Volume 63 - Number 1 - Spring 1997

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications. Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

63:10179 Abadian, Sousan. Women's autonomy and its impact on fertility. World Development, Vol. 24, No. 12, Dec 1996. 1,793-809 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to assess empirically the impact of female autonomy on fertility. It argues that by attending to fundamental freedoms for impoverished women, by enhancing women's access to and control over critical resources--their capability to achieve well-being--we not only meet welfare goals but also promote a reduction in fertility. The findings...affirm the post-Cairo discourse emphasizing health and women's education. The findings also suggest the need to broaden the focus to include other initiatives that foster women's autonomy and to engage the full range of empowerment possibilities." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: S. Abadian, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10180 Al-Qassimi, Saud; Farid, Samir. Reproductive patterns and child survival in the United Arab Emirates. 1996. xi, 136 pp. Ministry of Health: Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Council of Health Ministers of GCC States, Executive Board: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In Eng.
This volume presents further analyses of data from the 1987 United Arab Emirates National Child Health Survey. There are chapters on cohort nuptiality patterns, determinants of age at marriage, socioeconomic correlates of fertility, intermediate determinants of fertility, determinants of the duration of breast-feeding, and determinants of child mortality.
Correspondence: Council of Health Ministers of GCC States, P.O. Box 7431, Riyadh 11462, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10181 Bongaarts, John; Watkins, Susan C. Social interactions and contemporary fertility transitions. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1996. 639-82, 813, 815-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"An analysis of fertility transitions in 69 developing countries since 1960 finds that the relationship between development and pretransitional fertility, the timing of the onset of transitions, and the pace of fertility decline after transition onset deviate substantially from what would be the case if fertility and development...were closely linked. A few noteworthy empirical regularities were identified....To explain their findings, the authors propose a key role for social interaction. Social interaction, they suggest, operates at three levels of aggregation. Personal networks connect individuals; national channels of social interaction such as migration and language connect social and territorial communities within a country; and global channels such as trade and international organizations connect nations within the global society. Through these channels, actors at all three levels exchange and evaluate information and ideas, and exert and receive social influence, thus affecting reproductive behavior. Development is important in understanding the timing and pace of fertility change, but social interaction is likely to have an independent influence on fertility. Given current levels of development and the proliferation of channels of social interaction, it is likely that few countries will fail to experience a fertility transition over the coming three decades."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10182 Bongaarts, John; Lightbourne, Robert. Wanted fertility in Latin America: trends and differentials in seven countries. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 227-41 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
In this chapter, variations in wanted fertility in Latin America, including the Caribbean, are examined within and among countries and over time. "Specifically, we compare actual fertility as measured by the total fertility rate with preferred fertility as measured by a new wanted total fertility rate developed by Bongaarts (1990) which reflects the fertility level that would prevail if women were to fully implement their preferences for terminating childbearing. Through examining these two indicators, we analyse trends in actual and preferred fertility at the aggregate national level and also by level of education and rural-urban residence. The data for our analysis are taken from fertility surveys undertaken in the period 1975-89. The seven countries included are Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Jamaica, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. For each country, two surveys are available, the first invariably being a WFS, and the second usually being a DHS, except for Costa Rica and Jamaica."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10183 Bravo, Jorge H. Theoretical views of fertility transitions in Latin America: what is the relevance of a diffusionist approach? In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 213-26 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This chapter is concerned with the diffusion hypothesis and how it applies to Latin America's fertility decline. The author suggests that "at the international level, mortality and development indicators--such as per capita income, literacy, and urbanization--correlate with fertility in the direction predicted by standard transition theory, but these relations have shifted and become less pronounced over the last three decades, suggesting that substantial `structural change' has occurred which is not accounted for by changes in these variables....Once the trend of fertility decline has become manifest at the national level during the same time period, most of the major population subgroups have reduced their fertility, and have done so over a relatively short period of time. Ideal family size has also declined across the board since the mid-1970s, and these trends have apparently been little affected by the economic stagnation or retrogression of the 1980s."
Correspondence: J. H. Bravo, UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10184 Caldwell, Bruce. The family and demographic change in Sri Lanka. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 45-60 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines the contribution of sociological factors to demographic change in Sri Lanka. It focuses on changes within the family and their impact on mortality and fertility....The Sri Lankan fertility decline would appear to be a classic demographic transition. However, in contrast to a number of other Asian countries it has occurred in the absence of remarkable economic growth, and at a comparatively low per capita income....The family has been central to the demographic transition in Sri Lanka. The fact that the central unit of the family was the conjugal unit with little influence from other relatives, and the relatively high position of women have contributed to the mortality transition and been vital to the fertility transition....Marital fertility has fallen because there has been little pressure from relatives on couples to have children, and because their costs have been rising in comparison to their perceived benefits. The comparatively egalitarian nature of the family means that parents gain less materially from having children, than in more hierarchical societies....Finally, a major contribution to Sri Lanka's fertility decline has been made by changes in age at marriage."
Correspondence: B. Caldwell, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10185 Calvès, Anne-Emmanuèle; Cornwell, Gretchen T.; Enyegue, Parfait E. Adolescent sexual activity in Sub-Saharan Africa: do men have the same strategies and motivations as women? Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. AD96-04, Apr 1996. 34 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Despite a growing concern regarding adolescent fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa, the motivations underlying the sexual and childbearing behaviors of African unmarried youth remain poorly documented....The purpose of the study is to examine, using qualitative and quantitative data from Cameroon, what are the motivations and strategies underlying the premarital sexual activity of African adolescents and how they differ by gender."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6202. Author's E-mail: Calves@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10186 Casterline, John B.; Lee, Ronald D.; Foote, Karen A. Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, Suppl., ISBN 0-87834-086-6. LC 96-44636. 1996. vii, 337 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This collection of articles is intended to revisit fertility in the United States. Rather than surveying the field in a systematic way, its goal is to stimulate and refresh our thinking on these topics. Many entries are speculative or theoretical. Some outline directions for future research....These articles change our perspectives on fertility in two ways. First, they portray substantial (and unappreciated) changes in fertility behavior during the past two decades; these have been accompanied by major changes in the underlying constraints and attitudes. Second, they identify and illustrate new frameworks and approaches--developments in concepts, perspectives, and theory--that either did not exist two decades ago or have been elaborated only in recent years."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Population and Development Review, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10187 Catasús Cervera, Sonia; Fraga, Juan C. A. The fertility transition in Cuba. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 397-413 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The main features of Cuba's demographic transition are examined using data from official sources and from the 1987 National Fertility Survey. Particular attention is given to the proximate determinants and the socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. "The Cuban fertility transition process has been early and rapid in the context of the evolution of fertility in Latin America. This transition has had the peculiarity that over the past thirty years it has been so intense that Cuba has attained a fertility level similar to that of the most socio-economically developed countries. In this process...contraception and abortion have been increasingly important as the most significant proximate determinants; this may be explained as a response to the improvement in health conditions and in education, and to the increasing participation of women in the labour force and in social activities in general."
Correspondence: S. Catasús Cervera, Centro de Estudios Demográficos, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10188 Cerone, Pietro. On the effects of the generalised renewal integral equation model of population dynamics. Genus, Vol. 52, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 53-70 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Using the integral population model of Sharpe and Lotka as a basis, models are developed which contain time dependent changes of the maternity behaviour of a population. Stable population theory is extended to allow exponential changes of the maternity behaviour by using modifications in the techniques developed by Cerone and Keane. The pattern of change of that behaviour is generalized to include changes described by sums of exponentials....A model is also developed which allows for discrimination of various contraception modes and their differential effect on the fertility of various age-groups of the population. Although the models are developed to describe time dependent decrease of the original maternity regimen, they may also be used to describe any typology of changes."
Correspondence: P. Cerone, Victoria University of Technology, Department of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, P.O. Box 14428, MCMC Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10189 Chackiel, Juan; Schkolnik, Susana. Latin America: overview of the fertility transition, 1950-1990. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 3-26 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"One of the purposes of this chapter is to describe the way in which fertility has evolved since 1950 to the present day for [Latin America] as a whole. However, the more basic aim is to show the diversity that exists in patterns of change in the various countries. The report documents the status of the fertility transition for each country, as well as the way in which changes in overall and age-specific fertility have occurred. Differentials in fertility behaviour are also shown for sub-populations defined in terms of geographic, economic, and social characteristics, such as area of residence (degree of urbanization), the level of schooling reached by the mother or the head of the household, and the socio-occupational status of the household head."
Correspondence: J. Chackiel, UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10190 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. Fertility, family, and social policy in contemporary Western Europe. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1996. 729-39, 814-5, 817 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Period total fertility rates are below replacement level in all Western European countries. Mediterranean countries, commonly labeled traditional, Catholic, and family oriented, exhibit the lowest fertility levels whereas Sweden--the cradle of the modern liberal welfare state and the country in which empowerment of women is most fully realized--has the highest fertility in Western Europe. In seeking an explanation for the fertility differential, this note compares the status of women in Italy and Sweden and contrasts attitudes and policies toward the family in Italy and Germany with those in Britain and Sweden. The evidence suggests that in advanced industrial societies, higher status of women may be a precondition for raising fertility to replacement level."
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10191 Cigno, Alessandro; Rosati, Furio C. Jointly determined saving and fertility behaviour: theory, and estimates for Germany, Italy, U.K. and USA. European Economic Review, Vol. 40, No. 8, Nov 1996. 1,561-89 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The comparative-statics predictions of models of the joint determination of household saving and fertility are derived under various hypotheses (self-interest, altruism of parents towards children, altruism of children towards parents, etc.) and compared with those of models which determine saving under the assumption of exogenous fertility. Country-specific saving and fertility equations are then estimated, using time series data for Germany, Italy, U.K. and USA. For each of the countries considered, the estimates are consistent with the hypothesis that saving and fertility are jointly determined by self-interested parents, and reject the alternative hypotheses. The data also show that a self-financing expansion of social security discourages fertility, and generally raises household saving."
Correspondence: A. Cigno, Università di Firenze, Facoltà di Scienze Politiche, Via Laura 48, 50121 Florence, Italy. E-mail: cigno@ccsp6.scpol.unifi.it. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10192 de Carvalho, José A. M.; Wong, Laura R. The fertility transition in Brazil: causes and consequences. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 373-96 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze Brazil's fertility decline during the period from 1940 to 1985. Consideration is given to both the determinants and the consequences of this change. The authors conclude that the reduction in fertility has taken place in the context of worsening socioeconomic conditions, and that it is by now an accomplished fact. They suggest that it took place not as a response to better living conditions associated with modernization, but as an adjustment strategy in the face of insecurities about the present and fears about the future. Consequences of the fertility decline include changes in the age structure of the Brazilian population; the authors suggest several policy measures geared toward these changes in the areas of child health and education, the labor market, care of the aged, and regional planning.
Correspondence: J. A. M. de Carvalho, CEDEPLAR-UFMG, rua Curitiba 832, 30170-120 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10193 Dissanayake, Lakshman. The first generation with mass schooling and the fertility transition: the case of Sri Lanka. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 137-54 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This study attempts to explain the Sri Lankan fertility transition in terms of the pretransition fertility regime and conditions leading to its destabilization. This study therefore deviates from previous studies of fertility in Sri Lanka which have largely focused upon the post-transitional fertility differentials. From the first formulation of demographic transition theory, education has been used as a significant factor relating to fertility transition, but Caldwell's `mass education-fertility transition' thesis can be regarded as the major attempt to explain the relationship between education and the onset of the fertility transition, with education a central explanatory factor in fertility transition theory. My analysis uses existing fertility theory to explain the education-fertility transition relationship, systematically tests that theory and suggests some modification to the theory on the basis of the Sri Lankan experience."
Correspondence: L. Dissanayake, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10194 Dwivedi, S. N.; Rai, Suresh. Impact of some demographic variables and family planning programme on fertility in Madhya Pradesh through indirect techniques. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1995. 19-26 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"In this paper, an attempt was made to investigate the impact of some demographic variables and [the] family planning programme on fertility change [in Madhya Pradesh, India]. Indirect statistical tools were used for this purpose. The standardisation method was used to play with demographic variables namely, age structure, marital status distribution, age specific marital fertility rate and proportion of women of reproductive ages in the total population, and trend analysis was used to play with [the] family planning programme. It was noted that [the] proportion of women of reproductive ages in [the] total population played [a] tremendous role regarding change in [the] crude birth rate. However, there was no significant impact of [the] family planning programme on fertility change."
Correspondence: S. N. Dwivedi, All India Institute of Medical Science, Department of Biostatistics, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10195 Egerö, Bertil. Poverty and fertility: reproductive change under persistent poverty. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 218-42 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"Bangladesh belongs to a group of countries with persistent and widespread poverty where the beginnings of fertility decline have now been recorded. The absence of any visibly significant socioeconomic changes for its rural majority has been used to justify claims that family planning activities have an independent effect on fertility. The paper draws together available evidence on the circumstances of rural life in Bangladesh. Taken together, the evidence is that changes have occurred in social relations in the household, brought about by economic crisis and in turn enabling changes in childbearing. The Bangladesh evidence confirms the difficulties encountered on a conceptual level in trying to maintain a distinction between materialist and ideational approaches to fertility analysis. The distinction between the two lines is unclear, and upholding it could be counterproductive to advances in the understanding of fertility change."
Correspondence: B. Egerö, University of Lund, Department of Sociology, Programme on Population and Development, P.O. Box 117, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10196 El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil. Twentieth-century family life cycle and its determinants in the United States. Journal of Family History, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan 1997. 70-109 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Fertility schedules, one of the most important vital statistics, are used to construct a new period and cohort time series macrolevel data set of family life cycle/childbearing and fertility-inhibiting indices for the United States in the twentieth century. Calculation of these macrolevel indices on an annual basis is accomplished by the application of recent demographic methodologies, which require only knowledge of age-specific fertility rates. These annual sets of indices, which otherwise would require detailed biographical information on the dates of such events, are needed to fully capture demographic change and to quantitatively ascertain changes in fertility behavior and attitudes and, hence, describe family structure and the timing and speed of child production for better understanding of American society."
Correspondence: M. N. El-Khorazaty, 14500 Settlers Landing Way, N. Potomac, MD 20878-4308. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10197 El-shalakani, Mostafa. Estimation of parity progression ratios from survey data on birth intervals in Egypt. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 26, No. 2, Dec 1992. 67-82 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"Data on open and closed birth intervals compiled from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey (EFS) were used to estimate instantaneous parity progression ratios of the population which can be considered as a period measure. A high level of estimated values indicates a high level of fertility currently prevailing among Egyptian women and a continuation of childbearing for a longer period. As expected, rural women progress to higher parities much faster than urban women."
Correspondence: M. El-shalakani, Kuwait University, Department of Statistics and Operations Research, P.O. Box 5969, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10198 Ellingsæter, Anne L.; Rønsen, Marit. The dual strategy: motherhood and the work contract in Scandinavia. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1996. 239-60 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Mothers' employment in the Scandinavian countries is generally characterised by high employment rates. At the same time the fertility level is higher than in most European countries. Scandinavian women have to a large extent developed a dual strategy towards employment and children: Most women choose to have at least two children and they continue their employment after and between births. In this paper we discuss how this dual strategy can be explained, taking the case of Norway. We argue that the strategy of Norwegian mothers is based on arrangements in working life which enable employed mothers to pursue motherhood within the work contract."
Correspondence: A. L. Ellingsæter, Institute for Social Research, Munthes gt. 31, 0260 Oslo, Norway. E-mail: ali@isaf.no. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10199 Farahat, Ahmed M.; Fattah, Mohamed N. A.; Mahgoub, Yousef M. Socio-economic determinants of achieved fertility in Egypt. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jun 1992. 1-38 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
The authors investigate socioeconomic determinants of fertility in Egypt. The paper "begins with the intermediate variables and then moves to [a] wider range of social, demographic and environmental influences....The results have shown that age and age related indicators (years since first union and age at first union) are the best group of independent indicators to explain number of children...."
Correspondence: A. M. Farahat, Cairo University, Khartoum Branch, Faculty of Commerce, Department of Statistics, Mathematics and Insurance, P.O. Box 1055, Khartoum, Sudan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10200 Flórez, Carmen E. Social change and transitions in the life histories of Colombian women. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 252-72 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relation between fertility behavior and certain aspects of modernization in Colombia is analyzed using a life-history approach and data from surveys carried out in 1984 and 1986. "Specifically, this study has two basic aims. First, it attempts to document changes and differentials in how the early stages of the life history of Colombian women are organized, as a consequence of the demographic and structural changes associated with modernization. Secondly, it aims to document the association between the modernization variables and parity progression ratios, using basic elements of multivariate regression and life-table analysis."
Correspondence: C. E. Flórez, Universidad de los Andes, Carrera 1, No. 18 A-70, Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10201 Friedlander, Dov; Okun, Barbara S. Fertility transition in England and Wales: continuity and change. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 1-18 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The focus of this paper is whether the transition from high to low fertility reveals continuity or discontinuity with the past. Our analyses of districts of England and Wales over time reveal an overall picture of continuity. Specifically, we show that (1) a substantial proportion of districts experienced pretransition variations in marital fertility that were so large...they are suggestive of deliberate fertility control; (2) the changes over time in the distributions of marital fertility levels and the relative importance of marital fertility levels to the determination of overall fertility levels were gradual and smooth; (3) the proportion of districts dominated by marital fertility variation, as opposed to nuptiality variation, increased gradually over time, and both marital fertility and nuptiality variations were present in all periods considered; and (4) there are important relationships between changes over time in marital fertility and socio-economic variables in periods both before and after the transition."
Correspondence: D. Friedlander, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10202 Goldscheider, Frances K.; Kaufman, Gayle. Fertility and commitment: bringing men back in. In: Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories, edited by John B. Casterline, Ronald D. Lee, and Karen A. Foote. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, Suppl., 1996. 87-99 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article explores how recent changes in the family challenge the ways demographers approach the study of fertility. We primarily consider the effects of recent changes in the United States, but the argument applies to fertility study in both more and less industrialized countries. Changes in family patterns are occurring rapidly throughout the world, although the type of change varies. In most cases, the changes shift the roles of men and women, both in relation to each other and in relation to their children....Our argument in this article is that the level of commitment between men and women is the key variable missing in the current study of fertility. We describe what we do know and why we know so little, and we try to convey why this review tells us that we should know a lot more."
Correspondence: F. K. Goldscheider, Brown University, Department of Sociology and Population Studies, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10203 Guengant, Jean-Pierre. Demographic transition in the Caribbean: an attempt at interpretation. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 74-94 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The fertility decline that occurred in most of the countries of the Caribbean (defined as the islands of the West Indies, Belize, French Guiana, Guyana, and Suriname) over the course of the 1970s and 1980s is described. Attention is given to the differences in the extent and timing of fertility changes among countries. The analysis "is basically limited to an examination of the role of socio-economic factors. In the first place, the declines in fertility are briefly placed in their historical context, and in the context of the major transformations the countries of the region have undergone since the end of the Second World War. Secondly, an effort has been made to characterize the different types of transition. Finally, the importance of the following factors in the fertility decline is examined: the decline in infant mortality, the diffusion of contraception, the other proximate determinants of fertility, and economic and social change."
Correspondence: J.-P. Guengant, UN Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10204 Guilmoto, Cristophe Z. The microeconomics of fertility: some reflections on the case of India. [Micro-économie de la fécondité: quelques réflexions à partir du cas indien.] ETS Documents de Recherche, No. 2, Nov 1996. 22 pp. Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction [ETS]: Marseilles, France; Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération [ORSTOM]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper examines the contribution of microeconomic theories to the understanding of social and geographical dimensions of fertility transition in India. In a first part, we present an overview of the two commonest theoretical formulations of the economic approach of fertility. According to the first theory, changes in reproductive behaviour are mainly to be regarded as the responses of households to exogenous changes and to their impact on the relative value and cost of children. The trade-off between quantity and quality of children is then an essential element to understand fertility decline. According to the second model, exogenous changes may also alter the system of norms and preferences which is otherwise assumed to [be] invariable in standard economic theory. The usefulness of these analytical frameworks is then examined in the light of the Indian experience where fertility behaviour is extremely heterogeneous between groups and regions. It is shown that economic explanations per se seem to be far less important than cultural and social dimensions."
Correspondence: Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction, ORSTOM/LPE, Case 10, Centre St. Charles, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseilles Cedex 3, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10205 Haines, Michael R.; Guest, Avery M. Fertility and marriage in New York State in the era of the Civil War. NBER Working Paper Series on Historical Factors in Long Run Growth, No. 70, Jul 1995. 26, [18] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes a five percent systematic sample of households from the manuscripts of the New York State Census of 1865 for seven counties....This census was the first in the United States to ask a question on children ever born. These parity data, along with own-children estimates of age-specific overall and marital fertility rates, are used to examine the relation of fertility with rural-urban residence, occupation, ethnicity, literacy, and location within the state....The parity data provide direct evidence of fertility decline in the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10206 Hobcraft, John. Fertility in England and Wales: a fifty-year perspective. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 3, Nov 1996. 485-524 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper provides a detailed account of fertility levels and trends in England and Wales since 1938, with a briefer coverage of a much longer time-span. The paper is concerned both with the measurement of fertility and with understanding the observed fertility behaviour. We lament and correct the failure of demographers to apply measurement tools available since the 1950s to the analysis of fertility in England and Wales, with a particular emphasis on adjustment of period measures and period parity progression ratios and show how some of the grosser errors of analysis and interpretation might have been avoided by earlier use of these approaches. We also relate these estimates to more recent ones. Once a clearer account of trends has been established, the paper goes on to reinterpret and explain the baby boom and baby bust. The conclusion looks at future prospects for fertility."
Correspondence: J. Hobcraft, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Social Policy and Administration, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10207 Hoem, Britta. Some features of recent demographic trends in Sweden. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 104, ISBN 91-7820-128-4. Apr 1996. 11, [8] pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this report we have summarised some important findings from the 1992 survey Family and Working Life. It shows that just about all women and men in Sweden have had children or expect to have children in the future. The normal expectation is to have at least two children. Despite women's high labour-force participation, gender-role patterns are quite traditional in Swedish families....One noticeable change from our older to our younger cohorts is the strong increase in first unions that are disrupted. This is probably a consequence of the large number of couples that form at young ages."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10208 Hoem, Britta. The social meaning of the age at second birth for third-birth fertility: a methodological note on the need to sometimes respecify an intermediate variable. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 333-9 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"In hazard regressions for a number of countries, including Sweden, more highly educated women have been found to have higher third-birth rates than other women. In this paper we show that this positive educational gradient disappears when age at second birth is respecified in order to better catch what age at second birth means to women at the various levels of education. Instead of a conventional age grouping that is the same for all educational categories, we suggest that the age factor should be defined so as to reflect what is normal and unusual childbearing behavior for each educational level separately. Considerations of a similar nature can be equally important in other contexts."
Correspondence: B. Hoem, Statistiska Centralbyrån, Karlavägen 100, 115 81 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10209 Horne, A. Dale; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil. Childbearing and Bongaarts indices for Coale-Trussell's model fertility schedules. Genus, Vol. 52, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 161-80 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"With only knowledge of Coale-Trussell's model parameters, one can obtain ASFRs [age-specific fertility rates] (from a model fertility schedule, MFS) required to calculate the childbearing temporal indices (through the childbearing model), which subsequently can be used to estimate fertility-inhibiting indices (through the multivariate regression model). It is thus possible...to achieve a more comprehensive picture about the fertility and childbearing process, and extend information provided by the Coale-Trussell model by estimating the two sets of childbearing and fertility-inhibiting indices for each of the 795 MFSs, for given plausible values of total fertility rates (TFRs). The present paper provides a broader knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the reproductive patterns in human populations by combining and tying together various recent methodologies and models."
Correspondence: A. D. Horne, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-1448. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10210 Islam, M. Nurul; Abedin, Samad. Some observations on marriage, contraception and fertility in Bangladesh. Genus, Vol. 52, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 201-7 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"The objectives [of this paper are] (i) to examine the trends in the inherent peculiarities of the nuptiality patterns [in Bangladesh], and (ii) to evaluate the contribution of the factors of contraception and marriage on fertility."
Correspondence: M. N. Islam, Rajshahi University, Department of Statistics, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10211 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). Total fertility rates and age-specific fertility rates for selected countries. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 287, Mar 25, 1996. 111 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Data are presented on total fertility rates and age-specific fertility rates for most of the countries of the world. The data are from the UN Demographic Yearbook.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10212 Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. Women's education, autonomy and reproductive behavior: assessing what we have learned. [1996?]. 35 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to review, under various cultural conditions and settings of the developing world, the relationships that exist between women's education, their autonomy and their reproductive behavior. The paper addresses three questions: First, is the relationship of women's education to fertility always inverse, and if not, is there a threshold level of education that a woman must achieve before that inverse relationship becomes apparent? Second, do improvements in women's education empower them in other areas of life...? And third, how does education affect the critical pathways influencing fertility--age at marriage, breast-feeding and postpartum abstinence, desired family size and contraception? Do the changes in women's autonomy fostered by education have consequences for fertility and for its proximate determinants?"
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10213 Joshi, Heather; David, Patricia. The social and economic context of fertility. In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, edited by Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, and Guillaume Wunsch. Aug 1996. 89-128 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"This chapter is mainly concerned with the social and economic explanations of deliberate actions whose cumulated outcome is the rate of human reproduction....Section 1 sketches a behavioural framework for the understanding of social reproduction....Sections 2 and 3 review some approaches from...economics and sociology....Section 4 considers some contemporary issues, in both developing and industrial countries....The questions selected are: Why does fertility decline with development? Can fertility decline in poor countries? Women's education--a materialist or ideational influence? Is childbearing for old age security? What makes fertility fluctuate in rich countries? Are state policies effective in accelerating fertility decline? [and] Are state policies effective in preventing sub-replacement fertility?"
Correspondence: H. Joshi, City University, Social Statistics Research Unit, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10214 Juárez, Fátima; Llera, Silvia. The process of family formation during the fertility transition. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 48-73 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This chapter is about the similarities and dissimilarities in the family formation process in various Latin American countries undergoing the transition to lower levels of fertility. The data are from the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Surveys in Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and Peru. "A brief description of changes in general levels of fertility in Latin America is given in the first section; the next section contains details of variations in the family formation process over the past ten years among several countries of the region; then a general overview of family patterns in 1986-7 (inter-country analysis) is given; and finally, evidence is presented on certain variables that intervene in the process of change."
