Volume 63 - Number 1 - Spring 1997

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration.

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

63:10450 Bretz, Manfred. Migration statistics in Germany: sources, concepts and selected results. Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1996. 247-56 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"German migration statistics are based on a system of local registers, and a change of dwelling is considered to be a migration event. In the international context, this may lead to many discrepancies, because other countries usually use other or modified definitions. Often a particular intended length of stay is a precondition for a definition of an individual as a migrant. Sometimes only a change of permanent residence is recognised as creating a migration event, excluding all seasonal movements with an intended stay of several years. Migration data thus have to be used very carefully. One possibility for avoiding extreme differences in data between two countries may be to consider only migration balances. By doing so many disturbance effects in the data may cancel each other out in the long term."
Correspondence: M. Bretz, Statistisches Bundesamt, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10451 Cohen, Robin. Theories of migration. International Library of Studies on Migration, No. 1, ISBN 1-85898-001-1. LC 96-14469. 1996. xvii, 512 pp. Edward Elgar Publishing: Brookfield, Vermont/Cheltenham, England. In Eng.
This book presents a selection of published articles on theories of migration. The 27 articles are divided into two sections, one on general perspectives and another on disciplinary perspectives. The geographical focus is worldwide. A name index is provided.
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, 8 Landsdown Place, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire GL50 2HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10452 Coleman, D. A. Migration as a primary force in human population processes. In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, edited by Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, and Guillaume Wunsch. Aug 1996. 297-326 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"This paper will review selected migration processes in the longer term. It will seek to place modern migration patterns into a wider range of the migration behaviour which human populations have experienced in their history and prehistory. It will emphasise that the forms of migration which we see today, and [by] which we judge the demographic effects of migration, are only a sub-set of possible migratory behaviour. Other forms of migration, some now extinct, have had much more substantial effects upon human population than do most current forms of migration, even the recent substantial international migration to Western Europe and the United States."
Correspondence: D. A. Coleman, Oxford University, Department of Applied Social Studies, Barnett House, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2ER, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10453 Frey, William H. Immigrant and native migrant magnets. American Demographics, Vol. 18, No. 11, Nov 1996. 36-40, 53 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses differences in destinations chosen by immigrants and native-born migrants in the United States. "The surging immigration of the 1990s continues to cluster into just a handful of large, mostly coastal metro areas. In contrast, domestic migrants are attracted to growth poles in economically booming metros and nonmetro counties east of the California immigrant ports and to dynamic metros in the Southeast and Texas and interior parts of the North. They prefer smaller metros and nonmetropolitan areas." Additional information and supporting statistics are available online at http://www.psc.lsa.umich.edu/pubs.
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10454 Golini, Antonio. Population movements, geographical distribution and internal migrations. In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, edited by Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, and Guillaume Wunsch. Aug 1996. 327-44 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Eng.
In view of the general trend toward greater population mobility and the blurring of the distinction between internal and international migration, the author develops a general framework for the study of migration as a whole. In the second part of the paper, he discusses aspects of spatial distribution, internal migration, and urbanization in both the developing and developed worlds.
Correspondence: A. Golini, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10455 Healey, Kaye. Global migration. Issues for the Nineties, Vol. 47, ISBN 1-875682-53-8. 1995. iv, 40 pp. Spinney Press: Balmain, Australia. In Eng.
This report "explores world migration trends; world trade and the impact on migrating workers; nomadic peoples; women and migration; international refugees and asylum seekers; asylum seekers in Australia. The information comes from a wide variety of sources and includes: government reports and statistics, newspaper reports, features, magazine articles and surveys, literature from lobby groups, and charitable organizations."
Correspondence: Spinney Press, 226 Darling Street, Balmain, NSW 2041, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10456 Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Tax burden and migration: a political economy perspective. NBER Working Paper, No. 5850, Dec 1996. ii, 12 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The extent of taxation and redistribution policy is generally determined at a political-economy equilibrium by a balance between those who gain and those who lose from a more extensive tax-transfer policy. In a stylized model of migration and human capital formation we find, somewhat against conventional wisdom, that low-skill migration may lead to a lower tax burden and less redistribution than without migration, even though the migrants (naturally) join the pro-tax cum transfer coalition."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: razin@econ.tau.ac.il. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10457 Safir, Nadji. Causes and consequences of international migration in Africa. No. ECA/POP/WP/96/3, Dec 1996. ii, 72 pp. UN Economic Commission for Africa: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
This paper identifies the major migratory movements in Africa, their determinants, and their socioeconomic and political consequences for both sending and receiving countries. Policy responses at the national and regional level in the light of the Dakar/Ngor Declaration and the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development are also discussed. "Aspects of the consequences of the movements reviewed included: population growth and density, labour market productivity and efficiency, remittances and the brain drain."
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Africa, P.O. Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10458 Sandu, Dumitru; De Jong, Gordon F. Social change, ideology, and migration intentions. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 96-04, Jul 1996. 25 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"The changes toward market economy and democracy are the `double transition' context for migration decision-making of people in post-communist Eastern European countries. Using data from a 1995 sample survey of the adult population of Romania, this research explores the consequences of people's values, market and democracy reform orientations, and local area market economy-related changes on intentions to move. Multiple regression models showed that the major determinants of migration intentions were younger people's beliefs favoring migration for life success and their expectations of attaining valued goals in another locality compared to their home community."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10459 Siddle, D. J. Migration as a strategy of accumulation: social and economic change in eighteenth-century Savoy. Economic History Review, Vol. 50, No. 1, Feb 1997. 1-20 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Migration from the mountain areas of pre-industrial Europe has been seen as the product of poverty. While hardship controlled the strategies of the more marginalized households, better placed families used their migration experience to establish themselves in commerce. Over generations they used contacts and kinship systems to develop important informal trading networks. It is difficult to establish the effects of this hidden activity on local mountain economies, but dowry payments and post mortem inventories [from Savoy, now in France] are used to expose the impact of inflowing capital and its circulation."
Correspondence: D. J. Siddle, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10460 Smith, Pam; Krishnan, Parameswara. A typology of migration in Canada based on migrants' characteristics. Population Geography, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1994. 23-32 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"Data from the 1981 Census of Canada are used to develop a typology of migrants on the basis of their personal characteristics. Migrants are defined as those individuals who have changed their residence since the 1976 Census, crossing at least a municipal boundary. Socio-economic and demographic characteristics are perceived to differentiate stayers from movers, and to distinguish each migrant type [that is to say] intraprovincial, interprovincial and international. Discriminant analysis is applied to classify people into migrant types based on their personal characteristics and the typology developed."
Correspondence: P. Smith, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10461 Stark, Oded. Patterns of labor migration when workers differ in their skills and information is asymmetric. In: Economic aspects of international migration, edited by Herbert Giersch. 1994. 57-74 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The author outlines an implementation of a theory of labor migration under asymmetric information that provides a rich and integrated set of predictions. A basic model of labor migration under conditions of asymmetric information is first developed. The author then traces migration patterns arising from an example involving just two skill levels. He then proceeds to a four-skill-levels case and derives the resulting migration patterns. Finally, the approach utilized in the paper is placed in the context of several hypotheses concerning labor migration.
Correspondence: O. Stark, Harvard University, Department of Economics, Littauer Center, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

63:10462 Abella, Manolo I.; Lönnroth, Karl J. Orderly international migration of workers and incentives to stay--options for emigration countries. International Migration Paper, No. 5, ISBN 92-2-109745-5. 1995. iv, 49 pp. International Labour Office [ILO], Employment Department: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The two studies [presented here]...are slightly revised papers submitted to a Technical Seminar for Policymakers and Experts on `Migration and the Labour Market in Asia in the year 2000', Tokyo, 19-20 January 1995....Abella's paper addresses the question of orderly labour migration from the point of view of the migrant-sending country, to see to what extent governmental regulation and procedures can ensure that the movements of workers and their employment abroad is legal and respects standards laid down by that country....Lönnroth's contribution is concerned with a question that has recently come to the fore in several national and international fora: what can one do to make it more attractive for people to stay at home than to move abroad?"
Correspondence: International Labour Office, Publications Branch, 4 Route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10463 Amis de Hommes et Migrations (Paris, France). Italy in search of an immigration policy. [L'Italie en quête d'une politique de l'immigration.] Hommes et Migrations, No. 1194, Jan 1996. 3-44 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This issue contains a selection of articles on recent immigration trends in Italy. The focus is on the context in which the new immigration policy was signed into law in November 1995. There are articles on Italy as a new country of immigration, the invisible integration of immigrants, Albanian refugees in Tuscany, North African immigration, and the education of immigrant children.
Correspondence: Amis de Hommes et Migrations, 40 rue de la Duée, 75020 Paris, France. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

