Volume 63 - Number 1 - Spring 1997

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

63:10747 Conly, Shanti R.; Rosen, James E. International population assistance update: recent trends in donor contributions. Population Action International Occasional Paper, No. 2, Sep 1996. 13, [4] pp. Population Action International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors summarize recent trends in sources and amounts of international population assistance. Information is provided on assistance from individual countries, multilateral sources, and private sources.
Correspondence: Population Action International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10748 Elgegren Reátegui, Fernando. Population policy: the legacy of Greek thought. [Política de población: la herencia del pensamiento griego.] Revista Peruana de Población, No. 5, 1994. 137-52 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author "explains that the Greek philosophy and scientific thought developed elements of what is known today as population policies. These include roles and gender relationships, the population volume, the family, sexuality, birth control, eugenics, abortion and [quality of life]....The first part of the article reviews issues on family and women's roles. The second part is related to aspects associated with sexuality and...population policy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10749 Füglistaler, Peter; Burkard, Pascal; Caluori, Marco; Frick, Doris; Gilroy, Bernard M.; Lenzlinger Diedenhofen, Karin; Märki, Peter; Märki, Esther; Möckli, Silvano; Müller, Esther; Oggier, Willy. Help! Switzerland is shrinking. [Hilfe! Die Schweiz schrumpft.] ISBN 3-280-02173-1. 1994. viii, 232 pp. Orell Füssli Verlag: Zurich, Switzerland. In Ger.
Using official scenarios published by the Swiss government in 1992 for the period up to 2040, the authors estimate future population trends in Switzerland. These include population aging and a decline in total population. The consequences for Switzerland's social and economic policy are discussed, with sections on politics, family policy, social security, education, health, spatial distribution, the environment, unemployment, the status of women, immigration, savings and investment, and financial policy. The book ends with a list of policy directives deemed necessary to meet the demographic challenges of Switzerland's future.
Correspondence: Orell Füssli Verlag, Dietzingerstrasse 3, 8036 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10750 Henripin, Jacques. Demographic and policy questions. [Questions démographiques et politiques.] Collection de Tirés à Part, No. 353, [1996?]. 281-304 pp. Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The author examines present and future population trends in Quebec in an attempt to clarify whether a population policy is required, and if so, of what kind. Three significant trends with demographic implications are identified: low fertility, the weakening of marriage ties, and immigration. The author concludes that Quebec, along with most of the developed world, is facing the problems posed by an aging society, but that the policy measures that would solve these problems are not readily apparent.
Correspondence: Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10751 May, John; Boucher, Marguerite. Population pressure and population policies in Rwanda, 1962-1994. [Pression démographique et politiques de population au Rwanda, 1962-1994.] Population et Sociétés, No. 319, Dec 1996. [4] pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors examine the role that demographic factors, and particularly those associated with rapid population growth and the consequent pressure on available resources, have played in exacerbating the problems faced by African countries south of the Sahara, using the example of Rwanda. The focus is on the policies that Rwanda developed in response to these developments and on the reasons for their relative failure.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10752 Ouédraogo, Dieudonné; Piché, Victor. Integrating demographic variables into the planning process: some Sahelian experiences. [De la prise en compte de l'intégration des variables démographiques dans la planification: les expériences sahéliennes.] Collection de Tirés à Part, No. 358, [1996?]. 669-83 pp. Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The authors describe the experience of the countries of the Sahel, including Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal, in including demographic variables in planning their socioeconomic development. They note that although these countries are in the process of developing population policies and have begun to take account of demographic variables, it is still too soon to draw any conclusions about the impact of this change. The importance of establishing priorities and of evaluating the impact of the measures adopted is stressed.
Correspondence: Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10753 Rosen, James E. Directions in Japanese population assistance. Population Action International Occasional Paper, No. 1, Sep 1996. 11, [2] pp. Population Action International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reviews Japan's efforts to expand its global population assistance. "Japan's desire to play a greater role in global population efforts is real, but its foreign aid apparatus still lacks the means to put into effect its goals in this area. Policymaking and program decisions are highly centralized, and the lack of strong family planning advocates within the aid bureaucracy weakens support for the population budget. The Japanese are following a more coherent approach to development under the Global Issues Initiative, but a trend towards scattering aid responsibility throughout the government may worsen traditional problems of planning and coordination."
Correspondence: Population Action International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10754 Vukovich, György. Some aspects of the Hungarian population policy. [A magyar népesedéspolitika néhány vonatkozása.] Demográfia, Vol. 39, No. 2-3, 1996. 136-44 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
Some aspects of current population policy in Hungary are discussed in this paper.
