Volume 63 - Number 1 - Spring 1997

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications.

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

63:10088 Arriaga, Eduardo E. Comments on some indexes to measure the level and change of mortality. [Comentarios sobre algunos índices para medir el nivel y el cambio de la mortalidad.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1996. 5-30, 217 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The level and change of mortality can be measured in several ways not only because [of] the selected index, but also because of the way that the mortality change is measured. This document considers the indexes more frequently used for measuring the level of mortality, including the one of years of life lost recently developed. Each index is analyzed in relation to its accuracy for measuring the level and change of mortality, and advantages and disadvantages of each of them are discussed. The index years of life lost is presented with some details, since it was developed rather recently."
Correspondence: E. E. Arriaga, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, 4621 Wakefield Chapel Road, Annandale, VA 22003. E-mail: Arriaga@CCMail.Census.Gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10089 Bah, Sulaiman M. Modelling the relationship between cause of death structure and overall mortality: the case of Mauritius. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 96-8, ISBN 0-7714-1949-X. Jun 1996. 17 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper aims to model the relationship between cause of death structure and overall mortality in the Island of Mauritius. The study period extends over an 18 year period from 1969 to 1986 and ten groups of causes of death were studied. During this period, Mauritian mortality for both males and females, underwent a transition from predominance of infectious diseases to that of degenerative diseases. Three models were fitted to the male and female data, a linear model, a curvilinear model and a multiple linear model which incorporates the concept of Epidemiologic Transition....One relevance of this study is in the indirect estimation of cause of death structure. The implication is that in the indirect estimation of cause of death structure, information on overall mortality alone will not suffice, supplementary information of the Epidemiologic Transition is needed especially where the mortality pattern is undergoing transition."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10090 Bourne, D. E. Sources of South African mortality data, 1910-1992. South African Medical Journal/Suid-Afrikaanse Mediese Joernaal, Vol. 85, No. 10, Oct 1995. 1,020-2 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
"A complete bibliography is given of official statistical publications that are the primary source of mortality data (number of deaths, ages and causes) for the South African population for the period 1910-1992. Details of the edition of the International Classification of Diseases used in the reports are noted, as well as the causes of death listed in the reports. Details of unpublished computer tapes used to produce these reports from 1968 onwards are also presented."
Correspondence: D. E. Bourne, University of Cape Town, Department of Community Health, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10091 Caselli, Graziella. National differences in the health transition in Europe. Historical Methods, Vol. 29, No. 3, Summer 1996. 107-25 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The dual task of describing the characteristic trends of mortality in Europe and of putting forward explanatory hypotheses is the main goal of this article....I attempt to analyze the health transition from 1910....The different steps in mortality trends, both in quantitative terms and with regard to structural changes by age and cause, are also analyzed and compared when possible to the far-reaching changes that marked the history of mortality in Europe. An attempt at synthesis is performed, using the data on life expectancy at birth in 1910 until recent times. Particular focus will be placed on the more significant stages of the decline in mortality by age and cause of death, using life tables constructed for the years prior to World War I (1910); those for the early 1930s...; for 1950...; data for the 1960s and 1970s...; and finally the latest available data, to gain insight into the decline now in process."
Correspondence: G. Caselli, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10092 Kale, Balkrishna; Besl, John; Palit, Charles. A procedure to estimate mortality among migrants. In: 1995 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section of the Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association. [1996]. 139-44 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Mortality data are customarily recorded and compiled by usual place of residence of the deceased at the time of death, and therefore provide no information on the impact made by migrants in an area's mortality. Deaths attributable to persons who have recently migrated from one area to another are not known. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the number of deaths which migrants either add to or subtract from the deaths which would be expected in the absence of any migration. The ability to disaggregate mortality data into migrant deaths and non-migrant deaths adds another dimension, and enhanced precision, to the three customary components of population change: births, deaths, and migration." Data for Wisconsin are used for illustrative purposes.
Correspondence: B. Kale, Demographic Services Center, P.O. Box 7868, Madison, WI 53707-7868. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10093 Montgomery, Mark R. Learning and lags in mortality perceptions. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 91, 1996. 44 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper addresses a new aspect of the well-known association between mortality decline and the fertility response....[It] explores the role of perceptions and learning, asking whether and under what conditions individuals will perceive correctly that mortality has declined. Drawing on an extensive literature in cognitive and social psychology, we identify a number of factors that may cause perceptions of mortality change to be biased. The conclusion is that if left to their own perceptual devices, individuals are likely not to appreciate the full extent of mortality decline."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10094 Nicaragua. Ministerio de Salud (Managua, Nicaragua). The causes of registered deaths, 1982-1991. [Causas de defunción registradas, 1982-1991.] Jun 1994. 312, [4] pp. Managua, Nicaragua. In Spa.
The available data on deaths registered in Nicaragua for the period 1982-1991 are analyzed by age and cause of death. The data are presented separately for the whole country and for each SILAIS (district).