63:10464 Amjad, Rashid. Philippines and Indonesia: on the way to a migration transition. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2-3, 1996. 339-66 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This paper, in a comparative analysis of the Philippines and Indonesia, examines first under what conditions can migration favorably contribute to the process of economic development and then to what extent can economic growth impact upon reducing emigration pressures in these labor surplus economies. The paper also argues that there is still considerable scope for putting in place [an] agreed set of rules and policies to ensure better protection for the more vulnerable migrants."
Correspondence: R. Amjad, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10465 Athukorala, Prema-Chandra; Wickramasekara, Piyasiri. International labour migration statistics in Asia: an appraisal. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 4, 1996. 539-66 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The present paper attempts a critical review of the data systems of seven major labour-exporting countries--Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand--which account for over 90 per cent of labour outflows from Asia....Data...are discussed under separate sections focusing on limitations as well as potential for further exploitation....For all countries reviewed here, these data significantly understate total labour outflows, and the magnitude of the error seems to vary between countries and reflect both differences relating to the coverage and efficiency of the approval and monitoring procedure. This throws serious doubts on the appropriateness of official outmigration series for cross country comparison. Frequent changes in reporting procedures also make for discrete changes and spurious shifts in data which render trend analysis quite hazardous."
Correspondence: P.-C. Athukorala, Australian National University, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, G.P.O. 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10466 Beaujot, Roderic. The demographic behavior and socioeconomic status of Canadian immigrants. [Comportements démographiques et statut socio-économique des immigrants canadiens.] Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 96-1, ISBN 0-7714-1898-1. Feb 1996. 37 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Fre.
Demographic trends concerning immigrants to Canada are analyzed using data from a number of sources, including the 1991 census. The author concludes that the demographic behavior of immigrants does not differ greatly from that of Canadians as a whole. However, immigrants generally tend to settle in major urban areas, and assimilate into the English-speaking rather than the Francophone community. Overall, immigrants compare favorably with native Canadians in respect to income; however, more recent immigrants from places other than Europe or the United States tend to be less economically successful, which could pose some problems for the future.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10467 Bevelander, Pieter; Scott, Kirk. The employment and income performance of immigrants in Sweden, 1970-1990. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 157-72 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the forces behind the decreasing labor market attachment among immigrants to Sweden in the period 1970-1990. Points of special interest here are employment rates and relative incomes of various immigrant nationalities. This is accomplished through the charting of labor force participation rates and employment patterns of different immigrant groups over the period in question. The statistics in this paper are based on the five most recent Swedish censuses, from which we have data at the individual level regarding age, sex, country of origin, employment status, sector of employment, and immigration year."
Correspondence: P. Bevelander, University of Lund, Department of Economic History, P.O. Box 7083, 220 07 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10468 Binnie, J. Invisible Europeans: sexual citizenship in the new Europe. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 29, No. 2, Feb 1997. 237-48 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper I consider issues of transnational sexual citizenship. I examine the issue of international migration of lesbians and gay men. For lesbian and gay prospective migrants, obtaining citizenship rights is difficult owing to the laws affording status being based on bloodlines and marriage. This immediately excludes lesbian and gay relationships, which are generally not recognised for the purpose of obtaining rights of residence. I explore these issues in the context of the different policies towards the migration of lesbians and gay men in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom."
Correspondence: J. Binnie, Liverpool John Moores University, School of Social Science, Trueman Building, 15-21 Webster Street, Liverpool L3 2ET, England. E-mail: j.r.binnie@livjm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:10469 Birrell, Bob; Hawthorne, Lesleyanne. Immigrants and the professions. People and Place, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1996. 1-11 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"The extent to which migrants holding professional qualifications have been able to put these qualifications to productive use in Australia has long been a contentious issue. This article provides some answers which we hope will allow the debate on the extent and causes of migrant professional progress in Australia to proceed on a firmer foundation." The authors find that "migrants have made a major contribution to Australia's professionally-qualified workforce. Those arriving pre-1980s and early 1980s have largely been able to convert their qualifications into professional level employment. However, later arriving migrants have been far less successful."
Correspondence: B. Birrell, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10470 Body-Gendrot, Sophie. Recent statistical research on immigration to the United States. [Les recherches statistiques récentes sur l'immigration aux Etats-Unis.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1996. 237-46 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author evaluates the available data sources in the United States concerning immigration. She concludes that "statistics used in the U.S. to evaluate immigrants are not appropriate for international comparisons. Definitions vary and data systems are fragmented. The Census, a mandatory source, is not without fault and must be [supplemented by] other sources, such as the INS [Immigration and Naturalization Service] to tackle the question of illegal immigrants, for instance....The specific question of race and policies related to race, with no acknowledgement of multiracial possibilities, [sets] the U.S. as a case apart."
Correspondence: S. Body-Gendrot, Université de Paris IV, Institut d'Etudes Anglaises et Nord-Américaines, 1 rue Victor Cousin, 75230 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10471 Booth, Alan; Crouter, Ann C.; Landale, Nancy. Immigration and the family: research and policy on U.S. immigrants. ISBN 0-8058-2153-8. LC 96-15490. Jan 1997. viii, 307 pp. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, New Jersey. In Eng.
This work is concerned with immigrant families in the United States, and is based on presentations and discussions at a national symposium held at Pennsylvania State University, November 2-3, 1995. The 15 papers attempt to answer some basic questions concerning the migrant experience and family outcomes, such as "Who migrates, and how does it affect family outcomes? How does the migration experience affect child and adolescent developments? How do family structure and process change across succeeding generations? [and] What policies enhance or impede immigrant family links to U.S. institutions?"
Correspondence: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 10 Industrial Avenue, Mahwah, NJ 07430. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10472 Borgegård, Lars-Erik; Håkansson, Johan; Müller, Dieter K. The changing residential patterns of immigrants--the case of Sweden 1973-1992. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 173-83 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"In this article we address three components of immigration: immigration to Sweden, the [spatial] distribution of immigrants in the country, [and] the redistribution of the various immigrant groups. Our aim is to analyze the distribution of different immigrant groups in the country in terms of concentration and dispersion. Our hypothesis is that the reason for immigration, the policy prevailing in Sweden, the time spent in the country of immigration and the size of the immigrant group all influence geographical redistribution of immigrants."
Correspondence: L.-E. Borgegård, Umeå University, Department of Social and Economic Geography, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10473 Bustos Cortés, Alejandro. Research on immigration to Spain. [Investigaciones sobre inmigración en España.] Cuadernos Americanos, Vol. 6, No. 54, Nov-Dec 1995. 222-32 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
Some aspects of current immigration trends to Spain are reviewed. The author notes that, instead of concentrating on the size and direction of immigration, researchers are now paying more attention to its social, economic, and cultural implications. Consideration is also given to the implications of immigration for the European Union as a whole and for Spain in particular.
Correspondence: A. Bustos Cortés, Universidad de Antofagasta, Avenida Angamos 601, Casilla 170, Antofagasta, Chile. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