Correspondence: F. Juárez, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10215 Kamarás, Ferenc. The European Fertility and Family Planning Survey in Hungary. [Európai Temékenységi és Családvizsgálat Magyarországon.] Demográfia, Vol. 38, No. 4, 1995. 309-39 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
The results of a fertility survey carried out in Hungary in 1992-1993 are presented. Data are included on residential characteristics; the creation and dissolution of marital unions; number of children; timing of fertility; maternal educational status and first, second, and third births; marital status at first birth; family planning; age at first intercourse; number of children desired; and expected family size. Most of the data are presented separately for males and females.
Correspondence: F. Kamarás, Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Keleti Karoly Utca 5-7, 1525 Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10216 Kane, Penny; Ruzicka, Lado. Women's education and the demographic transition in Africa. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 101-13 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In the attempt to understand how the attitude toward sending girls to school, both of parents and the community at large, has changed and how these changes bring about a transformation of family formation and reproductive behaviour, we have turned to an unconventional source of information: the novel, together with a small sample of autobiographies. The approach has a precedent in Victorian Families in Fact and Fiction by Kane (1994). There she examined nineteenth-century literature, diaries and memoirs in an attempt to identify attitudes and behaviour which might have influenced the course of the demographic transition in Britain. Here we undertake [a] similar examination using a sample of modern African writing from the Heinemann African Writers Series."
Correspondence: P. Kane, The Old School, George Street, Major's Creek, nr. Braidwood, NSW 2622, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10217 Kazakhstan. Academy of Preventive Medicine of Kazakhstan (Almaty, Kazakhstan); Kazakhstan. National Institute of Nutrition (Almaty, Kazakhstan). Kazakstan Demographic and Health Survey, 1995. Nov 1996. xxvi, 260 pp. Almaty, Kazakhstan. In Eng.
This report presents the main results from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Kazakhstan in 1995. This survey involved a nationally representative probability sample of 3,771 women aged 15-49. Following introductory chapters describing the country and the survey methodology, there are chapters on fertility, contraception, induced abortion, other proximate determinants of fertility, fertility preferences, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, the nutrition of women and children, and anemia. The results indicate a continuing decline in fertility (the current total fertility rate is 3.1 among ethnic Kazakhs and 1.7 among ethnic Russians), a continuing decline in infant and child mortality (the infant mortality rate for the period 1990-1994 was 40 per 1,000), an increase in contraceptive practice (84% of women reported having used a method of contraception at some time), and a decline in levels of induced abortion (at current rates, women will have an average of 1.8 abortions over their lifetime).
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10218 Kelly, Robert. An evolutionary perspective on population growth. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 319-27 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This article is a preliminary attempt to evaluate the effect that evolution has on fertility. First, the conditions necessary for an evolutionary effect are discussed, the most important condition being the existence of fertility-enhancing traits (not necessarily genetic) which can be passed from parent to child. Next, two mathematical models are discussed which give insight into the relation between evolution and fertility. The models yield a crude approximation relating the correlation (r) between number of siblings and number of children born to women in a given population to a subsequent evolution-related rise in fertility in the same population over one generation. The approximation is evaluated using the value of r as determined from a 1981 study sample of Swedish-born women. Finally, the possibilities of long-term fertility predictions and control of population growth are discussed."
Correspondence: R. Kelly, Amsthospitalet i Vordingborg, Vordingborg, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10219 Khan, H. T. Abdullah; Raeside, Robert. Factors affecting the most recent fertility rates in urban-rural Bangladesh. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 3, Feb 1997. 279-89 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a study which has been undertaken using data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS) to determine the significance of influences on the probability of birth in the year preceding the survey. In the survey a total of 11,905 ever-married women of reproductive age were asked a battery of questions relating to fertility aspects of women. Variables selected in this study were grouped into demographic, socio-economic, cultural and decision-making variables. Findings from the study indicate that the mother's age, whether contraception has ever been used, the death of a child at any time, whether the woman has ever worked, religion, region of residence, and female independence are the important covariates for explaining recent fertility in Bangladesh. Models are developed for the probabilities of a woman giving birth in urban and rural areas, dependent on her demographic and socio-economic conditions. Also developed are models for contraceptive use in urban-rural Bangladesh."
Correspondence: H. T. A. Khan, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10220 Khuda, Barkat; Hossain, Mian B. Fertility decline in Bangladesh: toward an understanding of major causes. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 155-67 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The paper examines the nature of fertility transition in Bangladesh, looks at the trends in contraceptive use and fertility, and identifies the major factors accounting for the fertility decline, despite poor socio-economic conditions. Two types of factors in the decline are: (a) positive factors which encourage eligible couples to contracept, and (b) negative factors which compel women to contracept, for spacing or limiting births. The effects of positive and negative factors on contraceptive use and fertility are analysed with data from a rural sample of 4,194 women from the 1993-94 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2,597 women from the MCH-FP Extension Project area, and 8,110 women from the Matlab MCH-FP Project area. Logistic regression is used in the analysis. Strong and highly significant effects of female education, female employment and access to media on contraceptive use and fertility have been found."
Correspondence: Barkat-e-Khuda, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10221 Kizito, P. M. L.; Obungu, Walter; Kibet, Moses; Njogu, Wamucii. Fertility transition in Kenya. DHS Further Analysis Studies, No. 11, Dec 1991. 23 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study adopts the proximate determinants framework to examine fertility change in Kenya. Three objectives are pursued. The first one is to describe fertility levels and trends at the aggregate and subgroup level, classified by level of education and type and region of residence. The second objective is to document trends in the proximate determinants of fertility (breastfeeding, contraceptive use, marital patterns, postpartum infecundability, and sterility). The third objective is to examine the relative role of the various determinants [of] the fertility decline."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10222 Ladier-Fouladi, Marie. The fertility transition in Iran. [La transition de la fécondité en Iran.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 1,101-27 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In Iran, fertility has remained high for a long time, and only began to decline significantly during the second half of the 1980s. That the fertility transition in Iran began under the Islamic Republic's regime leads one to question the hypothesis that the resurgence of Islam on the political and legal scene was responsible for the high level of fertility and the delayed transition. In fact, changes in the law, and more specifically the institutionalisation of the sharia rules did not affect demographic developments. The delayed beginning of the transition may be explained by the poor cultural and socio-economic environment which resulted in successive governments granting considerable support to facilitate the transition. An examination of both close and remote determinants clearly shows that evolving sociocultural and economic circumstances are the principal cause of fertility decline."
Correspondence: M. Ladier-Fouladi, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10223 Levine, Phillip B.; Staiger, Douglas; Kane, Thomas J.; Zimmerman, David J. Roe v. Wade and American fertility. NBER Working Paper, No. 5615, Jun 1996. 17, [11] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We consider the effect of abortion legalization on births in the United States. A simple theoretical model demonstrates that the impact of abortion legalization on the birth rate is ambiguous, because both pregnancy and abortion decisions could be affected. We use variation in the timing of legalization across states in the early 1970s to estimate the effect of abortion on birth rates. Our findings indicate that states legalizing abortion experienced a 5% decline in births relative to other states."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10224 Low, Bobbi S. Men, women, and sustainability. Population and Environment, Vol. 18, No. 2, Nov 1996. 111-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Here I will argue that in the evolutionary history of all living things, `more' has always been reproductively more profitable--either more babies, or better-provisioned (more consumptive) babies. This distinction is crucial: the most successful reproductive tactic in many environments is not to make the maximum number of offspring, but to make fewer, better-invested offspring. When lowered fertility produces greater lineage success through fewer, better-invested children...lowered fertility produces no solution to the population-consumption dilemma. Several scholars estimate that a child raised in the developed world today consumes 15 times the amount used by a child in the less developed world. When this is true, a two-fold decrease in fertility, accompanied by a fifteen-fold increase in consumption, does not bode well for our ecological future. We need a new approach to understanding the relationships among resource consumption, fertility, and sustainability."
Correspondence: B. S. Low, University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources and Environment, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10225 Mackinnon, Alison. Were women present at the demographic transition? Questions from a feminist historian to historical demographers. Gender and History, Vol. 7, No. 2, Aug 1995. 222-40 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"One of the most fundamental and least understood of the forces reshaping relations between the sexes in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century society is the strangely named `fertility decline' in modern Western states. In this brief essay I outline some major strands of the discourses around fertility and reflect on their omissions. I also consider the persistence of certain rhetorical formulations which continue to operate as explanatory systems. I suggest that women, while far from invisible in the fertility literature, are portrayed either as lacking decision-making ability or, when recognized as decision makers, as responsible for poor or selfish decisions."
Correspondence: A. Mackinnon, University of South Australia, Institute of Social Research, St. Bernard Road, Magill, SA 5072, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10226 Macunovich, Diane J. Relative income and price of time: exploring their effects on U.S. fertility and female labor force participation. In: Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories, edited by John B. Casterline, Ronald D. Lee, and Karen A. Foote. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, Suppl., 1996. 223-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The analyses presented in this article have attempted to develop a comprehensive framework for understanding the dramatic changes in fertility, female labor force participation, and female enrollments that we have observed in the 20-24 age group in the United States over the past 25 years. This has been accomplished using a blending of the two primary economic models developed for that purpose: the Easterlin `relative income' model and the `price of time' model. This combination, together with the assumption of a changing strength of the income effect of the female wage, has produced models with extraordinarily good explanatory power for the period since the mid-1960s....The results presented here are strongly supportive of the hypothesis that [male relative income] has been a dominant influence on many of the most significant socioeconomic changes observed in the past three decades."
Correspondence: D. J. Macunovich, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10227 Martina, Alan. The quantity/quality of children hypothesis in developing countries: testing by considering some demographic experiences in China, India and Africa. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 191-212 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Initially a general regression equation is estimated, making use of cross-country data, relating the level of the total fertility rate to a range of variables, including the level of per capita real income. There is a statistically significant negative relationship between the level of the total fertility rate and real income per capita. Once the theory of the quantity-cum-quality of children hypothesis is set out formally, and in a flexible form, it is clear that this statistical relationship is not inconsistent with this theory....To provide more satisfactory tests of this hypothesis, additional relevant information from various developing countries is used. Information on recent demographic changes in China provides a comparatively powerful, direct test of the theory. More indirect tests of the theory are provided by drawing on data for India in the 1960s, and for sub-Saharan African countries in the 1980s and early 1990s. These various tests suggest that the quantity-cum-quality hypothesis, in its flexible form, appears to explain some of the changes in fertility rates observed in various developing countries in recent decades."
Correspondence: A. Martina, Australian National University, Department of Economic History, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10228 McClamroch, Kristi. Total fertility rate, women's education, and women's work: what are the relationships? Population and Environment, Vol. 18, No. 2, Nov 1996. 175-86 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents the results of a statistical study, using cross-national data, on the relationships between total fertility rate and women's level of education and women's labor participation. Aggregate data on seventy-one countries were collected from numerous sources. Eight variables related to women's fertility, mortality, economic status, labor participation, and education are analyzed using multivariate linear regression analyses. Two models are considered....Although the data are crude, the results of the analyses suggest that the model which incorporates women's level of education and women's labor participation captures the data better than the smaller model. The full model suggests that the percentage of women in the labor force is directly related to total fertility rate, whereas the average number of years of education for women is indirectly related to total fertility rate."
Correspondence: K. McClamroch, University of Michigan, Population-Environment Dynamics Project, SPHII, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10229 Micheli, Giuseppe A. New patterns of family formation in Italy. Which tools for which interpretations? Genus, Vol. 52, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 15-52 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The author puts forward a key to interpreting the change having taken place in social and demographic reproduction processes in Italy during the last few decades; he corroborates his arguments with a range of sources that are not...necessarily orthodox in demographic terms, in order to answer five questions: when and where was the demographic change triggered? If changes occur not so much in behaviour as in its underlying rationale, how does the rationale of action change? What `explains' this change of rationale? What historical situations may have helped to activate this mechanism? And, lastly, what logical scheme is required to interpret the coexistence, in the same contexts, of the present demographic stagnation and some anomic mutations that undermined reciprocity systems during the epochal transition of the 1940s?"
Correspondence: G. A. Micheli, Università Cattolica di Milano, Istituto di Statistica, Via Necchi 9, 20123 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10230 Montgomery, Mark R.; Casterline, John B. Social learning, social influence, and new models of fertility. In: Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories, edited by John B. Casterline, Ronald D. Lee, and Karen A. Foote. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, Suppl., 1996. 151-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Our objective [is] to describe a model for fertility that contains elements that have been neglected--although often parenthetically acknowledged--in most fertility research." The authors begin by "developing the concepts of social learning and social influence, drawing upon insights from several social science disciplines. The model set out in the first section has general applicability, we believe, although we highlight various aspects that may be of greater interest in the developed-country context. We then consider promising lines of inquiry in the context of the United States, with particular attention to decisionmaking among adolescents, contraceptive method choice, and service delivery strategies. In the final section we discuss some of the methodological difficulties that will confront new research and present our conclusions."
Correspondence: M. R. Montgomery, State University of New York, Department of Economics, Stony Brook, NY 11790. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10231 Moreno, Lorenzo; Singh, Susheela. Fertility decline and changes in proximate determinants in the Latin American and Caribbean regions. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 113-34 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This chapter is concerned with changes in the proximate determinants of fertility over time in the various countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors use the available WFS and DHS data. "We first look at the pattern of change by absolute measures of the three proximate determinants. Secondly, we present results from the most widely applied model, that of Bongaarts, comparing the pattern of changes in indices from an earlier period of higher fertility with a later period of lower fertility, for a number of countries. Inconsistencies that arise from the comparison of changes in the actual measures of the determinants and changes in the indices are discussed. We then compare results from the Bongaarts model with those from the model developed by Moreno."
Correspondence: L. Moreno, Mathematica Policy Research, P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08543-2393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10232 Morgan, S. Philip. Characteristic features of modern American fertility. In: Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories, edited by John B. Casterline, Ronald D. Lee, and Karen A. Foote. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, Suppl., 1996. 19-63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"These pages describe recent trends and differentials in U.S. fertility....The article uses standard tools of the trade. I begin by describing longterm trends, thereby placing recent experience in historical perspective. These trends are decomposed into `timing' and `number' changes and are disaggregated by age and parity....The dominant analytic frameworks in social demography (proximate determinants and life course) are introduced to guide a closer examination of post-1960 trends and differentials. Data show persistently high teenage childbearing, increases in fertility among women in their 30s, and a slowed pace of transition to second and third births for women in all age groups. Contraceptive use, contraceptive failure, and abortion are key proximate determinants of fertility for all age groups. Finally, because of the popular attention they receive and because of their import for public policy discussion, I devote special attention to nonmarital childbearing and to racial/ethnic fertility differences."
Correspondence: S. P. Morgan, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10233 Moring, Beatrice. The regulation of fertility in pre-industrial populations: a local study from eighteenth century Finland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 284-94 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The crude birth rate in Finland in the eighteenth century was more than 40 per thousand. At the same time there was considerable regional diversity. This study of a coastal population in southwestern Finland reveals that the fertility was well below that of the country as a whole and as low or even lower than that recorded for neighboring countries. A more detailed study of families in Houtskär indicates that the pattern of fertility varied according to the socioeconomic standing of the family head. Differences in age at first marriage were a critical determinant of these variations but other important factors were birth spacing and the timing of the last birth. A conscious attempt was made to limit family size."
Correspondence: B. Moring, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10234 Nair, Sukumari N. Determinants of birth intervals in Kerala: an application of Cox's hazard model. Genus, Vol. 52, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 47-65 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The present study is an attempt to delineate the differences in the patterns and determinants of birth intervals which appear highly relevant in a transitional population such as Kerala [India]. In this country two comparable surveys, with a period difference of 20 years, were conducted. The study tries to estimate the effects of socio-economic, demographic and proximate variables using Cox's proportional hazard model. For the former data-set, socio-economic variables have [a] significant effect on birth intervals, while for the latter data proximate variables are the significant determinants of birth intervals."
Correspondence: S. N. Nair, University of Kerala, Population Research Centre, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10235 Notkola, Veijo. Parish records from Namibia 1925-1990--an attempt to analyze fertility and mortality in Ovamboland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 295-305 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The general aim of the study is to describe and to try to understand the population development (mortality and fertility) in Ovamboland in North-Namibia....According to the results both a clear decline and increase in fertility have occurred during 1930-1980 although fertility has been all the time close to natural fertility. Mortality declined in the 1950s in Ovamboland. The main cause for the mortality decline was probably the health care system built by the missionaries. At the same time, however, there [were] no more bad famines in the area during the 1950s and in general the nutrition level also improved during the 1950s."
Correspondence: V. Notkola, University of Helsinki, Population Research Unit, P.O. Box 33, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10236 Odimegwu, Clifford O.; Zerai, Assata. Understanding the proximate determinants of fertility of a Nigerian ethnic group. Genus, Vol. 52, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 67-87 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This paper uses data from a 1992/93 sample survey of 1,000 women aged 15-49 in selected areas of Imo State, Nigeria. The purpose of the survey was to get information/data on birth-spacing dynamics of the area. In this paper, we applied the basic Bongaarts model and its extended version to identify the proximate determinants of Igbo fertility. A total fertility rate [of] 6.7 births per woman is estimated from the model compared with a TFR of 7.26 actually observed from the survey. When compared with earlier studies, it is shown that the principal proximate determinant of fertility in the area is no more lactational infecundability, but delayed marriage. Explanations for this change, future research needs and policy implications are discussed."
Correspondence: C. O. Odimegwu, Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. E-mail: codimeg@ogu.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10237 Palivos, Theodore; Scotese, Carol A. Fertility, growth and the financing of public education and health. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1996. 415-28 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper considers the implications of the financing of government services to children when fertility decisions are endogenously determined. In particular, it is shown that when the services are financed by taxation, the equilibrium outcome is biased away from the socially preferred result. The bias results in higher fertility rates and lower economic growth rates than the efficient social optimum. This arises because each household internalizes the benefits, but not the costs of the tax-financed services. We consider alternative methods of financing the public provision of services and find that a combination of taxation and vouchers can eliminate the bias in the equilibrium outcome."
Correspondence: C. A. Scotese, Indiana State University, Graduate School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy, Bloomington, IN 47405-1701. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10238 Pandey, Himanshu. On a probability model of open birth interval. Genus, Vol. 52, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 39-45 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"Many authors [have] pointed out that analysis of open birth interval (the period elapsed from the last live birth till the date of the survey) could be of great interest to study the process of human reproduction, because it directly exhibits changes in fertility due to recent use of contraception or incidence of secondary sterility. Moreover, open birth intervals may be chosen to study the linkage between fertility and migration. A probability model for describing variations in the length of open birth intervals has been applied separately to couples with both spouses present at home, and to couples with one spouse having migrated away. The model has then been applied to [survey data for India] to get an estimate of the risk of conception and of secondary sterility."
Correspondence: H. Pandey, Gorakhpur University, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, 3 Professor Colony, Gorakhpur 273 009 Uttar Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10239 Pantelides, Edith A. A century and a quarter of fertility change in Argentina: 1869 to the present. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 345-58 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Fertility change in Argentina is analyzed from 1869 to the present. There are sections on the beginning of the fertility transition, fertility differentials, mechanisms for fertility control, and recent trends in fertility. The author concludes that the decline in fertility began after 1895, and that the massive arrival of immigrants from countries with lower levels of fertility than Argentina had a significant effect on lowering levels of fertility, particularly in urban areas. Changes in age at marriage do not seem to have decisively affected fertility. There was a "baby boom" during the 1970s, causing a real increase in completed cohort fertility.
Correspondence: E. A. Pantelides, Centro de Estudios de Población, Casilla 4397, Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10240 Parr, Nicholas J. Changes in the factors affecting fertility in Ghana during the early stages of the fertility decline. Actuarial Studies and Demography Research Paper Series 3, No. 013-96, ISBN 1-86408-258-5. Aug 1996. 8 pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"This study uses data from the 1988 and the 1993 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys to analyze the changing importance both of the proximate determinants of fertility and of demographic, socio-economic, cultural, and location factors affecting fertility in this West African country. The rising level of contraceptive use is found to be the main proximate cause of the decline in fertility. A woman's age, education, religion, place of residence and child mortality experience are found to be important factors affecting fertility indirectly. The most significant change in Ghanian fertility has been the decline in fertility in urban areas outside the Greater Accra region."
Correspondence: Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Author's E-mail: nparr@efs.mq.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10241 Predojevic, Jelena. Fertility in the city of Belgrade. [Fertilitet stanovnistva grada Beograda.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 73-87 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The main topic of this paper is the investigation of various aspects of fertility in the city of Belgrade [Yugoslavia] based on the available data from population censuses and vital statistics compiled in the period after the Second World War and particularly, between the two census years, 1971 and 1991. First, an analysis has been made of the movement in the number of live births and the crude birth rate....The author also discusses distribution of the communes by the crude birth rate."
Correspondence: J. Predojevic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade,Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10242 Rajaretnam, T. Proximate determinants of fertility decline in Athoor block of Tamil Nadu State in India, 1959-1985. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1996. 1-20 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to study the trend in fertility decline and its proximate determinants in Athoor block [Tamil Nadu, India] since the late 1950s....The significant feature of the rapid decline of fertility in Athoor block is that it has occurred despite the socioeconomic backwardness of the area....The observed small increase in age at marriage of females has contributed substantially to the decline of fertility in this block. However, the largest part of the decline in fertility of this block is to be attributed to the intensive family planning programme of this block which is believed to have induced a desire for smaller family size and wider use of family planning methods among couples."
Correspondence: T. Rajaretnam, JSS Institute of Economic Research, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10243 Rasevic, Mirjana. Female fertility, by population censuses. Yugoslav Survey, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1995. 3-22 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng.
"Consideration will be given in this paper to the number of live-born children by female age groups according to [Yugoslav] population census results. This methodological approach makes it possible to supplement the results of the analyses based on annual reports on the number of births, and thereby to confirm and possibly extend the findings about the level and properties of fertility of the Yugoslav population and its subpopulations."
Correspondence: M. Rasevic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade,Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10244 Renne, Elisha P. Shifting boundaries of fertility change in Southwestern Nigeria. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 169-90 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Anthropologists and demographers rely on distinctive methodologies and forms of evidence even while they share a common interest in explaining fertility change. This paper proposes a cultural anthropological approach that focuses on the process whereby meanings associated with practices and things are reinterpreted over time. Using the image of shifting boundaries of kinship relations, it examines changing interpretations of three fundamental aspects of social life--family land, marriage, and foster parenthood--in the Ekiti area of Southwestern Nigeria which suggest an attenuation of the mutual obligations of extended kin. While these reinterpretations have moral associations that legitimate practices supporting fertility decline, political and economic uncertainty may counter this process."
Correspondence: E. P. Renne, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10245 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Brewster, Karin L. Childrearing and fertility. In: Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories, edited by John B. Casterline, Ronald D. Lee, and Karen A. Foote. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, Suppl., 1996. 258-89 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We have argued that variation in the degree of role incompatibility experienced by working mothers may partially explain the diversity in fertility levels and trends across advanced industrial economies. In making this argument, we have emphasized the potential fertility-enhancing effects of changes in the social organization of work and childcare arrangements. We contend, in other words, that insofar as women's participation in the paid labor force acts to constrain fertility, any easing of the conflict between work responsibilities and childrearing will lead to an increase in fertility, other things being equal....We have addressed a number of variables likely to influence the extent to which the mother and worker roles are incompatible. Our review suggests that childcare arrangements may play a pivotal role in mediating the relationship between work and fertility."
Correspondence: R. R. Rindfuss, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10246 Rodríguez, Germán. The spacing and limiting components of the fertility transition in Latin America. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 27-47 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we present the results of an analysis of trends in marital fertility within categories of key socio-economic factors using data from six Latin American countries: Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. These countries were selected for analysis because they have completed high quality surveys for two points in time, as part of the WFS and the DHS programmes....The socio-economic factors selected for analysis are three: type of place of residence, wife's education, and husband's occupation....The results of our analysis reveal the presence of remarkable regularities in the process of fertility transition in the six countries analysed, in spite of their diversity. In all social strata where fertility has started to decline the indices of spacing and limiting seem to have followed the same broad but well-defined paths over time....The general trends are consistent with a simple process of social diffusion...."
Correspondence: G. Rodríguez, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10247 Roy, T. K.; Parasuraman, Sulabha. Fertility in India: dynamics and prospects for future decline. Population Research Centre Demographic Reports, No. 21, 1996. 37 pp. University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The study, based on National Family Health Survey [data], reveals substantial variation in fertility in India among the different regions. Although the variations in fertility depend on the educational composition of women, they persist even among women of a specific education group. Such a variation in fertility arises due to the residual level of demand for children and infant mortality. [The authors suggest that] better conditions of living, greater media exposure among women and strengthening of the programme (referring mainly to utilization of MCH services) will reduce the residual levels of demand for children and infant mortality and hence can accelerate the decline in fertility."
Correspondence: University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. E-mail: FACULTY@FRW.RUG.NL. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10248 Schoen, Robert; Kim, Young J.; Nathanson, Constance A.; Fields, Jason; Astone, Nan M. Why do Americans want children? Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 96-09, Aug 1996. 33, [9] pp. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Prevailing theories of fertility behavior do not explain why fertility has not fallen to zero in industrialized countries. Extending Coleman's concept of social capital, we argue that the social resource value of children is an important factor motivating childbearing. Data for the U.S. from the 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households are used to test hypotheses regarding how the social resource value of children, the economic costs of children, the career impact of children, and attitudes toward childlessness influence fertility intentions. The social resource value of children emerges as a powerful predictor of fertility intentions."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10249 Schweizer, Urs. Endogenous fertility and the Henry George Theorem. Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 61, No. 2, Aug 1996. 209-28 pp. Lausanne, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Models of endogenous demographic change deal with population size as an additional object of the welfare analysis. In these models the overlapping-generations (OLG) model serves as the basic framework. In club theory, too, population size is treated as an endogenous variable. In local public goods (LPG) models, the so-called Henry George Theorem, which requires local public expenditures to be financed by a 100% tax on aggregate land rent, is known as a (first-order) condition for club efficiency. The present paper establishes and exploits an isomorphism between steady states of the OLG model and allocations of the LPG model. The paper revisits Samuelson's fallacy concerning his goldenest golden rule and it explores institutional arrangements that sustain the optimum growth of population."
Correspondence: U. Schweizer, University of Bonn, Department of Economics, Adenaueralle 24, 53113 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10250 Sugino, Motosuke. A child as public goods: in view of the theory of socioeconomics. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 19, May 1996. 19-27 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"There is a rising crisis-consciousness in Japan that the decline of fertility rates may result in retarding a healthy social development....The study was done...to decide whether it was feasible to regard a child as public goods or social goods instead of private goods as in the past....In Japan, if the domestic household market principle can decide the number of children for each family to have, there may be a chance of not fulfilling the adequate numbers of children needed for the society."
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