Correspondence: Ministerio de Salud, Managua, Nicaragua. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10095 Pollard, J. H. On the changing shape of the Australian mortality curve. Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, Suppl., 1996. 283-300 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Over the course of the twentieth century, mortality rates in Australia have shown substantial improvements at all ages. The improvements which have taken place at different ages, however, have not occurred at a uniform pace, and as a result, the shapes of the national mortality curves have varied over time. The most noticeable change for males has been the development of an `accident hump' in the late teens and early twenties mid-century, the growth of this `hump' in the 1960s and 1970s, and its sudden disappearance, or transformation into a `bulge', in the late 1980s. This paper examines the reasons for the disappearance of the male `accident hump', and the changes in mortality by cause which have occurred over the decade to 1992 and influenced the level and shape of the whole mortality curve both for males and for females. Extrapolating the trends observed for the various cause-specific mortality rates obtains projected life tables for Australian males and females in the year 2002."
Correspondence: J. H. Pollard, Macquarie University, School of Economics and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10096 Preston, Samuel H. Population studies of mortality. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 3, Nov 1996. 525-36 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, I review briefly the progress of mortality studies during the past half-century as reflected in the pages of Population Studies. Since nearly half of the most important studies in this field were published in its pages, the journal provides a very convenient vehicle for such a review. We organize it under four headings: measurement, levels and trends, accounting for aggregate-level variation, and individual-level correlates."
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10097 Pullum, Thomas W.; Tan, JooEan. Partitioning sources of change in the expectation of life. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 96-97-01, Jan 1997. 39 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper describes a procedure to allocate change in a population's expectation of life into components for each of these factors and their changes over time [in the United States]. The approach can be stated equivalently in terms of differences between two (or more) populations at the same point in time. The procedure will be applied to mortality data from Bexar County, Texas, to improve the description of the effects on mortality of age-specific differentials in death rates, causes of death, ethnic composition, and changes over time."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Texas, Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10098 Ruiz Salguero, Magda T. Mortality: vital statistics, regulation, and analysis. [La mortalidad: estadísticas vitales, reglamentación y análisis.] Desarrollo y Sociedad, Sep 1994. 53-71 pp. Bogotá, Colombia. In Spa.
The author assesses the quality and coverage of death reporting in Colombia. In spite of deficiencies in vital statistics registration, the data indicate much about mortality trends in the country. Two major trends are noted: an increase in violent deaths among young adults, and a decline in mortality due to transmittable and non-transmittable diseases.
Correspondence: M. T. Ruiz Salguero, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Caudal Universitaria, Apartado Aéreo 14490, Bogotá, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10099 Shlomowitz, Ralph; Brennan, Lance; McDonald, John. Mortality and migration in the modern world. Collected Studies Series, ISBN 0-86078-596-3. LC 96-11528. 1996. x, [339] pp. Variorum: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of previously published essays on "the mortality suffered by British convicts and free emigrants on the voyage to Australia, and by Indian, Chinese, African, and Pacific Islander indentured labourers on their voyages to a variety of destinations across the world. The success of various administrative measures in reducing mortality at sea during the 19th century is documented, and shown to have a bearing on current debates on the explanation of the 19th-century mortality decline in western societies."
Correspondence: Variorum, Ashgate Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hampshire GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10100 Surault, Pierre. The determinants of exogenous mortality. [Les déterminants de la mortalité exogène.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, edited by Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, and Guillaume Wunsch. Aug 1996. 267-95 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Fre.
This chapter focuses on the economic factors affecting mortality. First, the author considers the situation in developed countries by analyzing the relation between life expectancy and income. He then discusses the developing world and reviews the situation for the world as a whole. The impact of differing lifestyles on mortality is examined. Finally, the impact on mortality of attitudes toward the body, health, and medicine is assessed.
Correspondence: P. Surault, Université de Poitiers, Faculté de Sciences Economiques, 15 rue de Blossac, 86034 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10101 Tickle, Leonie. Recent trends in mortality in the United Kingdom. Actuarial Studies and Demography Research Paper Series 3, No. 010-96, ISBN 1-86408-255-0. Aug 1996. 28 pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines trends in mortality rates in the United Kingdom over the decade 1982 to 1992. Whilst the overall rate of mortality has declined, the extent of improvements has varied by sex, age and cause. Male mortality has improved slightly more than female mortality....Analyses of mortality by age indicate that the greatest improvements have occurred in the 45 and over age group and in the year after birth, with male mortality at the young adult ages actually increasing over the period. Trends in cause of death pattern over the period have also been studied, and the impact of these changes on the shape of the mortality curve described."
Correspondence: Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Author's E-mail: ltickle@efs.mq.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology, and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion. Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

63:10102 Carlson, Elwood; Rychtáríkova, Jitka; Hoem, Jan M. Trajectories of fetal loss. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 114, ISBN 91-7820-148-9. Oct 1996. 16 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"Analysis of nearly 600,000 pregnancies from the Czech Republic (1987 through 1990) reveals that social differences in fetal survival chances are greater at early observed stages of pregnancy than at or near full term. Differences in loss by marital status, educational level and economic activity essentially mirror differences in risk known to appear in the post-neonatal period of infancy....Those conditions that produce higher risk of fetal death for disadvantaged women in the second trimester of pregnancy also produce higher risk of premature live birth once the threshold of viability is reached in the third trimester, producing convergence in risk of fetal death for different social groups at full term."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10103 Gourbin, Catherine. Fetal mortality. [La mortalité foetale.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, edited by Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, and Guillaume Wunsch. Aug 1996. 155-91 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Fre.
