Volume 63 - Number 1 - Spring 1997

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population.

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

63:10699 Anyanwu, Sarah O. The girl-child: problems and survival in the Nigerian context. Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, 1995. 85-105 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the basic problems confronting the female child in Nigeria, namely sex discrimination in the education of boys and girls, sex discrimination in access to food and nutrition, child labour practices, heavy domestic duties for females and early child marriage. The paper thus recommends means and ways of enhancing the female child's survival and development without gender bias."
Correspondence: S. O. Anyanwu, Federal University of Technology, PMB 2076, Yola, Adamawa, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:10700 Berer, Marge; Ravindran, T. K. Sundari. Fundamentalism, women's empowerment and reproductive rights. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 8, Nov 1996. 166 pp. Reproductive Health Matters: London, England. In Eng.
This special issue is concerned with religious fundamentalism and the threat it poses to women's empowerment and reproductive rights. "The papers in this issue of the journal provide a sometimes bleak picture of how fundamentalist politics and governments seek to influence if not control women in ways which threaten feminist and human rights goals of women's empowerment, sexual autonomy and reproductive rights. Others are more optimistic in describing how fundamentalist perspectives and policies are being challenged, revised and overcome."
Correspondence: Reproductive Health Matters, 29-35 Farringdon Road, London EC1M 3JB, England. E-mail: 100663.3504@compuserve.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10701 Bianchi, Suzanne M.; Spain, Daphne. Women, work, and family in America. Population Bulletin, Vol. 51, No. 3, Dec 1996. 48 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report examines both the positive and negative aspects of the changes that have affected the lives of women in the United States in recent years, including new patterns of marriage and childbearing, educational attainment, and labor force participation. "Delayed marriage, increases in divorce and cohabitation, declines in remarriage after divorce, and higher widowhood rates for women than men mean that women spend more of their adult lives unmarried. Most women have children, but they are more likely now than in the past to have a child out of wedlock, and to raise it without the benefit of a partner. Women have made significant gains in education and in the workplace. Women are earning degrees in fields such as medicine and business that were almost exclusively male a few decades ago. The earnings gap between men and women has narrowed. However, women often are segregated in the lower-status jobs within a given occupation, and are underrepresented in high-level management positions and in elected political offices. Although most wives work for pay, they are still responsible for most of the housework and child care. Women's gains in employment and earnings do not make up for the economic loss associated with increases in divorce and out-of-wedlock childbearing. Women are more likely than men to be poor at every age. Their share of the poverty population has grown because of the increasing proportion of families headed by single women--which run a high risk of being poor."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10702 Cornman, Jennifer C. Toward sustainable development: implications for population aging and the wellbeing of elderly women in developing countries. Population and Environment, Vol. 18, No. 2, Nov 1996. 201-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Attaining sustainable development has significant implications for population age structure, family structure and the wellbeing of elderly women. If one of the primary goals of sustainable development is reducing fertility to attain a population growth rate which can be supported by the Earth's resources, then working toward sustainable development will lead to an aging population. This demographic change coupled with other impacts of working toward sustainable development could significantly affect the status and wellbeing of elderly women. Drawing on examples primarily from the Asian setting, this paper will examine population aging and what this demographic change may mean for elderly women in developing areas."
Correspondence: J. C. Cornman, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-1225. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10703 Dandekar, Kumudini. The elderly in India. ISBN 0-8039-9301-3. 1996. 229 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study examines the situation of the elderly in India, focusing on the state of Maharashtra and using data from the 1986-1987 round of the National Sample Survey involving some 50,000 households. Emphasis is placed on regional variations and differences between rural and urban areas in terms of health problems, financial constraints, and both the geographical spread and functioning of old-age homes and pension schemes. The author concludes that old-age homes may offer a viable solution to the problems affecting the elderly in urban areas, but that the problems faced by the elderly in rural areas can only be solved by the provision of old-age pensions, which would be both cheaper and more suited to rural conditions than the provision of homes for the elderly.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, M-32 Greater Kailash Market I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10704 Gronchi, Sandro. Demographic changes and pension reform in Italy. Review of Economic Conditions in Italy, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1996. 107-17 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
The author comments on recent pension reforms carried out in Italy. He suggests that "the promise to renounce real indexing of pensions appears to be a `sham', used in order to make the initial pension award more generous but impossible to maintain. Equalization will be necessary and will once again unhinge the financial balance of the system, because the rate of return will be pushed above the growth of overall wages and the golden rule will be violated. Moreover, individual rates of return on contributions will again be diversified, favouring those working people whose retirement period is longer (in terms of the working life) and/or characterized by more frequent or more generous adjustments."