63:10474 Clarke, Harry R.; Smith, Lee. Labor immigration and capital flows: long-term Australian, Canadian and United States experience. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 4, Winter 1996. 925-49 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Evidence on labor immigration and capital inflows to three high labor-immigration economies (Australia, Canada, the United States) is examined over periods ranging from 1820-1870 through to 1991. Data show a close association between capital flows and immigration, although causality implications are ambiguous. For the United States, the relation between factor flows is more complex than for the other countries, but flows to the United States have influenced those to smaller economies. All three nations have been subjected to common immigrant push factors through to 1930-1950 but, since World War II, linkages between factor flows have altered. Post-World War II U.S. immigration restrictions have become more important as a global determinant of labor flows, with factor flow policymaking becoming increasingly internationally interdependent."
Correspondence: H. R. Clarke, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10475 Collomp, Catherine. A look at immigration policies. The labor market in France and the United States, 1880-1930. [Regard sur les politiques de l'immigration. Le marché du travail en France et aux Etats-Unis (1880-1930).] Annales: Histoire, Sciences Sociales, Vol. 51, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 1,107-35, 1,181 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The experiences of France and the United States concerning immigration and the integration of immigrants into the labor force are compared for the period 1880 to 1930. "Although immigration to the U.S. was politically interpreted and valued as the individual migrants' voluntary decision, only one step removed from citizenship, the absence of state regulation in the labor market reinforced the role of ethnic groups as mediators of the migration and integration process. In France, conversely, immigrants, assisted as they were and directed to their place of work by the joint effort of employers and state agencies with the consent of organized labor, found themselves direct wards of the State which developed its administrative functions to intervene on behalf of the migrants, of employers and of the `national' labor force to prevent the formation of dual labor markets. This analysis...emphasizes the historical construction of the silent and complete assimilation process within the working class in pre-World War II France, and that of ethnicity as an enduring category in the American society resulting from the vacuum of state run industrial relations."
Correspondence: C. Collomp, Université de Paris XII (Paris-Val-de-Marne), 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10476 Crettez, Bertrand; Michel, Philippe; Vidal, Jean-Pierre. Time preference and labour migration in an OLG model with land and capital. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1996. 387-403 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper constructs a two-country migration model in the lines of Galor (1986), in which the world population consists of individuals of two types who have different time preferences. Production uses three inputs: mobile labour, immobile capital and land. It is shown that both countries are necessarily inhabited by agents of both types and exhibit equal density of population and equal interest rate at the steady state equilibrium of the integrated economy. The steady state welfare implications of international labour migration are studied."
Correspondence: B. Crettez, Université de Paris I, CEME, 12 place du Panthéon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10477 Danso, Kwaku. The African brain drain: causes and policy prescriptions. Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, Mar-Jun 1995. 249-64 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This article analyzes the causes of the African Brain Drain. It also identifies policy prescriptions to stem the tide of the brain drain....The analysis shows that African governments should try to retain their skilled personnel by significantly improving their economies so as to provide the basic necessities of life to their people. African governments should also democratize their political institutions and respect individual human rights. Finally, they should create a conducive socio political environment for the skilled professional to operate, otherwise even the most patriotic of them would be tempted to emigrate."
Correspondence: K. Danso, Clark Atlanta University, James P. Brawley Drive at Fair Street, Atlanta, GA 30314. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:10478 Degioanni, Anna; Lisa, Antonella; Zei, Gianna; Darlu, Pierre. Italian surnames and Italian migration to France between 1891 and 1940. [Patronymes italiens et migration italienne en France entre 1891 et 1940.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 1,153-80 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The distribution of Italian surnames in France was studied for the periods 1891-1915 and 1916-1940 by using birth registration data. The 100 most common surnames in each Italian region were used as references. Differences in the distribution of surnames between Italy and each French département were assessed and mapped to show changes in the distribution of the Italian population between one period and the next. In addition, by recording increasing birth rates among those with Italian surnames, it was possible to determine the flow of migration in terms of the Italian regions involved. These methods show that Italian migration is the result of both rather old migration flows on the south eastern border of France, and a more recent movement towards areas of employment (north east and south east)...."
Correspondence: A. Degioanni, Instituto di Genetica Biochimica ed Evoluzionistica, Pavia, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10479 DeSipio, Louis. Immigrants, denizens, and citizens: Latin American immigration and settlement in the 1990s. Current World Leaders, Vol. 38, No. 2, Apr 1995. 63-87 pp. Santa Barbara, California. In Eng.
"This article examines the immigration and settlement patterns [in the United States] of immigrants from Latin America. It places Latin American immigration in historical perspective in order to understand the components of the contemporary flow. Settlement is examined through a series of attitudinal and behavioral variables with the goal of assessing the levels of attachment of Latin American immigrants to life in the United States. In addition to data from the Immigration and Naturalization Service and the Census Bureau, it reports previously unpublished findings from the National Latino Immigrant Survey and the Latino National Political Survey."
Correspondence: L. DeSipio, Mount Holyoke College, Department of Politics, South Hadley, MA 01057. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10480 Desplanques, Guy. The distribution of people of foreign origin in France. [La répartition des personnes d'origine étrangère en France.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1996. 287-97 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Several migration flows are explaining the great number of migrants in France and their localisation. Most of the present migrants arrived during the period 1945-1975, when factories needed many workers. On the whole, migrants or foreigners are numerous in industrial areas....From one citizenship to another, the history of migration has created specific features....The more recent flows are concentrated around Paris....At the `département' level, the concentration, measured by the Lorenz index, remained about the same in the last fifteen years, partly because of a weak internal mobility among migrants."
Correspondence: G. Desplanques, Direction Régionale de l'INSEE, Rhône-Alpes, 165 rue Garibaldi, 69003 Lyons, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10481 Edmonston, Barry. Statistics on U.S. immigration: an assessment of data needs for future research. ISBN 0-309-05275-0. LC 96-69271. 1996. viii, 91 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report stems from a workshop organized by two committees of the National Research Council's Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education: the Committee on National Statistics and the Committee on Population. The workshop had two objectives. "One purpose was to assist the Immigration and Naturalization Service in developing a statistical information system, as required by the Immigration Act of 1990. The other purpose was to suggest possible improvements to the data collection and analysis efforts of federal statistical agencies and the social science research community." The report includes the workshop recommendations, and also has chapters on trends in U.S. immigration, effects of immigration and assimilation, labor force issues, social and family networks, immigration data needs, and the need for a longitudinal survey of immigrants.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10482 England, K.; Stiell, B. "They think you're as stupid as your English is": constructing foreign domestic workers in Toronto. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 29, No. 2, Feb 1997. 195-215 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In Canada, paid domestic work is often associated with (im)migrant women from a variety of countries of origin. We critically analyse Canada's foreign domestic worker programmes, noting the shifting definitions of which nationalities should participate. We note how gendered, racialised, and classed constructions of national identities infuse these programmes. We then turn to an empirical analysis of how foreign domestic workers are constructed in Toronto, where demand is the highest in Canada."
Correspondence: K. England, University of Toronto, Department of Geography, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G3, Canada. E-mail: england@geog.utoronto.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:10483 Espenshade, Thomas J. Keys to successful immigration: implications of the New Jersey experience. ISBN 0-87766-661-X. LC 96-49248. 1997. xviii, 428 pp. Urban Institute Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a collection of 14 papers by various authors focusing on the economic, social, and political integration of the immigrant population of New Jersey over the decade 1980-1990. Implications for national immigration policies are drawn throughout the book. The foreword describes New Jersey in comparative perspective. Part 1 examines the demographic context, and is divided into three chapters: a comparison of the demographic and labor-market characteristics of the foreign-born population of New Jersey and the foreign-born population of the United States as a whole; an estimation of the numbers and demographic characteristics of undocumented immigrants in New Jersey, including a discussion of their fiscal impact in the state and the federal and state public policies aimed at reducing their size and impact; and an analysis of public opinion concerning immigration. Part 2 describes the economic, social, and political impacts of immigration and has chapters on the impact on wages and employment; state and local fiscal impacts; education; the effect of place of birth and ethnicity on birth outcomes; and the political behavior of immigrants. Part 3 analyzes immigrant adaptation and provides chapters on differences in fertility between immigrants and natives; immigrant incomes and labor-force assimilation; homeownership; segregation; and language ecology.
Correspondence: Urban Institute Press, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10484 Falchi, Nino. International migration pressures. Challenges, policy response and operational measures: an outline of the main features. ISBN 92-9068-047-4. Mar 1995. 49 pp. International Organization for Migration [IOM]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
In this report, the author examines some of the possible solutions to the problems caused by global migration pressures. The proposed solutions aim at two main objectives: first, to increase employment opportunities in the countries of migrant origin; and second, to provide increased levels of international support through the United Nations Population Fund for programs to reduce fertility in those countries. Measures for a moderate increase in legal migration from South to North are also discussed.
Correspondence: International Organization for Migration, P.O. Box 71, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10485 Felderer, Bernhard. Can immigration policy help to stabilize social security systems? In: Economic aspects of international migration, edited by Herbert Giersch. 1994. 197-226 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper tries to combine the issue of immigration and the long-term development of social security budgets....Can immigration help to solve the problems that future demographic change will cause for social security funds? The paper [examines] this problem using German social security data....The simulations show that the effects of immigration on the contribution rates of the social security system are quite small. In other words the problems of social security systems cannot be resolved by immigration policy....As demographic developments and institutional arrangements in social security are similar in most European states, the results also allow conclusions about other European countries."
Correspondence: B. Felderer, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Postfach 102148, 44721 Bochum, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10486 Ferrie, Joseph P. Immigrants and natives: comparative economic performance in the U.S., 1850-1860 and 1965-1980. NBER Working Paper Series on Historical Factors in Long Run Growth, No. 93, Sep 1996. 35 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Immigrants who arrived in the United States before the Civil War were less likely to reside in locations with high immigrant concentrations as their time in the U.S. increased. This is contrary to the experience of recent immigrants who show no decrease in concentration after arrival....The isolation of contemporary immigrants even after several years in the U.S. thus results more from the reluctance of the native-born to relocate to places with many immigrants than from immigrants' reluctance to move to places with fewer immigrants. Contemporary immigrants had greater success than antebellum immigrants avoiding unskilled jobs as they entered the U.S. job market, though they moved out of unskilled jobs less often than antebellum immigrants....These findings suggest the need to reevaluate some of the premises upon which the concerns about the economic performance of recent immigrants are based."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10487 Ferrie, Joseph P.; Mokyr, Joel. Immigration and entrepreneurship in the nineteenth-century U.S. In: Economic aspects of international migration, edited by Herbert Giersch. 1994. 115-38 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The role of the immigrant entrepreneur in the mass immigration from Europe to the United States that occurred over the course of the nineteenth century is examined. The authors define entrepreneurship and hypothesize about its transfer from one country to another; they then review possible sources of immigrant entrepreneurship. Finally, they examine the extent to which entrepreneurship was linked to nineteenth-century immigration to the United States by analyzing several data samples.
Correspondence: J. P. Ferrie, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10488 Frey, William H. Immigration, domestic migration, and demographic balkanization in America: new evidence for the 1990s. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1996. 741-63, 815, 817 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The recent scrutiny given to the impact of post-1965 immigration to the United States has largely overlooked an important long-term consequence: social and demographic divisions, across regions, that are being created by distinctly different migration patterns of immigrants and domestic, mostly native-born migrants. Evidence for 1990-95 shows a continuation of: highly focused destinations among immigrants whose race-ethnic and skill-level profiles differ from those of the rest of the population; migration patterns among domestic migrants favoring areas that are not attracting immigrants; and accentuated domestic outmigration away from high immigration areas that is most evident for less educated and lower-income long-term residents. These separate migration patterns are leading to widening divisions by race-ethnicity and population growth across broad regions of the country. These patterns are likely to make immigrant assimilation more difficult and social and political cleavages more pronounced."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10489 Giersch, Herbert. Economic aspects of international migration. ISBN 3-540-57606-1. 1994. x, 273 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This book contains papers presented at a symposium held in Vancouver, Canada, in September 1992 on the economic aspects of international migration. The 10 papers are organized into three parts, dealing with general aspects of migration, experiences in the United States, and lessons for Europe.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, Tiergartenstraße 17, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10490 Grant, Geraldine S. International migration, "middle classness" and the state. Urban Anthropology, Vol. 24, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1995. 281-312 pp. Brockport, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the issues of who is likely to migrate and why, and what happens when people migrate, by viewing the migratory process as a strategy formulated and implemented by networks of kin for culturally surviving the redefinitions of contemporary political systems within the context of the capitalist world economy. Specifically the argument presented is that people move across the juridical boundaries of contemporary nation-states as part of household strategies designed to maintain membership in a specific social stratum. For a substantial number this social stratum is a middle class. Self-identification with a social stratum, in other words, takes precedence over self-identification with, and commitments to, nation, region or ethnic group."
Correspondence: G. S. Grant, City University of New York, Queens College, Department of Anthropology, Flushing, NY 11367. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10491 Greenwood, Michael J.; McDowell, John M. The national labor market consequences of U.S. immigration. In: Economic aspects of international migration, edited by Herbert Giersch. 1994. 155-94 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This chapter "constitutes an attempt to summarize the present state of knowledge concerning the national economic impacts of immigrants on domestic workers in the United States. Section I provides a simple model of international migration that allows us to theoretically describe some of the basic points of contention in the debate regarding the economic effects of immigration. Section II develops a wide range of empirical evidence that relates to the issues raised in Section I. Section III provides conclusions." The authors advance some possible reasons for what they see as the relatively small impact of immigration on the U.S. economy as a whole.
Correspondence: M. J. Greenwood, University of Colorado, Department of Economics, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10492 Grubel, Herbert G. The economics of international labor and capital flows. In: Economic aspects of international migration, edited by Herbert Giersch. 1994. 75-92 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This chapter "presents the standard economic analysis of the effects of labor migration on output and income distribution, and expands it by considering the implications of accompanying flows of financial, human, and knowledge capital." The author expands on traditional models by introducing the concepts of rival and nonrival capital used in the New Growth Theory. He concludes that "this paper has presented a framework for the positive analysis of the effects of migration on wage rates and income shares of the populations in the countries of emigration and immigration. The main and most general conclusion of the analysis is that migration raises global efficiency and income."
Correspondence: H. G. Grubel, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10493 Hanson, Gordon H.; Spilimbergo, Antonio. Illegal immigration, border enforcement, and relative wages: evidence from apprehensions at the U.S.-Mexico border. NBER Working Paper, No. 5592, May 1996. 35, [4] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We examine illegal immigration in the United States from Mexico over the period 1976-1995. One challenge is that we do not observe the number of individuals that attempt to enter the United States illegally; we only observe the number of individuals apprehended attempting to cross the U.S.-Mexico border illegally. Based on a simple migration model, we postulate the existence of an apprehensions function, which expresses apprehensions at the border as a function of illegal attempts to cross the border and U.S. border-enforcement effort....We find that a 10% decrease in the Mexican real wage leads to a 7.5% to 8.8% increase in apprehensions at the border."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10494 Harris, Nigel. The new untouchables: immigration and the new world worker. ISBN 1-85043-956-7. LC 95-060076. 1995. xi, 254 pp. I. B. Tauris: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Current trends in international migration are examined in the context of recent changes in the world economy. The author notes that "despite tighter controls, increasing numbers of workers are moving, whether legally or not, between countries. Unskilled immigrant workers play a vital role in improving standards of living in the developed world. And in turn the countries from which they have come benefit in a major way from the earnings sent back home. Arguing that few of the fears about immigration are justified, and that increased immigration tends to mean that jobs and incomes expand, [the author] shows why governments will have to ensure the freedom of people to come and go as they choose."
Correspondence: I. B. Tauris, 45 Bloomsbury Square, London WC1A 2HY, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10495 Hatton, Timothy J.; Williamson, Jeffrey G. International migration and world development: a historical perspective. In: Economic aspects of international migration, edited by Herbert Giersch. 1994. 3-56 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This chapter "is divided into two parts. The first...deals with the determinants of overseas emigration from Europe chiefly from the mid 19th century to World War I. The second...discusses the impact of these migrations on both sending and receiving countries. In some parts of the paper, the discussion is able to draw on an enormous literature, but in others [the authors] have to break new ground, since some topics are only sparsely covered in the literature. This is especially true of macroeconomic effects."
Correspondence: T. J. Hatton, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10496 Hatton, Timothy J. The immigrant assimilation puzzle in late nineteenth-century America. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 57, No. 1, Mar 1997. 34-62 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Recent studies suggest that the earnings of pre-1890 immigrants grew slowly compared with those of natives and imply that these immigrants did not assimilate well into the American labor market. Using data for Michigan and California this article estimates new specifications for immigrant and native-born earnings, and finds that immigrants who arrived as children had similar earnings profiles to the native-born. Immigrants who arrived as adults suffered an initial earnings disadvantage but their earnings grew faster than those of the native-born. These results are consistent with the traditional view that pre-1890 immigrants assimilated well."
Correspondence: T. J. Hatton, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10497 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Immigrant population from former USSR 1994: demographic trends. Central Bureau of Statistics Special Series, No. 1035, Nov 1996. 92, xxx pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
This is the third in a series of publications analyzing demographic trends in the population that migrated to Israel from the former USSR after 1990. "This publication presents data collected for 1994 on a wide variety of demographic subjects: population movement (immigration, fertility, mortality, internal migration) as well as the development of the population and its distribution by sex, age and geographic distribution."
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 13015, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10498 Jones, Richard C. Ambivalent journey: U.S. migration and economic mobility in north-central Mexico. ISBN 0-8165-1473-9. LC 94-18754. 1995. xiii, 164 pp. University of Arizona Press: Tucson, Arizona. In Eng.
This study examines how international migration from Mexico to the United States affects the regions of migrant origin. The two areas studied in detail, central Zacatecas and northern Coahuila, are first described, and the history of Mexican-U.S. migration is summarized. The author then analyzes the effect of migration on household economic behavior in the places of migrant origin. The life histories of selected heads of migrant households are presented. The study concludes with a review of the economic impact on the community of origin as a whole.
Correspondence: University of Arizona Press, 1230 North Park Avenue, No. 102, Tucson, AZ 85719. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10499 Kim, Won Bae. Economic interdependence and migration dynamics in Asia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2-3, 1996. 303-17 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This paper searches first for alternative explanations about migration dynamics and, in particular, the migration transition in Asian countries. It raises the question whether increasing economic interdependence will increase labor mobility and attempts to explain the association between them with a simple model. Countries in the region are divided [into] three groups with regard to international labor migration: transitional, non-transitional exporters, and non-transitional importers. Increasing economic integration will lead to migration transition for many Asian countries, but with uncertainties concerning in particular China and South Asia."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10500 King, Russell; O'Connor, Henrietta. Migration and gender: Irish women in Leicester. Geography, Vol. 81, No. 4, Oct 1996. 311-25 pp. Coventry, England. In Eng.
This study examines female emigration from Ireland, and is based on in-depth interviews with 50 Irish-born women living in Leicester, England. "The interviews...follow a `life-history' approach, collecting information on pre-emigration background, the migration decision, patterns of marriage, fertility, employment, religious practice and social life. Special attention is given to an analysis of `cultural persistence' or `Irishness' amongst the women interviewed, and to their views on certain `controversial issues' such as divorce, abortion and the role of women in society."
Correspondence: R. King, University of Sussex, School of European Studies, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10501 Kofman, E.; England, K. Citizenship and international migration. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 29, No. 2, Feb 1997. 191-248 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This special section contains three papers that are cited elsewhere in this issue. The papers deal with aspects of citizenship and international migration, such as gender, sexual preference, and race. The focus is on migration to developed countries.
Correspondence: K. England, University of Toronto, Department of Geography, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G3, Canada. E-mail: england@geog.utoronto.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:10502 Krekels, Barbara; Poulain, Michel. Population of foreign origin: international comparability of the concepts. [Population d'origine étrangère: la comparabilité internationale des concepts.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1996. 257-69 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper is based on a survey carried out in the 19 countries of the European Union and EFTA [European Free Trade Association]. The objective was to compare the various terms and concepts used in the different countries in order to identify the population with a foreign background, in short the foreign population. The discussion emphasizes the role of the citizenship and the country of birth but several problems of comparability appear. The conclusions list several proposals and recommendations in order to assure a minimal comparability within the European countries but also to provide basic concepts more appropriate for a detailed analysis."
Correspondence: B. Krekels, Université Catholique de Louvain, Département de Sciences Politiques et Sociales, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10503 Kubiak, Hieronim. International migration at the end of the twentieth century: hopes and fears. [Migracje miedzynarodowe u schylku XX wieku. Nadzieje i leki.] Przeglad Polonijny, Vol. 3, No. 69, 1993. 49-73 pp. Wroclaw, Poland. In Pol.
This is a general review of global trends in international migration, with particular reference to recent trends in the countries that were part of the USSR or the Soviet-dominated block. Attention is given to the fears raised by large-scale migrations, the opportunities that such migrations give rise to, and the prospect of developing policies that can influence migration effectively. The prospects for continued migration in the twenty-first century are discussed.
Correspondence: H. Kubiak, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Institute of Sociology, 52 Grodzka Street, 31-044 Kraków, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10504 Lam, Kit-Chun. Outmigration of U.S. immigrants. Applied Economics, Vol. 28, No. 9, Sep 1996. 1,167-76 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A methodology is devised for the empirical analysis of the determinants of outmigration of immigrants in a population. Empirical studies in this area have been hindered by a lack of longitudinal data on the characteristics of the immigrants. This problem is tackled by making use of cross-sectional data at two points in time. It is applied to the study of male immigrants in the United States. It is found that education is positively related to the rate of outmigration for immigrants from Canada, Asia and the pooled sample of immigrants. This finding suggests that the cross-sectional estimates of the growth in earnings of immigrants in the United States are underestimated for these groups of immigrants."
Correspondence: K.-C. Lam, Hong Kong Baptist University, Department of Economics, Renfew Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10505 Lebon, André. Report on immigration and the foreign presence in France, 1995-1996. [Rapport sur l'immigration et la présence étrangère en France, 1995-1996.] ISBN 2-11-089724-4. Dec 1996. 131 pp. Ministère de l'Aménagement du Territoire, de la Ville et de l'Intégration, Direction de la Population et des Migrations: Paris, France. Distributed by La Documentation Française, 29-31 quai Voltaire, 75334 Paris Cedex 07, France. In Fre.
This is one in a series of annual reports concerning immigration in France. This report is based on the data available up to and including 1995, but also covers legislation concerning immigration for 1996. The first chapter analyzes immigrants by country of origin, emigrants, and acquisition of French nationality. The second chapter analyzes the demographic and economic characteristics of the immigrant population, particularly concerning employment. The third chapter describes policy and legislative developments in 1996. A comprehensive set of 50 tables makes up a statistical annex.
For a previous report for the period 1993-1994, see 61:20496.
Correspondence: Ministère de l'Aménagement du Territoire, de la Ville et de l'Intégration, Direction de la Population et des Migrations, 8 avenue de Ségur, 75350 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10506 Lianos, Theodore P.; Sarris, Alexander H.; Katseli, Louka T. Illegal immigration and local labour markets: the case of northern Greece. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1996. 449-84 pp. Geneva, Swtizerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purpose of the present study is to enhance knowledge on the impact of illegal immigrants in Greece from both Eastern European and other developing countries. Our analysis is based on direct survey information from the four regions in Greece which employ considerable numbers of illegal aliens."
Correspondence: T. P. Lianos, Athens University of Economics and Business, Odos Patission 76, 104 34 Athens, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10507 Lim, Lin Lean. The migration transition in Malaysia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2-3, 1996. 319-37 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Exploring the unique experience of migration transition in Malaysia, this paper identifies the turning points in relation to the level and nature of economic and labor market developments in Malaysia. Examining the development dynamics that mark the passage from exporting labor to depending on foreign labor, the paper concludes that such dynamics are influenced not only by economic but also sociocultural, demographic and policy factors. Several lessons from the Malaysian experience are drawn at the end to be utilized by other countries that still have to reach the turning points of the migration transition."
Correspondence: L. L. Lim, International Labour Office, Labour Market Policies Branch, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10508 Marie, Claude-Valentin. The EC member states and immigration in 1993: closed borders, stringent attitudes. Synthesis report of the Information Network on Migration from Third Countries (RIMET). ISBN 92-827-0093-3. 1995. 128 pp. European Commission, Directorate General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs: Luxembourg. In Eng.
This is a summary of reports from the 12 member countries of the European Community concerning immigration in 1993. It includes chapters on migration dynamics in general, the labor market, controlling the flows of international migration, and integration. Summaries of the 12 national reports are included in an appendix.
Correspondence: European Communities, Office for Official Publications, 2985 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10509 Martin, Philip M. Labor contractors: a conceptual overview. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2-3, 1996. 201-18 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of labor brokering or contracting that helps to explain why employers turn to foreign workers to fill certain vacant jobs, and how the presence of foreign workers brought to a country by labor contractors can affect the size and duration of migration flows. The major conclusion is that East Asian policies that aim to avoid the settlement of unskilled foreign workers also make labor brokering a prominent feature of labor migration and migrant labor markets in the region."
Correspondence: P. M. Martin, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10510 Martin, Philip M.; Mason, Andrew; Nagayama, Toshikazu. The dynamics of labor migration in Asia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2-3, 1996. 163-366 pp. Scalabrini Migration Center: Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This special issue includes papers presented in March 1996 at the Dynamics of Labor Migration in Asia seminar held as part of the Nihon University's International Symposium, `Life and the Earth in the 21st Century'." Aspects considered include overviews of labor migration in Asia, labor contracting, and the migration transition.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Scalabrini Migration Center, P.O. Box 10541 Broadway Centrum, 1113 Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10511 Massey, Douglas S.; Espinosa, Kristin E. What's driving Mexico-U.S. migration? A theoretical, empirical, and policy analysis. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 102, No. 4, Jan 1997. 939-99 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Using data gathered in 25 Mexican communities, the authors link individual acts of migration to 41 theoretically defined individual-, household-, community-, and macroeconomic-level predictors. The indicators vary through time to yield a discrete-time event-history analysis. Over the past 25 years, probabilities of first, repeat, and return migration have been linked more to the forces identified by social capital theory and the new economics of migration than to the cost-benefit calculations assumed by the neoclassical model. The authors find that Mexico-U.S. migration stems from three mutually reinforcing processes: social capital formation, human capital formation, and market consolidation."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:10512 Miller, Mark J.; Martin, Philip M. Prospects for cooperative management of international migration in the 21st century. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2-3, 1996. 175-99 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This essay attempts, first, to identify patterns and trends from an overview of the modern history of international migration. It examines, then, aspects of human agency and macro-systematic factors to sift for clues as to the future role of international migration and prospects for cooperation management of it. Finally, specific features of the regional migration system in Asia are identified, which will contribute to shape the future course of international migration."
Correspondence: M. J. Miller, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10513 Nascimbene, Mario C. The assimilation of Italians and their descendants in Argentine society (1880-1925). [La asimilación de los italianos y sus descendientes en la sociedad argentina (1880-1925).] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 33, No. 123, Sep 1996. 417-42 pp. Rome, Italy. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The impact of massive immigration in the post-1870 period produced major changes in...Argentine society. Integration of immigrant groups (Italians, Spaniards, the French and others) was nevertheless fiercely opposed by local elites. The essay is firstly concerned with size and development of immigration flows; secondly it deals with the characteristics of local reaction against the immigrants; thirdly it reveals how, in spite of the latter, the Italians' integration did take place in the Argentine middle classes. Finally, a particular case-study is presented, in connection with integration of immigrants and their descendants in the national army."
Correspondence: M. C. Nascimbene, Instituto de Desarrollo Economico y Social, Aráoz 2838, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10514 Nieminen, Mauri. Foreigners and international migration, 1995. [Ulkomaalaiset ja siirtolaisuus, 1995.] Väestö/Befolkning/Population, No. 1996:15, ISBN 951-727-284-7. 1997. 59 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng.
"This publication presents statistics on aliens living in Finland and on international migration in 1995. Most series in the publication were compiled from the period 1990-1995. The publication includes the main demographic data and basic employment statistics." An analysis of the characteristics of the foreign population is included.
For a prior report concerning 1994, see 62:30460.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, P.O. Box 3B, 00022 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10515 Okunishi, Yoshio. Labor contracting in international migration: the Japanese case and implications for Asia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2-3, 1996. 219-40 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This paper is intended to be a prelude of a study on intermediaries in international migration in Asia, based primarily on the Japanese case. In the next section, I introduce the legal framework of labor contracting in Japan....In Section 3, I pick up several actual examples of the channels of migrant workers coming to Japan. They are: (i) Japanese-descended migrant workers from Brazil, (ii) job-trainees from China, (iii) entertainers from the Philippines, (iv) `slavery' women from Thailand, and (v) workers smuggled from China by snake heads. This illustrates differences according to types of migrants, as well as common features across them. In Section 4, I try to explain the features by using simple economic concepts. Section 5 considers a broader Asian context. Section 6 concludes with a summary of major findings in this paper."
Correspondence: Y. Okunishi, Hosei University, 17-1 Fujimi 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10516 Olsson, Lars. Labor migration as a prelude to World War I. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 4, Winter 1996. 875-900 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"At the same time as the political tensions increased in Europe around 1900, an international labor market was developing. More and more proletarians from different parts of the continent searched for labor opportunities in the center of the agrarian and industrial capitalism. In several countries, including Russia, capitalists more and more actively recruited labor migrants for seasonal work. The labor migrants became a political issue as a part of the trade negotiations between Germany and Russia. Also, the Austrian colonization and political expansion in the Balkans can be looked upon in a perspective of (labor) migration. Class and ethnic conflicts coincided and escalated into an international conflict."
Correspondence: L. Olsson, Lund University, P.O. Box 117, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10517 Oslington, Paul. On the economic effects of immigration. Macquarie Economics Research Paper, No. 13/96, ISBN 1-86408-281-X. Dec 1996. 15 pp. Macquarie University, Department of Economics: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper brings some simple general equilibrium modelling with unemployment to bear on the question of the economic effects of immigration. Employment and taxation effects, rather than wage and distribution effects, are found to be crucial in determining the impact of immigration on the welfare of factor owners in the receiving country....Certain types of immigration are shown to be Pareto improving for the receiving country, without any need for lump sum transfers. Some simple simulations are carried out to illustrate the results. The results contrast sharply with findings of previous partial equilibrium and full employment studies, and have significant policy implications."
Correspondence: Macquarie University, Department of Economics, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Author's E-mail: paul.oslington@efs.mq.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10518 Pailhé, Joël; Guillon, Michelle. Immigrants and immigrants' children. [Immigrés et enfants d'immigrés.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1996. 169-546 pp. Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, U.F.R. de Géographie: Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This special issue includes papers presented at the Fourth Symposium in Demography, held in Poitiers, France, October 25-27, 1995. The topic of the symposium was immigrants and their children. The primary geographical focus is on France, but several papers examine the situation in other developed countries.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, U.F.R. de Géographie, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10519 Pellegrino, Adela. International migration in Latin America. [La migración internacional en América Latina.] Notas de Población, No. 62, Dec 1995. 177-210 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
Trends in international migration in Latin America are reviewed using data from published sources. Aspects considered include historical views; migration according to occupational status and educational level; migration to the United States; migration characteristics in different regions of Latin America; and the crisis of the 1980s and its impact on population distribution.
Correspondence: A. Pellegrino, Universidad de la República, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Avenida 18 de Julio 1968, 11200 Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10520 Pessar, Patricia R. Caribbean circuits: new directions in the study of Caribbean migration. ISBN 0-934733-94-5. LC 96-36181. 1997. 231 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of six studies by various authors on aspects of contemporary Caribbean migration, particularly concerning the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and the United States. "The volume's contributors present innovative ways of reconceptualizing and studying Caribbean emigration and return. The authors jettison the conventional, settler-sojourner model and recommend, instead, a more dynamic approach that affirms the transnational identities, processes, and structures that constitute contemporary Caribbean migration. Their accounts are enriched by an appreciation of the ways in which these identities and processes are inflected by differences of class, race, gender, generation, and locality. Finally in exploring the crucial link between Caribbean migration and economic development the contributors emphasize the social embeddedness of individual migrants' economic actions."
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10521 Quibria, M. G. International migration, remittances and income distribution in the source country: a synthesis. Bulletin of Economic Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jan 1997. 29-46 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The paper explores, under a wide variety of circumstances, the welfare impact of emigration. The analytical framework posited is a simple two-factor, two-commodity, two-class general equilibrium model that makes a distinction between traded and non-traded goods. The principal aim is to collect and synthesize the well-known results in the literature, derived from diverse analytical frameworks, as well as to establish a number of new ones. It is shown that pure emigration can be beneficial to the non-emigrants in the source country, irrespective of the welfare criteria adopted, if accompanied by sufficient remittances. The paper also highlights the fact that emigration does not affect all classes in society symmetrically. The division of losers and gainers depends on the volume of remittances, the distribution of factor endowments and the type of emigration."
Correspondence: M. G. Quibria, Asian Development Bank, Economics and Development Resource Center, 2330 Roxas Boulevard, Manila 2800, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10522 Reginato, Mauro. From Piedmont to the state of Espírito Santo: aspects of Italian emigration to Brazil in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. [Dal Piemonte allo stato di Espírito Santo: aspetti della emigrazione italiana in Brasile tra ottocento e novecento.] 1996. 339 pp. Regione Piemonte, Giunta Regionale: Turin, Italy; Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli: Turin, Italy; Società Italiana di Demografia Storica [SIDES]: Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Turin, Italy, September 22-23, 1995, on migration from Italy to the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries. The 18 papers are divided into three sections, which deal with sources and methodological issues, in-depth studies, and regional studies.
Correspondence: Regione Piemonte, Giunta Regionale, Turin, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10523 Simon, Julian L. On the economic consequences of immigration: lessons for immigration policies. In: Economic aspects of international migration, edited by Herbert Giersch. 1994. 227-48 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The economic impact of immigration on the countries of North America and Western Europe is examined, with particular emphasis on the tax-and-transfer aspects. The author concludes that "though high-skill immigrants have a stronger positive effect than low-skill immigrants do...there is no group of immigrants--no matter how small their educations--who have been shown to have a negative effect upon the economy." He therefore recommends policies that allow more immigrants or provide for an auction of potential immigrants if unrestricted immigration is not an option; and he suggests developing guest-worker programs as an alternative to illegal immigration.
Correspondence: J. L. Simon, University of Maryland, College of Business and Management, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10524 Söderling, Ismo. Attitudes of Finnish students towards immigrants. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 150-6 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The aim of the paper was to give answers to the following questions: What are the attitudes towards immigrants and demographic internationalism among the students in Finland? What are the main factors explaining the differences? How do the students fit into Berry's acculturation model (his model consists of four acculturation groups: integrated, assimilated, segregated, and marginalized groups)? The material was collected in May 1994....The results of the study indicated that Berry's model is also useful when categorizing the attitudes of the people of the host country...."
Correspondence: I. Söderling, Population Research Institute, P.O. Box 849, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10525 Srdic-Dakovic, Ljubica; Stojanovic, Lilijana. Development of Yugoslav external migrations. Yugoslav Survey, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1995. 55-82 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng.
"It has been estimated that more than 70 million people, from developing countries mostly, are employed outside their native countries, legally or illegally, that more than a million people emigrate on a permanent basis to other countries every year, that as many seek asylum and that more than 12 million refugees live outside their native countries. These estimates point at external migrations as a widely spread and growing phenomenon, with various important developmental, economic, political and humanitarian facets. Like almost all other countries, Yugoslavia too is affected by this global phenomenon and it has been in the world migratory trends for a long time now. Its entire territory was characterized by external migrations and some of its regions particularly by migration for economic reasons."
Correspondence: L. Srdic-Dakovic, Ministry of Labor, Public Health and Social Policy, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10526 Taylor, Alan M. Peopling the pampa: on the impact of mass migration to the River Plate, 1870-1914. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 34, No. 1, Jan 1997. 100-32 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
The impact of mass migration from Europe in the late nineteenth century on the Argentine economy is assessed. "This paper attempts an analysis of the impact of migration on the scale and structure of the Argentine economy and tries to resolve various competing hypotheses. The paper presents a new social accounting matrix (SAM) for Argentina and uses it to calibrate a CGE model. [The] results suggest that immigration enhanced Argentina's comparative advantage as a cereal producer and exporter, encouraged extensive growth on the pampa, and markedly lowered real wages."
Correspondence: A. M. Taylor, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10527 Thave, Suzanne. Statistical survey sources about immigrants in France. [Les sources statistiques d'études sur les immigrés en France.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1996. 197-214 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Sources of data on immigrants in France are described in this article. The focus is on the various records available at INSEE, the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies, and how they can be accessed.
Correspondence: S. Thave, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, Département de la Démographie, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10528 Tribalat, Michèle. The Geographic Mobility and Social Integration Survey: a challenge to customary practice in French data production. [L'enquête mobilité géographique et insertion sociale: remise en cause des habitudes statistiques françaises.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1996. 215-25 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In France, the study of migrations has been hampered by considerable inadequacies in the system of statistical production. This paper analyses the structural factors underlying this weakness, that is inadequate freedom for publicly-funded research, overwhelming presence of ideology and lack of interest in truly empirical methods. Such factors have meant that relatively little priority has been given to migration study and have delayed the emergence of methodological reflections. Thus it was natural that the INED (National Institute for Demographic Studies), who had worked in this way, should undertake the first large-scale random survey on immigrants or foreign origin populations in France."
Correspondence: M. Tribalat, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10529 Trincia, Luciano. Italian immigration into Imperial Germany up to World War I. [L'immigrazione italiana nell'Impero tedesco fino alla prima guerra mondiale.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 33, No. 123, Sep 1996. 370-91 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"A rapid growth, both economic and industrial, of the German Empire during the last decade of the nineteenth century...produced a major switch in Germany's status from that of a country of emigration to a country of immigration....The essay gives a concise description of the characteristics of Italian migration flows towards Germany, integration processes and chain migration patterns. The impact of immigration on the receiving country is...analyzed, both in terms of economic development and from a social, political and legal point of view."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10530 Vallat, Colette. The heel of Europe: sources, methods, and statistical categories regarding the immigrant population in Italy. [Le talon d'Europe: sources, méthodes et catégories statistiques regardant les populations immigrées en Italie.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1996. 271-83 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Italy has recently become an immigrant destination, but there is some difficulty in estimating the number of foreigners living in the Italian territory. Official estimates put it at 500,000, and more than twice this number if clandestine residents are counted. Population experts and academics doing research on the subject have had to work out new ways, official and direct or non-official and indirect, of counting the successive waves coming in from the Philippines, Cape Verde and Eastern Europe. Many foreign immigrants fit themselves into the highly-developed informal economy of the country; but many non-European citizens move on from Italy to other Schengen-signatory countries."
Correspondence: C. Vallat, Université Paris VII, Denis Diderot, U.F.R. de Géographie, Histoire et Sciences de la Société, 2 Place Jussieu, Case Courrier 7001, 75259 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10531 van den Broeck, Julien. The economics of labour migration. ISBN 1-85898-311-8. LC 95-36675. 1996. xiii, 200 pp. Edward Elgar Publishing: Brookfield, Vermont/Cheltenham, England. In Eng.
The chapters in this book are a selection from papers presented at a conference on labor migration held in Antwerp, Belgium, November 4, 1994; the meeting was the fifteenth annual conference of the Belgian-Dutch Association of Post-Keynesian Studies. The first chapter, by Russell King, puts migration into its historical perspective, and argues that labor migration has played a key role over the course of history. The second, by Bimal Ghosh, looks at the economic aspects of labor migration from the perspective of the sending countries. Vernon Briggs looks at the impact of labor migration on receiving countries, and examines immigrants and efficiency in labor markets, the inclusion of equity issues into public policy, and the impact of social policy. Finally, Heinz Werner analyzes the process of economic integration in the European Union and its relation to international labor migration, and considers the prospects for developing an immigration policy at the communal, as opposed to the national, level.
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, 8 Landsdown Place, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire GL50 2HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10532 Verduzco Igartúa, Gustavo. Mexican migration to the United States: review of a historical process. [La migración mexicana a Estados Unidos: recuento de un proceso histórico.] Estudios Sociológicos, Vol. 13, No. 39, Sep-Dec 1995. 573-94 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author reviews historical trends in migration from Mexico to the United States. The focus is on the importance of Mexican workers who became part of the industrial work force at the beginning of the twentieth century. The composition of the present-day migrant flow, including undocumented workers, is described. The impact of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act is discussed, and possible causes of illegal migration are considered.
Correspondence: G. Verduzco Igartúa, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Sociológicos, Camino al Ajusco 20, Col. Pedregal de Santa Teresa, C.P. 10740 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10533 Waldinger, Roger. From Ellis Island to LAX: immigrant prospects in the American city. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 4, Winter 1996. 1,078-86 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article seeks to bring the `urban' back into immigration research. Each immigrant receiving area has its own particular group of newcomers, and the economic and political structures of the immigrant receiving areas are also distinctive. Those structures are not all determining, as immigrant trajectories are shaped by the interaction between distinctive urban institutions and the specific characteristics of the relevant ethnic groups. But in the last analysis, the urban context makes a difference, as this study shows by examining the leading [U.S.] immigrant destinations--New York and Los Angeles."
Correspondence: R. Waldinger, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10534 Weil, François. French migration to the Americas in the 19th and 20th centuries as a historical problem. Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 33, No. 123, Sep 1996. 443-60 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"How do we account for the fact that so little is known of the patterns of French emigration to, and settlement in the Americas?...If the silence of the historians cannot be adequately and simply explained by the modesty of the flow, it becomes necessary to delve deeper into the reasons which account for this silence....I suggest that a reconceptualization of French emigration along the lines of a transatlantic, comparative analysis will not only enlighten the history of the migrants themselves...but will also enrich our vision of the social history of France and of the receiving countries."
Correspondence: F. Weil, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 54 boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10535 Zang, Xiaowei; Hassan, Riaz. Residential choices of immigrants in Australia. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 4, 1996. 567-82 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In recent years Asian-Australians, especially those born in Indochina, have become a target of criticism by anti-immigration groups which accuse them of choosing to live only in `closed societies' and `ethnic ghettos' in Australian cities....Evidence presented in the article shows clearly that while immigrant groups may prefer to settle in close proximity of their family and kin for practical and/or emotional reasons, their preference is not ethnically determined....We also show that affordability, closeness to spouse's work, and neighbourhood services, rather than family and social contacts, are important factors for Asian-born immigrants when they move."
Correspondence: X. Zang, Flinders University of South Australia, Department of Sociology, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10536 Zimmermann, Klaus F. Some general lessons for Europe's migration problem. In: Economic aspects of international migration, edited by Herbert Giersch. 1994. 249-73 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
In Section I, the author articulates two demographic factors that will determine the availability of human resources in Europe at the turn of the century: a continued decline in fertility that will lead to labor shortages, and an increase in migration pressures from non-EC countries. "Section II summarizes some stylized facts of aging and migration in Europe and West Germany, stating that Germany can serve as an important reference case because (i) its labor force is aging considerably, (ii) it has experienced a large inflow of immigrants in recent decades, and (iii) it seems to be attractive [on the basis of] current economic conditions. Section III outlines the European migration problem, where it is discussed to what extent this problem can be approached with lessons [from] North America. Section IV summarizes the papers in the volume and outlines what can be learned [that is relevant to] the European migration problem. Section V concludes."
Correspondence: K. F. Zimmermann, Universität München, Ludwigstraße 28rg, 80539 Munich, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