63:10251 Sushama, P. N. Transition from high to replacement-level fertility in a Kerala village. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 115-36 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper uses a micro-approach to examine the motivation and processes of rapid fertility decline in a Kerala village [in India]. Fertility declined in the village substantially during the 1970s and continued to decline to reach replacement level at the time of study. The proximate determinants are postponement of marriage and extensive use of contraceptives. However, the changes in these factors were the result of changing socioeconomic conditions. At the time of study the singulate age at marriage was 29 years for males and 23 years for females, higher than elsewhere in India. Delayed age at marriage was a combined effect of favourable attitudes to education and economic changes. Smaller families became advantageous because of decreasing agricultural opportunities, expanded education and mortality decline. Contraceptives were available with the implementation of the family planning program. Higher use of contraceptives can be attributed to favourable conditions resulting from socio-economic changes."
Correspondence: P. N. Sushama, B28 Quatab Insitutional Area, Tara Crescent, New Delhi 100 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10252 Szreter, Simon. Falling fertilities and changing sexualities in Europe since c. 1850: a comparative survey of national demographic patterns. Working Papers in Demography, No. 62, 1996. 35 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to examine comparative national trends of fertility change in Europe since the mid-nineteenth century or a means of assessing patterns of difference in sexual cultures. Can there be a demography of sexuality? The Princeton European Fertility Project produced a set of comparative national indices tracking changing levels of marital fertility, non-marital fertility, and proportions of women marrying, c.1850-1980. Comparison of these indices...shows that...the relationship between marital fertility, proportions marrying, and non-marital fertility...exhibited a number of distinctive patterns....On the basis of the demographic evidence presented here, a typology of sexual cultures is suggested for the countries of Europe, showing in many cases remarkable forms of persistence through adaption over the last two centuries."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10253 Tambashe, B. Oleko; Shapiro, David. Family background and early life course transitions in Kinshasa. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 4, Nov 1996. 1,029-37 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Drawing on a sample of approximately 2,400 women aged 13-49 surveyed in Kinshasa, Zaire, in 1990, this article examines the impact of aspects of a woman's family background on transitions to sexual activity, marriage, and motherhood. We document how parental education, parental survival status, the number of siblings, and the type of place where a woman grew up are important for these transitions to adult roles. Our findings suggest that continued increases in educational levels should contribute to delays in these life course transitions and ultimately to some reductions in fertility."
Correspondence: B. O. Tambashe, Tulane University, 1400 Canal Street, Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70112-2737. E-mail: otambas1@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10254 Thomson, Elizabeth; Hoem, Jan M. Couple childbearing plans and births in Sweden. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 113, ISBN 91-7820-146-2. Oct 1996. 17 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"We have used data from a nationally representative sample of Swedish couples to estimate effects of partners' childbearing plans on the rate of second and higher-order births. Among couples in their active childbearing years, only 16 percent expressed conflicting plans for another child, but an additional 25 percent expressed different levels of certainty about their plans....Both men and women exerted veto-power over the birth of a child. When men were willing to have a child, however, the woman's certainty about her plans had a stronger effect than did the man's certainty....We discuss the findings in the context of Sweden's public supports for gender equality and for parenthood, and argue for the collection of partner data in family or fertility surveys."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10255 Toga, Teshome; Chaudhury, Rafiqul H. Child survival and fertility performance in rural Ethiopia: is there any relationship? Population and Development Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1994. 11-26 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
"The subject matter of the present investigations is to explore the relationship, if any, between child survival status and fertility behaviour in the high fertility and mortality settings of rural Ethiopia. In other words, the purpose of this research is to examine whether the fertility performance varies between women with and without child loss experience, holding other factors such as age, parity and literacy status constant."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10256 Tórrez Pinto, Hugo. Bolivia: the social and geographic context of trends in fertility. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 359-72 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Patterns of fertility in Bolivia are analyzed over the past 15 to 20 years using data from the 1976 census and recent surveys, including the 1989 National Demographic and Health Survey. The author concludes that, although overall fertility declined in the 12 to 15 years before 1988, this decline was confined to urban areas; fertility remained high in rural areas, and in some cases actually increased in response to high rates of infant mortality. The author also notes that Bolivia's extreme differences in income distribution are associated with differentials in fertility, and that fertility levels, particularly among the poor, are likely to remain high while these inequalities persist.
Correspondence: H. Tórrez Pinto, Ministerio de Desarrollo Sostenible, Dirección de Políticas de Población, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10257 Udry, J. Richard. Biosocial models of low-fertility societies. In: Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories, edited by John B. Casterline, Ronald D. Lee, and Karen A. Foote. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, Suppl., 1996. 325-36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article suggests how theoretical biosocial models may give insight into fertility-related processes in modern, permissive societies....Low-fertility societies provide wide behavior choice. Where behavior choice is broad and opportunities are egalitarian, biological variables, reflecting natural differences in behavioral predispositions, explain increasing variation in behavior. Application of this principle to demographic research suggests that, increasingly, gendered behavior, fertility, contraception, abortion, nuptiality, occupational choice, and other behaviors of interest to demographers will be influenced by biological choice. But the influence of these processes will be invisible in research guided by traditional social science theories and executed with traditional social science research designs. Research designs are already available that are appropriate for incorporating biological data collection into survey research."
Correspondence: J. R. Udry, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10258 United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Latin American fertility, 1950-2050. [América Latina fecundidad, 1950-2050.] Boletín Demográfico/Demographic Bulletin, Vol. 29, No. 58, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.163. Jul 1996. 151 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
"This Demographic Bulletin presents updated information on fertility based on the estimates and projections made in the 20 Latin American countries for the period 1950-2050. It includes age-specific fertility rates, total fertility rates, gross and net reproduction rates and other related indicators, such as population projections based on three hypotheses [of] future trends in fertility; absolute values for population growth, births and deaths; and birth, death and migration rates."
Correspondence: UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10259 van de Kaa, Dirk J. Anchored narratives: the story and findings of half a century of research into the determinants of fertility. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 3, Nov 1996. 389-432 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews half a century of research into the determinants of fertility. It is argued that the quest for the determinants of fertility behaviour and change during that period can best be interpreted as the development of a series of sub-narratives from different disciplinary perspectives and orientations. These are normally based upon the initial narrative of the demographic transition and usually take the form of a verbal theory illustrated by a `box and arrow' diagram. On occasions formalization has been attempted....There is every reason to believe that the research process identified will continue and will lead to a further accumulation of knowledge. In fact, all important variables have probably already been identified. That it will, ultimately, lead to a single, consolidated narrative fully satisfactory for all settings and for all time is, however, highly unlikely."
Correspondence: D. J. van de Kaa, Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, Laan van Nieuw Oost Indie 131, 2539 BM The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10260 Westoff, Charles F.; Moreno, Lorenzo. Reproductive intentions and fertility in Latin America. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 242-51 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we analyse reproductive preferences at three levels. The first objective is to examine family-size norms and to determine whether there has been any change in the number of children considered ideal in various Latin American populations. We then focus on the extent of unwanted fertility, from which we can deduce the level of fertility that would prevail if all births were wanted. Finally, we turn our attention to the reproductive intentions of the women of these populations, offer some fertility forecasts based on these intentions, and review trends and differentials in these preferences over recent years." Data are from the relevant WFS and DHS surveys.
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10261 Xie, Weike; Wang, Shaoxian. A methodological study of fertility projection using fertility models and the conversion between cohort index and period index. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1996. 315-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article discusses the methodology for and significance of building fertility models with complete, incomplete, or no fertility data. It holds for the first time that the non-least-square method in building Brass correlated fertility models (the Zeng Yi method) is superior to [the] least-square method and offers a rationale of this claim." The geographical focus is on China.
Correspondence: W. Xie, Beijing Medical University, Health Statistics and Medical Demographic Research Bureau, Xue Yuan Lu, Northern Suburb, Beijing 100083, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10262 Zhang, Erli; Chen, Jianli. A birth duration fertility model with consideration of contraception factors. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1996. 327-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In view of the special characteristics of family planning and contraceptive choices in China, this article introduces contraception factors into the fertility model of birth duration and establishes a fertility model that takes into consideration birth duration. The model may be used in...studying the influence of simulated contraception factors on the fertility level and the fertility model and in making predictions on the number of births."
Correspondence: E. Zhang, State Family Planning Commission, Planning and Statistics Department, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