Correspondence: S. Gronchi, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10705 Heikel, María V. Gender and population: another challenge for equality. [Género y población: otro desafío para la equidad.] Notas de Población, No. 62, Dec 1995. 139-76 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
The author discusses the consideration of gender and women's status in demographic investigations. The need for a more humane conception of public policies is considered. The use of an approach to try to eliminate sexism in social policies is examined, with a focus on biological reproduction, mortality and morbidity, migration, and spatial distribution.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10706 Locoh, Thérèse; Lobourie-Racapé, Annie; Tichit, Christine. Gender and development: some roads to follow. [Genre et développement: des pistes à suivre.] Documents et Manuels du CEPED, No. 5, ISBN 2-87762-100-6. Dec 1996. viii, 154 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a scientific meeting held in Paris, June 11-12, 1996, on gender issues in development. The focus of this interdisciplinary gathering was to consider the integration of gender concepts into research and training on socioeconomic development issues. The first chapter, by Thérèse Locoh, examines the demographic aspects of gender. Other chapters look at gender issues in education, employment, land ownership, and nutrition. The primary geographic focus is on Africa South of the Sahara.
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10707 Mason, Karen O. Gender and demographic change: what do we know? ISBN 2-87108-052-6. 1995. 31 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"A critical review of what is known about the interrelationships between change in social systems of gender and change in the fertility and mortality of populations is presented in the interests of describing the contours of current knowledge and suggesting needed areas of research. Research into the impact of gender change on demographic change is still in its infancy; that on the impact of demographic change on gender systems is practically non-existent. Much of the research used as evidence for the idea that female empowerment promotes lower fertility and mortality is based on weak designs and measures. Studies using good designs and measures are starting to be done, however, and have thus far confirmed that in South Asia, at least, when gender stratification is less extreme, fertility tends to be lower, contraceptive use higher, and child survival greater. We know little about the effects of fertility and mortality decline on gender systems, but this is an important area of study because of the possibility that modern demographic regimes enhance the likelihood of achieving gender equality."
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10708 Näsman, Elisabet. Seeing things through the eyes of children. [Vuxnas intresse av att se med barns ögon.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 101, ISBN 91-7820-122-5. Feb 1996. 26 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
This is a discussion of different ways of viewing childhood and children. The author notes that the perspectives that adults have on children and their needs are determinants of eventual legislation concerning children. She stresses the need for legislators and others to assume a "children's perspective" and to view children not just as "future grown-ups". The theoretical and methodological consequences of such a shift of viewpoint are discussed.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10709 Potter, Joseph E. The social consequences of rapid fertility decline during a period of economic crisis. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 275-88 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes the socioeconomic impact of Latin America's rapid fertility decline in the 1970s and 1980s. In particular, he looks at the health and education of the children born during these two decades, and at the situation of the women concerned. He concludes that the quality of education, particularly at the primary and secondary level, has not improved much despite the decline in the size of birth cohorts, since the health sector seems to have absorbed any dividends from the fertility decline. However, child survival has continued to improve despite worsening economic conditions, suggesting that it is closely tied to fertility; the author suggests that the connections are as much social as bio-demographic. The preliminary evidence also indicates that women's increased fertility control and labor force participation have not led to either improved gender relations or increases in the status of women.
Correspondence: J. E. Potter, University of Texas, Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10710 Véron, Jacques. The world of women: gender inequalities and inequalities among societies. [Le monde des femmes: inégalité des sexes, inégalité des sociétés.] L'Epreuve des Faits, ISBN 2-02-024817-4. Jan 1997. 209 pp. Editions du Seuil: Paris, France. In Fre.
This work examines the demographic, social, and economic aspects of the status of women in society. The focus is on the differences among societies in the inequalities that women experience. The author examines how differences in region, culture, religion, legal system, and mode of production affect women in societies worldwide.
Correspondence: Editions du Seuil, 27 rue Jacob, 75261 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

63:10711 Bose, Ashish. Demographic transition and demographic imbalance in India. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 89-99 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In the coming decades, there will be growing demographic disparity in India and, like economic disparity, this should be a matter of serious concern for our planners and policy-makers. This demographic disparity leading to demographic imbalance may cause considerable social turbulence and may even pose a threat to political stability. Demographers must look far beyond demographic statistics and anticipate the consequences of demographic imbalance between different regions and states in India as well as between different religious communities, castes and tribes. Relevant data based on 1991 Census and National Family Health Survey (1992-93) are presented to highlight the `North-South Demographic Divide'."