This chapter examines the concept of fetal mortality. The author begins by discussing the problems involved in collecting data on fetal deaths. Next, the biological and behavioral factors affecting fetal mortality are examined. Prospects for medical intervention to reduce levels of fetal mortality are discussed, and the role of induced abortion is addressed.
Correspondence: C. Gourbin, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

63:10104 Adetunji, Jacob A. Infant mortality levels in Africa: does method of estimation matter? Genus, Vol. 52, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 89-106 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"Using data from 13 Demographic and Health Surveys in Africa, this paper compares estimates of infant mortality directly calculated from data with those indirectly calculated using the Trussell (1975) and Feeney (1980) techniques. The results indicate that, on average, the directly calculated infant mortality rates were significantly lower than those estimated from indirect methods. Data errors alone can not plausibly explain such differences. Such series could in fact show increases or decreases in infant mortality rates that would result mainly from differences in methods of calculation."
Correspondence: J. A. Adetunji, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. E-mail: Adetunji@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10105 Azuh, Dominic E. Child survival under threat: a cross-sectional study in India. ISBN 81-7018-821-0. LC 94-907320. 1994. xxx, 165 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the mortality of children aged one to four in India. It is based on a survey of 2,000 families carried out in two districts of Andhra Pradesh in 1989-1990. Factors considered include ecological conditions, cultural background, socioeconomic factors, nutrition, and health service provision. Particular attention is given to differentials in child mortality and survival. The data are analyzed separately for caste Hindus, Harijans, and other religions.
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing, A-6 Nimri Community Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase IV, Delhi 110 052, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10106 Brockerhoff, Martin; Derose, Laurie F. Child survival in East Africa: the impact of preventive health care. World Development, Vol. 24, No. 12, Dec 1996. 1,841-57 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Since the mid-1980s or earlier, several East African countries have experienced constant or rising child mortality rates concurrent with social and biomedical improvements of the `Child Survival Revolution'. This study examines whether preventive primary health care enhanced early child survival in the late 1980s and early 1990s in five East African countries. Child mortality rates were considerably lower than they would have been in the absence of specific immunizations, access to safe drinking water, fertility regulation, and frequent antenatal care visits. There was, however, substantial missed opportunity for mortality decline as a result of insufficient use of preventive measures. In particular, universal immunization across these countries could have reduced rates of mortality under age two by as much as one-third."
Correspondence: M. Brockerhoff, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10107 Cornell, Laurel L. Infanticide in early modern Japan? Demography, culture, and population growth. PIRT Working Paper, No. 95-1, Dec 1994. 33, [7] pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
Early modern Japan experienced a stagnation in population growth. "Scholars have offered two explanations for this phenomenon....In both of these approaches the source of population stagnation is the same: deliberate control of fertility by individuals through infanticide. If this was true it has two implications: that the Japanese were the first large population to practice modern family planning, two centuries earlier and in a far different economic and political context than their western European counterparts...and that death rates of infants, children, and young adults were so low that unless many were eliminated a large surplus would survive to adulthood....The purpose of this paper is to examine [these hypotheses]."
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10108 Desgrées du Loû, Annabel; Pison, Gilles; Samb, Badara; Trape, Jean-François. Cause-specific mortality of African children: a case study in Senegal based on the verbal autopsy approach. [L'évolution des causes de décès d'enfants en Afrique: une étude de cas au Sénégal avec la méthode d'autopsie verbale.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1996. 845-81 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"A method called `verbal autopsy' which makes it possible for medically unqualified persons to collect information on cause of death has been used in several less developed countries. After each death, a standardized questionnaire is administered to the families involved which contains questions on the symptoms and history of the illness which resulted in the death. This method was applied to all deaths of children less than five years old which occurred in the Bandafassi area of Eastern Senegal between 1984 and 1993....The method helps to determine the principal developments in mortality linked to demographic or climatic factors (sex, season of death). As these surveys were taken each year, the results provide an insight into changes over time of the most significant factors and make it possible to assess the success of existing health programmes and suggest directions for future surveys."
Correspondence: A. Desgrées du Loû, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 152, Laboratoire d'Anthropologie Biologique, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10109 Frisbie, W. Parker; Forbes, Douglas; Pullum, Starling G. Compromised birth outcomes and infant mortality among racial and ethnic groups. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 4, Nov 1996. 469-81 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Research based on [U.S.] hospital records demonstrates that many births classified as normal according to conventional demographic measurement are intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) when evaluated clinically; also, in addition to birth weight and gestational age, it is necessary to focus on a third dimension, maturity, in analyses of birth outcomes. Although clinical studies allow more precise classification, the small number of cases tends to result in unreliable estimates of rates and in loss of generalizability. The fetal growth ratio, a measure recently shown to be a valid proxy for maturity, is used here to develop a classification system based on combinations of weight, gestational age, and maturity, which we apply in a comparative analysis of a large data set. The results show large differences in the distribution of compromised births across racial and ethnic groups, as well as significant race/ethnic differentials in the risk of infant mortality associated with adverse outcomes."