63:10263 Crognier, E. Behavioral and environmental determinants of reproductive success in traditional Moroccan Berber groups. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 100, No. 2, 1996. 181-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The reproductive histories of women aged 45-70 years from a homogeneous Berber population of South Morocco were sampled from three contrasting environments: a small town (n=75), villages in the lowlands (n=217), and villages in the highlands (n=128)....Path analysis confirms [differences among these populations in] reproductive behaviors and suggests the existence of mechanisms for controlling family size in town and in the rural lowlands, but not in the highlands. The estimates of survival function show significant differences among the three groups, the conditions for survival in the highlands being clearly less favorable. Rank tests of the association of survival data with several covariates indicate the association of survival data with vaccinations and with conditions of delivery. In spite of the lower rate of offspring survival, the highlander group would demonstrate a higher overall number of children reaching reproductive maturity, [due] to an extended reproductive span."
Correspondence: E. Crognier, Pavillion de Lanfant, 346 Route des Alpes, 13100 Aix-en-Provence, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10264 den Draak, Maaike; Hutter, Inge. Fertility in the Irish Republic: nurtured by Irish law and the Catholic Church. Population Research Centre Working Paper, No. 1996-6, Jun 1996. 21, [4] pp. University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
"During the last three decades Irish total fertility has been one of the highest in Europe....This article seeks an explanation for the long lasting high level of fertility in Ireland. Secondly, it discusses how Irish women were able--in a relatively short life span--to approach the low pattern of fertility that their European counterparts had established much earlier in the century. A model of fertility including proximate determinants and societal factors...as well as theoretical considerations on norms, rules and values and social change, are applied." The results show that the Catholic Church has had a strong impact on ideas and attitudes. "Irish Catholicism is a particularly puritanical and orthodox form of Catholicism....It is a state religion and is strongly intertwined with law, education and social services."
Correspondence: University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. E-mail: PRC@FRW.RUG.NL. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10265 Flórez, Carmen E. High-fertility groups in Colombia, 1990. [Los grupos de alta fecundidad en Colombia, 1990.] Desarrollo y Sociedad, Sep 1994. 9-52 pp. Bogotá, Colombia. In Spa.
The author identifies high-fertility groups in Colombia by geographic subregion and socioeconomic variables. Data are from the 1990 Demographic and Health Survey and the 1985 census. The impact of nuptiality, type of union, and contraceptive use is considered.
Correspondence: C. E. Flórez, Universidad de los Andes, Carrera 1, No. 18 A-70, Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10266 Forste, Renata; Tienda, Marta. What's behind racial and ethnic fertility differentials? In: Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories, edited by John B. Casterline, Ronald D. Lee, and Karen A. Foote. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, Suppl., 1996. 109-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article we briefly review and critique `first-generation' studies of racial and ethnic differences in fertility. We argue that residual approaches to variation in sexual and reproductive behavior have been a major roadblock to creative theorizing about the forces that generate fertility differentials among people of color. Subsequently, we review recent studies of family formation to identify behavioral differences that maintain, augment, or diminish fertility differentials along racial and ethnic lines. In particular, we focus on differences in the timing of first births, the marital context of childbearing, and completed family size. Second, based on insights from qualitative data drawn from the Social Opportunity Study...we propose several hypotheses about the social forces that undergird racial and ethnic fertility differences. Specifically, we analyze responses from unstructured interviews with parents from Chicago's inner city to illustrate differences in attitudes about nonmarital fertility; perceptions of links between parental supervision of children and the timing of births; views about the role and value of children in family life; and the meaning of marriage...."
Correspondence: R. Forste, Brigham Young University, Department of Sociology, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10267 Gupta, H. S.; Baghel, A. Fertility differentials in Madhya Pradesh, India. Population Geography, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1994. 49-58 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"The present paper explains the fertility differentials among socio-cultural groups and regions in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and examines the role of such factors as general and female literacy, age at marriage and infant mortality in determining the fertility levels. The study indicates that no single factor is of overwhelming importance. These factors in combination, as revealed by multivariate analysis, account for about 29 percent inter-district variation in fertility in the state."
Correspondence: H. S. Gupta, Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University, School of Studies in Geography, Raipur 492 010, Madhya Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10268 Halli, S. S.; Dai, S. Y.; George, M. V.; Verma, R. B. P. Visible minority fertility in Canada, 1981-1986. Genus, Vol. 52, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 181-9 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"Visible minorities are one of the four designated employment equity groups in Canada which include women, aboriginal peoples, visible minorities, and persons with disabilities at work....As part of the data program for the employment equity groups, Statistics Canada developed population projections of visible minority groups for Canada and regions covering the period 1991-2016....To develop them, studies on the components of demographic change (fertility, mortality, and migration) were undertaken. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the methodology used to study the fertility of the various visible minority groups in Canada between 1981 and 1986 and present the main findings."
Correspondence: S. S. Halli, University of Manitoba, Department of Sociology, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10269 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Mita, Fusami. An analysis on fertility by prefecture: 1980-1990. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 284, Mar 31, 1995. 102 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of differential fertility by province in Japan for the period 1980-1990 is presented. The focus is on marital fertility, and the authors propose a new measure, the ever-married total fertility rate, which takes into account age at marriage. Data are from the ninth National Fertility Survey, carried out in 1987, and the 1990 census. The authors conclude that "the lowest completed fertility in metropolitan prefectures is not due to the employment rate itself but due to the lowest proportion married and the lowest marital fertility among employed women. The reduced fertility, proportion married and marital fertility in those prefectures are assumably caused by the environment peculiar to metropolitan prefectures in respect to childbearing, childrearing and even marriage such as hard working condition, housing, childcare and child education."
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10270 Hjarnø, Jan. International migration, fertility, lifestyles, and social structure. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 119-35 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This paper has two aims. First, it calls attention to the neoracists, who exploit the results of demographic research for...propaganda. Second, it raises the question whether the subject matter of demography is the appropriate category to work with if demographers really want to make a substantial contribution to an understanding of social development. The presentation starts with neoracism and presents an example of how one Danish demographer has published strange research most pleasing to the neoracist way of thinking. Then a model for structural lifestyle analysis is presented....Finally, the model for structural lifestyle analysis [is] applied to a set of empirical data [for Denmark] on three groups of immigrants to demonstrate how we may gain new insight into the importance of certain lifestyles in economic development. In addition, we will see how specific lifestyles and rates of fertility may be related and cause the high rates of fertility in some of the new ethnic minorities...."
Correspondence: J. Hjarnø, Danish Centre for Migration and Ethnic Studies, Esbjerg, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10271 Kalipeni, Ezekiel; Harrington, Luke. Regional variations of fertility in Malawi. Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, Mar-Jun 1995. 222-47 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper briefly examines the regional variations of fertility rates in Malawi between 1977 and 1987....The results of the analysis contained in this paper indicate that, at the regional and district levels, there is generally a weak relationship between fertility rates on the one hand and demographic/socioeconomic variables on the other hand. The explanation for this is twofold. First, the high levels of fertility across the districts of the country are largely due to deeply rooted traditions that encourage large family sizes. Second, the infusion of modernization has tended to weaken certain effective traditional norms that worked to lengthen child spacing between successive births. The non-existence of modern family planning techniques has meant rising fertility rates even among the highly educated women and those residing in urban areas."
Correspondence: E. Kalipeni, Colgate University, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:10272 Maxim, Paul S. Estimating fertility differentials between immigrant and nonimmigrant women in Canada. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 96-7, ISBN 0-7714-1948-1. Jun 1996. 26 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the problem of estimating fertility differentials among Canadian born and foreign born women based on the census indicator of `children ever born'. Using the individual level public use file from the 1991 census, a series of models is estimated that examine the impact of women's place of birth and year of immigration on fertility, controlling for the woman's age and formal educational background....The substantive results indicate that the long standing pattern of immigrant women having lower fertility rates than Canadian born women may have reversed itself. Furthermore, significant heterogeneity exists among the fertility patterns of foreign born women, particularly when theoretically significant covariates are introduced into the models."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10273 McDaniel, Antonio. Fertility and racial stratification. In: Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories, edited by John B. Casterline, Ronald D. Lee, and Karen A. Foote. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, Suppl., 1996. 134-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article focuses on expanding the way in which racial differences are viewed in fertility research. First, I briefly outline three major perspectives on race: essentialism, assimilationism, and racial stratification. Second, I describe the racial differences in fertility and family formation from the racial stratification perspective. I then return to the three perspectives on race and comment on them, taking into consideration fertility and family formation. Finally, I make several suggestions concerning the future of fertility research in the United States."
Correspondence: A. McDaniel, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10274 Prada-Salas, Elena. The fertility transition and adolescent childbearing: the case of Colombia. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 310-22 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this study is to examine the recent fertility behaviour of adolescents during the years of Colombia's demographic transition, especially in terms of educational levels; the consequences of early childbearing; the country's present situation compared with that of others in the Latin American region; and a possible future course of action for the coming years." Data are primarily taken from the 1986 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10275 Ranjan, Alok. Age patterns of fertility in Madhya Pradesh. Population Geography, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1994. 59-66 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to analyse age-patterns of fertility in Madhya Pradesh [in India] based on district level estimates of aggregate measures of fertility data collected in 1981....Four clusters of districts have emerged which reveal a clear zonal pattern in age-specific fertility rates in the state. These groups bring out high fertility rates in the north and north-western parts of the state, gradually declining toward the south-eastern zone. The author suggests that separate policies and programmes be evolved for each of the clusters of districts for the purpose of bringing about reduction in fertility and promoting family welfare in the state of Madhya Pradesh."
Correspondence: A. Ranjan, Shyam Institute of Public Cooperation and Community Development, Datia, Madhya Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10276 Retherford, Robert D.; Luther, Norman Y. Are fertility differentials by education converging in the United States? Genus, Vol. 52, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 13-37 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"According to the theory of demographic transition, fertility differentials by education tend to become strongly negative in the early stages of transition, because family limitation tends to catch on first among the more educated. As the transition proceeds, contraceptive use diffuses to the less educated, and fertility differentials by education eventually tend to reconverge. The question addressed here is: Do fertility differentials by education disappear or become positive in advanced industrial societies? Evidence presented in this paper indicates that in the United States they do not. As late as 1990, the latest year that we consider, fertility differentials by education were still strongly negative."
Correspondence: R. D. Retherford, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848-1601. E-mail: retherfr@ewc.hawaii.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10277 Siedlecky, Stefania. What is happening with teenage pregnancies? Actuarial Studies and Demography Research Paper Series 3, No. 011-96, Aug 1996. 8 pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"Teenage pregnancy, particularly for girls under age 18, still carries significant social and health risks. To the girl herself, there is a disruption of education and career and a greater risk of toxaemia of pregnancy; for the baby, there are higher rates of low birth-weight, neonatal and infant mortality. Single mother families are more often below the poverty line. These factors are particularly important for young Aboriginal mothers who have much higher birth-rates. Neo-natal deaths are two times and infant deaths four times higher among Aboriginal than among non Aboriginal women....In 1990-1991 there was a small increase in the rate of teenage births in Australia."
Correspondence: Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. E-mail: lschalch@efs.mq.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10278 Stevens-Simon, Catherine; Dolgan, Jeffrey I.; Kelly, Lisa; Singer, Dena. The effect of monetary incentives and peer support groups on repeat adolescent pregnancies. A randomized trial of the dollar-a-day program. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 277, No. 12, Mar 26, 1997. 977-82 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This paper uses data from a study of 286 girls under 18 years of age with infants younger than five months. The study, which was carried out in Denver, Colorado, between 1991 and 1993, tests the hypotheses that a monetary incentive promotes peer-group support participation, and that such participation decreases repeat adolescent pregnancies. The results indicate that "a monetary incentive draws adolescent mothers to sites where they can discuss the costs and benefits of contraception and conception with knowledgeable adults and supportive peers. These discussions do not prevent repeat pregnancies. Further studies are needed to determine if an intervention that produces substantive changes in the daily living environment will eliminate the sexual practices that are responsible for the high rate of repeat pregnancy in this population."
Correspondence: C. Stevens-Simon, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center-The Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine, 1056 E 19th Street, Denver, CO 80218. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:10279 Uehara, Hiroto; Oyama, Tatsuo. On the regional characteristics of total fertility rates: the entropy model approach. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 19, May 1996. 39-45 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Reasons for the continuing decline of fertility in Japan are considered. The focus of this study is on an analysis of regional differences in fertility and their causes. The authors suggest that increases in age at marriage have a significant effect on fertility, particularly in metropolitan areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

63:10280 Ventura, Stephanie J.; Clarke, Sally C.; Mathews, T. J. Recent declines in teenage birth rates in the United States: variations by state, 1990-94. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 45, No. 5, Suppl., Dec 19, 1996. 16 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents teenage birth rates by State for 1990-94. Rates for the United States for 1970-94 are shown to put the State changes in perspective. U.S. rates for 1990-94 are shown by race and Hispanic origin of mother and for teenage subgroups 15-17 and 18-19 years as well as for teenagers 15-19 years. Also, presented in the same detail are birth rates by mother's State of residence for 1994, and birth rates for teenage subgroups by State for 1990-94." The results indicate that "after increasing from 1990 to 1991, birth rates declined for American teenagers during the years 1991-94; rates fell 3 percent each for teenagers 15-17 and 18-19 years. Preliminary data indicate that the birth rate for teenagers 15-19 years continued to decline in 1995, with a total decline of about 8 percent during the 1991-95 period. The largest declines were reported for black teenagers, with smaller declines measured for non-Hispanic white teenagers. Rates for Hispanic teenagers increased slightly."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

63:10281 El-Rouby, M. G.; Hussein, M. A. Pregnancy wastage among Egyptian females: a failure rate model. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 26, No. 2, Dec 1992. 83-101 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"The paper aims at recognizing the statistical distribution of pregnancy wastage among Egyptian females as reported in one of the national demographic surveys undertaken in the early eighties....[A] hazard plotting method was used to approximate the statistical distribution that best fits the time elapsed prior to the termination of pregnancy in an abortion or a stillbirth. It was concluded that the Weibull distribution is the most appropriate statistical distribution devised."
Correspondence: M. G. El-Rouby, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2454, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10282 Inhorn, Marcia C. Infertility and patriarchy: the cultural politics of gender and family life in Egypt. ISBN 0-8122-3235-6. LC 95-31951. 1996. x, 296 pp. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
This is a study on involuntary childlessness in Egypt, and its implications in a patriarchal and pronatalist society for the women concerned. Particular attention is paid to the consequences of infertility for poor urban women. Separate consideration is given to the problems infertility poses for the women themselves, and for their relations with their husbands, relatives, and neighbors.
Correspondence: University of Pennsylvania Press, P.O. Box 4836, Hampden Station, Baltimore, MD 21211. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10283 May, Elaine T. Barren in the promised land: childless Americans and the pursuit of happiness. ISBN 0-465-00609-4. LC 94-41427. 1995. xii, 318 pp. BasicBooks: New York, New York. In Eng.
This book examines the history of childlessness in the United States in order to better understand "the changing public and private stakes in reproduction". Data are primarily from over 500 responses to author's queries placed in newspapers and journals around the country. The author examines changing attitudes over time toward childlessness, and how these attitudes relate to adoption, illegitimacy, sterilization, contraception, marriage and divorce, and eugenics.
Correspondence: BasicBooks, 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY 10022-5299. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10284 Noack, Turid. How many people are involuntarily childless? Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 60-72 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author describes trends and characteristics of childlessness in Norway. "Emphasis is attached to clarifying the terminology used to discuss different ways of distinguishing childlessness and types of childlessness. The data have been taken from two major interview surveys, the Fertility Survey 1977 (FS 77) and the Family and Occupation Survey 1988 (F&O 88). Our findings do not indicate that infecundity became more common during the decade covering the latter half of the 1970s and early half of the 1980s. The total percentage of permanently childless women shows signs of increasing slightly from its level of just less than ten percent. This increase is probably due as much to `voluntary' as involuntary childlessness."
Correspondence: T. Noack, Statistisk Sentralbyrå, Division for Social and Demographic Research, P.B. 8131, Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