63:10537 Anyanwu, Sarah O. An empirical analysis of motivations for mobility in Nigeria. Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1993. 125-38 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to identify the factors that influence motivations for migration among the migrants [in Nigeria] (push and pull factors). The empirical results from the national survey of internal migration on which this study is based showed that the differences observed in the weights migrants attached to motivations for migration were statistically significant and did not just occur by chance. Though both the push and pull factors were important in explaining migration [decisions], the push factors were more important in the decision to migrate than the pull factors. This calls for a more comprehensive and coherent attention on the push factors in government efforts to stem anti-developmental migration patterns in Nigeria."
Correspondence: S. O. Anyanwu, Federal University of Technology, Department of Management Sciences, Yola, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:10538 Aubry, Bernard. Internal mobility of foreigners and immigrants. [La mobilité interne des étrangers et des immigrés.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1996. 299-303 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Migration flows for the total population have been the subject of a great number of studies. Migration flows relating to foreigners within national borders, on the other hand, have not been widely examined. And yet we can legitimately ask what the role of such migration flows is on the distribution of foreigners within the country. After a brief analysis of the mobility rates between census years for the main nationality groupings, we present an analytical method which shows that, as far as the regions in the south of France are concerned, migration flows have had a minimal effect on the fall in numbers of foreigners and immigrants registered over the last few years."
Correspondence: B. Aubry, INSEE-Alsace, Cité administrative, 2 rue de l'Hôpital Militaire, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10539 Boyle, Paul. Modelling population movement into the Scottish highlands and islands from the remainder of Britain, 1990-1991. Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol. 111, No. 1, 1995. 5-12 pp. Glasgow, Scotland. In Eng.
"In this analysis, data are used from the 1991 Census Special Migration Statistics to model the migration flows into the Scottish highlands and islands, from the remainder of Britain, between 1990 and 1991. A Poisson regression approach is used to identify the origins of unusually large flows into this broad destination area, and to introduce origin-based explanatory variables which help to explain the factors influencing these flows. The flows into this area which originate in Scotland are contrasted with those which originate in England and Wales and the findings suggest that middle class in-migration from southern England continues to be a significant element of population change in this remote rural destination."
Correspondence: P. Boyle, University of Wales, Department of Geography, Migration Unit, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