Correspondence: A. Bose, I-1777 C. R. Park, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10712 Courbage, Youssef. The demographic factor in Ireland's movement toward partition (1607-1921). [Le facteur démographique dans la marche de l'Irlande vers la partition (1607-1921).] Population, Vol. 51, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 1,129-52 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Relationships between demography and politics are studied in an historic and geographic context where they are quasi archetypal, namely Ireland and Ulster before the 1921 partition. Migration from Great Britain became denominational during the sixteenth century, and the military occupation of Ireland reinforced both the colonization type of settlement and the plantations of the seventeenth century. In 1659, eighteen per cent of the island's population were Anglo-Scottish, Anglican, and Presbyterian protestants, but this figure rose to 41 per cent in what was to become Northern Ireland....Differential migration and fertility account for the increase in the number of Catholics....The upsurge was halted, however, by the principle of impartible inheritance. Later marriage, too, reduced birth rates of Catholics."
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10713 Davey Smith, George; Dorling, Daniel. "I'm all right, John": voting patterns and mortality in England and Wales, 1981-92. British Medical Journal, Vol. 313, No. 7072, Dec 21, 1996. 1,573-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The associations among voting patterns, deprivation, and mortality in England and Wales are explored using data from the elections of 1983, 1987, and 1992 and official data for mortality. The results indicate that "Conservative and Labour voting are at least as strongly associated with mortality as is a standard deprivation index. Voting patterns may add information above that provided by indicators of material deprivation. People living in better circumstances and who have better health, who are least likely to require unemployment benefit and free school meals or to rely on a state pension in old age, and who are most able to opt out of state subsidised provision of transport, education, and the NHS [National Health Sevice], vote for the party that is most likely to dismantle the welfare state."
Correspondence: G. Davey Smith, University of Bristol, Department of Social Medicine, Bristol BS8 2PR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:10714 Kunitz, Stephen J. What Yugoslavia means: progress, nationalism, and health. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 253-82 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Theories of modernization have assumed that the creation of nation-states involved the breakdown of parochial ethnic boundaries and increasing secularism, all of which resulted in a demographic transition from high to low fertility and mortality. Recent experiences suggest, however, that in some circumstances nation-states may be highly unstable as ethnic minorities assert their rights to self-determination. Under such conditions, converging patterns of mortality may begin to diverge as growing inequalities appear between newly independent regions of once unified states. The recent history of Yugoslavia is described to provide an example of how this process might occur and what the results might be." An appendix on mortality calculations, by K. Ruben Gabriel, is included (pp. 273-82).
Correspondence: S. J. Kunitz, University of Rochester, Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10715 Pirozhkov, S. I. The demographic losses in Ukraine during the 1930s and 1940s. [Les pertes démographiques en Ukraine dans les années 1930 et 1940.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1996. 1,032-40 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
An attempt is made to reconstruct probable demographic trends in the Ukraine during the 1930s and 1940s, in order to estimate the demographic impact of the famines that occurred in 1932-1933, and of the Second World War. The author concludes that these and other social catastrophes that affected the Ukraine between 1929 and 1939 caused a population loss of 14.6 million people, about 35% of the total population enumerated in the census of 1959.
Correspondence: S. I. Pirozhkov, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Volodymirska 54, 252601 Kiev, Ukraine. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10716 Terrie, E. Walter. Several recent Supreme Court decisions and their implications for political redistricting in Voting Rights Act context. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 5-6, Dec 1996. 565-78 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on four recent United States Supreme Court decisions which have profound implications for political redistricting. These cases are Holder v. Hall, Johnson v. De Grandy, Shaw v. Reno and Miller v. Johnson. Each of these cases places limits on the scope of Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act when conducting a political redistricting or fashioning a remedy for a Section 2 violation. These cases have resolved a number of important issues in redistricting while creating yet new issues to be resolved. Although demographers are not in the business of practicing law, they must clearly understand the legal requirements and often subtle nuances imposed by the case law. The paper concludes that the combined force of these cases does not yet spell the end of race conscious redistricting and therefore, effectively repeal the Voting Rights Act but does require that more weight be given to traditional redistricting criteria when designing districts that will withstand legal challenges."
Correspondence: E. W. Terrie, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 659-C Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

63:10717 Biraben, Jean-Noël. The role of sexually transmitted diseases in historical demography. [Le rôle des maladies sexuellement transmissibles en démographie historique.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1996. 1,041-57 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author identifies 10 illnesses which are spread primarily through sexual intercourse, and reviews each one individually with regard to its demographic impact in times past. He then focuses on several historical cases illustrating the impact of venereal disease on various populations: the nineteenth-century worldwide military and prostitutes in France, the Nzakara of Africa, and the Pacific Islands.