63:10285 Akin, Ayse; Bertan, Münevver. Contraception, abortion, and maternal health services in Turkey. Results of further analysis of the 1993 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. Dec 1996. x, 136 pp. Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Mother and Child Health and Family Planning: Ankara, Turkey; Hacettepe University, Public Health Foundation: Ankara, Turkey; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
The results of further analysis of data from the 1993 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey are presented in this report. There are chapters on the dynamics of contraceptive usage, contraceptive practice, induced abortion, and the utilization of maternal health services.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10286 Alag, Vibha; Banerjee, A. Acceptance of spacing methods of contraception in municipal corporation of Delhi. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 18, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1995. 56-69 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"The factors influencing the acceptance of spacing methods of contraception are presented in this paper. The study was based on the Government of India's prescribed norms and guidelines for the delivery of...spacing methods....The study...revealed that although...contraceptives were made available with adequate infrastructure and knowledgeable service providers, yet the acceptance of terminal methods was much more popular than the spacing methods. To popularise the spacing methods, the authors suggest [actions] to bring about changes in the attitude of service providers as well as to strengthen IEC activities followed by proper counselling and follow-up practices."
Correspondence: V. Alag, Primary Health Centre, Mehrauli, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10287 Alan Guttmacher Institute (New York, New York). Readings on men from Family Planning Perspectives 1987-1995. ISBN 0-939253-41-0. 1996. 332 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of articles previously published in the journal Family Planning Perspectives on men and family planning. The articles are organized under the topics of abortion attitudes, contraceptive use, family planning services, paternity, sexual behavior, sexually transmitted diseases, and survey design. The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10288 Amin, Ruhul; Li, Yiping; Ahmed, Ashrad U. Women's credit programs and family planning in rural Bangladesh. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1996. 158-62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"In many developing countries, programs offering collateral-free credit have integrated economic improvements with consciousness-raising, family planning information and motivation, preventive health services and other activities that promote social welfare. A 1995 household survey of the program areas of five nongovernmental organizations in rural Bangladesh that offer such credit programs reveals that women who participate in them are more likely to use contraceptives, to want no additional children and to desire smaller families than women who do not participate or who live outside of program areas. Increased empowerment was associated with the desire for no more children among credit members. Nonmembers living in program areas also desired smaller families, suggesting a diffusion of norms established by credit members to other women in the community."
Correspondence: R. Amin, Morgan State University, Institute for Urban Research, Hillen Road and Coldspring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21239-9972. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10289 Bledsoe, Caroline. Contraception and "natural" fertility in America. In: Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories, edited by John B. Casterline, Ronald D. Lee, and Karen A. Foote. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, Suppl., 1996. 297-324 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This exploratory study has sought to use lessons learned from The Gambia as a way to take a fresh look at reproduction and contraception in the United States. Just as the Gambian project tried to attend closely to the content of both professional and local commentaries about contraceptive use, this article has tried to do the same for the United States. The strategy has shown that the shortcomings of the `limitation' framework for interpreting contraceptive use loom as large in the United States as they do in Africa. Indeed, although I expected to find major differences between popular discourses about contraception in The Gambia and the United States, I found instead many more similarities. Because few women in either country believe that they have excessive children, they see contraceptives as devices for ensuring the proper timing and circumstances by `planning' their `wanted' children....Especially for women who want more children in the near future, there is a strong preference for methods that are as mild as possible."
Correspondence: C. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10290 Cheng, Yimin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Zhimin; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Aiying. Contraceptive practices of women requesting termination of pregnancy: a study from China. Contraception, Vol. 55, No. 1, Jan 1997. 15-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In order to develop a program for prevention of unwanted pregnancies, we conducted a survey of contraceptive practices and reasons for contraceptive failures of 1,520 women seeking abortion at eight large hospitals in Zheng Zhou City, Henan Province,...China, during the period from March 1996 to May 1996. The most frequent cause of the unplanned pregnancy was contraceptive failure (71.9%); 61.7% (938) of these current pregnancies were potentially predictable by virtue of nonuse of contraception (427) or by recognition of contraceptive failures (511). Among the contraceptive failures, the proportion of condom mishaps was the highest (29.7%), next was IUD failures (23.5%), then rhythm miscalculation (15.9%)."
Correspondence: Y. Cheng, National Research Institute for Family Planning, 12 Da Hui Si, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10291 Curtis, Siân L.; Westoff, Charles F. Intention to use contraceptives and subsequent contraceptive behavior in Morocco. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 239-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, the relationship between stated intention to use contraceptives and subsequent use during a three-year period in Morocco is examined. Longitudinal data are drawn from two Demographic and Health Surveys: the 1992 Morocco DHS and the 1995 Morocco Panel Survey. Reported contraceptive intentions in 1992 have a strong predictive effect on subsequent contraceptive use even after controlling for other characteristics of respondents, and the strength of the effect is second only to that of previous contraceptive use. Women who in 1992 said they intended to use contraceptives in the future but did not do so are the most likely to have had an unmet need for contraception in 1995. Weakly held fertility preferences reported by some of the women surveyed in 1992 appear to have been a contributing factor in the subsequent failure of these women to act upon their intention to practice contraception."
Correspondence: S. L. Curtis, Macro International, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10292 Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero. Contraception and abortion at the threshold of the year 2000: comparing rich and poor countries. [Contraccezione e aborto alle soglie del 2000: paesi poveri e paesi ricchi a confronto.] Nov 1994. 225 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This is a collection of six papers given at a symposium on contraception and abortion sponsored by the demographic department of the University of Rome, held in Rome in November 1994. Each paper summarizes the role of contraception and abortion in a particular area of the world: Sub-Saharan Africa, the Muslim countries, Asia, Latin America, the developed countries, and Italy. There is also a statistical appendix containing, for countries around the world, data on general demographic indicators, fertility, maternal and infant mortality, abortion, and contraception by type.
Correspondence: Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10293 DeGraff, Deborah S.; de Silva, Victor. A new perspective on the definition and measurement of unmet need for contraception. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1996. 140-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"A new, health-based concept of unmet need for contraception identifies women for whom pregnancy would raise the mortality risk for themselves, their expected child or their previous child because of maternal age, short birth interval or high birth order. When applied to Demographic and Health Survey data for Sri Lanka, the method classifies 4-23% of currently married women as being in need of contraception, depending on whether women who are pregnant, abstaining or using traditional methods are considered as potentially in need. The usual concept of unmet need, based on women's stated fertility preferences, classifies 6-31% as in need. The preference-based approach identifies 50-90% of the women with health-based unmet need, performing better when women using traditional methods and those abstaining from sex are included as potentially in need and when pregnant women are not. The health-based approach identifies 43-65% of those with preference-based unmet need, performing better when pregnant women are included and women using traditional methods are not."
Correspondence: D. S. DeGraff, Bowdoin College, Department of Economics, New Brunswick, ME 04011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10294 Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Frost, Jennifer J. The family planning attitudes and experiences of low-income women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 246-55, 277 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we seek to learn directly from low-income [U.S.] women about their perceptions of and experiences with contraceptive methods and contraceptive service providers....We give special attention throughout this article to identifying similarities and differences between white, black and Hispanic women." Data are from "a 1995 telephone survey of 1,852 low-income women aged 18-34 who were sexually active and at risk of unintended pregnancy....[Results indicate] that 83% were currently practicing contraception. They were more likely to do so if they held positive attitudes toward contraceptive use, if they talked frequently about intimate matters with their partners and girlfriends and if they were very satisfied with the services they received at their last gynecologic visit. Seventy percent of current users said they were very satisfied with their method. Women whose last visit was to a clinic, who were very satisfied with the care they received and who used the pill or a long-acting method were more likely than others to report being very satisfied with their contraceptive."
Correspondence: J. D. Forrest, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10295 Govindasamy, Pavalavalli; Malhotra, Anju. Women's position and family planning in Egypt. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 328-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this report, data from the 1988 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey are used to address some of the most frequently raised questions about the relationship between gender inequality and reproductive behavior. The findings from binomial and multinomial logit models show that while the relationship between women's position and fertility control in Egypt is complex, some clear, broad patterns exist that have important theoretical and policy implications. First, although women's status in Egypt is clearly multidimensional, the reproductive aspect of women's position has a strong connection with the nonreproductive dimensions. Second, the case for the continued use of education and employment as proxies of women's position, especially in relationship to fertility control, is considerably discredited by the results. Finally, the findings indicate that Egyptian culture supports gender equality in the form of interaction and negotiation rather than women's autonomy."
Correspondence: P. Govindasamy, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10296 Hardee, Karen; Ulin, Priscilla; Pfannenschmidt, Susan; Visness, Cynthia. The impact of family planning and reproductive health on women's lives: a conceptual framework. Family Health International Women's Studies Project, No. 96-02, Nov 1996. 38 pp. Family Health International: Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Critics of past family planning policies have challenged researchers to enlarge their vision and to focus on women's perceptions and experiences with family planning, women's reproductive health needs and the effect family planning use has had on their lives....The purpose of this paper is to outline a conceptual framework developed to study the impact of family planning on women's lives and to present a number of studies being undertaken based on the framework."
Correspondence: Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10297 Harvey, Philip D. Let's not get carried away with "reproductive health". Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 283-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Faced with ever tighter budgets for family planning during the upcoming decades, we must often choose between providing contraceptive services for large numbers of people and providing more comprehensive health services for smaller numbers....At the very least, we must consider what we are giving up if we insist that all family planning programs address reproductive health issues. If we adopt such a course, we might be depriving many thousands of deserving couples of the one thing that may do most to improve their `reproductive health': contraceptives."
Correspondence: P. D. Harvey, DKT International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 610, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10298 Hubacher, David; Suazo, Margarita; Terrell, Stanley; Pinel, Marco. Examining the increasing prevalence of traditional contraceptive methods in Honduras. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1996. 163-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"The use of traditional methods has risen sharply in Honduras, from 19% of all contraceptive use in 1987 to 26% of prevalence in 1991-1992. A multivariate analysis of data from two national probability sample surveys shows that contraceptive users interviewed in 1991-1992 were significantly more likely to use rhythm than were those interviewed in 1987; reliance on withdrawal was not significantly different between survey years. The following factors all significantly raised the probability that a woman would select rhythm over modern methods--being 40-44 years old, having 0-2 living children, being legally married, living in a rural area, needing to travel more than one hour to a health facility, wanting more children and recently hearing a family planning message over the radio. Those factors that significantly predicted the choice of withdrawal over modern methods included four of the same variables--marriage, residence, travel time and 0-2 living children--plus being younger than 25, having fewer years of education and having eight or more children."
Correspondence: D. Hubacher, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10299 Jayaraman, T. K. Demographic and socioeconomic determinants of contraceptive use among urban women in the Melanesian countries in the South Pacific: a case study of Port Vila Town in Vanuatu. Economics and Development Resource Center Occasional Paper, No. 11, Feb 1995. 35 pp. Asian Development Bank, Economics and Development Resource Center: Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to analyze various factors determining the use of contraceptives among the married women of reproductive age living in the urban areas in the Melanesian countries. The analysis relies upon the findings of the survey of women in Port Vila, the capital of Vanuatu, undertaken over a period of three months in the first half of 1994."
Correspondence: Asian Development Bank, P.O. Box 789, 0980 Manila, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10300 Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Population Information Program. Center for Communication Programs (Baltimore, Maryland). Reaching men worldwide: lessons learned from family planning and communication projects, 1986-1996. Center for Communication Programs Working Paper, No. 3, Jan 1997. 50 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This report summarizes the results of family planning and communication projects carried out in the developing world and the countries of the former USSR. The projects were designed to increase men's support for and participation in family planning and reproductive health programs. "Mass-media channels such as radio, television, and newspapers have reached men through the programs and events they enjoy, such as sports, films, popular theater, and music. These programs have increased men's participation by improving their willingness and ability to communicate with spouses, peers, and health care providers. Community-wide programs have mobilized men to participate in activities and meetings where they can discuss their concerns in a comfortable and informative environment."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10301 Kamal, Nashid; Sloggett, Andrew. The effect of female family planning workers on the use of modern contraception in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep 1996. 15-26 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article investigates the effects of female family planning workers on the use of modern contraception in Bangladesh. It finds that a recent visit by a family planning worker increases the odds of a client being a user of modern reversible methods almost eight-fold in rural areas and 2.5 times in urban areas. However, the reverse is the case with sterilization; contact with NGOs is the most important predictor of sterilization. The article, which provides reasons for these phenomena, draws out a number of implications for policy and programme purposes, and provides a set of recommendations to further the country's on-going fertility decline."
Correspondence: N. Kamal, Independent University, School of Environmental Science and Management, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10302 Kgosidintsi, B. N.; Mugabe, M. Botswana males and family planning. Surveys on households and institutions, 1990-1991. ISBN 99912-2-056-9. LC 95-980194. 1994. xii, 82 pp. University of Botswana, National Institute of Development Research and Documentation: Gaborone, Botswana; Lentswe La Lesedi: Gaborone, Botswana. In Eng.
The authors present the results of a 1990-1991 survey on males and family planning in Botswana. "The main objective of the study was to collect basic data on family planning, the use of contraceptives, and related matters among sexually active males in Botswana in the age group 13 to 69. The survey was carried out in two parts; the first on males in institutions, and the second on males in households. The institution part of the survey was carried out on a national sample of 1,575 males in forty-eight educational institutions and another 600 males in `disciplined forces' institutions. The household sample consisted of 1,984 males, 48% of whom were in urban areas, 29% in lands and cattle-postareas, and the remainder in villages." The survey also includes information on attitudes toward family planning.
Correspondence: University of Botswana, National Institute of Development Research and Documentation, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10303 Kincaid, D. Lawrence; Merritt, Alice P.; Nickerson, Liza; Buffington, Sandra de C.; de Castro, Marcos P. P.; de Castro, Bernadete M. Impact of a mass media vasectomy promotion campaign in Brazil. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1996. 169-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"A mass media campaign to promote vasectomy in three Brazilian cities (São Paulo, Fortaleza and Salvador) consisted of prime-time television and radio spots, the distribution of flyers, and electronic billboard and public relations activities. Clinic data indicate that the monthly mean number of vasectomies initially increased during the six-week campaign by 108% in Fortaleza, by 59% in Salvador and by 82% in São Paulo. An in-depth analysis of the São Paulo clinic data indicates that during the campaign, television replaced personal sources as the dominant source of referrals among men who made telephone inquiries to the clinics. A regression analysis based on São Paulo clinic records for 12 years confirmed that periodic mass media promotions helped alleviate but did not halt the general downward trend in clinic volume over time. Increases in the cost of vasectomy and in alternative sources for the operation contributed to the lower volume."
Correspondence: D. L. Kincaid, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Health, Policy and Management, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10304 Lacey, Linda; Carba, Delia. The role of grassroots organizations in promoting population programmes: the case of Cebu, Philippines. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep 1996. 27-42 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of grassroots organizations in expanding family planning information and services. Volunteer health and family planning associations are compared with two types of grassroots organizations--religious and development institutions....For all three types of organizations, we explore how family planning began within the organizations, the intended population for services and information, the types and volume of services and commodities provided to clients, cost recovery activities, and future intentions to expand family planning services. This qualitative study is limited to a census of 33 non-profit organizations that provide clinical and non-clinical family planning services in Metropolitan Cebu, the Philippines."
Correspondence: L. Lacey, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, CB# 8120, University Square East, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10305 Luo, Chun. Community-based family planning: theory and practice. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1996. 335-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses various issues involved in promoting community-based family planning in China.
Correspondence: C. Luo, Yunnan University, Institute of Demographics, 52 North Cuihu Road, Kunming, Yunnan 650091, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10306 Masson, Isabelle; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne. The timing of family building and contraceptive sterilization. [Calendrier de constitution de la famille et recours à la stérilisation.] Collection de Tirés à Part, No. 355, [1996?]. 521-33 pp. Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The authors examine the factors that influence couples in Quebec to choose contraceptive sterilization. They use data from a 1984 Canadian fertility survey for about 1,000 women aged 35-44 to compare the time devoted to bringing up a family between couples who have and who have not used contraceptive sterilization. They also compare family building patterns of women by educational status.
Correspondence: Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10307 Meldrum, Andrew. A family planning paradigm. Africa Report, Vol. 39, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 46-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Zimbabwe's contraceptive rate for adult women is 43 percent, one of the highest in Africa (the average is 14 percent). The family planning success is due to the government's system of community-based distributors of birth control and education. About 800 government-employed `distributors', who live in the community and receive training, travel the countryside door-to-door, spreading the word about family planning and counseling people about preventing AIDS, avoiding common ailments, and proper hygiene."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10308 Mitra, S. N.; Al-Sabir, Ahmed. Contraceptive use dynamics in Bangladesh. DHS Working Paper, No. 21, Oct 1996. 28 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This study was undertaken as part of the Secondary Analysis Project of the 1993-1994 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, and involved the analysis of contraceptive use histories collected in the survey in order to examine the efficacy and continuity of contraceptive use at the national level. The results show that "although contraceptive prevalence has increased considerably in recent years, contraceptive discontinuation rates are high--more than 40 percent of users of all reversible methods, except the IUD, discontinue use within a year....The main reason for discontinuation of the pill, IUD, and injectables is side effects, while other method-related reasons dominate for the condom and traditional methods. The 12-month failure rate is relatively low for the pill, IUD, and injectables, but is significantly higher for the condom and traditional methods. A particularly important finding is that a substantial proportion of women who discontinue use within a year and who still need to use a method do not immediately switch to another method. This is particularly true among pill users. These women are exposed to the risk of pregnancy, at least temporarily, and attention should be focused on understanding and meeting their contraceptive needs."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10309 Moskowitz, Ellen H.; Jennings, Bruce. Coerced contraception? Moral and policy challenges of long-acting birth control. Hastings Center Studies in Ethics, ISBN 0-87840-624-7. LC 96-11859. 1996. xii, 225 pp. Georgetown University Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this volume is to identify and assess the moral and policy challenges posed by long-acting contraception. Prompted by the extent to which long-term methods, particularly Norplant, have aroused controversy and suspicion, these essays aim to provide carefully reasoned and multidisciplinary perspectives on the ethical and social dilemmas these technologies raise....The papers in this volume have been grouped into four sections....Part I contains the report and recommendations from the project. This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues in several different clinical and policymaking settings....Part II provides a historical and scientific background with which one can better comprehend the current controversies surrounding long-term contraceptives....A number of alternative conceptual and theoretical frameworks are explored in part III. Several of these discussions center on how best to understand autonomy and coercion in reproductive decisions and how to understand the ethical responsibilities that contraceptive and reproductive choices entail....Part IV turns to some of the particular concerns raised by long-acting contraceptives in developing countries."
Correspondence: Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC 20007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10310 Mundigo, Axel I. The role of family planning programmes in the fertility transition of Latin America. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 192-210 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter traces the origins of fertility changes and of lower family-size values in Latin America, including the adoption of favourable attitudes toward contraception, drawing primarily on information collected during the 1960s and 1970s on abortion, and more recently on fertility and contraceptive prevalence. It concludes that Latin American fertility has undergone a complex transition with several different phases, two of which are discussed in some detail: an earlier one, more restricted to middle and upper socio-economic groups, going back in some countries to the 1940s; and a later or more generalized mass transition starting toward the end of the 1960s, propelled by new demographic and economic conditions. It explores the role played by family planning programmes in moulding these phases and suggests that they played an instrumental role as facilitators of the mass transition rather than as the agents responsible for these changes."
Correspondence: A. I. Mundigo, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10311 Ricketts, Sue A. Repeat fertility and contraceptive implant use among Medicaid recipients in Colorado. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 278-80, 284 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Late in 1991, Colorado's Medicaid program approved coverage for the hormonal contraceptive implant among Medicaid recipients. Subsequently, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment undertook an analysis of data supplied by the state's Medicaid program of the probability of repeat births among Medicaid recipients. According to life-table analysis of two cohorts of women in the database who had their first Medicaid-eligible birth in 1991 and 1992, the rate of repeat delivery within 24 months of the preceding birth fell from 14.1% among 11,554 women who first delivered in 1991 to 10.6% among 13,624 women who first delivered in 1992. The 25% decline in the rate of repeat births between the two cohorts was statistically significant. These rates were higher among Medicaid-eligible mothers who first gave birth as teenagers--22.3% in the 1991 cohort and 15.9% in the 1992 cohort. Among the 2,739 Medicaid-eligible women who delivered in 1992 and chose to use the implant within six months of delivery, the repeat delivery rate was just 2.5% within 24 months; this proportion was virtually the same among implant users in the 1992 cohort who first gave birth as teenagers (2.3%)."
Correspondence: S. A. Ricketts, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver, CO. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10312 Robey, Bryant; Ross, John; Bhushan, Indu. Meeting unmet need: new strategies. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 43, Sep 1996. 35 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors examine the extent of and reasons for unmet need for family planning. Aspects considered include the concept and measurement of unmet need; unmet need versus demand for contraception; abortion as an indicator of unmet need; reasons for unmet need, including lack of access to methods, quality of services, health concerns, lack of information, and opposition from husbands; unmet need by women's characteristics; and approaches to meeting unmet need.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10313 Sambisa, William. Zimbabwe further analysis. Contraceptive use dynamics in Zimbabwe: discontinuation, switching, and failure. Dec 1996. v, 24, [1] pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This is the first part of a planned two-part analysis of data from the 1994 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey. It examines patterns of contraceptive discontinuation, contraceptive failure, the switching of contraceptive methods, and the factors that affect these events.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10314 Shelton, J. D.; Davis, S. S. Some priorities in maximizing access to and quality of contraceptive services. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1996. 233-7 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Access to family planning and related reproductive health services has historically been widely accepted as a primary strategy for increasing contraceptive use in developing countries. Today, field experience and data have forged a view that simultaneous improvement of access and quality can have an even greater impact. Indeed, the close linkages between access and quality mean that improvements in one tend to strengthen the other. This dual focus provides a framework vital for providing services that serve clients and program objectives well."
Correspondence: J. D. Shelton, U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Population, 320 21st Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20523-1819. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10315 Shyamini, K. A.; Helen, H. A study of some of the factors relating to contraceptive use in an urban slum. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 18, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1995. 176-89 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"An attempt is made in this study to improve...contraceptive use in the slum population [in Tughlakabad, India] by ascertaining some of the demographic, cultural, social, psychological and service factors which influence the use of contraceptives. The study has revealed that even though [the] majority of the slum dwellers are aware of contraceptive methods, the inaccessibility and non-availability of the services to the urban slum dwellers had contributed to a large extent to the non-use of contraceptives."
Correspondence: K. A. Shyamini, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, New Mehrauli Road, Munirka, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10316 Tone, Andrea. Controlling reproduction: an American history. Worlds of Women, No. 2, ISBN 0-8420-2574-X. LC 96-20020. 1997. xxii, 243 pp. Scholarly Resources: Wilmington, Delaware. In Eng.
This book presents a selection of readings on the history of reproductive control in the United States, with an emphasis on how the increased availability of safe contraception and the legalization of abortion have changed the boundaries of women's lives and opportunities. The readings are organized into seven chapters on birth control and abortion in early America, the medicalization of reproduction, fertility control in nineteenth-century America, regulating reproduction, birth control revolution, reproductive rights, and the political economy of birth control.
Correspondence: Scholarly Resources, 104 Greenhill Avenue, Wilmington, DE 19805-1897. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10317 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division (New York, New York). Levels and trends of contraceptive use as assessed in 1994. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/146, Pub. Order No. E.96.XIII.13. ISBN 92-1-151310-3. 1996. viii, 163 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present report contains a comprehensive review of sample survey data on the level of contraceptive use, types of methods employed and recent trends in contraceptive practice. It discusses the availability of contraceptives to national populations, drawing on results of recent international studies. Updated global and regional estimates of average levels of contraceptive use are included. There is also a discussion of the amount of growth in contraceptive practice that will be needed in developing countries if fertility is to decline in accordance with the United Nations population projections. A reference table shows national survey measures of current contraceptive use, by method, for all available countries and dates. Data available through July 1994 are included in the review. Two new features in this edition are a review of information about current contraceptive use according to women's marital status, and a comparative review of men's and women's reports of current contraceptive use."
Correspondence: UN Population Division, DC2-1950, 2 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10318 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). The Global Initiative on Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs--lessons and methodologies. UNFPA Technical Report, No. 30, ISBN 0-89714-338-8. [1995]. iii, 73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a report from a UNFPA Working Group that was set up to examine contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs in developing countries. "In the first section, this report draws on the experiences of the missions [to 11 developing countries] and on a synthesis of the findings and recommendations of the completed studies undertaken as part of the Global Initiative on Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs. It presents several general lessons learned before discussing in more detail findings for each of the specialized areas covered--logistics management, contraceptive requirements, contraceptive manufacturing, NGOs and the private sector, condoms for STD/AIDS prevention, and financial analysis. The second section describes a number of methods for forecasting contraceptive commodity requirements, in terms of data requirements and sources, the basis and process of the method, and their limitations, advantages and disadvantages. A step-by-step guide for conducting such studies is outlined in Appendix 1."
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10319 Walsh, Joan; Lythgoe, Helen; Peckham, Stephen. Contraceptive choices: supporting effective use of methods. ISBN 1-899194-95-9. 1996. 78 pp. Family Planning Association [FPA]: London, England. In Eng.
"This report from the Contraceptive Education Service...is based on the findings of a national survey of 744 [British] women. It explores how and why women choose their contraceptive methods, and examines women's access to information about methods and their use. Respondents were asked a wide range of questions including: which reversible methods they had used, and for how long; which sources of contraceptive information they had used; what factors had influenced their choices; which health professionals they had approached; whether they had been given information about contraceptive options; whether, in retrospect, they were satisfied with the amount of information they had been given about their chosen method; [and] what they believed to be the best way to get information about contraception from a health professional. The findings of this research are presented and discussed within the broader context of earlier U.K. and international studies, showing patterns of contraceptive choice and use. The report also carries separate sections...giving practical recommendations for service provision."
Correspondence: Family Planning Association, 2-12 Pentonville Road, London N1 9FP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10320 Weinberger, Mary B. Changes in the mix of contraceptive methods during fertility decline: Latin America and the Caribbean. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 151-78 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Changes in the methods of contraception chosen by contraceptive users in Latin America, including the Caribbean, are examined. The author notes that growing use of contraception has been the main proximate cause of the fertility decline that has occurred in recent years. "The discussion begins with an overview of contraceptive practice in Latin America as compared with other major regions. After a brief look at trends in the overall level of contraceptive use in Latin American and Caribbean countries, this chapter examines changes over time in the use of specific contraceptive methods. Finally, for six countries, trends in the use of female sterilization are examined in more detail, drawing on DHS data."
Correspondence: M. B. Weinberger, UN Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