Correspondence: W. P. Frisbie, University of Texas, Population Research Center, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10110 Hansen, Hans O. Social and biological issues in infant survivorship among Danish cohorts born between 1982 and 1990. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 82-100 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this project is to identify possible differentials in the infant survivorship of the Danish cohorts born between 1982 and 1990. The principal characteristics to be considered are gender and birth weight. Our data consist of official records of live births and infant deaths linked at the individual level. We report some rather detailed measurements of the survivorship impact of sex and birth weight in the framework of logistic regression and loglinear modeling. This paper gives strong support to sex and birth weight as major determinants of infant survivorship. Falling infant mortality is closely associated with increasing expected birth weight over the birth cohorts considered. The present paper should be seen as an appetizer for addressing the more general question of birth weight as an intermediate variable for survivorship impacts of biosocial factors related to the parents and to intrauterine gestation."
Correspondence: H. O. Hansen, University of Copenhagen, Institute of Statistics, Studiestræde 6, 1455 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10111 Hussein, Mounira A. Analysis and forecasting infant mortality rate (IMR) in Egypt until year 2000. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 25, No. 2, Dec 1991. 32-46 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is one of the most sensitive indicators [of] the level of socioeconomic development in the human society. Here, a class of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models is used to analyze a time series of infant mortality rate. ARIMA (1,1,0) model is suggested and is proven to be more adequate especially with the natural logarithmic transformation of the original time series. Predicted values for infant mortality rate in Egypt for the time period 1983-2000 are derived."
Correspondence: M. A. Hussein, Menoufia University, Shebeen El-Kome, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10112 Ibrahim, M. M.; Omar, H. M.; Persson, L. Å; Wall, S. Child mortality in a collapsing African society. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, Vol. 74, No. 5, 1996. 547-52 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"A cohort study of mortality among under-5-year-olds was carried out in two Somali villages in 1987-89, a period of economic and political collapse in the rural parts of the country. Analysed was the relative importance of the social characteristics for under-5-year-old mortality against a background of deteriorating political and economic conditions. Mortality increased among under-5-year-olds from 1987 (211 per 1,000) to 1988 (323 per 1,000) to 1989 (414 per 1,000). The mortality risk was more pronounced for boys than girls and was more so for infants than children aged 1-4 years. The major signs prior to death were respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, fever/malaria and tetanus in the neonatal period."
Correspondence: M. M. Ibrahim, Umeå University, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10113 Jhamba, Tapiwa. Childhood mortality differentials in Zimbabwe: evidence from two surveys. Genus, Vol. 52, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 155-72 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This paper examines the factors associated with infant mortality differentials in Zimbabwe, using data from two surveys, the 1984 ZRHS and 1988 ZDHS. An index of infant mortality based on the ratio of observed to expected deaths was used [in] the multivariate analysis as a measure of infant mortality for each woman. Infant mortality was highest among women who were illiterate, lived on commercial farms, first married before the age of 15, never used modern contraceptives or were given no prenatal care. Moreover, several significant differences among regions are highlighted."
Correspondence: T. Jhamba, University of Zimbabwe, Sociology Department, Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. E-mail: tjhamba@sociol.uz.zw. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10114 Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, M. W. Sex differential of infant mortality in China: level and trend. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1996. 249-67 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Based on an evaluation of China's infant mortality, the article reviews the historical, regional, and ethnic changes in sex-specific infant mortality as well as the relationship between sex-specific infant mortality and some social, economic, demographic, and cultural factors. It also offers a discussion on the possible demographic and socioeconomic consequences of the excess female infant mortality in China, and the policy implications of such consequences."
Correspondence: S. Li, Xi'an University of Transportation, Demographic and Economics Research Institute, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10115 Masuy-Stroobant, Godelieve. Theories and explanations for infant mortality. [Théories et schémas explicatifs de la mortalité des enfants.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, edited by Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, and Guillaume Wunsch. Aug 1996. 193-221 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Fre.
The author discusses theoretical aspects of the factors affecting infant mortality (deaths from birth to the first birthday) and child mortality (deaths from age one to age four inclusive). The emphasis is on infant mortality in the developed countries and on infant and child mortality combined in developing countries. The problems of developing general theories of infant and child mortality in the context of cultural, socioeconomic, political, and temporal differences are noted.
