Volume 63 - Number 2 - Summer 1997

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration. Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects.

No citations in this issue.

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration.

63:20036 Brändström, Anders; Tedebrand, Lars-Göran. Swedish urban demography during industrialization. Report from the Demographic Data Base, No. 10, ISBN 91-7191-114-6. 1995. 333 pp. Umeå University, Demographic Data Base: Umeå, Sweden. In Eng.
"This anthology presents contributions to an international conference on urban demography in Sweden held in Umeå, December 3-5, 1993, and organized by the Centre for Population Studies at the Demographic Data Base. Family reconstituted data from the DDB and the Stockholm Historical Database provide material for many of the studies. The authors discuss both general aspects of urbanisation and its relation to population growth, and more specific issues like the role played by migrants in population increase and structural changes. The articles cover different urban environments such as Stockholm, Kalmar, Linköping, Uppsala, Västerås and Sundsvall. Furthermore, developments in Sweden are compared with those in urban England. Previous theories are challenged and new, important knowledge is presented."
Correspondence: Umeå University, Demographic Data Base, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20037 Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Mukhopadhyay, A. N. Urbanization pattern--a study over the districts of West Bengal. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1996. 189-98 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present work attempts to study the trend of urbanization in the different districts of West Bengal [India] on the basis of census data." Tabular data are presented on the percentage growth of urban and rural population; the level of urbanization by district; the rate of urbanization; and persons migrating from urban to rural areas.
Correspondence: A. K. Chattopadhyay, University of Calcutta, Department of Statistics, Senate House, 87/1 College Street, Calcutta, West Bengal 700073, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20038 Chen, Xiangming. The demographic profiles of the world's largest cities: a baseline analysis and policy implications. Cities, Vol. 13, No. 3, Jun 1996. 165-74 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the demographic profiles of 74 of the world's largest cities through cluster analysis, which classifies the cities into distinctive groups based on population size, net population change, rate of natural increase, sex ratio, age composition, and dependency ratios. Discussions of the results focus on: the strikingly different demographic profiles of the large cities in more developed countries (MDCs) and less developed countries (LDCs); the simultaneous similarities and differences among MDC cities and socialist and former socialist cities; and the particular demographic characteristics of certain MDC and LDC cities. The paper also draws research implications for the data and method used and urban policy implications for the demographic and socioeconomic conditions in very large MDC and LDC cities."
Correspondence: X. Chen, University of Illinois, Department of Sociology M/C 312, 1007 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60607-7140. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:20039 Moffat, Riley. Population history of western U.S. cities and towns, 1850-1990. ISBN 0-8108-3033-7. LC 96-14583. 1996. xi, 344 pp. Scarecrow Press: Lanham, Maryland/Folkestone, England. In Eng.
Using data primarily taken from the U.S. census, population estimates are presented for the towns and cities of the western states for 10-year intervals from 1850 to 1990.
Correspondence: Scarecrow Press, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20040 Mogridge, Martin; Parr, John B. Metropolis or region: on the development and structure of London. Regional Studies, Vol. 31, No. 2, Apr 1997. 97-115 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Drawing on a disparate range of sources and viewing the question from several perspectives, an attempt is made to trace the development of London over the period since 1800. An account of the physical expansion and population growth is outlined, with `London' defined at a number of distinct scales. Attention is first focused on London as a metropolis, and various modelling techniques are used to illustrate the nature of metropolitan expansion. Consideration is given to the possibility that the changing spatial distribution of population through migration may be likened to a well-known process in physics. This is followed by an analysis of London at the broader scale of a region, with similar modelling techniques being employed. Finally, the question is raised as to whether London can still be meaningfully viewed as a metropolitan entity or whether a regional perspective is now more appropriate."
Correspondence: M. Mogridge, Martin Mogridge Associates, 25 Camberley House, Redhill Street, London NW1 4AX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:20041 United Nations Centre for Human Settlements [HABITAT] (New York, New York). An urbanizing world: global report on human settlements, 1996. ISBN 0-19-823347-7. LC 96-1388. 1996. xxxiv, 559 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book examines "conditions and trends in cities and other settlements around the world and...the urbanization process through which more than half the world's population will soon live in urban centres. Prepared by Habitat (the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements) the book shows the positive and negative side of cities. Drawing from thirty specially commissioned papers from leading specialists in both North and South and on data from recent censuses, it shows how the growth in urban population has slowed in most parts of the world, while the scale of urban poverty has been underestimated. The book also describes what is being done to address the problems of poor housing and environmental degradation. The main conclusion...is the importance of good governance in cities. It describes how cities have great potential to combine healthy and safe living conditions, cultural riches, and environmental advantages. It also provides illustrative case-studies of cities where poverty, very poor housing conditions and lack of basic services have been tackled, environmental performance much improved and dependence on motor cars reduced."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20042 Wang, Fahui; Guldmann, Jean-Michel. Simulating urban population density with a gravity-based model. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 30, No. 4, Dec 1996. 245-56 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Theoretical justifications for the negative exponential urban density function were first proposed by urban economists, although some of their foundations have been criticized. From the geographer's perspective, the gravity-based model reported in this research uses a well-known concept (the `potential') to offer an alternative explanation. Using numerical analysis techniques, the model simulates various urban density patterns. By varying the model's parameters (the distance friction coefficient [beta] and the city size), the numerical simulations do confirm two important empirical findings: the flattening of density gradients over time owing to transportation improvements, and flatter gradients in larger cities. The observed relationship between the [beta] value and the urban density gradient, as established by this research, opens an avenue for empirical testing."
Correspondence: J.-M. Guldmann, Ohio State University, Department of City and Regional Planning, Columbus, OH 43210-1361. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

63:20043 Neupert, Ricardo F. Population and the pastoral economy in Mongolia. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1996. 27-46 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Despite the radical economic, social and political changes that Mongolia has experienced in recent years, nomadic pastoralism remains the country's main economic activity. This article examines the relationship between that activity and the low population density existing in rural areas. It also discusses the impact on the pastoral economy of the aforementioned changes. It concludes with an analysis of the policy implications of these events and proposes a framework for possible interventions."
Correspondence: R. F. Neupert, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.