63:10540 Cai, Fang. Causes, trends, and policy of population migration and the floating population. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1996. 179-91 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper maintains that the special motive force behind the current migration within China is caused by the population distribution pattern in the country and by a deformed industrial structure born of the long-followed strategy of giving priority to the development of heavy industry. Added to this motive force is the gap between urban and rural areas in terms of income, which has constantly widened ever since reform. An analysis [of] the characteristics of migration shows that the migratory process is in step with the laws of economic growth and market development and is therefore inevitable. Finally, this paper presents a prediction of future trends and possible directions of policies."
Correspondence: F. Cai, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Demographic Research, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10541 Cheng, Li. Surplus rural laborers and internal migration in China: current status and future prospects. Asian Survey, Vol. 36, No. 11, Nov 1996. 1,122-45 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"This essay endeavors to present an overview of the issues concerning China's surplus rural laborers and internal migration by addressing some basic questions. How many surplus rural laborers does China have? Why has there been such a massive increase in the number of Chinese peasants who want to leave their farmland during the past decade? How many surplus rural laborers have joined the so-called `floating population'? What is the main direction of China's internal migration? What measures can the government take to respond to the pressure, with what costs and consequences? And what changes need to take place within the country to accommodate the migrant population?" Data are from various Chinese sources, many of which have only recently become available.
Correspondence: L. Cheng, Hamilton College, Department of Government, Clinton, NY 13323. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:10542 Dilling-Hansen, Mogens; Smith, Valdemar. Migration between Danish regions. [Regional mobilitet i Danmark.] Nationaløkonomisk Tidsskrift, Vol. 134, No. 3, 1996. 257-71 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper deals with gross migration between Danish regions. Migration is interpreted as the result of differences in labour market conditions in various regions, i.e. as a special case of hiring in which a job-seeker in one region is matched to a job in another region. In the empirical part of the paper a regression model is estimated using annual data for 14 Danish counties covering the period 1981-1993. The migration rate is influenced by factors such as unemployment, vacancy rates and other economic factors such as wages and prices. Finally, the influence of spatial factors is discussed."
Correspondence: M. Dilling-Hansen, Århus Universitet, Økonomisk Institut, Building 350, 8000 Århus C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10543 Elliott, James R. Cycles within the system: metropolitanisation and internal migration in the U.S., 1965-90. Urban Studies, Vol. 34, No. 1, Jan 1997. 21-41 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses a typology of local metropolitan development to examine population redistribution trends in the U.S. over the past three decades. Theories of systemic maturation and urban life-cycles are discussed and evaluated. Analysis of population and inter-county migration data reveals that localised deconcentration has become an increasingly common sub-process of metropolitanisation, but that this sub-process cannot be fully explained by a life-cycle model of metropolitan development. More importantly, results indicate that metro-based migration varies significantly with local patterns of metropolitanisation. The nature of this variation implies that declining metropolitan areas tend to redistribute migrants to relatively distant metropolitan and non-metropolitan territory in a manner consistent with extended processes of population deconcentration."
Correspondence: J. R. Elliott, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:10544 Ferrie, Joseph P. A new sample of males linked from the Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1850 U.S. federal census of population to the 1860 U.S. federal census manuscript schedules. Historical Methods, Vol. 29, No. 4, Fall 1996. 141-56 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article describes a new sample of 4,938 males linked from the new [U.S.] Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) of the 1850 federal census of population to the manuscript schedules of the 1860 federal census of population....After reviewing the existing work on individuals linked across the 1850s, I describe the collection of the new sample in detail. I then use these data to examine the geographic mobility of the population (in particular, movement to the western frontier). The Appendix contains new life tables for the 1850s--based on manuscript data from the mortality schedules of the 1850 census--that were used to estimate how many survivors could be expected between 1850 and 1860 in the linkage process."
Correspondence: J. P. Ferrie, Northwestern University, Department of Economics, Evanston, IL 06208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10545 Gang, Ira N.; Stuart, Robert C. Urban to urban migration: Soviet patterns and post-Soviet implications. Comparative Economic Studies, Vol. 38, No. 1, Spring 1996. 21-36 pp. East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
"In spite of extensive literature on migration in the Soviet Union, we know little about household-level decisions. This study specifies and estimates those variables important to understanding the migration decision. Using data from the Soviet Interview Project (SIP), we examine the forces influencing the decision to migrate or not to migrate, and in addition, for those who did migrate, the forces influencing the locational choices made. The results indicate that, while some of the traditional factors influencing migration are important, others are not, suggesting that in the post-Soviet era, differentiating the persistence of Soviet-type forces from emerging market-type forces will be important for an understanding of urban to urban migration."
Correspondence: I. N. Gang, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10546 Gedik, Ayse. Internal migration in Turkey, 1965-1985: test of some conflicting findings in the literature. Working Papers in Demography, No. 66, 1996. 28, [2] pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to bring new insights to some of the conflicting findings in the migration literature about the developing countries, by the analysis of the Turkish migration data between 1965-85. The possible reasons behind these inconsistencies in the findings are explained firstly in terms of spatial and temporal characteristics of the data (mainly whether it includes intra-regional migration and whether it measures migration during a specified period of life-time migration, and whether it aggregates various different types of migration); and secondly by national macro factors (mainly the level of urbanization and the characteristics of Turkey's urban systems)."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10547 Johnson, Hans P.; Lovelady, Richard. Migration between California and other states: 1985-1994. Nov 1995. 44 pp. California State Library, California Research Bureau: Sacramento, California; California Department of Finance, Demographic Research Unit: Sacramento, California. In Eng.
"In this paper, we seek to provide a comprehensive summary of domestic migration, providing answers to basic questions about how many people move domestically to and from California each year, as well as providing information on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of those domestic migrants." Several alternative estimates of the number of such migrants for the period 1985-1994 are developed and evaluated.
Correspondence: California State Library, California Research Bureau, 900 N Street, Suite 300, Sacramento, CA 95814. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10548 Jurcová, Danusa. A new migration situation in the Slovak Republic. [Nová migracná situácia v Slovenskej republike.] Demografie, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1996. 18-25 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes "migration of the population in the Slovak Republic during 1980-1993. The emphasis has especially been laid upon the changes of migration tendencies...due to changed social and economic conditions."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10549 Kundu, Amitabh; Gupta, Shalini. Migration, urbanisation and regional inequality. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 31, No. 52, Dec 28, 1996. 3,391-8 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"An analysis of migration patterns [in India] using data (on male migrants) from the census indicates a slowing down of population mobility over the decades since independence. This article focuses on the dynamics of migration and urbanisation in the context of the changing structure of economic development." The focus is on internal migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10550 Liang, Zai; White, Michael J. Market transition, government policies, and interprovincial migration in China: 1983-1988. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jan 1997. 321-39 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Using nationally representative data from the 1988 China 2/1,000 Fertility and Birth Control Survey, this article examines the impact of economic reform and rural enterprises on the different forms of mobility in China during 1983-88. Central to our endeavor is the measurement of the impact of economic development, foreign capital investment, and rural enterprises on interprovincial migration." The results confirm that migrants are more likely to move out of provinces with a large population and lower levels of economic development.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Z. Liang, City University of New York, Queens College, Department of Sociology, 65-30 Kissena Boulevard, Flushing, NY 11367-1597. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:10551 McCleery, Alison; Forbes, Jean; Forster, Emma. Deciding to move home: a preliminary analysis of household migration behaviour in Scotland. Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol. 112, No. 3, Nov 1996. 158-68 pp. Glasgow, Scotland. In Eng.
"This paper examines data from a mainland Scotland survey of household migration into owner-occupied properties identified from the Register of Sasines. Plotting of movements reveals migration patterns, but of arguably greater interest are the increasingly segmented and largely unexplored household decisions which drive migration. The purpose of the survey was to reveal something of these migration processes. Overview results presented here confirm that most moves are short distance, reasons for moving differ according to distance travelled, and although employment remains important for long-distance moves, its significance has declined in favour of quality of life considerations."
Correspondence: A. McCleery, Napier University, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, Edinburgh EH10 5DT, Scotland. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

