Volume 63 - Number 1 - Spring 1997

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce. Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

63:10389 Andersson, Gunnar. The impact of children on divorce risks of Swedish women. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 102, ISBN 91-7820-124-1. May 1996. 18, [9] pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of children on divorce risks in 1971-1994 for first-married Swedish women. This impact is examined using two measures of family composition, namely the number of children and the age of the youngest child....Our study is performed by indirect standardization of register data and we also control for the effects of age at marriage, calendar year, and duration of marriage....The general picture of Swedish divorce-risk trends shows a strong increase in 1974, mostly among childless women, in response to a reform of divorce legislation. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the risks have increased steadily, mostly among mothers."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10390 Balán, Jorge. Stealing a bride: marriage customs, gender roles, and fertility transition in two peasant communities in Bolivia. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 69-87 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper deals with changing marriage customs in a pre-transitional setting where the traditional family structure does not show strong patriarchal features: nuclear households and relatively high female status have been predominant in the Andean culture since pre-colonial days....Two [Bolivian] communities are compared as to the changes in marriage customs within the same cultural tradition. In one of them, a specialized agricultural economy which limits the autonomous contributions of women, and the relatively abundant supply of arable land, have sustained early marriages with few changes in gender relations within the couple. In the other, economic diversification and tertiarization of the economy as well as the emergence of a youth culture are producing a revolution in marriage patterns, increasing female autonomy and setting the stage for a growing demand for birth control among younger couples."
Correspondence: J. Balán, Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad, Sanchez de Bustamante 27, 1173 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10391 Barber, Jennifer S.; Axinn, William G. Gender differences in the impact of parental pressure for grandchildren on young people's entry into cohabitation and marriage. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 96-03, Jun 1996. 25, [1] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper examines the influence of parental preferences for grandchildren on young adults' entry into cohabitation and marriage [in the United States]. We also consider the influence of young adults' own fertility preferences on their cohabitation and marriage behavior. We develop a theoretical framework explaining why these childbearing attitudes influence young people's cohabitation and marriage behavior and why these attitudes affect young men and young women differently."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. S. Barber, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10392 Bean, Frank D.; Berg, Ruth R.; Van Hook, Jennifer V. W. Socioeconomic and cultural incorporation and marital disruption among Mexican Americans. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 2, Dec 1996. 593-617 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This article examines how processes of socioeconomic and cultural incorporation affect marital-disruption patterns among Mexican-origin persons in the U.S. in comparison to non-Hispanic whites and African Americans. The results, which are based mainly on recent National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, indicate that, once other variables are controlled, the correlation of level of education with marital disruption among U.S. native Mexican Americans is negative and similar in level to that of non-Hispanic whites. However, the correlation of educational level with marital disruption among Mexican immigrants is both positive and lower than that of other groups. It is argued that these results do not support the idea that cultural familism explains Mexican-origin marital-disruption patterns, nor the idea that segmented assimilation processes exert influence on marital disruption, but rather the idea that socioeconomic and cultural incorporation interact in their effects on marital variables."
Correspondence: F. D. Bean, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main Building, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10393 Bélanger, Danièle; Khuât, Thu Hông. Marriage and the family in urban North Vietnam, 1965-1993. Journal of Population, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jun 1996. 83-112 pp. Depok, Indonesia. In Eng.
"The article explores the change in the process of choosing a spouse in Hanoi between 1960 and 1990....Traditionally, marriage in Vietnam is arranged by the parents among rich people and may be freer among the poor. Contrary to China, children were often consulted before the final choice of a spouse was done by their parents. In Vietnam, during the 1960s and 1970s, the State played an important role in matching couples according to political criteria; the State also prohibited traditional and elaborate ritual and organized simple weddings, with the objective to undermine [the] family's role and eliminate social class inequalities. However, if parents could do little for the wedding itself, they remained very important in choosing a spouse for their child or suggesting potential mates. In the 1980s and 1990s, the State slowly withdrew and [the] marriage ritual took a more traditional form. Young people had more freedom to meet [a] potential spouse but parents' approval was a prerequisite for a final choice."
Correspondence: D. Bélanger, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10394 Bloom, David E.; Conrad, Cecilia; Miller, Cynthia. Child support and fathers' remarriage and fertility. NBER Working Paper, No. 5781, Oct 1996. 29, [18] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper tests the hypothesis that child support obligations impede remarriage among nonresident fathers. Hazard models fit to [U.S.] data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and from the Survey of Income and Program Participation reveal that child support obligations deter remarriage among low-income nonresident fathers. The benefits to children of stricter child support enforcement are thus diminished by the negative effects of child support on remarriage, as a substantial share of nonresident fathers remarry and help support women with children. Indeed, simple calculations based on our findings suggest that the financial benefits to children in single-parent families of improved enforcement may be substantially or completely offset by the negative effects of enforcement that operate indirectly through diminished remarriage. The results provide no evidence that child support influences the nature of matches in the remarriage market or the likelihood of subsequent fertility."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: dbloom@hiid.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10395 Burdett, Ken; Coles, Melvyn G. Marriage and class. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 112, No. 1, Feb 1997. 141-68 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Here we consider a matching model where agents are heterogeneous and utilities nontransferable. We utilize this framework to study how equilibrium sorting takes place in marriage markets. We impose conditions that guarantee the existence of a steady state equilibrium and then characterize it. Several examples are developed to illustrate the richness of equilibria. The model reveals an interesting sorting externality that can support multiple steady state equilibria, even with constant returns to matching."