Correspondence: J.-N. Biraben, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10718 Bishai, David M. Parents' schooling and investments in the health capital of children: multisample estimates from Bangladesh and the Philippines. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 96-12, Oct 1996. 30, [10] pp. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"A child health production function is developed based on a dynamic stochastic version of Grossman's model of health capital. The model indicates that because health has the properties of a durable good, even when the effects of health on future earnings are neglected, investments in health capital will have a financial payoff in terms of lower shadow prices for health in the future. In the empirical implementation the key feature is an interaction term between a caregiver's schooling and their exposure time to the child....The 1978 Intrafamily Food Distribution and Feeding Practices Survey dataset from Bangladesh is used together with census data for one set of estimates. The 1984 Philippines Cash Cropping Survey data set is used for another."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10719 Brind, Joel; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Severs, Walter B.; Summy-Long, Joan. Induced abortion as an independent risk factor for breast cancer: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 50, No. 5, Oct 1996. 481-96 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The aims of this study were "to ascertain, from the published reports to date, whether or not a significantly increased risk of breast cancer is specifically attributable to a history of induced abortion...; to establish the relative magnitude of such risk..., and to ascertain and quantify such risk increases as may pertain to particular subpopulations of women exposed to induced abortion....The results support the inclusion of induced abortion among significant independent risk factors for breast cancer, regardless of parity or timing of abortion relative to the first term pregnancy. Although the increase in risk was relatively low, the high incidence of both breast cancer and induced abortion suggest a substantial impact of thousands of excess cases per year currently, and a potentially much greater impact in the next century, as the first cohort of women exposed to legal induced abortion continues to age."
Correspondence: J. Brind, City University of New York, Baruch College, Department of Natural Sciences, 17 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10720 Cleland, John; Ferry, Benoît. Sexual behaviour and AIDS in the developing world. Social Aspects of AIDS, ISBN 0-7484-0343-4. 1995. xix, 243 pp. Taylor and Francis: New York, New York/London, England; World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This volume contains findings from sexual behaviour and partner relations surveys conducted in the late 1980s and early 1990s in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Central and South America. A total of 16 surveys are reported on here. This unique data collection effort was begun in 1988....While the primary purpose of these studies was to inform national efforts in the fields of prevention and care, their use of similar methods of data collection and analysis enabled across-site comparisons to be made. This is the first global report of its kind to contain inter-country comparisons of HIV and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in the developing world." Attention is given to sexual relationships outside of marriage and their implications for the spread of HIV infections, and to knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes concerning HIV/AIDS. Both policy and methodological implications for future surveys are discussed.
Correspondence: Taylor and Francis, 4 John Street, London WC1N 2ET, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10721 Defo, Barthélémy K. Effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and women's status on women's health in Cameroon. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 7, Apr 1997. 1,023-42 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Data from the Enquête sur la Mortalité Infantile et Juvenile, carried out in Cameroon from 1978 to 1981 and involving some 10,000 women, are used to examine the impact of socioeconomic factors and women's status on maternal health."The most important finding is that the burden of illness rests disproportionately on the economically disadvantaged women and on those with low social status. The long-term effects of social disadvantage are apparent in the excesses of morbidity among women who are not employed at the time of their children's birth, women living in poor neighborhoods, and those living in households without modern amenities."
Correspondence: B. K. Defo, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10722 Douglas, Robert M.; D'Souza, Rennie M. Health transition research in the control of morbidity and mortality from acute respiratory infection. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 245-52 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"We review here the problem of acute respiratory infections in Australian and Pakistani children. In Australia, we focus on the large differences in respiratory infection severity and outcomes between Aboriginal children and Caucasians. We also draw attention to our current ignorance on what differentiates children who are prone to respiratory infections from those who are not. In Pakistan, we highlight the problem of refocusing a health care system that is already seriously underfunded for the biomedical task. A major challenge for social scientists is to become involved more directly in the medical care system and devise health care interventions that can address social inequities, and can provide a better integration between social and biomedical views of the world."
Correspondence: R. M. Douglas, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, G.P.O. 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10723 Egidi, Viviana; Frova, Luisa. Relationship between morbidity and mortality by cause. In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, edited by Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, and Guillaume Wunsch. Aug 1996. 235-53 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Eng.