63:10552 Mencarini, Letizia. Internal migration in Italy: an overview of studies in the early 1990s. [Rassegna degli studi sulla mobilità interna italiana nei primi anni `90.] Genus, Vol. 52, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 173-88 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author examines "the content of the studies mentioned in the bibliography in order to [investigate]...both the most recent general tendencies of short and long distance migrations [in Italy]. Economic variables appear to have lost a good deal of their explanatory capacity on behalf of causal factors linked with the `life cycle'. Also mentioned are the main conceptual categories used in order to define the consequences of migrations on the spatial distribution of populations: so-called `atomistic' settlement models, based on administrative units, are now in competition with the growing importance of `functional' models, based on pull areas."
Correspondence: L. Mencarini, Università di Firenze, Dipartimento Statistico, V. le Morgagni 59, 50139 Florence, Italy. E-mail: mencarin@stat.ds.unifi.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10553 Myers, Dowell; Lee, Seong Woo; Choi, S. Simon. Constraints of housing age and migration on residential mobility. Professional Geographer, Vol. 49, No. 1, Feb 1997. 14-28 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the role of housing age in constraining residential mobility, measured as the percent of households that have moved into their homes in the past 15 months. The leading explanation for why mobility rates differ so much among regions of the United States has been the overall level of growth. The present analysis shows that the growth effect operates through both the newness of population (migration) and the newness of housing available for occupancy by all local residents. The posited explanation for this housing age effect is that progressively older units contain increasingly settled occupants, yielding fewer opportunities for in-movers in areas with older housing. It is empirically demonstrated that households in older housing have lower likelihood of recent mobility even after controlling for age, tenure, migration status, and state location of residence. The analysis reveals the temporal interdependency of mobility, migration, person age, and housing age."
Correspondence: D. Myers, University of Southern California, School of Urban Planning and Development, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0042. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