Correspondence: K. Burdett, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:10396 Caradec, Vincent. Forms of conjugal life among the "young elderly". [Les formes de la vie conjugale des "jeunes" couples "âgés".] Population, Vol. 51, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1996. 897-927 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this paper we demonstrate the diversity of conjugal lifestyles of couples [in France] in which the partners are more than 50 years old. Four different forms were identified, based on interviews with 60 couples: living in marriage, cohabitation outside marriage, intermittent cohabitation, and alternating cohabitation. An attempt is made to identify some of the factors which determined the choice of a particular lifestyle and to consider possible future developments. It would appear that different conjugal arrangements are linked with the specific problems that these couples must face: the presence of adult children and grandchildren with whom the elderly wish to keep on good terms, ownership of property especially houses to which the elderly are particularly attached, and the existence of past attachments which must neither be forgotten nor disowned."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10397 Carmichael, Gordon A. Consensual partnering in New Zealand: evidence from three censuses. Working Papers in Demography, No. 64, 1996. 46 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Since the mid-1960s consensual partnering, or in the parlance perhaps familiar to New Zealanders, living in de facto relationships, has become increasingly common throughout Northern and Western Europe, North America and Australasia. While New Zealand has been slower than other countries to gather survey data on this phenomenon, it does have data from the 1981, 1986 and 1991 Censuses of Population. These data are analysed, attention being paid to 1981-91 trends in consensual partnering by age, sex, major ethnic group and urban-rural residence, and to 1991 differentials in the propensity to be living in de facto unions by legal marital status, ethnicity (a more refined classification), religion, labour force status and level of education."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10398 Cocchi, Daniela; Crivellaro, Daniele; Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero; Rettaroli, Rossella. Marriage, family, and agricultural structure in Italy in the 1880s. [Nuzialità, famiglia e sistema agricolo in Italia, negli anni '80 del XIX secolo.] Genus, Vol. 52, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 125-59 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article is a contribution to the discussion on theories about household formation and marriage in Italy in the 1880s. Based on data [from] the 1881 census, it aims at verifying some hypotheses on the interdependence between marriage behaviour and socio-economic and environmental factors, by using some multivariate statistical techniques. The authors propose a number of indicators and analyse their correlation matrix, before reducing the variables to a few relevant factors which summarize a major part of the available information. Such factors are employed to determine homogeneous areas for marriage behaviour. Finally, they propose and measure some causal relationships between variables within two of the previously identified areas."
Correspondence: D. Cocchi, Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche P. Fortunati, Via Belle Arti 41, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10399 Csernák, Józsefné. Marriage and divorce in Hungary, 1870-1994. [Házasság és válás Magyarországon, 1870-1994.] Demográfia, Vol. 39, No. 2-3, 1996. 108-35 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
Nuptiality trends in Hungary are analyzed over the period from 1870 to 1994. The emphasis is on the twentieth century, and particularly on the period since 1950. Data are presented on changes in age at marriage over time, divorce, and remarriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10400 Finnäs, Fjalar. Separations among Finnish women born between 1938-1967. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 21-33 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The study of [marital] dissolutions in Finland until 1989 confirms corresponding findings from other countries. Consensual unions and marriages preceded by consensual unions were less stable than direct marriages. We do not interpret this as a casual relation, but rather as an outcome of a selection process. The choice of type of union is an indicator of the general attitudes and norms with respect to family formation and divorces. Furthermore, it is no longer meaningful to classify the unions according to formal marital status at the entry into the union. At present less than one union out of ten is a direct marriage, and we should instead focus on the marital status at entry into parenthood."
Correspondence: F. Finnäs, Åbo Akademi, Social Science Research Unit, Vaasa, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10401 Hammes, Winfried. Divorces, 1995. [Ehescheidungen 1995.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 12, Dec 1995. 770-6 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Data are presented on divorces in Germany in 1995. Topics covered include duration of marriage, number of children involved, how divorces are initiated, age at divorce, the age difference between spouses, remarriage, and differences between the former East and West Germany. Trends in marriages and divorces since 1960 are also reviewed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10402 Hoem, Jan M. The harmfulness or harmlessness of using an anticipatory regressor: how dangerous is it to use education achieved as of 1990 in the analysis of divorce risks in earlier years? Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 34-43 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The case studies [for Sweden] presented in this paper show that the chance of making a sensible analysis of the effect of education on divorce risks may be ruined for women who marry as teenagers if the educational variable is measured only at the end of the study period. By contrast, these adverse effects seem to be unimportant once the age at marriage is 20 or more."
Correspondence: J. M. Hoem, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10403 Hoóz, István. Various forms of family formation and family dissolution. [A családképzés és a családfelosztás különbözo formáinak alakulása.] Demográfia, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1995. 22-47 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
Trends in family formation and dissolution in Hungary are examined over the period 1960 to 1990. The author also describes changes in marital status and in the characteristics of the unmarried, the widowed, and the divorced over this period.