The authors first note that when mortality was high, survival itself was sufficient to estimate a population's state of health. However, as a consequence of greater longevity and the increasing impact of chronic or degenerative diseases, the focus is switching from length of life per se to the quality of life in the years that have been added to the human lifespan. The focus of this chapter is therefore on analyzing the morbidity process and calculating expectancies of healthy life.
Correspondence: V. Egidi, Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Via Cesare Balbo 11a, 00184 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10724 Ekanem, Ita I. HIV/AIDS and labor force productivity in Africa. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 96-02, May 1996. 30 pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
This paper focuses on "four aspects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic....The first [covers] the prevalence of the disease, its spread, transmission modes and the unfavorable economic climate in Africa. The second [focuses] on the impact of HIV/AIDS particularly on labor force productivity....The third and fourth...address respectively, the challenges posed by and the responses towards confronting the pandemic."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10725 Ford, Nicholas; Kittisuksathit, Sirinan. Youth sexuality: the sexual awareness, lifestyles and related-health-service needs of young, single, factory workers in Thailand. IPSR Publication, No. 204, ISBN 974-588-447-2. 1996. [xiv], 179 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
"This report presents the detailed findings from a study of the sexual lifestyles of young (15-24 years of age), single, factory workers in Thailand. The context of the study includes Thailand's rapid industrialisation and associated gendered pattern of rural-urban migration, and intense HIV/AIDS epidemic and other threats to sexual health. The primary focus is upon young women, but data has also been collected from young men in order to explore the gender and interactional sexual dimensions. The principal objective is to enhance understanding of developments in the sexual culture of young factory workers, in order to derive policy and programme implications and recommendations to protect sexual health." The data were collected from 1992 to 1994 in 18 focus group discussions, a schedule-structured survey of 2,033 young factory workers, and 25 in-depth interviews with sexually experienced young workers.
Correspondence: Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, Salaya, Puttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. E-mail: directpr@mucc.mahidol.ac.th. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10726 Gage, Anastasia J. Does fertility timing influence the utilization of maternal health care services? Evidence from Kenya and Namibia. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. AD96-05, Jun 1996. 38 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1993 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and the 1992 Namibia DHS, this study examines the impact of premarital childbearing on women's use of prenatal and delivery care. [The study focuses] on the interactions between premarital childbearing, mistimed/unwanted fertility, and maternal age and on the extent to which the effects of premarital childbearing on maternity care are conditioned by the mother's cultural environment. Kenya and Namibia are of interest because both countries have witnessed increasing levels of premarital childbearing, despite the onset of a decline in fertility in the general population."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 206 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Author's E-mail: gage@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10727 Gobalet, Jeanne G.; Thomas, Richard K. Demographic data and geographic information systems for decision making: the case of public health. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 5-6, Dec 1996. 537-48 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Recent changes in the United States health care system include a broadened definition of health and renewed focus on public health. Increasingly, demographic analyses are incorporated into public health decision-making. Analysts also are using geographic information more routinely, because Geographic Information System (GIS) software is becoming easier to use. The paper describes three cases in which demographers used GIS to analyze the spatial distribution of public health data. The first case, from Santa Clara County, California, focuses on adolescent sexually transmitted diseases in secondary school districts. The second case, also from Santa Clara County, maps preventable hospitalizations of senior citizens. The third examines the distribution of premature births in Tennessee counties. The researchers applied demographic techniques and perspectives in each case, and each case produced information that is being used by officials who plan health education campaigns and services."
Correspondence: J. G. Gobalet, Lapkoff and Gobalet Demographic Research, 22361 Rolling Hills Road, Saratoga, CA 95070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10728 Jain, Anrudh K.; Stein, Karen; Arends-Kuenning, Mary; Garate, Maria R. Measuring reproductive morbidity with a sample survey in Peru. Population Council Programs Division Working Paper, No. 9, 1996. 44 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Reproductive health assessment based on laboratory testing has limited applicability in developing countries due to the cost of these tests and the lack of equipped facilities and trained personnel....Morbidity estimates based on these data are biased and do not reflect an accurate picture. This paper presents results of another approach, based on women's reports, not of symptoms, but of diagnoses they received during visits they made to medical facilities or professionals in two provinces of Peru. The estimate of reproductive morbidity based on this approach is influenced by women's health-seeking behavior and access to medical facilities. Nevertheless, the approach used in this survey looks promising for estimating reproductive health through sample surveys."
Correspondence: Population Council, Programs Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10729 Johansson, S. Ryan. Doing "health" research in an unhealthy research environment. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 371-84 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In the present research environment it is generally true that most health research is done to advance the welfare of a field and the experts in it. The competition between fields means that the overarching goal of all social science research--the improvement of human welfare--is easily lost in the struggle for disciplinary hegemony. The purpose of this paper is to explore the intellectual and institutional circumstances which create this counterproductive, welfare-negative research environment, and suggest how it might be reformed."