Correspondence: G. Masuy-Stroobant, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10116 McMurray, Christine. Measuring excess risk of child mortality: an exploration of DHS I data for Burundi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Working Papers in Demography, No. 65, 1996. 24 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper proposes a new method of measuring excess risk of child mortality in cross-sectional surveys, which is applied to DHS I data for Burundi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The expected child mortality experience is estimated for each mother on the basis of child's age, mother's age at child's birth and her parity, and compared with her observed experience. Mothers [who] exceed their expected child mortality experience and who also had more than one child die are considered to have excess child mortality. The analysis shows that Zimbabwe had the greatest concentration of child deaths as measured by a simple ratio of mothers to deaths, but when observed experience was compared with expected it had less than half as many excess deaths as Uganda and Burundi. In all three countries mother's education had a strong negative association with the risk of excess child mortality, and in Zimbabwe and Burundi there were significant regional differences."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10117 McQuillan, Kevin. Religious differences in rates of infant and child mortality: evidence from Alsace, 1750-1870. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 96-4, ISBN 0-7714-1901-5. May 1996. 17, [6] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"A number of studies, both historical and contemporary, have identified significant differences in levels and trends of mortality among cultural groups sharing similar physical and social environments....These findings have provoked considerable speculation about the ways in which cultural practices may influence both susceptibility to disease and treatment of illness....The present paper contributes to this discussion by examining the infant and child mortality patterns of two religious groups, Lutherans and Catholics, that lived side-by-side in the French region of Alsace. The similarity in their physical environment, as well as in the broader social and economic setting in which they lived, makes these groups good candidates for an assessment of the effect of religion on mortality."
This paper was presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10118 Nair, N. Sreekumaran; Kutty, P. Raman; Acharya, Das; Chandrasekhar, Shalini; Rao, R. S. Phaneendra. Female literacy as a determinant of socio-demographic status and infant survival. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 18, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1995. 190-202 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"This article deals with socio-demographic factors like teenage marriage, teenage pregnancy, family size, literacy status of husband and socio-economic status of the family of...illiterate mothers among caste Hindus, scheduled castes/tribes and Muslims [in Karnataka State, India]. A highly significant association between female literacy and infant survival among caste Hindus and scheduled castes/tribes has been established in this study. Though a reduction in mortality among the infants of literate Muslim mothers was observed, the difference was not as high as [for] mothers of [the] other two groups under study."
Correspondence: N. S. Nair, Kasturba Medical College, Department of Community Medicine, Manipal, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10119 Noumbissi, Amadou. Methodologies for the analysis of infant mortality: applications to Cameroon. [Méthodologies d'analyse de la mortalité des enfants: applications au Cameroun.] Institut de Démographie Monographie, No. 11, ISBN 2-87209-389-3. [1996]. vi, 305 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study is concerned with some of the problems that exist with regard to the analysis of mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. The author uses practical examples to illustrate some of the distortions associated with the use of traditional methods for the analysis of mortality involving the use of statistical models. Some alternative indicators of mortality are proposed which are less dependent on the quality of the data used, and which are more suited to the actual conditions faced by mothers and their children in Africa. The primary focus is on infant and child mortality. The concepts discussed are illustrated using data for Cameroon for the period 1978-1991.
Correspondence: Bruylant-Academia, Grand Rue 25, Boîte 115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10120 Obungu, Walter; Kizito, Paul M.; Bicego, George. Trends, age patterns, and determinants of early childhood mortality in Kenya. DHS Further Analysis Studies, No. 12, May 1994. 31 pp. National Council for Population and Development: Nairobi, Kenya; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
Data from the 1977-1978 Kenya Fertility Survey (KFS) and the 1989 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) are used to analyze trends in the level and age pattern of childhood mortality in Kenya. "The quality of the KDHS mortality data is assessed using tests of internal and external consistency, and a re-evaluation of current levels of age-specific mortality is undertaken. The second part of the paper delves into the question of the socioeconomic determinants of age-specific mortality risk among Kenyan children. In this paper the focus is on the role of better maternal education and the intermediate factors that affect the education advantage in child survival. In particular, interest is centered on whether health services use and the pattern of family formation serve to mediate the maternal education effect."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10121 Pattnayak, Satya R.; Shai, Donna. Mortality rates as indicators of cross-cultural development: regional variations in the Third World. Journal of Developing Societies, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1995. 252-62 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"While infant mortality and the under 5 mortality rates are widely used as measures of development, the death rate among 1-4 year olds may be a more effective measure of socioenvironmental conditions affecting mortality, since this age group is less influenced by genetic and biological factors than infants. This article looks at the relationship between infant, under 5, and 1-4 mortality rates and level of development, immunization, information, access to drinking water and health services, and literacy rates among mothers for 78 less developed countries. The evidence suggests that socioenvironmental variables have greater degrees of correlation with age group 1-4 mortality than infant or under 5 mortality, pointing to the importance of this measure in cross-cultural research."
Correspondence: S. R. Pattnayak, Villanova University, Department of Sociology, Villanova, PA 19085. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:10122 Perz, Stephen G. The environment as a determinant of child mortality among migrants in frontier areas of Pará and Rondônia, Brazil, 1980. Population and Environment, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jan 1997. 301-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines child mortality as an indicator of the quality of life among migrants living in Brazilian Amazonia in 1980. I focus on migrants in the frontier states of Pará and Rondônia, which experienced rapid settlement during the 1970s. The key question here is the effect of settlement location on child mortality rates....I...attribute locational differences in child mortality to environmental factors important to malaria transmission rather than to health care infrastructure. The findings from multivariate regression analysis show that net of the effects of human capital, migration history and migrant living standards, settling in Pará rather than Rondônia resulted in significantly lower rates of child mortality. These findings suggest that environmental factors coinciding with location of frontier settlement had important consequences for the living standards of migrants in the Brazilian Amazon."