Correspondence: I. Hoóz, Janus Pannonius University, Faculty of Economics, Rakoczi u. 80, Pécs, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10404 Islam, M. Mazharul; Mahmud, Mamun. Marriage patterns and some issues related to adolescent marriage in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep 1996. 27-42 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study examines the marriage patterns of adolescents and some socio-economic and behavioural characteristics of married adolescents in Bangladesh. It analyses factors associated with adolescent marriage and draws out important policy implications ranging from redesigning the education system and its curricula to measures to create more employment opportunities for young women."
Correspondence: M. M. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10405 Kaestner, Robert. The effects of cocaine and marijuana use on marriage and marital stability. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 18, No. 2, Mar 1997. 145-73 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article examines the relationship between illicit drug use and marital status [in the United States]. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experiences, the article presents both cross-sectional and longitudinal estimates of the effect of marijuana and cocaine use on marital status, the length of time until first marriage, and the duration of first marriage. The results indicate that among non-Black young adults, drug users are more likely to be unmarried due to a delay in the age at first marriage, and shorter marriage durations. In contrast, drug use has no effect on marital choices of Black young adults."
Correspondence: R. Kaestner, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10406 Lester, David. The impact of unemployment on marriage and divorce. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, Vol. 25, No. 3-4, 1996. 151-3 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"The present study was designed to explore whether unemployment has a deleterious impact on family life, resulting in lower rates of marriage and births and higher rates of divorce. Time series data were available for twelve nations for the 35 year period of 1950 to 1985, and the present paper reports analyses of these data sets." The results indicate that unemployment is associated with lower marriage and birth rates and higher divorce rates.
Correspondence: Haworth Document Delivery Service, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10407 Locoh, Thérèse. Factors affecting the formation of couples. [Les facteurs de la formation des couples.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, edited by Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, and Guillaume Wunsch. Aug 1996. 49-88 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Fre.
This chapter provides a general review of the factors affecting nuptiality around the world. There are sections on the various types of marriage and their relation to reproduction, age at the beginning of sexual relations and at marriage, the role of society and individuals in the formation of couples and choice of a partner, and the life and death of marital unions. A general trend toward the separation of marriage and maternity is noted, as well as a change in the status of women within marriage.
Correspondence: T. Locoh, Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10408 McLaughlin, Diane K.; Lichter, Daniel T. Poverty and the marital behavior of young women. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 96-01, Jun 1996. 29, [6] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Current debate about welfare reform [in the United States] centers on marriage as a potential panacea. Unfortunately, understanding of the marital experiences of poor women is limited. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to compare first marriage transitions among poor and non poor women focussing on how factors such as welfare, employment and mate availability influence poor women's decisions to marry. Nonpoor women are more likely to marry than poor women, while holding a job and living in an area with more available mates increase marriage among poor women. Poor women who receive welfare and poor Blacks were no less likely to marry, while poor women living in areas with higher welfare payment levels were less likely to do so."
Correspondence: D. K. McLaughlin, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 503 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10409 Nakosteen, Robert A.; Zimmer, Michael A. Men, money, and marriage: are high earners more prone than low earners to marry? Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 1, Mar 1997. 66-82 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Most empirical research on earnings reveals that married men earn more than never married or divorced men. This research addresses the question of whether married men are seen to earn more because they are economically attractive candidates for marriage in the first place....Data on young employed men [in the United States] are taken from three waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We exploit the longitudinal nature of the PSID to model individual transitions in marital status as functions of variables that capture men's earnings prospects." The results show that "single men who are characterized by favorable earnings residuals are more likely to marry. Married men with favorable expected earnings are less prone to divorce." The authors conclude that "the observed earnings premium of married men results in part from economic selection of high earners into marriage."
Correspondence: M. A. Zimmer, University of Evansville, 1800 Lincoln Avenue, Evansville, IN 47722. E-mail: mz3@evansville.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10410 Nixon, Lucia A. The effect of child support enforcement on marital dissolution. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 32, No. 1, Winter 1997. 159-81 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effect of government child support enforcement (CSE) on marital dissolution [in the United States]. By raising the financial obligation of the absent father to the single mother under divorce, CSE generally lowers the wife's cost of divorce. On the other hand, it raises the husband's cost. Hence, the net effect of CSE on divorce is a priori ambiguous in sign. Using Current Population Survey data matched to CSE program data, I find empirical evidence that stronger CSE reduces marital breakup. This effect is larger for couples in which the wife is more likely to be a welfare recipient under divorce."
Correspondence: L. A. Nixon, Mathematica Policy Research, 600 Maryland Avenue SW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:10411 Raley, R. Kelly. A shortage of marriageable men? A note on the role of cohabitation in black-white differences in marriage rates. American Sociological Review, Vol. 61, No. 6, Dec 1996. 973-83 pp. Washington, D. C. In Eng.
"Using the National Survey of Families and Households, I explore the role of cohabitation in differences between Blacks and Whites in union formation [in the United States]....I begin by showing that the Black-White difference in the timing of first union (that is, first cohabitation or first marriage) is about one-half the Black-White difference in the timing of first marriage. Then I use proportional hazard models to determine whether racial differences in first union formation rates and first union type can be attributed to the availability of men or to men's employment characteristics. The results provide clear evidence that marriage market characteristics contribute to the lower likelihood that Black women will cohabit or will marry. However, Black-White differences in union type (that is, the greater tendency among Blacks to cohabit rather than to marry) are not related to differences in the availability of employed men."