Correspondence: G. Vukovich, Bimbo-ut. 9, 1022 Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

63:10755 Cho, Namhoon. Achievements and challenges of the population policy development in Korea. ISBN 89-8187-072-1. Nov 1996. viii, 99 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
This report first describes recent demographic changes in South Korea, and the role that population policies have played in helping to bring them about. The emphasis then shifts to the demographic challenges now confronting the country. "The new problems being faced include an imbalance in the sex ratio, a shrinking of the labour force, an increase in the proportion of the elderly population, a high prevalence of induced abortions and an increase in the sex-related problems of the youth and adolescents....These demographic changes and other new concerns led the government to adopt a new population policy in 1996, one which emphasizes population quality and welfare. In order to overcome various problems associated with reproductive health and family planning, as well as the many challenges stemming from below replacement fertility, the importance of the current family planning programme should not be underestimated simply because demographic targets have been met. The present volume explains the emerging issues and possible future directions and policy options for Korea."
Correspondence: Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10756 Harsch, Donna. Society, the state, and abortion in East Germany, 1950-1972. American Historical Review, Vol. 102, No. 1, Feb 1997. 53-84 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The author explores the era of restrictive abortion policy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in the 1950s and 1960s in an effort to understand the sources of its demise in 1972. She examines the social and policy background to the legalization of abortion as well as the arguments and actions of physicians, influential Communists, and citizens....Abortion reform in East Germany, she argues...has to be placed within the domestic framework of changing relations between a Communist state and its society and the international context of a rising appreciation of the link between abortion law and women's rights....[The author] contends that the causes, course, and content of abortion reform in the GDR were strikingly similar to those in Western industrial democracies despite antithetical political circumstances." The main data sources were the archives of the Ministry of Health and the Socialist Unity party, which contain "reports by Communist and health officials at the national and local levels, transcripts of discussions between physicians and party bureaucrats, and individual pleas to state officials from women throughout the GDR who wanted an abortion."
Correspondence: D. Harsch, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

63:10757 Ipsen, Carl. Dictating demography: the problem of population in Fascist Italy. Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time, No. 28, ISBN 0-521-55452-7. LC 95-48989. 1996. xvii, 281 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Mussolini believed that in numbers lay the key to national, economic, political and military strength. Between 1925 and 1943 the Italian Fascist regime sought to translate that belief into policy, and, embarked upon a `demographic battle' to increase the Italian population using a combination of propaganda, incentives and penalties, the Fascists waged campaigns to increase the birth rate and decrease infant mortality, to establish demographic colonies in Italy, Libya, and Ethiopia, and to prevent emigration and urbanization. Ultimately they became concerned about demographic `quality' and introduced laws against miscegenation with Africans and marriage with Jews....[The author] also shows how the Fascists used statistics to mould public opinion and to form policy, and demonstrates the ways in which population theory at the time both reflected and informed official positions."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10758 Kosunen, Elise A.-L.; Rimpelä, Matti K. Towards regional equality in family planning: teenage pregnancies and abortions in Finland from 1976 to 1993. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 75, No. 6, 1996. 540-7 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"A major goal of Finnish family planning policy since the 1970s has been to minimize unintended pregnancies by providing equal contraception and abortion services throughout the country. This report looks at how this policy has succeeded among teenagers....In 1993, the teenage pregnancy rate was 20/1,000 and the abortion rate 9.5/1,000 in the whole country....The abortion rate ranged from 8/1,000 to 14/1,000. Childbirths decreased, particularly at the beginning of the study period, while abortions declined sharply towards the end of the period....In 16-17 year-olds, the trends were quite equal in different provinces. In 18-19 year-olds, pregnancies remained more frequent in the north and were more often carried to term, while the choice of abortion was more likely in the south."
Correspondence: E. A.-L. Kosunen, University of Tampere, Medical School, Box 607, 33 101 Tampere, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10759 Kuumba, M. Bahati. Reproductive imperialism: population and labor control of the third world. 21st Century Afro Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, Winter 1996. 155-79 pp. Langley Park, Maryland. In Eng.
"The present research examines the various critiques of international population policy. It investigates the relationship between global population control and the increasingly intense need among transnational corporations for a controllable, cheap labor pool. Finally, it consolidates the evidence that points to an intricate connection between population control programs and global business interests."