Correspondence: S. G. Perz, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Population Research Center, 1800 Main Building, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10123 Petrioli, Luciano. The demographic conditions affecting early childhood in developing countries. [La condizione demografica dell'infanzia nei paesi sottosviluppati.] Studi e Documenti sulle Populazioni dei Paesi Sottosviluppati, No. 2, Jan 1995. 35 pp. Università di Siena, Centro Ricerche Interdipartimentali sulla Popolazione dei Paesi Sottosviluppati: Siena, Italy. In Ita.
This paper considers the demographic aspects and mortality of children under age five, and the effects on the total population in developing countries. The analysis concentrates on Sub-Saharan Africa, which, considering the demographic variables such as birth rates, life expectancy, total fertility rate, and GNP per capita, is clearly the poorest region of the world with the greatest levels of both infant and general mortality. The health and sanitary conditions of this region are also examined, as well as the diseases which present the greatest threat to survival in early childhood.
Correspondence: Università di Siena, Centro Ricerche Interdipartimentali sulla Populazione dei Paesi Sottosviluppati, Piazza S. Francesco 17, 53100 Siena, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10124 Pitt, Mark M. Estimating the determinants of child health when fertility and mortality are selective. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 32, No. 1, Winter 1997. 129-58 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper estimates the determinants of child mortality and child health allowing for the possibility that samples of children are choice-based, reflecting prior selective fertility and mortality behavior. Parameter identification is the most serious practical problem in controlling for fertility and mortality selection. Identification is achieved by imposing a random-effects structure on the error correlation matrix for the set of fertility, mortality, and health behaviors. Fertility selection is found to be statistically significant in the estimation of the determinants of mortality in all 14 Sub-Saharan DHS data sets studied, and fertility and mortality selection is found to be significant in the determination of child height in Zambia. Nevertheless, most parameters are little changed when selection is accounted for."
Correspondence: M. M. Pitt, Brown University, Department of Economics, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:10125 Sastry, Narayan. What explains rural-urban differentials in child mortality in Brazil? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 7, Apr 1997. 989-1,002 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents an analysis of differentials in child survival by rural-urban place of residence in Brazil and examines the hypothesis that observed mortality differentials by place of residence are merely manifestations of underlying differences in socioeconomic status and demographic and reproductive behavior. The child mortality data come from the 1986 Demographic and Health Survey of Brazil and supplementary community-level variables are obtained from a database assembled by the Brazilian federal statistical agency. Child mortality rates are substantially and significantly lower in urban areas of Brazil. Our results suggest, however, that the urban advantage does not simply reflect underlying differences in socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics at the individual and household levels; rather, community variables appear to play an independent and important role. We also find that the effects of community characteristics on child survival are moderated by household socioeconomic factors, especially maternal education."
Correspondence: N. Sastry, RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10126 Sundin, Jan. Child mortality and causes of death in a Swedish city, 1750-1860. Historical Methods, Vol. 29, No. 3, Summer 1996. 93-106 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Available statistical categories can provide a lot of insight into contemporary concepts of death, disease, and illness, but my purpose in this article is rather to discuss, in the form of a case study, an empirical historical problem occupying many scholars: What happened during the initial phase of the epidemiologic transition in the Western world?...This investigation illustrates and tests the possibilities of using Swedish data on causes of death among infants and young children before and during the first phase of the epidemiological transition, that is, from 1750 to 1850."
Correspondence: J. Sundin, University of Linköping, Department of Health and Society, 58183 Linköping, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10127 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Rates of homicide, suicide, and firearm-related death among children--26 industrialized countries. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 46, No. 5, Feb 7, 1997. 101-5 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"To compare patterns and the impact of violent deaths among children in the United States and other industrialized countries, CDC analyzed data on childhood homicide, suicide, and firearm-related death in the United States and 25 other industrialized countries for the most recent year for which data were available in each country. This report presents the findings of this analysis, which indicate that the United States has the highest rates of childhood homicide, suicide, and firearm-related death among industrialized countries."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

63:10128 Bennett, Neil G.; Olshansky, S. Jay. Forecasting U.S. age structure and the future of Social Security: the impact of adjustments to official mortality schedules. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1996. 703-27, 814, 816-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article we review the scientific literature regarding the reliability of old-age mortality rates in the United States, and we address three questions related to the consequences of adopting adjustments to old-age mortality: (1) How are current and projected levels of life expectancy in the United States influenced by adjusting old-age mortality rates? (2) What is the impact of adjusted old-age mortality rates on the projected size of the older population? and (3) How would the funding of selected age-entitlement programs in the United States be affected by these adjustments?...Forecasts made using adjusted mortality schedules lead to estimates of life expectancy at birth and at older ages that, over the next 60 years, are lower than those published by the Census Bureau and the Social Security Administration."