Correspondence: R. K. Raley, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10412 Rosero-Bixby, Luis. Nuptiality trends and fertility transition in Latin America. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 135-50 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The extent to which changes in nuptiality have contributed to the decline in fertility in Latin America is examined. The data, which are for the period from 1950 to the early 1980s, are primarily from national censuses, with additional data from surveys where these are available. The author concludes that "the evidence from census data refutes the expectation that, in the region as a whole, the role of nuptiality has been meaningful. There are, of course, a few countries where nuptiality has been an important factor for TFR decline, as in the case of the Dominican Republic. There are also countries, such as El Salvador, where increases in marriage prevented important TFR declines. But the most compelling evidence comes from the cases of rapid fertility decline, i.e. from Costa Rica, Colombia, Cuba, and Mexico, where nuptiality made only modest, if any, contributions."
Correspondence: L. Rosero-Bixby, Apartado 833-2050, San José, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10413 Saluter, Arlene. Marital status and living arrangements: March 1995 (update). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 491, [1996]. 1 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This one-page report confirms that the U.S. Bureau of the Census will reduce the number of printed reports in this series and mainly provide information in electronic format. Specifically, it announces that the information on marital status and living arrangements will be made available electronically in the future. "The electronic version of these tables is available on the internet, on the Census Bureau's World-Wide Web site (http://www.census.gov). Once on the site, click on CenStats CenStore, click on CenStats, click on Member's Entrance, then on Subjects A-Z Index. Click on Marital Status under the letter M. `Marital Status and Living Arrangements: March 1995 (Update)' is listed under Population--Special Subjects." A hard-copy version of the detailed tabulations is also available upon request.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOM, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10414 Santow, Gigi; Bracher, Michael. Whither marriage? Trends, correlates, and interpretations. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 108, ISBN 91-7820-136-5. Sep 1996. 18 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this brief account we summarize the broad features of recent changes in union formation and dissolution, highlight some recent findings concerning correlates of the pace of nuptial events, and venture some interpretations....We concentrate on the countries of the industrialized West....In focusing on nuptiality we are forced largely to ignore such potentially relevant factors as leaving home, the availability of housing, economic trends, and contraception, which would warrant attention in a more comprehensive treatment."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10415 Schellekens, Jona. Nuptiality during the first Industrial Revolution in England: explanations. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 27, No. 4, Spring 1997. 637-54 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Change in the incidence of service in husbandry and the spread of rural industry are the two major explanations proposed for the rise in nuptiality [in England] during the second half of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century. The major objective of this study is to examine, via multiple-regression techniques, the extent to which each of these explanations is able to account for this rise in nuptiality." The data are from a time series of nuptiality for the period 1541-1875 published in 1991 by Chris Wilson and Robert I. Woods. The author concludes that the increased demand for rural workers, which was created by the Industrial Revolution and which resulted in higher incomes, was the primary cause of the decline in the age of marriage.
Correspondence: J. Schellekens, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus, 91905 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

63:10416 Singh, Susheela; Samara, Renee. Early marriage among women in developing countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1996. 148-57, 175 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"A study using data from 40 Demographic and Health Surveys shows that a substantial proportion of women in developing countries continue to marry as adolescents. Overall, 20-50% of women marry or enter a union by age 18, and 40-70% do so by their 20th birthday. Early marriage is most prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa and in South Asia, and least common in North Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. Women aged 20-24 are less likely to have married by age 20 than are women aged 40-44; the differential is at least 10 percentage points in most countries and reaches 30-40 percentage points in some countries. Education and age at first marriage are strongly associated both at the individual level and at the societal level: A woman who has attended secondary school is considerably less likely to marry during adolescence, and in countries with a higher proportion of women with secondary education, the proportion of women who marry as adolescents is lower."
Correspondence: S. Singh, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10417 Ying, Hong. Patterns of divorce risk in the 1970s and 1980s for Swedish women with a gymnasium education. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 44-59 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the first-marriage divorce patterns of Swedish women with a gymnasium [high-school] education. We have used a hazard regression model to investigate the impact of a number of variables on divorce risks. Our general findings are consistent with previous studies: divorce risks have a strong negative relationship with age at marriage and with parity, and those who have premarital children or are pregnant at marriage have higher divorce risk than those who do not. The divorce risk increased over the cohorts born between 1948 to 1963. Important new findings are (i) that the risk of divorce varies with educational orientation, (ii) that within educational groups, women from an academic gymnasium have a lower divorce risk than those from a vocational gymnasium, (iii) that in each educational group, the risk varies inversely with the proportion of women employed."
Correspondence: H. Ying, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10418 Zeng, Yi; Wang, Deming. Remarriage of women in Shanghai, Shaanxi, and Hebei. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1996. 119-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Since the 1982 census and the survey on the reproductivity of 1% of the national population, a substantial amount of demographic data has been collected concerning first marriage, reproduction, mortality, and migration in China, and research has progressed in depth. However, data regarding remarriage and related research remain lacking....This study is an attempt to fill in the gap in the quantitative analysis of the remarriage of Chinese women...." Sections are included on data sources and methods of analysis; women's remarriage rate and the distribution of age and post-termination years; and social and demographic factors preventing women from remarrying.