Correspondence: M. B. Kuumba, State University of New York, Buffalo State College, Buffalo, NY 14222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10760 Nádasné Uhrin, Györgyi. Impact of the introduction of a childcare fee on the number of births in Békés county. [A gyermekgondozási díj bevezetésének hatása a születések alakulására Békés megyében.] Demográfia, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1996. 371-5 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
An attempt is made to estimate the impact on fertility of the introduction of childcare fees over the period 1984-1994 in the Hungarian county of Békés.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10761 Oláh, Livia S. The impact of public policies on the second-birth rates in Sweden: a gender perspective. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 98, ISBN 91-7820-116-0. Oct 1996. 29 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this paper I have applied the feminist perspective focusing on structural constraints that shape the relationship between work and reproduction in order to study the impact of public policies on second-birth rates of women and men. The empirical analysis is based on data from the Swedish Family Survey of 1992. The method of hazard regression is used as the tool of analysis. The model includes covariates which are expected to reflect the effects of individual characteristics, human capital and the family policy on fertility. The results show that Swedish public policies have indeed influenced individual's childbearing behavior."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10762 Tárkányi, Ákos. European family policies: the history of the Swedish family policy. [Európai családpolitikák: a svéd családpolitika története.] Demográfia, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1996. 263-90 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
This article describes the development of policies designed to support the family in Sweden. Particular attention is given to the impact of such policies on fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

63:10763 Birrell, Bob. Managing the cost and scale of family reunion: current dilemmas. People and Place, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1996. 58-67 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Growth in the numbers of family reunion migrants [to Australia], especially those with low-skilled, poor and non-English-speaking backgrounds, has prompted Government attempts to slow the intake. So far the politics of the situation have meant such attempts have met with limited success. The implications are explored in this article."
Correspondence: B. Birrell, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10764 Calavita, Kitty. The new politics of immigration: "balanced-budget conservatism" and the symbolism of Proposition 187. Social Problems, Vol. 43, No. 3, Aug 1996. 284-305 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the politics of the new immigration restrictionism as manifest in Proposition 187, passed by California voters in 1994. I first show that restrictionist sentiment and immigrant scapegoating have a long history in U.S. immigration politics, briefly reviewing three periods of early nativism....I then make two principal arguments. First, I argue that the new nativism embodied in Proposition 187--which would bar undocumented immigrants in California from receiving social services, including public schooling--corresponds to specific features of the late twentieth-century political-economic landscape....Second...I show that Proposition 187 is symbolic in that it derives from and evokes beliefs about immigrants' responsibility and blame for the current economic and fiscal crisis. In addition, I suggest that Proposition 187 may represent a new kind of symbolic politics in which alienated voters--those who bother to vote at all--use their ballot symbolically to express anger and `send a message'."
Correspondence: K. Calavita, University of California, Department of Criminology, Law and Society, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10765 Fincher, R. Gender, age, and ethnicity in immigration for an Australian nation. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 29, No. 2, Feb 1997. 217-36 pp. London, England. In Eng.
An analysis of Australian immigration policy since World War II is presented. The emphasis is on the gender and age of preferred immigrants, rather than on their race or place of birth. "The author proposes that selection of immigrant settlers in Australia since World War 2 has been gendered as well as racialised, often combining particular sexisms with particular racisms and specifying the ways that ethnicity and gender should coexist in immigrants of different age groups. She notes implications for immigrants once in Australia (especially women) of the category under which they have entered the country. And she suggests that a new phase relating immigration to redefinition of the Australian nation, in which the temporary migration of skilled workers is preferred to their permanent migration, may be beginning; a phase whose modes of regulation and outcomes are as distinctively gendered as were those of their predecessors."
Correspondence: R. Fincher, University of Melbourne, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. E-mail: fin@ariel.ucs.unimelb.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:10766 Haus, Leah A. Openings in the wall: transnational migrants, labor unions, and U.S. immigration policy. International Organization, Vol. 49, No. 2, Spring 1995. 285-313 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This article seeks to enhance our understanding of why the United States resisted restrictionist [immigration] legislation in the late twentieth century during times when one may have expected a movement toward closure, as occurred in the 1920s....The article will supplement a state-centric approach with insights from the perspective of complex interdependence--the significance of transnational relations and the blurring of foreign and domestic politics. I will argue that the societal groups that influence the formation of U.S. immigration policy contain a transnational component, which contributes to the maintenance of relatively open legislation....More specifically, I will argue that the transnationalization of the labor market...blurs the boundaries between foreign and domestic constituents for unions, causing unions to resist those restrictionist immigration measures that impede organization of foreign-born workers. Hence, the pressures for restrictionism are weaker than anticipated by the conventional wisdom that expects labor to lobby for closure."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10767 Horowitz, Tamar. Value-oriented parameters in migration policies in the 1990s: the Israeli experience. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 4, 1996. 513-37 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article focuses on value inputs at various junctures of the immigrant-absorption process in Israel and their possible implications for the future of the immigrants....The model of value inputs of the 1990s suggests several directions in which absorption policy may head....One such direction is dominant in other immigration countries: the integration of the stronger immigrants--those whose ability to function in modern Western society is high--is left to market forces....Another possible paradigm of absorption is one in which the government intervenes selectively to help especially disadvantaged groups....A third orientation depends on the immigration trend. If immigration tapers off, the government will intervene more intensively and extensively in the integration of the 1990s immigrants, particularly at the municipal level."