63:10321 Bitto, Adenike; Gray, Ronald H.; Simpson, Joe L.; Queenan, John T.; Kambic, Robert T.; Perez, Alfredo; Mena, Patricio; Barbato, Michele; Li, Chuanjun; Jennings, Victoria. Adverse outcomes of planned and unplanned pregnancies among users of natural family planning: a prospective study. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 3, Mar 1997. 338-43 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to determine prospectively whether unplanned pregnancies are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among users of natural family planning." The data concern 373 unplanned and 367 planned pregnancies occurring among women enrolled in five natural family planning programs around the world who were followed-up at 16 and 32 weeks following gestation. The results indicate that "no increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed among women who experienced an unplanned pregnancy while using natural family planning."
Correspondence: R. H. Gray, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:10322 Chetri, M.; Bhatta, A.; Amatya, R. N.; Lama, H.; Dunson, T. R.; Spivey, S.; McMahan, J. H.; Balogh, S. Five-year evaluation of safety, efficacy and acceptability of Norplant implants in Nepal. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1996. 187-99 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper presents findings based on a five-year, noncomparative study of Norplant contraceptive subdermal implants in Nepal. The study was designed to evaluate the contraceptive safety, efficacy, and overall acceptability of Norplant. Four hundred and seven women enrolled in the clinical trial, which began in 1985....The pooled gross cumulative life-table pregnancy rate was 0.6 per 100 women at the end of five years. The pooled cumulative continuation rate was 62 per 100 women at the end of five years. The three most frequently reported reasons for discontinuation were menstrual problems, personal reasons, and medical reasons. Of the 125 women who completed a five-year user satisfaction questionnaire, the majority of the women (86%) planned to continue using contraception after study completion."
Correspondence: M. Chetri, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10323 Elstein, M. Present status of hormonal contraception (COCs). Advances in Contraception, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1996. 155-66 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Since the introduction of the combined oral contraceptive (COC) there has been considerable lessening of the initial side-effects attributable to the agents in these products....The acceptability of the pill has been adversely affected as a result of perceived risks that are often controversial, fuelled and overstated by sensational reports in the lay press. Regrettably the media fails to emphasize the many significant health benefits apart from its effectiveness in preventing pregnancy....In this report the many health benefits of the pill will be briefly described."
Correspondence: M. Elstein, University of Manchester, Palatine Centre, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive Health Care, 6365 Palatine Road, Manchester M20 3LJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10324 Glasier, A. Fertility control by emergency contraception. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1996. 167-72 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Emergency contraception is defined as any drug or device which can be used after intercourse to prevent pregnancy. It has been suggested that millions of unwanted pregnancies could be prevented if emergency contraceptives were widely accessible. Yet despite considerable clinical evidence of both safety and efficacy, hormonal emergency contraception remains unlicensed in most developing and many developed countries. A number of different preparations [that] can be used [are briefly described]."
Correspondence: A. Glasier, Edinburgh Healthcare NHS Trust, Family Planning and Well Woman Services, Edinburgh, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10325 Kalmuss, Debra; Davidson, Andrew R.; Cushman, Linda F.; Heartwell, Stephen; Rulin, Marvin. Determinants of early implant discontinuation among low-income women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 256-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The determinants of contraceptive implant discontinuation within six months of insertion were examined among 786 low-income women attending family planning clinics in three U.S. cities. The six-month cumulative life-table discontinuation rate was 7.6%. Menstrual side effects were the most common reasons given for early implant removal, although women who discontinued use were no more likely than those who continued with the method to report menstrual irregularities. Women who opted for early removal were more likely than those who continued with the method to experience headaches, hair loss, weight gain and arm infection. Logistic regression analysis indicates that dissatisfaction with prior contraceptive methods, a partner who wants a child within the next two years, perceived pressure from health care providers to choose the implant, exposure to negative media coverage and the number of implant side effects significantly predict early implant discontinuation. Women's social and demographic characteristics, Medicaid status and motivation to avoid an unplanned pregnancy were not significantly related to early removal."
Correspondence: D. Kalmuss, Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10326 Lamprecht, Virginia M.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence. Development of new formulas to identify the fertile time of the menstrual cycle. Contraception, Vol. 54, No. 6, Dec 1996. 339-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The calendar method is perceived to be less effective than other methods of family planning. A large existing [WHO] data set was used to determine how well the fertile time is identified using the traditional calendar method formula and to determine if better formulas could be developed to identify the fertile time more accurately and require less abstinence. We compared the traditional formula with three alternatives, two of which were developed for this analysis. All three alternative formulas performed better than the traditional formula in identifying the presumed fertile time. The result of our analysis is a summary table which can be used to select the best rules for testing the effectiveness of the calendar method."
Correspondence: V. M. Lamprecht, Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown Center, 2115 Wisconsin Avenue, 6th Floor, Washington, D.C. 20007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10327 Meldrum, Marcia L. "Simple methods" and "determined contraceptors": the statistical evaluation of fertility control, 1957-1968. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 70, No. 2, 1996. 266-95 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"In the 1950s, the practice of contraception gained a measure of respectability, in the wake of endorsement by medical authorities and growing concern over world population growth. Yet a kind of moral stigma remained--the product of Catholic opposition, the public glorification of postwar family values, and the birth control movement's early association with radicalism. Several proponents applied the controlled clinical trial model to the testing of contraceptive methods, in an effort to redefine fertility control as a purely scientific problem. In this paper, [the author discusses] two examples: the field trials of (1) `simple methods' of contraception, and (2) intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs), sponsored by the Population Council and the Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA)."
Correspondence: M. L. Meldrum, University of California, Department of History, 6265 Bunche Hall, Box 951473, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1473. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10328 Messiah, Antoine; Dart, Thierry; Spencer, Brenda E.; Warszawski, Josiane. Condom breakage and slippage during heterosexual intercourse: a French national survey. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 3, Mar 1997. 421-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is an analysis of condom failure using data on a subsample of 707 individuals drawn from a national survey of sexual behavior carried out in France in 1992. The results show that "the rate of breakage at last heterosexual intercourse was 3.4%, and the slippage rate was 1.1%. Significantly associated with breakage and slippage were being age 25 through 34, being sexually active for more than 5 years, condom use for less than 5 years, condom not used for contraception, and sexual intercourse 12 or more times per month."
Correspondence: A. Messiah, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U-379, Institut Paoli Calmettes, 232 boulevard Ste Marguerite, 13009 Marseilles, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:10329 Rivera, R. The use of lactational amenorrhea as a fertility regulating method. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1996. 179-85 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The fertility regulating effect of breastfeeding has been known for many years. However, this effect has been both overestimated and underestimated....It is now known that breastfeeding per se is not a particularly effective or reliable means of contraception. On the other hand, the period of amenorrhea associated with breastfeeding, commonly referred to as lactational amenorrhea, provides an important degree of contraceptive effect....The use of lactational amenorrhea during the first 6 months postpartum by fully or nearly fully breastfeeding women is referred to as the Lactational Amenorrhea Method or LAM. It is very important for providers and clients to understand the difference between using only breastfeeding and the use of LAM for fertility regulation: the contraceptive effectiveness is substantially different."
Correspondence: R. Rivera, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10330 Westfall, John M.; Main, Deborah S.; Barnard, Lynn. Continuation rates among injectable contraceptive users. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 275-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Few published data exist on the ongoing use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the injectable contraceptive. Women who obtained the injectable from Planned Parenthood of the Rocky Mountains between January 1993 and March 1995 were followed to ascertain continuation rates for the method. Of the 5,178 women who received an initial injection, only 57% returned for a second administration; 63% of those who returned for the second injection went on to receive a third. The overall one-year continuation rate was 23%. No significant differences in continuation rates were found based on age, race or payment type."
Correspondence: J. M. Westfall, University of Colorado, Department of Family Medicine, Denver, CO 80217. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

63:10331 Çakir, H. Volkan; Fabricant, Stephen J.; Kircalioglu, F. Nilgün. Comparative costs of family planning services and hospital-based maternity care in Turkey. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 269-76 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The costs of running a recently established family planning program in the Turkish social security system were measured and compared with the costs of providing the medical services and nonmedical benefits for pregnant women. The undiscounted cost savings from averting pregnancy were estimated to exceed the program's recurrent costs by 17.6 to 1. Cost savings represent only 1 percent of all the system's medical expenditures, but the family planning program is in an early stage, and potential savings could influence management decisionmaking regarding investments in specialized maternity hospitals."
Correspondence: H. V. Çakir, POLICY Project, Abidin Daver Sokak No. 7/7, Çankaya 06550, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10332 Huntington, Dale; Miller, Kate; Mensch, Barbara. The reliability of the situation analysis observation guide. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 277-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The use of direct observation to assess the quality of family planning services is a central element of situation analysis studies. The interrater reliability of observational data from a study in Turkey was assessed using teams of multiple observers. Overall, the findings suggest a strong degree of reliability. Observers were more likely to agree when rating physical actions than verbal cues and when both observers were of similar backgrounds. The high degree of reliability in the situation analysis observation guide is considered to be due to a relatively low level of measurement and the use of crude indicators for several dimensions of quality. The guide's reliability makes this sort of study particularly valuable to family planning clinicians, program managers, and policymakers."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. Huntington, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10333 Kim, Young Mi; Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Odallo, Dan; Thuo, Margaret; Khasiani, Shanyisa. Haki Yako: a client provider information, education, and communication project in Kenya. IEC Field Report, No. 8, Dec 1996. x, 39 pp. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This report summarizes the results of the Kenya Client-Provider Information, Education, and Communication Project, carried out between 1991 and 1994. "The project increased the number of new acceptors at clinics, increased the continued use of modern methods for at least one year, led more couples to discuss family planning, increased the availability and use of educational materials at service delivery points, and improved the public image of family planning providers. Use of most contraceptive methods increased slightly, however, the overall contraceptive prevalence rate did not change substantially."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. E-mail: ccp@charm.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10334 Latif, Muhammad A. Programme impact on current contraception in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1994. 27-61 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the impact of three credit programmes--the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), the Bangladesh Rural Development Board's Rural Development-12 (BRDB RD-12), and the Grameen Bank (GB), on current rate of contraception. These programmes are targeted to alleviate poverty by providing group-based credit to the rural poor in creating self employment opportunities. With small credits, these programmes combine family planning activities in terms of consciousness raising, awareness building and motivation. Sample survey data are used to analyse the problem of impact evaluation. The analyses show that the BRAC and the GB programmes have [a] significantly positive impact on the current rate of contraception, while the BRDB RD-12 programme does not have any such impact. It is also found that education, both of female[s] and male[s] separately, and child survivorship have independently positive impact[s] on current contraception."
Correspondence: M. A. Latif, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Adamjee Court, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10335 Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, Arvind; Shajy, K. I. Evolution of a new approach to assess the impact of family planning programme on fertility in different states of India: a macro level study. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 19, 1995-1996. 43 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"India was one of the first countries to recognize the rapid population growth as the major constraint to future development and to announce an official national family planning programme...in 1957 aimed at lowering the birth rate. Total fertility rate declined from over 6 in 1951 and 5.6 in 1972 to 3.6 in 1992. About 44 per cent of the eligible women are reported to have been using some kind of contraception in 1992....It will be of interest for policy makers to know the exact impact of the family planning programme on fertility....In the present study, we have developed a new approach to assess the impact of family planning acceptance on fertility that decomposes the individual effects of different methods."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Department of Fertility Studies, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10336 Paulson, Susan; Gisbert, María E.; Quitón, Mery. Case studies of two women's health projects in Bolivia. Family Health International Women's Studies Project, No. 96-04, Dec 1996. 44 pp. Family Health International: Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Eng.
This report evaluates the contribution of two health programs designed specifically to meet the needs of women in Bolivia. "Many women suffer from poor health in Bolivia where rates of fertility and maternal mortality are among the highest in Latin America....The root causes of women's poor reproductive health status are a near absence of health information, education and services, coupled with limited access to contraceptives....La Casa de la Mujer and the Centro de Información y Desarrollo de la Mujer (CIDEM) have developed women-centered health programs that employ integrated approaches to service delivery. La Casa has worked extensively with women in reproductive health service and education, while CIDEM has developed a new approach to health care practices that incorporates a gender perspective."
Correspondence: Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10337 Rasevic, Mirjana. Family planning programs in Muslim countries: successful cases. [Programi za planiranje porodice u muslimanskim zemljama: uspesni primeri.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 9-22 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"Two family planning programmes are presented: one for Tunisia and the other for Indonesia. They have been chosen from among about ten individual family planning programmes which have produced notable demographic effects. These, however, represent the only two Muslim countries that [have] successfully implemented...family planning programmes. Muslim culture attracts special attention because it is characterized by a resistance to or lower acceptance of changes in general, including elements preventing the decline in fertility even when various development considerations have been met."
Correspondence: M. Rasevic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade,Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10338 Simmons, Ruth; Young, Anne M. Family planning programs and other interventions to assist women: their impact on demographic change and on the status of women. [1996?]. 50 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This paper has summarized the major evidence dealing with the impact of family planning programs, health interventions and women's development activities. We focused first on the effects of such programs on demographic change, and in the second half of the paper, analyzed the consequences of these activities for the status of women....The empirical evidence has shown that programs can affect both demographic change and women's status." The primary geographical focus is on developing countries. Comments are included by James E. Phillips (pp. 40-6) and Harriet B. Presser (pp. 47-50).
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10339 Sun, Xiaoming. A theoretical study on the quality of family planning service in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1996. 339-48 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"China's family planning program has resulted in rapid growth of [the] contraceptive prevalence rate, and continuous and steady decline of the total fertility rate....In this author's opinion, while various interrelated factors have contributed to such a change, ultimately the most determinative one remains the implementation of the family planning program....Therefore, the quality of the family planning service should be the focus of studies. The author...examines the correlation among the contraceptive prevalence rate, the contraceptive continuation rate, and the total fertility rate...and will attempt to establish an analytical framework that suits the conditions in China."
Correspondence: X. Sun, Nanjing Institute of Population Management, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10340 Yang, Kuifu. On the "three-in-one" approach in family planning in rural China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1996. 231-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the shift in family planning approaches in rural China "from concentrating only on family planning to an emphasis on `three incorporations'--(1) the incorporation of family planning with economic development, (2) with practical assistance to people in their efforts toward prosperity, and (3) with the building of civilized and happy families. This `three-in-one' approach, first started in the Jilin Province, soon spread to the whole country and became an effective tool for family planning workers....There is empirical evidence that family planning work opens up new territories wherever the policy of the `three emphases' and the `three-in-one' approach are adopted."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