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Beijing University, Institute of Demography, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control.

63:10419 Alwin, Duane F. From childbearing to childrearing: the link between declines in fertility and changes in the socialization of children. In: Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories, edited by John B. Casterline, Ronald D. Lee, and Karen A. Foote. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, Suppl., 1996. 176-96 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article focuses on the linkage between fertility declines and shifting preferences in child qualities. It is argued that a common element underlies most of the indictors of family change--namely, a growth in emphasis on granting autonomy to family members, especially women and children, and a decline in the stress on obedience to familial authority....These changes reflect shifts in the nature of society, in the structure of the modern family, and in the task of childrearing." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: D. F. Alwin, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10420 Amin, Sajeda. Family structure and change in rural Bangladesh. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 87, 1996. 39 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper, changes in family structure [in rural Bangladesh] are explored during a 15-year time span beginning with the onset of a significant fertility decline. On the basis of data from a village study conducted in 1991-93, compared with data from similar studies conducted prior to fertility decline, remarkably little evidence is found of structural change in families or in the functioning of families as a source of support for women and the elderly."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10421 Barros, Ricardo; Fox, Louise; Mendonça, Rosane. Female-headed households, poverty, and the welfare of children in urban Brazil. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jan 1997. 231-57 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics and behavior of female-headed households in urban Brazil and to identify some of the consequences of the growth of these households for child welfare. We do this by identifying the types of female-headed households that are found in Brazil, which are more likely than others to be poor, why they are more likely to be poor, and the consequences of poverty and female headship for children in these households....The data used in this study are from the 1984 Brazilian household sample survey, Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios (PNAD)."
Correspondence: R. Barros, Yale University, Box 1987, Yale Station, 277 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:10422 Bradshaw, N.; Bradshaw, J.; Burrows, R. Area variations in the prevalence of lone parent families in England and Wales: a research note. Regional Studies, Vol. 30, No. 8, Dec 1996. 811-5 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
Using data from the 1991 census, the authors explore some of the correlates of area variations in the prevalence of lone parent families in England and Wales. The primary factors associated with the prevalence of female-headed single-parent families were identified as unemployment and the proportion of the population identifying themselves as "Black".
Correspondence: N. Bradshaw, University of York, Department of Social Policy and Social Work, Heslington, York YO1 5DD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

63:10423 Bronfenbrenner, Urie; McClelland, Peter; Wethington, Elaine; Moen, Phyllis; Ceci, Stephen; Hembrooke, Helene; Morris, Pamela A.; White, Tara L. The state of Americans: this generation and the next. ISBN 0-684-82336-5. LC 96-25473. 1996. x, 294 pp. Free Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This book presents an interdisciplinary approach to the problem of the future well-being of families and children in the United States. Specifically, the various authors attempt to bring together relevant demographic data for exploring such topics as youth beliefs and behavior; crime and punishment; economic developments; American families today and tomorrow; poverty and the next generation; education; and changing age trends.
Correspondence: Free Press, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10424 Bryson, Ken. Household and family characteristics: March 1995. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 488, Oct 1996. 7 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Over the past several decades, the composition of [U.S.] households has changed significantly due to changes in the age structure of the population and changes in social values. This report provides national demographic data on households and families, based on the March 1995 Current Population Survey." Information is provided on types, size, and location of households; family size; living arrangements; age and marital status of householders; ethnic composition; and labor force status of married-couple families.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10425 Buvinic, Mayra; Gupta, Geeta R. Female-headed households and female-maintained families: are they worth targeting to reduce poverty in developing countries? Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jan 1997. 259-80 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors first examine the problems associated with the definition and measurement of female household headship and the importance of this issue for development policy. They then review the empirical evidence on the relation between female headship and poverty. The costs and benefits of targeting female headship in order to reduce levels of poverty are then considered using the example of Chile.
Correspondence: M. Buvinic, International Center for Research on Women, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:10426 Chan, Angelique. How do parents and children help one another? Socioeconomic determinants of intergenerational transfers in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Population, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jun 1996. 43-82 pp. Depok, Indonesia. In Eng.
"This paper uses data from the Senior sample of the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS-2) to examine the nature of transfer flows within extended families, and characteristics of seniors and their non-coresident adult children that may affect intergenerational transfers in Peninsular Malaysia....Using [a] logistic regression model, this paper examines the influences of both parents' (aged 50+) and children's characteristics on the likelihood of various types of intergenerational transfers....We also investigate the likelihood of coresidence, and frequency of contact, for this sample of elderly parents. Some of the major findings from the multivariate analysis are: (1) Unmarried seniors are more likely to transfer out. (2) Couples where the wife is in poor health are more likely to receive housework help and personal care from non-coresident adult children than those in better health. (3) Chinese seniors are the most likely to receive monetary transfers, whereas Malay seniors are most likely to receive service transfers. (4) Chinese seniors are least likely to provide childcare to their non-coresident adult children, whereas married Indian seniors are the most likely."