Correspondence: T. Horowitz, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10768 Jenks, Rosemary. Immigration reform in U.S. and Europe. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, Vol. 10, No. 3, Fall 1995. 58-64 pp. Knoxville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The author compares attempts at immigration reform in the United States and Europe. "The European immigration experience demonstrates that many measures can be implemented at the national level to control immigration. The United States has recently explored some of those options, but it has yet to grasp the magnitude of the problem....Immigrant-receiving nations, given the political will, can control pull factors through national legislation. Push factors, however, cannot be controlled in the same way. A main difference between U.S. and European immigration-reform efforts is the higher degree of regional and international cooperation in Europe aimed at addressing these push factors....European governments have recognized that it is not feasible to stop mass immigration solely at the national level. The United States must acknowledge this limitation as well."
Correspondence: R. Jenks, Center for Immigration Studies, 1815 H Street NW, Suite 1010, Washington, D.C. 20006-3604. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10769 Lee, Joseph S.; Wang, Su-Wan. Recruiting and managing of foreign workers in Taiwan. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2-3, 1996. 281-301 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The first part of this article reviews the reasons for a labor migration policy in Taiwan and the characteristics of foreign workers currently employed in the country. The second part examines the procedures and practices for recruiting and managing labor migrants and explores the reasons for the biggest issue in...Taiwanese labor migration policy: the runaway foreign workers. Admitting that illegal migration cannot be controlled, the paper recommends to limit employment of migrants only where it is absolutely necessary."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10770 Mori, Hiromi. Immigration policy and foreign workers in Japan. ISBN 0-312-16401-7. LC 96-26630. 1997. xiii, 227 pp. Macmillan Press: Basingstoke, England; St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In the second half of the 1980s Japan emerged as one of the new major destination countries for migrants from Asia. The migrant labour pool was then joined by Japanese descendants from South American countries in the 1990s. Japan's policy of keeping the labour market closed to foreign unskilled workers has remained essentially unchanged despite the 1990 immigration policy reform, which met the growing need for unskilled labour by letting immigrants in through the back door. This book throws light on various aspects of immigration into Japan and the present status of migrant workers as conditioned by Japan's immigration control system. The analysis aims to explore how the massive arrival of migrants affected Japan's immigration policy and how that policy segmented the foreign labour market in Japan."
Correspondence: Macmillan Press, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10771 Nagayama, Toshikazu. Foreign workers recruiting policies in Japan. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2-3, 1996. 241-64 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article presents the basic characteristics of the foreign workers recruiting policy in Japan, which consists [of] barring entry to unskilled workers, and confronts it with the actual tolerance for a large number of illegal unskilled workers. After a historical overview of the reasons for the current policy, the article examines elements which reveal that a seclusionist policy is based on mistaken assumptions and reviews policy options to deal with the issue of illegal migration."
Correspondence: T. Nagayama, Nihon University, College of Commerce, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10772 O'Brien, Peter. Migration and its risks. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 4, Winter 1996. 1,067-77 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This essay applies the theories of Ulrich Beck...to the politics of migration in Germany. In particular, the essay focuses on Beck's notion of the waning influence, indeed even relevancy, of science and scientists regarding postmodern risk phenomena. The essay argues that migration to Germany can be understood as a Beckian risk phenomenon, helping to explain the decreasing influence of social scientists over the politics of migration in the Federal Republic."
Correspondence: P. O'Brien, Trinity University, 715 Stadium Drive, San Antonio, TX 78212-7200. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10773 Simard, Myriam. The Quebec policy of regionalizing immigration: the stakes and the paradoxes. [La politique québécoise de régionalisation de l'immigration: enjeux et paradoxes.] Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. 37, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1996. 439-69, 609 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author assesses the impact of the Quebec provincial government's immigration policy, which has encouraged immigrants to settle throughout the province rather than remain concentrated in the major urban areas. She notes that the policy on immigration has been intertwined with other socioeconomic and political objectives. The immigration policy raises issues concerning the role of the provincial government in the development of the regions and the relations between local and provincial authorities.
Correspondence: M. Simard, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 2635 boulevard Hochelaga, Suite 640, C.P. 7500, Sainte-Foy, Quebec G1V 4C7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.