Correspondence: S. R. Johansson, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10730 Kremer, Michael. Integrating behavioral choice into epidemiological models of AIDS. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 111, No. 2, May 1996. 549-73 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Increased HIV risk creates incentives for people with low sexual activity to reduce their activity, but may make high-activity people fatalistic, leading them to reduce their activity only slightly, or actually increase it. If high-activity people reduce their activity by a smaller proportion than low-activity people, the composition of the pool of available partners will worsen, creating positive feedbacks, and possibly multiple steady states. Early public health efforts may allow societies to reach more favorable steady states."
Correspondence: M. Kremer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10731 Landry, David J.; Forrest, Jacqueline D. Public health departments providing sexually transmitted disease services. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 261-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Results of a 1995 survey reveal that 1,437 local [U.S.] health departments--half of those in the country--provide sexually transmitted disease (STD) services and receive about two million client visits each year. Their clients are predominantly individuals with incomes of less than 250% of the poverty level (83%), women (60%) and non-Hispanic whites or blacks (55% and 35%, respectively); 36% of clients are younger than 20, and 30% are aged 20-24. On average, 23% of clients tested for STDs have chlamydia, 13% have gonorrhea, 3% have early-stage syphilis, 18% have some other STD and 43% have no STD. Virtually all public STD programs offer testing and treatment for gonorrhea and syphilis; only 82% test for chlamydia, but 97% provide treatment for it. Some 14% offer services only in sessions dedicated to STD care, 37% always integrate STD and other services, such as family planning, in the same clinic sessions, and 49% offer both separate and integrated sessions."
Correspondence: D. J. Landry, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10732 Lindahl, Katarina. After Cairo and before (and after) Beijing: sexual and reproductive health as a part of the empowerment of teenage girls and women. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 272-83 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"Empowerment of women in the perspective of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) [is] dealt with in this article. The themes of the Cairo and Beijing conferences are related and the discussions and conflicts regarding the SRH field commented on. The Cairo conference was a step forward--seen from women's [perspective]--for issues concerning sexual and reproductive health."
Correspondence: K. Lindahl, International Affairs, RFSU, Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10733 Lundberg, Anna. Health and social consequences: linkages between parish registers and patient records as a source in social medical history. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 306-18 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is twofold. It starts with a short history of venereal disease in Sweden. The computerized population registers at the Demographic Database in Umeå [give] us a possibility to do unique research. Questions that have yet to be asked on venereal disease will be discussed. The major part of this essay explains how a medical historian can use the linkage between population registers and medical case journals. The article also includes a couple of case studies. Finally, this article will discuss some major problems in using these linkages."
Correspondence: A. Lundberg, Umeå University, Department of Historical Demography, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10734 Melbye, Mads; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Olsen, Jørgen H.; Frisch, Morten; Westergaard, Tine; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Andersen, Per K. Induced abortion and the risk of breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 336, No. 2, Jan 9, 1997. 81-5 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The relation between induced abortion and breast cancer is explored using data on all women born in Denmark from 1935 to 1978. "In the cohort of 1.5 million women...we identified 370,715 induced abortions among 280,965 women...and 10,246 women with breast cancer. After adjustment for known risk factors, induced abortion was not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer....No increases in risk were found in subgroups defined according to age at abortion, parity, time since abortion, or age at diagnosis of breast cancer....[The authors conclude that] induced abortions have no overall effect on risk of breast cancer."
Correspondence: M. Melbye, Statens Seruminstitut, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Department of Epidemiology Research, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:10735 Murray, Christopher J. L.; Lopez, Alan D. The global burden of disease: a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series, Vol. 1, ISBN 0-674-35448-6. LC 96-27266. 1996. xxxii, 990 pp. Harvard University, School of Public Health: Boston, Massachusetts; World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; World Bank: Washington, D.C. Distributed by Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. In Eng.
This is the first in a planned series of 10 volumes that will attempt to "summarize epidemiological knowledge about all major conditions and most risk factors;...generate assessments of numbers of deaths by cause that are consistent with the total numbers of deaths by age, sex and region provided by demographers;...provide methodologies for and assessments of aggregate disease burden that combine--into the Disability-Adjusted Life Year or DALY measure--burden from premature mortality with that from living with disability; and...use historical trends in main determinants to project mortality and disease burden forward to 2020." This first volume includes chapters summarizing results from the project as a whole.