Correspondence: A. Chan, University of Michigan, National Institute of Aging, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10427 Das Gupta, Monica. Life course perspectives on women's autonomy and health outcomes. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 213-31 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines how different patterns of kinship and inheritance affect intergenerational relationships and the ramifications of gender inequality. Peasant societies of pre-industrial...Europe are contrasted with those of contemporary South Asia to illuminate some of these relationships. While...European kinship and inheritance systems made for high status in youth and a loss of power and status as people aged, South Asian systems make for lower power and status in youth and a rise as people age. From this follow more conflict-ridden relationships between the generations and a stronger conjugal bond in...Europe, while in South Asia intergenerational ties are strong and the conjugal bond is weak. This in turn leads to a greater potential for marginalizing women in South Asia, although gender inequality exists in both settings."
Correspondence: M. Das Gupta, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10428 Febrero, Ramón; Schwartz, Pedro S. The essence of Becker. ISBN 0-8179-9341-X. LC 95-40219. 1995. li, 669 pp. Hoover Institution Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
This is a selection of the published work of Gary S. Becker, prepared in honor of his 65th birthday. Part two includes writings of demographic interest, containing six of his studies on the family, marriage, and fertility; topics covered include an economic analysis of fertility, the theory of marriage, altruism and genetic fitness, human capital and the rise and fall of families, and the family and the state. The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-6010. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10429 Garvey, Deborah L.; Espenshade, Thomas J. Fiscal impacts of New Jersey's immigrant and native households on state and local governments: a new approach and new estimates. OPR Working Paper, No. 96-5, Sep 1996. 54 pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine the fiscal impacts of immigrants from a micro perspective utilizing household-level information on New Jersey's population from the 1990 census. A comprehensive view is taken of state and local government revenues from and expenditures on non-institutional households, which means that we are able to evaluate the net fiscal implications associated with immigrant families....We compare the budgetary consequences of households headed by native-born versus foreign-born individuals. Our results suggest that the typical New Jersey household, whether native or foreign born, uses more state and local government services than it pays for with taxes. Among non-elderly household heads, the negative fiscal impact of immigrant households exceeds that of native households by 46 percent at the state level and by 60 percent for county and municipal governments."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10430 Glick, Jennifer E.; Bean, Frank D.; Van Hook, Jennifer V. W. Immigration and changing patterns of extended family household structure in the United States: 1970-1990. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 95-96-09, Sep 1996. 37 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Using 1970, 1980 and 1990 [U.S.] census data, this research assesses the degree to which changes in the volume and composition of immigration have contributed both to the increase in the proportion of the U.S. population residing in extended family households and to the widening gap between immigrants and natives in the proportion residing in such households. Our results demonstrate that immigration explains only a little of the increase in extended living arrangements in the total population, but that the widening gap in extended family living between immigrants and natives during the 1980s resulted from increases in horizontally extended households among immigrants, with changes in national origin composition among immigrants accounting for about two-fifths of this rise."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10431 Goldscheider, Frances K.; Goldscheider, Calvin. The effects of childhood family structure on leaving and returning home. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 96-04, May 1996. 26, [7] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of childhood family structure on patterns of leaving and returning home [in the United States]. Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, we develop a competing risks, proportional hazards statistical model to examine linkages between family experiences and the probability of leaving home by a given route (for schooling, the military, marriage, cohabitation, employment, and for independence) and returning home. The focus is on two dimensions of childhood family structure--type and timing."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10432 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Oe, Moriyuki; Yamamoto, Chizuko; Suzuki, Toru; Kojima, Katsuhisa; Sasai, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hiromichi; Otomo, Yukiko. Household changes in Japan: major findings of the Third National Survey, 1994. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 51, No. 4, Jan 1996. 1-31 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The results from the Third National Survey on Household Changes carried out in Japan in 1994 are presented. The survey involved a nationally representative sample of 8,578 households including 20,788 individuals. The results confirm a general trend toward the nuclear family, a reduction in average family size associated with demographic aging, a decline in sibship size associated with the fertility decline, and a rise in the age of leaving the parental home.
Correspondence: K. Hirosima, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10433 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Oe, Moriyuki; Yamamoto, Chizuko; Suzuki, Toru; Mita, Fusami; Kojima, Katsuhisa; Sasai, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hiromichi; Otomo, Yukiko. The Third National Survey on Household Changes, 1994. Institute of Population Problems Survey Series, No. 10, Mar 1, 1996. 202 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The results of a 1994 survey involving a nationally representative sample of 8,578 households and 20,788 individuals in Japan are presented. Four main features of household change are identified. "1. Household formation behavior in Japan is getting more and more nuclearized, which has started since around 1960....2. In addition to the changes in household formation behavior, the increase in middle- and old-age household members caused by the population aging has accelerated the reduction of the household size in Japan....3. After the World War II, birth rate, as well as death rate, rapidly declined and the demographic transition in Japan finished around 1960....4. The rise in age at leaving parental home could be attributed to such changes as the delay of marriage and the higher educational enrollment after...World War II. Concerning the reason of departure, more and more young males and females leave parental home at their educational upgrading."
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10434 Kartovaara, Leena. Families 1995. [Perheet 1995/Familjer 1995.] Väestö/Befolkning/Population, No. 1996:13, ISBN 951-727-273-1. 1996. 136 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng; Fin; Swe.