63:10554 Newbold, K. Bruce. Race and primary, return, and onward interstate migration. Professional Geographer, Vol. 49, No. 1, Feb 1997. 1-14 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses the U.S. 1990 Public Use Micro Sample to characterize the 1985-1990 primary, return, and onward interstate migration patterns....Major migration streams, migration rates, and net migration are evaluated for each migrant type and compared for blacks and whites. Overall, the migration patterns of blacks resemble those of whites, with an attraction to the South and the Southwest and movement out of the Northeast and the Midwest. Some differences were observed, however, between the two races. Return migration rates were somewhat higher for black migrants as compared with whites, and onward migration rates were lower. Black primary out-migrants represented a larger proportion of the total flows from the southern states as compared with white out-migrant flows, and they represented a larger share of the out-migrants from the rust belt states. The major migration streams also had different regional and national patterns by race and migrant type."
Correspondence: K. B. Newbold, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, 607 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

63:10555 Otomo, Atsushi. Trends of mobility and flows of spatial moves of population in postwar Japan. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 19, May 1996. 5-18 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
This paper describes "the trends of mobility and flows of not only the internal migration of population but also the commutation of population between the place of residence and the place of work or school...for the postwar period until the early 1990s, using chiefly the statistics from the national population censuses and the basic resident registers. The main discussions are made not only upon the changes in the patterns of migratory flows between metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions or within a metropolitan region in internal migration, but also upon the association between internal migration and commutation of population within a metropolitan region, in particular, within Tokyo metropolitan region."
Correspondence: A. Otomo, 4-503 Goryocho 9-30, Higashimatsuyama-shi, Saitama 355, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

63:10556 Pooley, Colin G.; Turnbull, Jean. Migration and mobility in Britain from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. Local Population Studies, No. 57, Autumn 1996. 50-71 pp. Colchester, England. In Eng.
"Between December 1993 and September 1995 a total of 1,388 respondents [in Britain] provided useable information on 16,091 individuals born between 1750 and 1930 who had undertaken a total of 73,864 recorded residential moves during their lifetimes. These data have now been analysed and this article reports some of the key results of the project....The paper simply summarizes some of the key findings which challenge or refine existing knowledge on migration in the past."
Correspondence: C. G. Pooley, Lancaster University, Department of Geography, Lancaster LA1 4YB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10557 Prasad, Rajiva; Gupta, Kamla. Pattern and causes of migration to New Bombay. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 17, 1994-1995. xv, 86 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"As New Bombay is located in close proximity to Greater Bombay city, it is expected that it would have attracted a large population from Greater Bombay. Since it is a planned city it is also expected that the living condition will be better in New Bombay....The specific objectives of the study are as follows: 1. to study the socio-economic and demographic profile of the population living in New Bombay. 2. To study the pattern and causes of migration to New Bombay and 3. To study the availability of different infrastructural services and amenities in New Bombay."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Department of Migration and Urban Studies, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10558 Rice, Tom W.; Pepper, Meredith L. Region, migration, and attitudes in the United States. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 1, Mar 1997. 83-95 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
Data from the Cumulative General Social Surveys for the period 1972-1994 are used to compare attitudes of U.S. white migrants who have moved away from and to the South. The results indicate that "nonsoutherners who have moved to the South hold almost the same values as other nonsoutherners, suggesting that these migrants have not adopted southern opinions. Southerners who have relocated outside the South, however, hold attitudes that are closer to those of nonsoutherners than to those of southerners. This pattern persists when the data are segmented into two periods, 1972-1983 and 1984-1994." The authors conclude that "placed in the framework of the theoretical literature on migration, southern migrants seem to be assimilating into nonsouthern culture and nonsouthern migrants appear to be retaining their views, leaving the South a more pluralistic region."
Correspondence: T. W. Rice, Iowa State University, Department of Political Science, Ames, IA 50010. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10559 Sandu, Dumitru; De Jong, Gordon F. Migration in market and democracy transition: migration intentions and behavior in Romania. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 5-6, Dec 1996. 437-57 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the determinants of migration decision-making in the context of recent market and democratic transition in Romania. Using early 1990s internal migration survey, census and population register data, the results from Lisrel path models show that market and democracy value orientation variables are significant determinants of intentions to move, controlling for individual and regional social structural and resource indicators. Similarly, district-level out-migration behavior is directly determined by the political profile of the local area. Results from the total and disaggregated rural and urban models are interpreted through a reform values and characteristics typology of migrants. At least in the early stages of Romanian transition, the results indicate that migration choice behavior is governed by a search for places with greatest opportunities in terms of market and democracy returns. Implications of the results for political system and public policy decision are discussed."
Correspondence: G. F. De Jong, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10560 Sayed, Hussein A. A.; El Zanaty, Fatma H.; Zaky, Hassan H. M.; Armanious, Dina M. Estimates of net-internal migration during 1976-1986 period. In: Annual Conference on Statistics, Computer Science and Operations Research. Vol. 27, 1992. 67-91 pp. Cairo University, Institute of Statistical Studies and Research: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This study is concerned with estimating net-internal migration [in Egypt] during the intercensal period (1976-1986) using the vital statistics approach. This depends on comparing population growth and natural increase during the same period. In addition, the differences in the streams of migration between the 1976 and 1986 Population Censuses are examined, using...lifetime migration data."
Correspondence: H. A. A. Sayed, Cairo University, Department of Economics and Political Sciences, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10561 Shauman, Kimberlee A.; Xie, Yu. Geographic mobility of scientists: sex differences and family constraints. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 4, Nov 1996. 455-68 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study examines the argument that the higher prevalence of two-career marriages among women scientists presents a significant impediment to their geographic mobility. Three hypotheses are developed and tested. First, scientists in two-career families are less likely to migrate than scientists in one-career families. Second, the effect of two-career marriages on the probability of migration differs with gender; women are affected more negatively. Third, the effect of children on the probability of migration differs with gender; women are affected more negatively. The empirical work uses a data set of doctoral scientists extracted from the 5% Public Use Microdata Sample from the 1990 [U.S.] census. The first two hypotheses are not confirmed by the empirical results, but we find evidence supporting the third. Family constraints on women scientists' careers generally appear to be weak, but become acute when they have children."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. A. Shauman, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1382. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10562 Tunali, Insan. Migration and remigration of male household heads in Turkey, 1963-1973. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 45, No. 1, Oct 1996. 31-67 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this article, I offer evidence from the 1963-73 period regarding the determinants of individual migration and remigration decisions within Turkey....First, I analyze the impact of regional and macroeconomic variables on migration status at the same time that I control for a rich set of personal characteristics, including information on past migration histories....Second, I formally introduce remigration as an option available at the time the initial migration decision is made....Third, I conduct a systematic study of the determinants of various types of migration and remigration....Fourth, I show how the microeconometric evidence can be used to entertain counterfactuals that would help investigate the policy implications of the findings."
Correspondence: I. Tunali, Koç University, Çayir Cad. Istinye, 80860 Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10563 Wang, Guixin. An examination of the regional pattern of interprovincial migration in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1996. 269-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper is a quantitative study, using factor analysis--a multi-variable analysis approach--to examine the geographic pattern of interprovincial migration in the second half of [the] 1980s (1985-1990) in China. The first step is to draw in-migration areas...and out-migration areas...separately from their corresponding parent groups. The next step is to use correlation analysis and factor analysis to re-divide and reconstruct the population into circles of migration according to the migratory characteristics shared by origin and destination areas. The focal regions of migration are also determined."
Correspondence: G. Wang, East China Normal University, Population Research Institute, 3663 Zhongshan Road North, Shanghai 200062, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

63:10564 Hamid, Gamal M. Population displacement in the Sudan: patterns, responses, coping strategies. ISBN 0-934733-96-1. LC 96-26307. 1996. xv, 196 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The massive population displacements that have occurred in recent years in the Sudan, and that are associated with drought, famine, and civil war, are analyzed in this study. "This book has three objectives: to analyze the root causes and implications of population displacement; to investigate the coping strategies of displaced households, and the constraints that affect their lives and livelihoods; and to evaluate the effectiveness of institutional responses to displacement. Elements of an alternative approach to deal with displacement, and its ramifications, are proposed."
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10565 Keely, Charles B. How nation-states create and respond to refugee flows. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 4, Winter 1996. 1,046-66 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The ideal type of political organization is the nation-state, which leads to a presumption of state legitimacy when the state represents a community, based on ethnic origin or shared political values, that claims a right to persist. A nation-state tends to produce forced migration for three reasons: it contains more than one nation; the populace disagrees about the structure of the state or economy; or the state implodes due to the lack of resources. This paper elaborates a theory of refugee production and policy formation based on the dynamics of the nation-state. It concludes by addressing international refugee policy and practice in light of this theory and political changes following the end of the cold war."
Correspondence: C. B. Keely, Georgetown University, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10566 Kirisçi, Kemal. Refugees of Turkish origin: "coerced immigrants" to Turkey since 1945. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1996. 385-412 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"While several studies (in both Turkish and English) have been made on migration to the Ottoman Empire from the Caucasus and the Balkans during the nineteenth century...very little systematic and comprehensive research on migration has been undertaken on the period since the establishment of the Turkish Republic. This article, which aims to partially fill the gap, is divided into three parts: the issue of national refugees (refugees of Turkish origin) in relation to Turkey's overall refugee policy; Turkey's policy towards national refugees; and the volume and causes of refugee migration to Turkey since 1945."
Correspondence: K. Kirisçi, Bogaziçi University, Department of Political Science, 80815 Bebek, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10567 Koser, Khalid. Information and refugee migration: the case of Mozambicans in Malawi. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 87, No. 5, 1996. 407-18 pp. Utrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Despite increasing prominence in international population movements, refugee migration is a poorly understood social and spatial process. Common assumptions about refugee migration have rarely been empirically tested. This article focuses attention on the migration decision-making process of refugees. Its conceptual basis is that the decision making of refugees can be critically compared with that of other migrants. An analytical framework is suggested which focuses on the receipt and evaluation of information about prospective destinations in the decision-making process. It is tested in the context of Mozambican refugees in Malawi in 1992 and 1993. Analysis shows that this framework achieves a qualified success in explaining the patterns and processes of migration of the study population, and suggests broader applications for the framework."
Correspondence: K. Koser, University of Utrecht, European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10568 Zhang, Maolin; Zhang, Zhiliang. Assessment of the overall effect of migration: the Hexi corridor irrigation and migrant settlement project. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1996. 143-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The Shule River Valley migration [in China], which involved 200,000 migrants, was arranged for the purpose of helping the poor as part of the economic development plan. Its success or failure will have a tremendous impact on the agricultural development in the Shule River Valley and the economy, communities, and ecosystem in the Gansu Province in the years to come. Therefore, assessment of the expected result of this large-scale migration should be a crucial part of [a] feasibility study on migration. Since certain effects will not be seen until a period of time after the migration is completed, the economic, social, and ecological effects of this migration are assessed partially on the basis of prior migration."
Correspondence: M. Zhang, Lanzhou University, Research Center on Northwest Migration, 78 Tianshui Road, 730000 Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