63:10341 Becker, Stan. Couples and reproductive health: a review of couple studies. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 291-306 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This review of studies of couples and reproductive health outcomes examines reports of objective reproductive events, of attitudes and reproductive intentions, of the effect of each partner's attitudes and intentions, of reproductive outcomes, and of the effectiveness of interventions that target couples compared with those that target one partner or the other. For couples' statements about reproductive events, studies throughout the world typically show identical reports less than 90 percent of the time. Concordance between partners on subjective matters is in the range of 60 to 70 percent. Data based on reports of reproductive intentions from both partners have been shown to lead to better predictions of behavior than have data from only one partner. Finally, reproductive health interventions that target couples are found to be more effective than those directed to only one sex. The evidence clearly justifies a focus on couples."
Correspondence: S. Becker, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Dynamics Department, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10342 Biddlecom, Ann E.; Casterline, John B.; Perez, Aurora E. Men's and women's views of contraception. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 92, 1996. 43 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the importance of men's and women's views of contraception and provides an empirical illustration from a study in the Philippines. We find that, in the aggregate, men and women have similar perceptions of contraception. At the couple level, a relatively large amount of disagreement exists, especially about the salience of certain contraceptive attributes and the extent to which these attributes apply to specific methods. This disagreement is associated both with lower contraceptive use and with greater conflict over intentions to use contraceptives in the future. Three conclusions are advanced: first, that men have relatively well-developed perceptions about contraception; second, that these perceptions often differ from those of their wives; and third, that these spousal differences influence family planning decisionmaking."
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10343 Blanc, Ann K.; Wolff, Brent; Gage, Anastasia J.; Ezeh, Alex C.; Neema, Stella; Ssekamatte-Ssebuliba, John. Negotiating reproductive outcomes in Uganda. Dec 1996. xxiii, 215 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland; Makerere University, Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics: Kampala, Uganda. In Eng.
Results are presented from an in-depth study carried out in Uganda in 1995-1996, one of five such studies comprising the third phase of the DHS program. This study was carried out in two districts, Masaka and Lira, and involved both focus groups and a survey of 1,750 women age 20-44 and 1,356 of their male partners. "The study has three primary objectives: To examine how reproductive decisions and their outcomes are negotiated within sexual unions; to determine which characteristics of the individual, household, and community influence the negotiation process; and to investigate how the position of women influences their ability to negotiate the outcomes they desire."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10344 Chetouani, Lamria. Procreation or contraception? From bioethics to biopolitics. [Procréation ou contraception? De la bioéthique à la biopolitique.] Mots, Vol. 44, Sep 1995. 73-98 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Today, contraception and abortion are considered by Muslim politicians and [the] faithful to be sins. To some, it is unacceptable to allow mothers to die by clandestine abortions or entire populations to perish by malnutrition. To others, it is objectionable to prevent children from being born and to think that overpopulation is a danger to the planet. Each of these bioethical logics appeals to homogeneous collections of references that are incompatible with each other."
Correspondence: L. Chetouani, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ENS Fontenay/Saint-Cloud, Le parc, Grille d'honneur, 92211 Saint-Cloud, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10345 Dharmalingam, Arunachalam. The social context of family size preferences and fertility behaviour in a south Indian village. Genus, Vol. 52, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 83-103 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"Family behaviour and family size preferences in a south Indian village are analysed using a quasi-anthropological approach. The evidence shows a strong preference for large families as a result of ample employment opportunities opened up for both males and females by emerging of labour-intensive small-scale industries. Changes in the economic structure of the village are also gradually altering the intergenerational and gender relationships. This particular aspect of social change could, by increasing the social and economic costs of children, lead to a preference for small families and consequently to a decline in fertility."
Correspondence: A. Dharmalingam, University of Waikato, Population Studies Centre, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10346 Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo; van Landewijk, Poem. Men, women, and the fertility question in Sub-Saharan Africa: an example from Ghana. African Studies Review, Vol. 39, No. 3, Dec 1996. 29-41 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
The unmet need for family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa is examined in the light of differences in desired fertility between men and women. "This paper argues that the extent to which family planning will be used in Sub-Saharan Africa lies somewhere between the estimates of the unmet need of women, and those provided by a measure of couples' need, where the latter includes the preferences of both partners. Simply put, the demand for contraception gleaned from female-only responses overstates the true or actual demand for family planning in a context where male fertility preferences are higher than those of females...." Data are from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: F. N.-A. Dodoo, Vanderbilt University, Department of Sociology, Nashville, TN 37235. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10347 Farsoun, Michel; Khoury, Nadine; Underwood, Carol. In their own words: a qualitative study of family planning in Jordan. IEC Field Report, No. 6, Oct 1996. xxiii, 44 pp. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"The Jordan National Population Commission (JNPC) asked researchers to conduct qualitative research with married men and women to understand Jordanians' attitudes and practices concerning family planning. In November and December 1995, 24 focus-group discussions were held in the central, northern, and southern regions....The findings reported here arise from this qualitative research."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Street, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10348 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The Second Public Opinion Survey on Population in Japan. Institute of Population Problems Survey Series, No. 11, Mar 28, 1996. 290 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This report presents results from a survey of public opinion concerning various population topics that was carried out in Japan in 1995. The topics include attitudes toward marriage and desire to remain single, fertility and desired number of children, prospects for marriage at a later age, the fertility decline, demographic aging, providing support for the elderly, desired population size for the country, urbanization, and world population prospects.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10349 Karthikavelu, K.; Gunasingh, A.; Danabalan, M. Awareness of different contraceptive methods among current family planning acceptors in urban Pondicherry. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1995. 149-56 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"The study attempts to find out the awareness level of various available methods of contraceptive among different segments of the population of urban Pondicherry [India]. Results show that the higher the education of husbands, the more was the awareness and acceptance of different contraceptive methods. Most of the acceptors of tubectomy were unaware of vasectomy. Similarly most of the male acceptors were unaware of the contraceptive methods available for females, particularly oral pills and IUD."
Correspondence: K. Karthikavelu, Kanchi Mamunivar Centre for Postgraduate Studies, Department of Zoology, Lawspet, Pondicherry, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10350 Kiragu, Karungari; Galiwango, Michael K.; Mulira, Ham M.; Sekatawa, Emmanuel. Promoting reproductive health in Uganda: evaluation of a national IEC program. IEC Field Report, No. 7, Dec 1996. xiv, 87 pp. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This report presents the results of a project carried out in Uganda between 1992 and 1994. The project was designed to increase the use of modern family planning methods among married couples in urban areas of Uganda. "Results show that the campaign reached a majority of the respondents and influenced the behavior of many. Nearly 92 per cent of the respondents on the post-campaign household survey and virtually all of the clinic respondents reported exposure to at least one of the campaign's IEC materials. About 86 percent recognized the family planning logo, and of these, nearly all understood the logo's meaning. In the clinics, family planning providers were more likely to use IEC materials after the campaign than they had been before the campaign. There was an improvement in perceived social support for family planning, an increase in numbers of people wishing to use family planning, and an increase in the proportion of women desiring no more children. During the campaign, FPAU facilities and community-based providers recorded a monthly average of 1,225 new users compared with the 643-per-month average before the campaign."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. E-mail: ccp@charm.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10351 Knodel, John; Ruffolo, Vipan P.; Ratanalangkarn, Pakamas; Wongboonsin, Kua. Reproductive preferences and fertility trends in post-transition Thailand. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 307-18 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Two large national surveys in 1988 and 1993 provide new evidence on trends in family-size preferences in Thailand at a time when the Thai fertility transition is reaching its conclusion. Although the average preferred number of children has continued to decline, a resistant lower bound of two children is found for the vast majority of respondents, stemming, apparently, from a pervasive, although not inflexible, desire to have one child of each sex. Moreover, new evidence from birth-registration data indicates that the decline in the total fertility rate appears to have leveled off at about replacement level. These findings challenge the view that fertility in Thailand will continue to fall well below replacement level, and contradict recently expressed alarmist predictions of population decline in the foreseeable future."
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10352 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Montgomery, Mark R. The consequences of unintended fertility for investments in children: conceptual and methodological issues. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 89, 1996. 28 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Remarkably little research has addressed the consequences of unwanted or unintended childbearing for developing-country mothers and children....We provide two explanations [for this lack], one having to do with difficulties in the measurement of key concepts, and the other with the different disciplinary priorities of economists and sociologists....The paper goes on to discuss the limitations of existing data on fertility preferences....Finally, some intriguing recent results on consequences are reviewed...and practical steps are recommended that could strengthen the empirical base for further research."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10353 Maharatna, Arup. "Children's work activities, surplus labour and fertility": case study of six villages in Birbhum. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 32, No. 7, Feb 15-21, 1997. 363-9 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The economic pressures affecting the fertility choices of poor rural peasants in India are analyzed using data from a 1986 household survey carried out in six adjoining villages in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India. "Real gains from a large number of children depend crucially on the amount of land owned by the family and off-farm job opportunities. Since both are available in negligible amount, children's participation in productive work not only disguises surplus labour but also substitutes adult work-hours, thus in no way alleviating household poverty. In fact...the article notices a concealed need for fertility regulation among poor couples, and suggests dissemination of knowledge and delivery of family control methods at affordable price."
Correspondence: A. Maharatna, University of Burdwan, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10354 Mbizvo, M. T.; Kasule, J.; Gupta, V.; Rusakaniko, S.; Kinoti, S. N.; Mpanju-Shumbushu, W.; Sebina-Zziwa, A. J.; Mwateba, R.; Padayachy, J. Effects of a randomized health education intervention on aspects of reproductive health knowledge and reported behaviour among adolescents in Zimbabwe. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 5, Jan 21, 1997. 573-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A randomized controlled study on reproductive health knowledge and behaviour was undertaken [in Zimbabwe] among adolescent pupils drawn from a multi-stage random cluster sample. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess aspects of reproductive health knowledge and behaviour at baseline followed by a health education intervention, except for control schools. Results are based on 1,689 responses made up of 1,159 intervention and 530 control respondents. There was a significant increase in correct knowledge about aspects of menstruation in intervention as compared with control schools....Pupils from intervention schools were more likely...to know that a boy experiencing wet dreams could make a girl pregnant and that a girl could get pregnant at her first sexual intercourse....Knowledge of family planning was low in both groups at baseline but was high at five months follow-up in the intervention schools."
Correspondence: M. T. Mbizvo, University of Zimbabwe, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O. Box A178, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10355 Moors, Guy. The valued child: the effect of values on the transition to motherhood. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 107, ISBN 91-7820-134-9. Aug 1996. 24 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This article focuses on the effect of values on the transition to motherhood....We argue that individual values are important cultural characteristics that influence young women's choices concerning motherhood. The most egalitarian category of women, who value autonomy and economic independence and who do not identify with traditional family values, has a [significantly] lower risk of giving birth or getting pregnant than those women who do not value autonomy or who do value traditional values....A second finding is that...women who are in a `shorter' consensual union and get pregnant, more often plan their marriage before giving birth compared to women in a `longer' consensual union."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10356 Orubuloye, I. O.; Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat. Perceived male sexual needs and male sexual behaviour in southwest Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 8, Apr 1997. 1,195-207 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Data from a survey carried out in Nigeria in 1994-1995 are used to examine attitudes toward male sexuality and male sexual behavior outside of marriage and the extent and success of female attempts to control it. "A survey of 1,749 males and 1,976 females was conducted in urban and rural populations in three states of southwest Nigeria. The majority of the community believes that males are by nature sexually polygynous, although about half the community believes that male sexuality can and should be confined to marriage. These beliefs arise out of the nature of the traditional society and are being changed by new ways of life, education and imported religions. Nevertheless, sufficiently rapid change is unlikely, even if promoted by government, to successfully combat a major AIDS epidemic, and the major strategy should attempt to reduce the rate of transmission, especially in high-risk relationships."
Correspondence: I. O. Orubuloye, Centre for Population and Health Research, P.O. Box 1904, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10357 Price, Neil. The changing value of children among the Kikuyu of Central Province, Kenya. Africa, Vol. 66, No. 3, 1996. 411-36 pp. Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article describes and analyses recent changes in the social institutions and cultural practices which have traditionally supported high fertility among the Kikuyu of Central Province, Kenya, and assesses the extent to which such institutions and practices retain their significance in the context of the changing value of children. The material and symbolic value of children to the Kikuyu is analysed, using methods and concepts derived from social anthropology....After briefly profiling each of the communities of study, the article is organised around three themes which correspond to the key social institutions that shape fertility motives: marriage, kinship and religion. A fourth theme which runs throughout the article is the changing strategic role played by these same institutions in regulating or enhancing fertility."
Correspondence: N. Price, University College of Swansea, Centre for Development Studies, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10358 Renne, Elisha P. Local and institutional interpretations of IUDs in southwestern Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 8, Apr 1997. 1,141-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines views of one contraceptive--the intrauterine device (IUD), variously regarded by government health workers and family planning personnel and by Ekiti Yoruba women residing in one village in southwestern Nigeria. Their ideas about the IUD reflect particular views of the body, infertility, and human agency, with their attendant moral connotations. These views are evidenced in debates among family planning practitioners about how the IUD works and in the ambivalent regard of some village women for whom its use connotes infertility. This local disinterest in the IUD also reflects a general distrust of government programs and intentions which recent funding cutbacks in medical services have reinforced."
Correspondence: E. P. Renne, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10359 Sakai, Hiromichi. Some determinants and influences of daughter preference. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 19, May 1996. 33-8 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
A growing preference for daughters among Japanese families is noted in the period since 1953. The socioeconomic factors affecting parents' sex preferences are analyzed. Particular attention is given to the sex ratio in adoptions, and in institutions for the handicapped and orphanages, as an indicator of sex preferences.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

63:10360 Simmons, Ruth. Women's lives in transition: a qualitative analysis of the fertility decline in Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 251-68 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The fertility decline that began in Bangladesh in the late 1980s and continues has prompted diverse theories to explain it. In this qualitative analysis of 21 focus-group sessions with rural women ranging in age from the teens to late 40s and living in the villages of the Matlab area, the women's perceptions of their changing society and of the influence of the family planning program are examined. The women's statements reveal their awareness of the social and economic transition they are undergoing and their interest in family-size limitation, which is bolstered by a strong family planning program. Although the shifts in economic and social circumstances are not large, in conjunction with the strong family planning program they constitute a powerful force for change in attitudes, ideas, and behavior among these women."
Correspondence: R. Simmons, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, 1420 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10361 Yan, Meifu. An empirical study on the impact of marital residence arrangement upon gender preference in reproduction. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1996. 133-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Gender preference...can directly affect the number of children a woman chooses to have and therefore population control in general....A question arises as to the possibility of lowering the birth rate in rural areas [of China] by reducing farmers' preference for sons under the current level of economy and education. Surveys suggest that women's marital residence arrangements can strongly affect farmers' preference for the gender of their children, although scientific proof is lacking in this regard. This study was conducted for such a purpose. If the above hypothesis proves valid, it means that more effective control of China's population growth can be achieved by changing women's marital residence arrangement, without regard to the level of economy and education."
Correspondence: M. Yan, Hubei University, Department of Education Administration, Wuhan, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10362 Zaky, Hassan H. M. Intra-family decision interaction and completed family size: the case of Egypt. CDC Working Paper, No. 21, 1991. 17, [13] pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"In this study, we aim to test [the economic approach to fertility behavior] within the Egyptian context using a subset of the 1984 Egyptian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (ECPS 84). Our focus is to examine whether family size decisions under examination are, in fact, simultaneously related to each other and whether they interact within a system which is controlled by the family. In other words, to study completed family size in Egypt, does one need to identify the determinants of other family size decisions as well?"
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Centre, 2 Lebanon Street, P.O. Box 73, Mohandiseen 12655, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10363 Zaky, Hassan H. M. Profile of men's and women's fertility preferences in Egypt. In: Perspectives on fertility and family planning in Egypt: results of further analysis of the 1992 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey, edited by Maher Mahran, Fatma H. El-Zanaty, and Ann A. Way. Aug 1995. 56-79 pp. National Population Council: Cairo, Egypt; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"The main objective of this study is to use data from the 1992 EDHS [Egypt Demographic and Health Survey] to examine fertility preferences within the Egyptian family and to test whether husband and wife have different preferences. The comparison of spousal preferences involves an examination of both the consistency of desires of husbands and wives and of the determinants of the desires of each spouse. The main findings of the study are presented in four parts: a description of the data used for the analysis; a review of the fertility preferences and family size desires of both spouses, looking specifically at the hypothesis that spouses have the same desires; identification of the determinants of the desired family size of each spouse; [and] discussion of the principal policy implications of the study."
Correspondence: H. H. M. Zaky, United Arab Emirates University, Manpower Project, P.O. Box 17777, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10364 Zhang, Jingyu; Cao, Jian; Shi, Youying; Jiang, Shuqing. A preliminary study of reproductive health of unmarried urban young people in China in the 1990s: a case study of reproductive health survey on 3,034 unmarried young people in Beijing. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1996. 281-93 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using a cluster sampling, this survey of 3,034 unmarried young people asked questions on love, marriage, views on reproduction, sexual knowledge, and receiving pre-marital education on a volunteer basis. The results reveal some changes in views about love and reproduction among young people in Chinese cities. Out of their own will, young men and women are getting married late and 11% say they do not want children after marriage. However, the level of knowledge about birth control and the ability of self-control in birth control matters are still low. Most of the subjects are for the current system for pre-marital health care. Ninety percent of those [surveyed] hold that it is necessary to conduct pre-marital sex education and that young people are in dire need for education about high-quality reproduction and child-rearing, sex, and contraception."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, Beijing Dongsi Hospital for Women and Children, Gynecology Department, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility. Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology.