"This publication contains demographic data on families [in Finland for] the year 1995. The families have been classified according to variables such as the age, language, nationality and country of birth of the reference persons, for example. The data on types of families and families with children as well as the average number of children have been tabulated by municipality. There is a review of recent family trends at the beginning of the publication."
For the 1994 edition, see 62:20439.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, Sales Services, P.O. Box 3B, 00022 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10435 Kimhi, Ayal. Demographic composition of farm households and its effect on time allocation. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1996. 429-39 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This study demonstrates the effects of the existence of family members of various age groups on the time allocation decisions of farm operators and their spouses, by modelling the couple's joint farm and off-farm labor participation decisions. Specifically, two participation equations of the probit type are estimated for each person (one for farm participation and one for off-farm participation), using data from the 1981 Census of Agriculture in Israel. The resulting four-equation probit model is estimated by quasi maximum likelihood (QML) methods, allowing for village-specific fixed effects."
Correspondence: A. Kimhi, Hebrew University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10436 Le Bourdais, Céline; Marcil-Gratton, Nicole. Family transformations across the Canadian/American border: when the laggard becomes the leader. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3, Autumn 1996. 415-36 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The United States and Canada have experienced similar demographic trends over the past 50 years: the decline in fertility observed after the post-war `baby-boom', the decrease of nuptiality that began in the 1970s, and the subsequent increases in divortiality and common-law marriages have significantly altered the conjugal and familial trajectories of both Canadians and Americans. In spite of these similar trends, certain differences...separate the two countries. First, the demographic changes began to occur later in Canada....Recently, several of Canada's family life indicators have reversed the traditional trends, with a surge forward which may bring them closer to being `a generation ahead' of those in the U.S....We also point to the fundamental role of trends in French-speaking Québec in distinguishing Canadian demographic indicators; without Québec's specific conservatism in the past and today's tremendous reversal of its marital and fertility behaviors, Canada's kinship with the U.S. would be far more obvious."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: C. Le Bourdais, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Urbanisation 3465, rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10437 Liefbroer, Aart C.; Corijn, Martine; de Jong Gierveld, Jenny. Similarity and diversity in the start of the family formation process in the low countries. CBGS Document, No. 1996-3, 1996. 63, [11] pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"The aim of this document is to contribute to [the] discussion on similarity and diversity in family formation within Europe by concentrating on two geographically and culturally related regions within Europe, namely the Netherlands and Flanders (i.e. the Dutch speaking part of Belgium)."
Correspondence: Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10438 Manning, Wendy D.; Lichter, Daniel T. Parental cohabitation and children's economic well-being. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 4, Nov 1996. 998-1,010 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using data from the recently released 1990 decennial census PUMS, we provide national estimates of the percentage and socioeconomic characteristics of U.S. children living in cohabiting-couple families. Our results reveal that 2.2 million children (3.5%) reside in cohabiting-couple families and that racial differences are substantial. Roughly 1 in 7 children in unmarried-parent families also live with their parent's unmarried partner. Although these children have two potential caretakers and economic providers, our results indicate that parental resources fall short of their counterparts in married-couple families. A cohabiting partner's economic contribution results in a 29% reduction in the proportion of children in cohabiting-couple families living in poverty, but still they fare poorly in comparison with children in married-couple families."
Correspondence: W. D. Manning, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. E-mail: wmannin@opie.bgsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10439 Morocco. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). The family in Morocco. The networks of family solidarity. [Famille au Maroc. Les reseaux de solidarité familiale.] Etudes Démographiques, [1996]. 341 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This report, based primarily on data from the 1995 National Survey on the Family, is concerned with the current status of the family in Morocco. The first section uses both census and survey data to review recent trends in the structure of families and households, and examines the characteristics of nuclear and extended families. Further chapters focus on family networks, parental perceptions of the costs and benefits of having children, migration and the family, employment and family strategies, and legal aspects affecting the family.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques, Nouveau quartier administratif Haut-Agdal, B.P. 178, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10440 Mulder, Clara H. Analysing home-ownership of couples: the effect of selecting couples at the time of the survey. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1996. 261-78 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The analysis of events encountered by couple and family households may suffer from sample selection bias when data are restricted to couples existing at the moment of interview. The paper discusses the effect of sample selection bias on event history analyses of buying a home [in the Netherlands] by comparing analyses performed on a sample of existing couples with analyses of a more complete sample including past as well as current partner relationships. The results show that, although home-buying in relationships that have ended differs clearly from behaviour in existing relationships, sample selection bias is not alarmingly large."
Correspondence: C. H. Mulder, Utrecht University, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10441 Murphy, Mike. The dynamic household as a logical concept and its use in demography. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1996. 363-81 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The difficulties of applying conventional transition-based models to household change are discussed. More generally, what constitutes `time' and `change' is also considered. It is argued that many changes occurring within households such as leaving home are better-considered as `fuzzy' than crisp phenomena. An alternative perspective based on household change considered as an evolving network is proposed. The implications for sample designs which are designed to track explicit household dynamics (such as the Panel Study on Income Dynamics) are discussed. The ways in which particular forms of analysis come to dominate the scientific literature, including those for analysing household change are discussed in relation to non-linear dynamic models. Finally, it is argued that there would be considerable benefits if insights available from the physical, mathematical and biological sciences were to be more widely incorporated within technical demography."