Correspondence: N. G. Bennett, Columbia University, National Center for Children in Poverty, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10129 Menotti, Alessandro; Kromhout, Daan; Nissinen, Aulikki; Giampaoli, Simona; Seccareccia, Fulvia; Feskens, Edith; Pekkanen, Juha; Tervahauta, Markku. Short-term all-cause mortality and its determinants in elderly male populations in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy: the FINE study. Preventive Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1996. 319-26 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
"This study aims at identifying determinants of all-cause mortality in elderly populations of [Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy]....Five-year death rates from all causes were higher in Finland (297 per 1,000), intermediate in the Netherlands (231 per 1,000), and lower in Italy (191 per 1,000). Five-year all-cause mortality was studied in relation to measurements taken at entry (age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, non-high-density lipoprotein...and HDL cholesterol, body mass index, heart rate, smoking habits, and presence of coronary heart disease manifestations)....In these elderly men the association of traditional risk factors with all-cause mortality is reduced, U-shaped, or even inverted. This is probably due to selection due to previous mortality, to co-morbidity, and to changes in homeostatic mechanisms."
Correspondence: D. Kromhout, RIVM-National Institute of Public Health and Environment, Public Health Research Division, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, Netherlands. E-mail: kromho_d@rivm.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10130 Prieto, M. Dolores; Llorca, Javier; Delgado-Rodriguez, Miguel. Longitudinal Gompertzian and Weibull analyses of adult mortality in Spain (Europe), 1900-1992. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Vol. 90, No. 1, 1996. 35-51 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"Mortality data from Spain, 1900 to 1992, were analyzed using Gompertzian and Weibull functions. Longitudinal Gompertzian analysis demonstrated that annual age-specific mortality rate distributions were determined by a fixed intersection point (in men: 84.3 years, in women: 89.3 years). Two methods of longitudinal Gompertzian analysis were applied. The method based on linear regression indicated that environmental influences upon age-related mortality were constant. The method based on a rough estimate of first derivative suggested that environmental influences have been decreasing. Both of these methods suggested that genetic influence upon age-related mortality is greater for men than for women. Analysis of Spanish mortality data from 1900 to 1992 suggests that the Gompertz function fits age-specific mortality rate distributions in adult men and women better than the Weibull function."
Correspondence: M. Delgado-Rodriguez, University of Cantabria, School of Medicine, Division of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Avenida Cardenal Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander, Spain. E-mail: delgadom@medi.unican.es. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10131 Saha, Anuj K. Use of widowhood data for estimating adult mortality for West Bengal, 1981. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1996. 71-81 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The straightforward way of calculating the mortality rates is by using the information on deaths by age produced by a vital registration system. However, India like many other developing countries possesses such a registration system [but] it is often the case that not all the deaths are registered. As a result, the death rate implied by the reported deaths is usually an underestimate of the true death rate prevalent in the population in question, and some method of adjustment is required to transform the reported death rate into a better estimate of mortality conditions....An attempt has...been made to estimate the mortality conditions in the adult ages both for males and females on widowhood data by indirect methods adopted in the present study for West Bengal, 1981."
Correspondence: A. K. Saha, Indian Statistical Institute, Population Studies Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

63:10132 Ishikawa, Akira. Life tables by marital status: 1990. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 51, No. 4, Jan 1996. 32-46 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Life tables are presented for Japan by sex and marital status using data from the 1990 census.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10133 Rowland, Donald T. Cohort survival in ageing populations: a model life table approach. Genus, Vol. 52, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 71-82 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"In populations where higher proportions are surviving longer, cohort life tables are a valuable means of measuring changes and anticipating future developments. Yet cohort life tables are calculated only infrequently from national mortality statistics because of difficulties in adjusting observed data and projecting cohort survival. To facilitate regular updating, an approach to cohort life table construction is needed that circumvents the problems of data adjustment and projection. This paper proposes a method based on model life tables which provides information consistent with official life tables and projections of life expectancy. The paper also compares the results with those obtained by other methods and discusses some implications of trends in cohort survival."
Correspondence: D. T. Rowland, Australian National University, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10134 Valkovics, Emil. Some considerations on single-decrement and multiple-decrement life tables by causes of death. [Néhány gondolat a halálokok szerinti és az egyes halálokok feltételezett kiküszöbölésén alapuló halandósági táblákról.] Demográfia, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1995. 57-69 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
Various aspects of single- and multiple-decrement life tables are illustrated using 1990 data for Hungary on causes of death.