Correspondence: Harvard University, School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10736 Nathanson, Constance A. Disease prevention as social change: toward a theory of public health. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1996. 609-37, 813, 815 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article argues that public health policies are critical to the prevention and control of disease. However, public health policies are not adopted and implemented in a vacuum: they are the outcome of social and political change. The forces of change need to be understood in order for them to be harnessed in the interest of public health. The article proposes a conceptual framework to account for variation in the initiation and implementation of public health policies directed at reducing levels of mortality. This framework incorporates three sets of variables: pertaining to states, to social movements, and to constructions of risk. The framework's usefulness for analytic purposes is tested in two case studies describing public health policymaking in France and the United States. Applicability of the framework in other settings is briefly discussed."
Correspondence: C. A. Nathanson, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10737 Orubuloye, I. O.; Oni, J. B. Health transition research in Nigeria in the era of the Structural Adjustment Programme. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 301-24 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The Nigerian Health Transition research program was initiated in 1990. The objectives of the program include the understanding of the cultural, social and behavioural determinants of health, and the part played by these factors in the achievement of lower levels of mortality and improved conditions of health....The research described here is...the first stage of the Ondo State segment of the Nigerian program. A similar survey on Family Structure and Treatment of Child Illness in Ekiti District, Nigeria, was also conducted between April 1993 and February 1994. The result is presented separately in this paper."
Correspondence: I. O. Orubuloye, Ondo State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ondo State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10738 Palloni, Alberto. Demography of HIV/AIDS. Population Index, Vol. 62, No. 4, Winter 1996. 601-52 pp. Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper has two goals. First, it provides an account of the current state of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, with special emphasis on the situation in the developing world, where the bulk of new cases is arising, and where the effects of the epidemic are likely to be most devastating. An attempt is made to evaluate forecasts and projections made during the past 10 to 15 years, and to examine the reason for their relatively unsatisfactory performance. The second goal is to analyze the relation between the known characteristics of the epidemic, and the properties of the various demographic and epidemiological models that have been used to represent the spread of the virus. Some fault lines in these models are identified, and ways to improve them and apply them more effectively in the future outlined."
Correspondence: A. Palloni, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4426 Social Science Building, Madison, WI 53706. E-mail: palloni@ssc.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10739 Reddy, P. H. The health of the aged in India. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 233-44 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Because of declining fertility, the proportion of the aged in the Indian population has risen....The paper employs data on persons 65+ years of age drawn from the 42nd Round of the National Sample Survey, and for the analysis subdivides them into three age groups, 60-64, 65-69 and 70+. It is shown that, among population over 60 years of age, 10 per cent suffer from impaired physical mobility and 10 per cent are hospitalized at any given time, both proportions rising with increasing age. Of the population over 70 years of age, more than 50 per cent suffer from one or more chronic conditions. The very limited support provided to the old by government is brought out by the fact that even in Karnataka, one of the states with the most generous provision, only 15 per cent of persons over 65 years of age receive any type of pension."
Correspondence: P. H. Reddy, Population Centre, 2nd Cross, Malleswaram, Bangalore 560 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10740 Riley, James C.; Alter, George. The sick and the well: adult health in Britain during the health transition. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 19-44 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Using adult life-long histories of health experience among a group of men and women born in Britain between 1725 and 1874, this paper examines individual health during the mortality decline. The risk of initiating a new sickness declined sharply between the cohorts born in the eighteenth century and those born during 1825-74, but the average duration of each episode increased. As successive cohorts added to their life expectancy, survival time rose more sharply than did well time. Continuity rather than change is apparent in another aspect of their health experience, the capacity of prior health to predict future sickness and wellness. Among the men and the women and in the eighteenth-century cohorts as well as the cohorts of 1825-74, the degree of wellness or sickness evident early in adult life strongly predicted future sick time for 15 to 20 years, and strongly predicted future sickness events for a longer period still. Moreover, women surpassed men in their propensity to hold on to the health status exhibited in early adulthood."
Correspondence: J. C. Riley, Indiana University, History Department, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10741 Russian Centre for Public Opinion and Market Research (Moscow, Russia); United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia); United States. Agency for International Development [USAID] (Washington, D.C.). 1996 Russia Women's Reproductive Health Survey: a study of three cities. Preliminary report. Jan 1997. 14, [38] pp. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This is a preliminary report from the Russian Women's Reproductive Health Project, which consists of several activities designed to expand and improve the use of effective contraception, reduce reliance on induced abortion, and generally improve the reproductive health of Russian women. The primary objective of the 1996 survey is to provide baseline data, to be followed up in a second survey scheduled for 1998. Surveys were carried out in Ivanovo Oblast and Yekaterinburg (formerly Sverdlovsk), both project sites, and Perm, a control city not included in the project. The report includes data on population characteristics; fertility, abortion, and pregnancy; contraception; young women's sexual experience; maternal and child health; sexually transmitted diseases; and information, education, and communication (IEC) activities.