Correspondence: M. Murphy, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10442 Näsman, Elisabet. The visibility of fatherhood in workplace cultures. [Faderskapets synlighet i arbetsplatskulturer.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 99, ISBN 91-7820-118-7. Feb 1996. 37 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper is an analysis of the visibility of fatherhood and of the scope for fathering in the workplace cultures. It is a comparison between some gendered occupations in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. The study includes survey data from nation-wide samples of parents working as nurses, nurses aides, metal workers and policemen, as well as qualitative data from in-depth studies of employees in metal factories and at police-stations....The comparison between countries indicated that Swedish fathers at male-dominated workplaces had a larger scope for parenting than the Danish or Norwegian fathers....Generally speaking traditional mothering makes parenthood visible at the workplace while the traditional father is not visible....That Sweden has to some extent changed this pattern may indicate a possible direction of change also in the other countries, since the formal support of a caring father was developed earlier in Sweden."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10443 Nikander, Timo. Family formation by Finnish men. [Suomalaismiehen perheellistyminen.] Väestö/Befolkning/Population, No. 1995:1, ISBN 951-727-000-3. 1995. 63, 78 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Fin.
This is a description of changes in family formation by Finnish men from about 1960 to 1992, based on interviews of 1,670 men. It deals with separation from the childhood home, the number of marriages and consensual unions, the timing of first marriage, and the number and spacing of children. Information is also provided on the ideal number of children, and on men's own preferred number as well as their reasons for having children.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, P.O. Box 3B, 00022 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10444 Robinson, Kristen N.; Hogan, Dennis P. Living arrangements among Native American elders: cultural persistence and structural differentiation. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 96-05, Jul 1996. 25, [8] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Native American elderly [in the United States] have distinctly different living arrangements than other minority elderly. This difference is attributed to their strong cultural preferences and to their disadvantaged social structure resulting from centuries of discrimination. But the cultures and social structures of Native Americans differ in many ways, as do patterns of elderly living arrangements. Using anthropological and socio-cultural histories, we first classify Native Americans by common tribal cultures. Next we use the 1990 PUMS [Public Use Microdata Sample] to see if the tremendous diversity among tribal cultures plays a role in determining the living arrangements of older Native Americans."
Correspondence: K. N. Robinson, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: robinson@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10445 Tyrkkö, Arja. Parenthood and employment. [Föräldraskap och arbetets villkor.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 100, ISBN 91-7820-120-9. Feb 1996. 34 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
This study examines the possibilities among Swedish and Finnish men and women for combining employment with parenthood. The author describes the network of governmental regulations and informal rules that influences the attitudes toward parenthood among employers and employees, and among women and men. Data are from Finland and Sweden and were collected in 1992 as part of a larger study of parenthood in the Scandinavian countries.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10446 Vichi, Monica. Family structures and relational networks of the elderly. [Strutture familiari e reti di relazione degli anziani.] Tesi e Materiali Didattici, No. 4, May 1996. 66 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This study quantifies and analyzes the networks utilized by elderly people in Italy. Data are from the fourth cycle of an ongoing field survey on families, the Indagine Multiscopo Famiglie (IMF) conducted by the Italian official statistical agency ISTAT. Information about relational networks was gathered in 1990 on 22,595 families and included data on disability levels.The analysis showed profound differences in the familial roles of the moderately elderly, the old, and the very old, and even more profound differences between women and men. While men can generally count on their spouse as they age, women, due to their longer life expectancy and lower age at marriage, are usually widowed when they lose their ability to function autonomously and tend to turn to their children or grandchildren. The socioeconomic status of the elderly also plays a role in determining the assistance given or received; low-earning women tend to need, rather than give, financial support in old age.
Correspondence: Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10447 Wall, Richard. Problems and perspectives in comparing household and family structures across Europe. Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure Working Paper Series, No. 3, 1996. 27, [5] pp. Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This working paper analyzes the family and household patterns of England and Wales in 1981 and Great Britain in 1991, using in the first case the Longitudinal Study and in the second case the Sample of Anonymised Records. The examination of the relationships of household members avoids undue dependence on the choice of household reference person, and illuminates some of the key features of family forms....The focus of this classification is on the household viewed from the perspective of the individual....Finally, some household typologies are outlined indicating the characteristics of households which take in unrelated persons and the household circumstances of lone parents and couples. The vast majority of households consist of people living alone, and couples with or without children but with no other co-residents."
Correspondence: Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10448 Yamamoto, Chizuko. Household statistics about aged persons in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 51, No. 4, Jan 1996. 47-56 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The characteristics of households with elderly persons in Japan are described using data from a number of sources, including the census and some recent surveys. The data, which cover the period from 1980 to 1993, concern the total of elderly households, the number of elderly people living alone, and the number of elderly couples.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10449 Zhou, Yun. Kinship and the decline of fertility. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1996. 295-301 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study is focused on the impact of fertility decline on kinship in China and the entire Chinese society....The decline of fertility is affecting or will affect a population's kinship system, the corresponding pattern of terminology, and the social structure."
Correspondence: Y. Zhou, Beijing University, Institute of Demography, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.