63:10365 Ahmed, M. Kapil; Sarkar, Afzal H.; Rahman, Mizanur. Determinants of induced abortion in rural Bangladesh. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1996. 105-18 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this study, we examine the trend of abortion and identify risk groups of women who are prone to abortion. The analysis covers over 80,000 pregnancy terminations during 1982-91 in three rural areas of Bangladesh. We also examine the pattern of contraceptive use following an abortion....First, we hypothesize that abortion is increasing in the country because of two main reasons: (i) desired family size is declining and, (ii) contraceptive use is increasing....[The second] hypothesis is related with the first one; contraceptive users are likely to have higher abortion because they are highly motivated to delay next birth or family limitation and may have abortion in the case of method failure. [The third] hypothesis is that abortion may decline if contraceptive use becomes widespread, and the users attain an efficiency of use of a method."
Correspondence: M. K. Ahmed, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10366 Bettarini, Silvana S.; D'Andrea, Silvana S. Induced abortion in Italy: levels, trends and characteristics. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 267-71, 277 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we present information on the incidence of abortion in Italy since its legalization. These data were collected from women obtaining abortions in all public hospitals in Italy." Results indicate that "subsequent to the legalization of abortion in Italy in 1978, abortion rates among Italian women first rose and then declined steadily, from a peak of 16.9 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age in 1983 to 9.8 per 1,000 in 1993. Abortion rates vary considerably by geographic region, with rates typically highest in the more secular and modernized regions and lowest in regions where traditional values predominate. Data from 1981 and 1991 indicate that age-specific abortion rates decreased during the 1980s for all age-groups, with the largest declines occurring in regions with the highest levels of abortion. Moreover, a shift in the age distribution of abortion rates occurred during the 1980s, with women aged 30-34 registering the highest abortion rate in 1991, whereas in 1981 the highest level of abortion occurred among those aged 25-29. The abortion rate among adolescent women was low at both times (7.6 per 1,000 in 1981 and 4.6 per 1,000 in 1991). These data are based only on reported legal abortions; the number of clandestine abortions remains unknown."
Correspondence: S. S. Bettarini, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento Statistico, Piazza San Marco 4, 50121 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10367 Chhabra, Rami. Abortion in India: an overview. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1996. 83-92 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author reviews trends in induced abortion in India, with a focus on the effects of the 1971 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, which decriminalized abortion. "Despite the MTP Act's existence on the books for exactly a quarter of a century, it has not brought the intended relief to the greater majority of Indian women. This is evident from the current situation wherein a larger number of women are taking recourse to abortion outside the recognised facilities than was their number in the late sixties and early seventies when distress on this score culminated in the legislation."
Correspondence: R. Chhabra, Aalna, B-5/19, Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10368 David, Henry P.; Rademakers, Jany. Lessons from the Dutch abortion experience. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 341-3 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss trends in induced abortion in the Netherlands, with a focus on reasons for the country's low abortion rate. Factors considered include attitude toward sexuality, the declining influence of the Catholic Church, and government provision of free contraceptives. The authors conclude that "the Dutch experience is instructive. A more rational and less ambivalent public approach to sexuality would encourage more responsible reproductive behavior in the United States, thereby reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies and abortions, and circumventing the dangers of AIDS to a greater degree than is currently possible."
Correspondence: H. P. David, Transnational Family Research Institute, 8307 Whitman Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10369 Fikree, Fariyal F.; Rizvi, Narjis; Jamil, Sarah; Husain, Tayyaba. The emerging problem of induced abortions in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1996. 119-30 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper initially presents the findings of a small study which was conducted to establish whether women would respond, in our cultural milieu, on [the issue of abortion]. Following the positive response in this initial study, we proceeded to an in-depth interview of 30 women [in Karachi, Pakistan, about whom] we had prior knowledge [that they] had undergone an induced abortion....The results of our study suggest that Pakistani women, living in low socio-economic settlements of Karachi, seek voluntary termination of their pregnancy in complete cognisance of its dire consequences, as a result primarily of their determination not to have more children than they and their families can responsibly care for."
Correspondence: F. F. Fikree, Aga Khan University, Department of Community Health Sciences, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi 74800, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10370 Fitzsimmons, Richard; Diana, Joan P. Pro-choice/pro-life issues in the 1990s: an annotated, selected bibliography. Bibliographies and Indexes in Sociology, No. 24, ISBN 0-313-29355-4. LC 96-23115. 1996. xi, 284 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
"It is the purpose of this work to provide access to the literature published in the United States on the pro-choice/pro-life issue, interrelating abortion, birth control, contraception, and family planning." The compilers attempt "to provide standard bibliographic access to monographs and periodicals in print and non-print formats, legal decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court, various state and federal courts, U.S. Congressional hearings on abortion and related topics, and video and audio releases addressing this issue which have been published or distributed in the United States between January 1990 and December 1994." A subject index is provided.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

63:10371 Frejka, Tomás; Atkin, Lucille C. The role of induced abortion in the fertility transition of Latin America. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 179-91 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we will present and discuss data and information on the incidence of induced abortion in Latin America. These will be briefly compared to data from other parts of the world. In order to be able to estimate the relative contribution of induced abortion to fertility control in Latin America, we will use model calculations to approximate the actual situation. Finally, we will discuss the causes of the high incidence of induced abortion in Latin America." The authors conclude that "given that the motivation exists to limit family size, induced abortions will be relatively frequent if modern contraceptive methods are not readily available and easily accessible to the population. This is the situation throughout Latin America where important problems persist in terms of both availability and accessibility."
Correspondence: T. Frejka, UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10372 Gober, Patricia. The role of access in explaining state abortion rates. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 7, Apr 1997. 1,003-16 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This paper investigates the role of access in explaining variations in state abortion rates in the United States over the period 1972-1992. "Greater accessibility leads to higher abortion rates. Public demand variables affect abortion rates both directly and indirectly through access conditions. The number of women at risk of unintended pregnancies leads to higher abortion rates directly and indirectly through its effects on medical access. Per capita income, percent Catholic, and percent of the population born outside the state affect abortion rates indirectly through the access variables. High per capita income leads directly to greater availability of hospital abortions, higher levels of state funding of abortions for poor women, less restrictive state abortion laws, and indirectly to higher abortion rates. States with large non-native populations have less restrictive abortion laws and higher abortion rates. The presence of a large Catholic population reduces the number of hospitals offering abortion services and leads indirectly to lower abortion rates. The interaction of public demand and access at the state level creates geographically varying environments in which abortion decisions are made."
Correspondence: P. Gober, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287-0104. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10373 Hutter, Inge. Induced abortion and contraceptive use in Russia; state of the art and need for a micro-approach. Population Research Centre Working Paper, No. 1996-5, May 1996. 33 pp. University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
This study introduces a project on induced abortion and contraception in Russia. The paper presents "(i)...a review of literature and surveys on induced abortions and contraception in Russia...(ii) the theoretical framework to be adopted in the research project. We adopt a micro-approach, i.e. a choice theoretic framework for the study of reproductive health behavior...(iii) in comparing `state of the art' and the theoretical framework, a need for future research on abortion and contraceptive behavior in Russia is identified, i.e. research on the reproductive career and motivations of Russian women themselves. This requires application of survey techniques and small-scale qualitative research methods like in-depth interviews, focus-group interviews and key-informant interviews."
Correspondence: University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. E-mail: PRC@FRW.RUG.NL. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10374 Içduygu, Ahmet. Correlates of timing of induced abortion in Turkey. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1996. 131-46 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author "reviews existing demographic evidence relating the abortion issue in Turkey to the country's recent fertility levels and trends....We subsequently report results from our analyses of the factors affecting the differences in the period of gestation at which the pregnancy is terminated. The paper concludes by emphasizing that our interest in these factors should not be limited to the peripheral context of the timing issue; rather, because of their very integral significance, they should speak to core concerns of wider abortion issues, including methodological aspects related to obtaining reliable abortion data."
Correspondence: A. Içduygu, Bilkent University, 06533 Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10375 Khanna, Sunil K. Traditions and reproductive technology in an urbanizing north Indian village. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jan 1997. 171-80 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article addresses the practices of prenatal sex determination and sex-selective abortion through ethnographic research in Shahargaon, a Jat village undergoing rapid urbanization and cultural change in north India. The paper presents the sociodemographic outcomes of sex-selective abortion practiced within a system of patriarchy, manifested in terms of son preference and daughter disfavor. It argues that changes from an agriculture to an urban economy have led to a decrease in family size among Shahargaon Jats. In spite of improvements in educational and economic status, there is a reinforcement of son preference and daughter disfavor in the Jat community in Shahargaon. Jat couples are using prenatal sex determination and sex-selective abortion to achieve smaller family size and to reduce the number of daughters in a family."
Correspondence: S. K. Khanna, Oregon State University, Department of Anthropology, Corvallis, OR 97331-6403. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10376 Mundigo, Axel. Toward constructing a research agenda: the threat posed by induced abortion in Latin America. [Hacia la construcción de una agenda de investigación: el reto del aborto inducido en América Latina.] Revista Peruana de Población, No. 5, 1994. 119-36 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author "remarks the importance of constructing a research agenda about abortion....[He] proposes a number of topics for research: abortion incidence, the relationship between adolescent sexuality and unwanted pregnancy, abortion and the working woman, the influence of cultural and social patterns in abortion, men's role on reproductive decisions, the relationship between contraception and abortion, costs of induced abortion, attitudes from health suppliers, attitudes from clandestine abortion providers, and the establishment of risk detection and prevention models. The purpose of this research is to lower the incidence of abortion and to eliminate the morbidity and mortality caused by clandestine abortion in Latin America."
Correspondence: A. Mundigo, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10377 Reagan, Leslie J. When abortion was a crime: women, medicine, and law in the United States, 1867-1973. ISBN 0-520-08848-4. LC 96-22568. 1997. xiii, 387 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
"This book analyzes the triangle of interactions among the medical profession, state authorities, and women in the practice, policing, and politics of abortion [in the United States] during the era when abortion was a crime. As individual women consulted with doctors, they made them understand their needs. Sympathy for their female patients drew physicians into the world of abortion in spite of legal and professional prohibitions. Indeed, it was physicians and lawyers who initiated the earliest efforts to rewrite the abortion laws. Ultimately, women's pressing need for abortion fueled a mass movement that succeeded in reversing public policy toward abortion in the 1960s and early 1970s."
Correspondence: University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10378 Rosenbaum, A. Abortion policy. Policy Studies Review, Vol. 13, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1994. 212 pp. Florida International University, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Policy Studies Organization: Miami, Florida. In Eng.
This special issue is a product of the International Symposium on Public Policies toward Unwanted Pregnancies held at the University of Pittsburgh, November 1-2, 1990. "The symposium was an opportunity for...discussion of the causes and consequences of unwanted pregnancies and of the social, political, and ethical aspects of the public policies that can be adopted to prevent the problems that they cause. Sex education, contraception, abortion, adoption, and social services to pregnant women are among the policies that were considered. Representatives from different philosophical and ethical points of view, different scientific disciplines, and different countries presented papers dealing with the topics under discussion." The emphasis of the papers presented in this issue is on the situation in the United States.
Correspondence: Florida International University, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Policy Studies Organization, University Park, Miami, FL 33199. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10379 Skjeldestad, Finn E. Increased number of induced abortions in Norway after media coverage of adverse vascular events from the use of third-generation oral contraceptives. Contraception, Vol. 55, No. 1, Jan 1997. 11-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"After the press release in Lancet (October 18, 1995) of increased risks for adverse vascular events in users of pills containing desogestrel and gestodene, the total sales of oral contraceptives dropped over a two-month period by 17%, while sales of the only desogestrel brand available (Marvelon) dropped by over 70% in Norway....In total, more than 25,000 women discontinued OC use in Norway during November and December of 1995. Abortion data from one Norwegian county, representing 6-7% of the Norwegian population, show no statistically significant changes in the total number of induced abortions from the first quarter of 1996 as compared with that of the first quarter in preceding years. However, abortion rates that had been steadily decreasing from 1992 through 1995 in women 24 years old or younger, were promptly interrupted by a significant 36% increase during the first quarter of 1996. Most of the additional cases were found among single, childless students."
Correspondence: F. E. Skjeldestad, University Hospital of Trondheim, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 7006 Trondheim, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10380 Sundström, K. Abortion across social and cultural borders. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1996. 93-103 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author briefly reviews trends in induced abortion worldwide, with a focus on cultural and societal differences across countries. Aspects considered include health, legal status of abortion, need for services, and family patterns. The abortion situation in selected countries is outlined.
Correspondence: K. Sundström, Karolinska Institutet, IHCAR, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10381 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Abortion surveillance: preliminary data--United States, 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 45, No. 51-52, Jan 3, 1997. 1,123-7 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"For 1994, CDC received data on legal induced abortions from the 50 states, New York City, and the District of Columbia. This report presents preliminary data for 1994. Final abortion data for 1993 and 1994 will be published during spring 1997."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

63:10382 Bronson, F. H. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors. Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 70, No. 2, Jun 1995. 141-64 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The objective of this article is to develop a better biological perspective of human birth seasonality by viewing this phenomenon against a backdrop composed of three bodies of knowledge: that pertaining to the ecological and evolutionary bases of seasonal reproduction in other mammals; that which has been gained by studying the physiological pathways underlying the action of environmental factors on the reproductive axes of both humans and nonhuman mammals; and, finally, that pertaining to human evolutionary history....Three environmental factors appear most likely to exert direct effects on the human reproductive axis: energetic constraints, high temperature, and photoperiod. The potential importance of each of these factors will be considered in detail. Next, the result of all these considerations will be placed, speculatively, within an evolutionary context. Finally, the relative importance of environmental versus cultural factors in producing birth seasonality will be considered...."
Correspondence: F. H. Bronson, University of Texas, Institute of Reproductive Biology, Department of Zoology, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:10383 Nath, Dilip C.; Goswami, Giti. The socio-demographic correlates of post-partum amenorrhoea in an urban society of India. Genus, Vol. 52, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 105-23 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"Since continuation of breast-feeding after resumption of menses may not influence the duration of PPA [post-partum amenorrhoea], this study, by applying life table and multivariate hazard modelling techniques in a time dependent setting, investigates the effect of post-partum nursing behaviour on the return of menses and tries to identify the different underlying causes of heterogeneity contributing to the return of menses among the nursing mothers of an urban Hindu society in Assam [India]. The particular pathway by which amenorrhoea is prolonged in this study appears to result from a late introduction of food supplements, low level of education, poor socio-economic conditions and higher order parity. So it remains possible that poor health and nutritional status of educationally and economically backward classes is partly responsible for the lengthy post-partum infertile period of the lactating mothers."
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Gauhati University, Department of Statistics, Gauhati 781 014, Assam, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10384 Riley, Ann; Khan, Nizam; Moulton, Lawrence. Factors influencing the interval between marriage and first birth: a study in Bangladesh. [Les facteurs prédictifs de l'intervalle protogénésique: une étude au Bangladesh.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1996. 883-95 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this paper we consider factors that affect the interval between marriage and first birth among women resident in a rural area of Bangladesh. Cox's proportional hazard models are used to assess the effects of age at menarche, age at marriage, and the interval between menarche and first marriage. Short periods between menarche and marriage, and marriage at a young age are associated with relatively long intervals between marriage and first birth. The positive effect of early marriage on fertility is partly compensated by a longer waiting period to first conception. The explanation may lie in relatively low fecundity during adolescence, a waiting period between marriage and the beginning of regular sexual intercourse, as well as by the stronger control exerted by families on the sexual activities of their youngest or most immature women."
Correspondence: A. Riley, John Snow International Research and Training Institute, 1616 North Fort Myer Drive, Arlington, VA 22209. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10385 van de Walle, Etienne; Franklin, Nadra. Sexual initiation and the transmission of reproductive knowledge. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 61-8 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Initiation rituals are still widely practised among the Kaguru of Morogoro district in Tanzania. Young women are introduced to the digubi dance at the time of puberty, and a version of the dance is performed at the time of marriage. This form of traditional theatre serves a function of education and socialization, and the question is raised of how much of reproductive behaviour is transmitted in this medium. Our informants suggest that notions of female dependence and standard of behaviour are conveyed in the process, but that information on child rearing and postpartum abstinence are transmitted by personal contact with older women at the time of the first birth."
Correspondence: E. van de Walle, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10386 Zhou, Haibo; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Baird, Donna D. A random-effects model for cycle viability in fertility studies. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 91, No. 436, Dec 1996. 1,413-22 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Models for fertility that take into account the timing of intercourse relative to ovulation are needed to estimate the influence of both endogenous and exogenous factors on human fertility. The classical model assumes that some menstrual cycles are `viable' and some are not, where `viability' is determined by whether hormonal, uterine, and gamete-related factors are favorable to gestation. Within each viable cycle, the various days with intercourse are assumed to act independently; within each nonviable cycle, the days with intercourse can have no effect. Cycle viability for individual cycles is latent in that it is not ascertainable when conception does not occur....Based on data from a cohort of couples with no known fertility problems who were attempting pregnancy, cycle viability is found to be heterogeneous among couples. Stratification on the presence or absence of prenatal exposure of the woman to her mother's cigarette smoking revealed a statistically significant difference in the two cycle viability distributions."
Correspondence: H. Zhou, University of North Carolina, Department of Biostatistics, CB 7400, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

63:10387 Landale, Nancy S.; Hauan, Susan M. Migration and premarital childbearing among Puerto Rican women. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 4, Nov 1996. 429-42 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationship between migration and premarital childbearing in a highly migratory Latino subgroup, Puerto Rican women. Using pooled origin-destination data from surveys conducted in Puerto Rico and in the New York metropolitan area, we find that first- and second-generation migrants to the U.S. mainland face substantially higher risks of conceiving and bearing a first child before marriage than do nonmigrants in Puerto Rico. This pattern is due largely to the relatively early transition to sexual activity among mainland women. Given the negative long-term consequences of premarital childbearing for women and their children, our findings call into question the assumption that migrants necessarily experience only positive outcomes as a result of the assimilation process."
Correspondence: N. S. Landale, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10388 Willis, Robert J.; Haaga, John G. Economic approaches to understanding nonmarital fertility. In: Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories, edited by John B. Casterline, Ronald D. Lee, and Karen A. Foote. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, Suppl., 1996. 67-86 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Economic models of marriage and fertility have typically used language and assumptions that need some adaptation, at least, to account for the steady growth in the proportion of births to unwed mothers....Ideally, an economic model of nonmarital fertility would link microfoundations with macrosocial effects, since the environment within which women and men are making decisions has changed greatly....In this article we describe an approach that allows the marriage and fertility decisions to be partially separable. Men and women are both assumed to value investments in their biological children, and men and women are each assumed to value their own consumption of other goods and services, independently of what is consumed by their co-parent. Whether they (or she alone) can afford a child, how much of their respective resources gets invested in the child, and whether marriage is a good deal for one or both of them, depend in large part on their present and expected future command over resources." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: R. J. Willis, University of Michigan, Department of Economics, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.