family History, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr
1997. 191-203 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Within a framework provided by recent Polish scholarship on modernizing social change, women, and the family, the author of this article attempts to answer three basic questions: (a) Are changes in the structure of the family, resulting in the relative decline of the multigenerational family in favor of nontraditional family norms, including the nuclear family, directly related to industrialization? (b) Does the model of the urban family of the industrial era actually differ in a structural sense from the preindustrial urban family? and (c) Do changes in the economic function of the family as a consequence of industrialization lead to corresponding changes in the structure of the family, particularly in terms of gender roles? In analyzing the Polish case, the author points to a number of paradoxical, yet parallel, developments that challenge many conventional assumptions about the impact of modernization on the preindustrial, patriarchal model of the family."
Correspondence: A. Zarnowska, Warsaw University, Institute of History, Department of Social History, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20262 Zeng, Yi; Vaupel, James W.; Wang,
Zhenglian. A multi-dimensional model for projecting family
households--with an illustrative numerical application.
Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1997. 187-216 pp.
Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper develops a multi-dimensional model for projecting households and population. The model is constructed to ensure consistency between the demographic events occurring to males and females as well as to parents and children. The model permits projection of characteristics of households, their members, and population structure, using data that are usually available from conventional sources. Unlike the traditional headship-rate method, our model can closely link the projected households with demographic rates. The model includes both nuclear and three-generation households, so that it can be used for countries where nuclear households are dominant and for countries where nuclear and three-generation households are both important. The illustrative application to China, although brief, provides some policy-relevant information about future trends of Chinese household size, structure, and the age and sex distribution of the population, with a focus on the elderly."
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
63:20263 Zuo, Xuejin. Old-age
security in rural China: the role of the family and community. In:
Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change:
papers. . 1-7 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of
Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic Demography: Liège,
Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper will concentrate on the issue of old-age support in China's rural areas....Section 2 will investigate impacts of smaller family size on the familial support to the elderly parents, or to what extent the number of children will affect their financial and labor supports to their parents....Section 3 [has] a general description of community-run pension programs and other old-age security programs, with regard to the coverage and the significance of these programs and some relevant issues."
Correspondence: X. Zuo, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population and Development Studies, 622/7 Huaihai Zhong Lu, Shanghai 200020, China. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).