63:10569 Aly, Hassan Y.; Shields, Michael P. A model of temporary migration: the Egyptian case. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1996. 431-47 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article, a family migration model is introduced where differences in regional amenities and wage rates can result in voluntary, temporary migration. A household production model of temporary migration will be developed and tested to analyse Egyptian temporary migration to the Gulf region. The theoretical model will be a two-period model of temporary migration and will be empirically tested using the well known and comprehensive 1982 Egyptian Fertility Survey, which is part of the World Fertility Survey and covers a period for which temporary migration from Egypt was at or near its peak. This was also before the Gulf War, after which patterns of migration were different."
Correspondence: H. Y. Aly, Ohio State University, Department of Economics, 142A Morrill Hall, 1465 Mt. Vernon Avenue, Marion, OH 43302. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10570 Beenstock, Michael. Failure to absorb: remigration by immigrants into Israel. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 4, Winter 1996. 950-78 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Hypotheses about remigration by immigrants are investigated using longitudinal data from the 1970s for immigrants to Israel. The main finding is that experience of unemployment during the first year in Israel does not, on the whole, help predict subsequent remigration. The propensity to remigrate varies inversely with age for most groups, and it increases if the immigrant has not acquired permanent housing. Immigrants on temporary resident visas are naturally more prone to remigrate in the short run. The well-educated and the young are more likely to be temporary residents."
Correspondence: M. Beenstock, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, 91 905 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10571 Shumway, J. Matthew; Hall, Greg. Self-selection, earnings and Chicano migration: differences between return and onward migrants. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 4, Winter 1996. 979-94 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to extend the empirical literature on Chicano return migration by examining earnings differentials between return and onward Chicano migrants. Our approach reflects the complexity of estimating such effects in terms of selectivity biases and the interaction between individual and locational attributes. We use data derived from the public use microdata sample (PUMS) of the 1990 U.S. census. After controlling for migration and labor force self-selection, results indicate that Chicano return migrants are not negatively self-selected. Chicano return migrants have smaller earnings profiles largely due to the negative effects of living in areas with higher concentrations of co-ethnics. Apparently, return migrants, at least in the short run, are willing to accept lower earnings for the nonpecuniary benefits of living in the Southwest."
Correspondence: J. M. Shumway, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10572 Yadava, K. N. S.; Yadava, Surendar S.; Singh, P. K.; Sinha, R. K. Return-migration: differentials and expectancies. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 33, No. 1, Apr 1996. 79-91 pp. Joensuu, Finland. In Eng.
"The first part of the present paper deals with the socio-economic differentials of return-migration, and the second part discusses the measurement and calculation of the expected duration of the stay of rural out-migrants in urban areas for different age groups. The data for the analysis have been taken from a sample survey, and a re-survey, conducted in the rural areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh in India. In order to study the characteristics of return-migrants, the data on return-migration have been analyzed according to age, education, and occupation categories. Variation in the process of return migration, if any, with respect to village types is also discussed."
Correspondence: K. N. S. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

63:10573 Beladi, Hamid; Marjit, Sugata. An analysis of rural-urban migration and protection. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 29, No. 4, Nov 1996. 930-40 pp. Downsview, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper a Harris-Todaro migration model is developed with the urban manufacturing sector supplying a crucial input for the rural sector. Capital is region specific but flows freely between two urban sectors. Final goods are traded and have exogenously fixed prices. If this economy imposes a tariff on the import-competing manufacturing sector, employment might go down even if the protected sector is labour intensive. The paper describes how intersectoral linkages can play a significant role in determining the employment effects of a tariff."
Correspondence: H. Beladi, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10574 Bora, R. S. Himalayan migration: a study of the hill region of Uttar Pradesh. Studies in Economic Development and Planning, No. 62, ISBN 0-8039-9310-2. LC 96-6135. 1996. 195 pp. AltaMira Press: Walnut Creek, California; Institute of Economic Growth: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is an analysis of out-migration from the hill region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The data are from a survey of 524 households undertaken in the area of migrant origin in 1985, and from interviews of 110 migrants from this region carried out in Delhi, the capital city. The focus of the study is on the impact of migration on the region of origin. The author analyzes the volume, destination, and characteristics of migrants from this region; the socioeconomic factors that influence them to migrate; and the importance of return migration. The results suggest that the out-migration of relatively young, well-educated males has a negative impact on the economy of both the region as a whole and on that of the individual families concerned.
Correspondence: AltaMira, 1630 North Main Street, Suite 367, Walnut Creek, CA 94596. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10575 Canales Cerón, Alejandro. Agrarian change and regional settling in Chile. [Cambio agrario y poblamiento regional en Chile.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1996. 173-96, 219 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This study analyzes the effect of agrarian change on regional settling dynamics in Chile during the last 35 years. The transformations of agrarian structure have produced important changes in the spatial configuration of country-city relations, particularly regarding the new features of rural-urban migration in regional contexts. Whereas until the sixties rural-urban migration was associated with an occupational shift from agriculture to urban employment, after the seventies this relation practically disappeared, leaving a virtual disassociation between the territorial mobility of the population and the occupational mobility of the labor force. This disassociation is a central trait of the current regional pattern of country-city relations."
Correspondence: A. Canales Cerón, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10576 Geyer, H. S.; Kontuly, T. M. Differential urbanization: integrating spatial models. ISBN 0-340-66286-7. LC 96-26231. 1996. viii, 344 pp. Arnold: London, England; John Wiley and Sons: New York, New York. In Eng.
This book presents a selection of readings on counterurbanization and polarization reversal and includes sections on both developed and developing countries. The focus is on trends in migration and spatial distribution after 1970.
Correspondence: Arnold, 338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10577 Halliday, Joyce; Coombes, Mike. In search of counterurbanisation: some evidence from Devon on the relationship between patterns of migration and motivation. Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 11, No. 4, Oct 1995. 433-46 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The term counterurbanisation is frequently used to describe the redistribution of a population away from major cities and metropolitan areas and towards more rural areas. The widespread nature of this phenomenon has attracted much attention, yet the concept remains relatively under-developed, and even the basic definition lacks rigour. It is not surprising, therefore, that there has been a lack of cumulative evidence as to the extent of the process and little agreement as to its significance. In essence, ambiguity surrounds the types of movement that should be admitted, the necessary motives for movement and the appropriate measures for both. This paper offers some preliminary suggestions for a more structured approach to the problem. It draws on original survey data from Devon [England], a county which has experienced substantial net in-migration, both to examine the contribution of three alternative definitions of counterurbanisation and to consider how these issues relate to motivation."
Correspondence: J. Halliday, University of Exeter, Department of Geography, Exeter EX4 4RJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10578 Heikkilä, Elli. New patterns of spatial distribution of the population in Kainuu, Finland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 184-92 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"Migration is a process of long duration, which reflects the migrant's needs and values. The causes of migration relate to the physical and social environments, and these factors can be described by push and pull theories. The probability of moving to a specific location depends on the differential attractiveness of the various regions available to the migrant. The rise of the turnaround phenomenon in migration in the developed countries has been explained by changes in the place-preference value system. Migration to the countryside has focused on areas within easy access of the main built-up areas in Kainuu, Finland."
Correspondence: E. Heikkilä, University of Oulu, Research Institute of Northern Finland, Seminaenikatu 2, 87100 Kajaani, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10579 Henkel, Karl. Agricultural structure changes and migration in eastern Amazonia (Pará, Brazil). [Agrarstrukturwandel und Migration im östlichen Amazonien (Pará, Brasilien).] Tübinger Geographische Studien, No. 112, ISBN 3-88121-017-2. 1994. xiv, 474 pp. Universität Tübingen, Geographisches Institut: Tübingen, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Por.
"The Amazon region in Pará State, Brazil...is characterized by a high mobility of the rural population to the main cities and to the frontiers. This thesis is an analysis of the rural problems, the agricultural sector, the characteristics and the social situation of eastern Amazonia, with special focus on the Salgado, Bragantina and Guajarina regions. An initial [survey of 201 subjects] was carried out [among] the migrant population now living in the cities to establish their former problems in the rural areas. A second [survey of 72 subjects] was carried out in the rural area to ascertain the problems for rural development." In addition, 646 young people were surveyed on their attitudes toward agriculture and migration. "The main reasons for rural-urban migration are based on the poor transportation system and school situation....[In addition,] the agricultural system influences the migration rate." The author concludes that "a development of the rural areas is impossible for many years, as long as the present political situation remains."
Correspondence: Universität Tübingen, Geographisches Institut, Hölderlinstraße 12, 72074 Tübingen, Germany. Location: Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.

63:10580 Lattes, Alfredo E. Urbanization, urban growth, and migration in Latin America. [Urbanización, crecimiento urbano y migraciones en América Latina.] Notas de Población, No. 62, Dec 1995. 211-60 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
The author investigates current patterns of rural-urban and intra-urban population movements in Latin America, and considers their relation to past trends and possible future movements. Sections are included on urbanization levels and trends by country; rural and urban dynamics by country; urban population structure and population dynamics in major cities; and the diversity of migratory movements.
Correspondence: A. E. Lattes, Centro de Estudios de Población, Casilla 4397, Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10581 Pandey, Himanshu. Study of a probability model on rural out-migration at micro-level. Stanovnistvo, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 89-94 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng.
"The aims of the present paper are: (i) to derive a probability model for total number of migrants from a household under certain assumptions; (ii) to estimate parameters [involved] in the model; (iii) to test the suitability of [the] model through observed demographic data." The model is applied to data from a 1987 sample survey in Varanasi, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10582 Yang, Xiushi. Patterns of economic development and patterns of rural-urban migration in China. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1996. 195-218 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines three distinctive patterns of economic development in terms of their economic and migration outcomes in Zhejiang province, China. At the prefecture level, `trickle down' development works best in promoting rural development while reducing out-migration; but it requires a strong urban economy and sufficient investment. Rural household enterprise requires little government investment while boosting rural development; but it increases rural out-migration and, without a sound urban industrial base, is difficult to sustain in the long run. Rural collective industrialization achieves a better balance between rural development and out-migration. Future development should pay equal attention to rural development and urban expansion. The challenge should not be how to restrict but how to channel migration and capital flow."
Correspondence: X. Yang, Old Dominion University, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Norfolk, VA 23529. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.