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10742 Wallace, Rodrick; Huang, Yi-Shan; Gould, Peter; Wallace, Deborah. The hierarchical diffusion of AIDS and violent crime among U.S. metropolitan regions: inner-city decay, stochastic resonance and reversal of the mortality transition. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 7, Apr 1997. 935-47 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Census data are used to compare the spread of AIDS and violent crime in the United States from the major cities into smaller metropolitan regions. The authors conclude "that continuation of public policies of `benign neglect' and `planned shrinkage' directed against marginalized urban populations may trigger a strong stochastic resonance which can significantly degrade public health and public order for much of the three-quarters of the U.S. population living in or near cities, in effect reversing the mortality transition of the last century."
Correspondence: R. Wallace, PISCS, 549 West 123 Street, Suite 16F, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10743 Warren, Kenneth S. Rationalizing health care in a changing world: the need to know. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 393-6 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The World Development Report 1993 announced that global life expectancy was then 65. Experience in the developed world suggests that the World Health Organization's dictum, `health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being', is simply not attainable for the foreseeable future. As physical health has improved, mental problems have become more prominent and a sense of well-being has declined. Furthermore, as the population ages and medical technology improves, the cost of health care grows almost exponentially. Since the population of the developed world is continuing to age and aging is spreading rapidly throughout the developing world, knowledge is the principal way of dealing with the seemingly intractable problem: we must know, quantitatively, the age-specific causes of ill health, and we must know which means of prevention and treatment are effective. Finally, we must apply that knowledge rationally."
Correspondence: K. S. Warren, Picower Institute for Medical Research, 300 Community Drive, New York, NY 11030. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10744 Wills, Christopher. Yellow fever, black goddess: the coevolution of people and plagues. ISBN 0-201-44235-3. LC 96-23934. 1996. xii, 324 pp. Helix Books: Reading, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This book examines, from a biologist's perspective, why and how disturbances of the ecological balance can give rise to plagues. The diseases examined include the Black Death, cholera, typhoid, malaria, syphilis, and AIDS. The author concludes that, although mankind has managed to reduce the toll of plagues on our own species, we have accidentally increased the toll of such plagues on other species, and that this will have a great impact on our long-term survival and on the overall health of the planet.
Correspondence: Helix Books, Addison-Wesley Publishing, Route 128, Reading, MA 01867. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

63:10745 Lynn, Richard. Dysgenics: genetic deterioration in modern populations. Human Evolution, Behavior, and Intelligence, ISBN 0-275-94917-6. LC 96-2802. 1996. vi, 237 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The view that the populations of Western nations were deteriorating genetically and that steps needed to be taken to correct this came to be widely accepted in the first half of the twentieth century. In the second half of the century a reaction against eugenics set in, and from the 1970s onward eugenics became virtually universally dismissed. My objective in this book is to make the case that in the repudiation of eugenics an important truth has been lost, and to rehabilitate the argument that genetic deterioration is occurring in Western populations and in most of the developing world." The author considers the criticisms of the view that the genetic quality of modern populations is deteriorating and rejects them. "Only one verdict is possible concerning the critics of eugenics who have advanced these arguments, and that is that they have not taken the trouble to examine the research evidence. The eugenicists believed that modern populations are deteriorating genetically. The evidence set out in this book shows they were correct."
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10746 Riggs, Jack E. Differential survival, natural selection, and the manifestation of senescence. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Vol. 87, No. 2, 1996. 91-8 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"Although its evolutionary influence diminishes with aging, natural selection might also impact upon the manifestation of senescence via differential survival. Annual population estimates in the United States from 1951 to 1990 for age groups over 60 years old were analyzed. The rate of increase in the size of these age groups increased with increasing age. Since birth rates in developed countries have declined, this finding is a direct manifestation of differential survival over time. Correspondingly, increasing mortality rates from many disorders associated with senescence have been shown to be correlated with increasing age group population size. These observations suggest that natural selection, via differential survival, has had a demonstrable impact upon manifestation rates of the disorders of senescence."
Correspondence: J. E. Riggs, West Virginia University, School of Medicine, Departments of Neurology, Medicine, and Community Medicine, P.O. Box 9180, Morgantown, WV 26506-9180. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.