Correspondence: E. Valkovics, Kiscelli u. 18 1.2, 1032 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10135 Ventisette, Moreno. Estimation of mortality by use of data on deaths alone. [La stima della mortalità con l'uso dei soli decessi.] Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 21, 1994. 127-51 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
The author discusses the problems of calculating life tables from mortality data alone. He reviews the assumptions underlying this method, particularly the assumption of a stable population, and shows how distortions are introduced if these assumptions are not met. He argues that in order to create accurate life tables, it is necessary to have some other data, such as births, in addition to deaths by age. He then works through some examples using Italian data, creating life tables for the first and last years of life, and then for the middle years.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

63:10136 Aden, A. S.; Omar, M. M.; Omar, H. M.; Högberg, U.; Persson, L. Å; Wall, S. Excess female mortality in rural Somalia--is inequality in the household a risk factor? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 5, Jan 21, 1997. 709-15 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Gender differences in mortality risks in rural Somali communities were studied to assess their relation to literacy, marital status and family economy between January 1987 and December 1989. In all, 6,947 person-years form the basis for the demographic analysis and estimations of mortality rates and survival. Both sexes showed similar mortality risks in infancy and early childhood, but females demonstrated a greater risk of dying during their reproductive life than males....Illiteracy in women considerably increased the risk of dying from 15 years and onwards particularly when living with literate men....This vulnerability of females was associated to the recession of the economy in the pre-war situation in Somalia, a backlash hitting women trying to earn their living. To conclude, gender differences in a number of factors in the household--literacy, marital status and especially source of income--were disadvantageous for the women, increasing the mortality risk in this setting."
Correspondence: A. S. Aden, Somalia National University, Department of Community Health, Medical Faculty, Mogadishu, Somalia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10137 Borgan, Jens-Kristian. Socioeconomic trends in differential mortality among middle-aged males in Norway 1960-1990. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 73-81 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This study is based on data from three censuses [in Norway] (1960, 1979, and 1980) linked to the cause of death statistics kept during a 10-year follow-up period subsequent to each census. Linkages have been made for each individual male aged 30-64 years at the time of the census....The study showed a decrease in mortality for all socioeconomic status categories. However, the decrease was far more pronounced among mean-level and higher-level salaried employees than among unskilled workers, farmers and fishermen. An even larger socioeconomic gap appeared between the rates of mortality due to cardiovascular disease. There are indications that the gaps may be health-related, since workers' mortality rate increased from the first to the second five-year period following a census, while the same pattern was not found for salaried employees."
Correspondence: J.-K. Borgan, Statistisk Sentralbyrå, P.B. 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10138 Bourbeau, Robert; Emond, Valérie. Socio-demographic characteristics and mortality of Members of Parliament in Quebec in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: a cohort analysis. [Caractéristiques socio-démographiques et mortalité des députés québécois aux XIXe et XXe siècles: une analyse par génération.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1996. 929-53 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Members of Parliament in Quebec are a select group of the population, and it would be expected that their mortality will be lower than that of the population as a whole. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing 1,455 individuals born after 1800 who were elected to the legislature in Lower Canada, United Canada, and Quebec between the beginning of the nineteenth century and 1992. MPs in Quebec differ from the general contemporary population: they are better-educated and the proportion working in the liberal profession is high. But there is no statistically significant difference in the proportions surviving to different ages. Indeed, the mortality of older Members of Parliament is higher than that of the older age groups in the general population. It is possible that their life styles more than compensate for the effects of selection."
Correspondence: R. Bourbeau, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10139 Bygren, Lars O.; Konlaan, Boinkum B.; Johansson, Sven-Erik. Attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival: Swedish interview survey of living conditions. British Medical Journal, Vol. 313, No. 7072, Dec 21, 1996. 1,577-80 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The possible influence of various cultural factors on mortality in Sweden is analyzed using data on 12,675 individuals originally interviewed in 1982 and 1983 who were followed up until the end of 1991. After controlling for possible confounding factors, such as age, sex, educational status, income, long-term disease, social networks, smoking, and physical exercise, the authors conclude that attendance at cultural events might have a positive effect on survival.
Correspondence: L. O. Bygren, Umeå University, Department of Social Medicine, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:10140 Duchêne, Josianne. Methods for analyzing differential mortality at adult ages. [Méthodes d'analyse de la mortalité différentielle aux âges adultes.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, edited by Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, and Guillaume Wunsch. Aug 1996. 255-66 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Fre.
The author describes some of the problems encountered in analyzing adult mortality differentials in developed countries. She notes that the available data differ from one country to the next and that the various methods used to analyze them vary widely, producing results that cannot be compared. She concludes that this hinders the development of general theories and precludes one country learning from the experience of another.
Correspondence: J. Duchêne, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10141 Folsom, A. R.; French, S. A.; Zheng, W.; Baxter, J. E.; Jeffery, R. W. Weight variability and mortality: the Iowa Women's Health Study. International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 20, No. 8, 1996. 704-9 pp. Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
The authors "evaluate the association between weight variability and risk of mortality in women [using data from a ] prospective cohort study, 1986-1991 [that covered] a population-based sample of 33,760 Iowa women aged 55-69....Women who displayed greater weight variability in adulthood had an increased risk of dying in later life, especially from coronary heart disease. However, to a considerable degree this association seems to be due to other unhealthy characteristics and pre-existing disease among those displaying increased weight variability."
Correspondence: A. R. Folsom, University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, 1300 South Second Street, Suite 300, Minneapolis, MN 55454-1015. E-mail: Folsom@epivax.epi.umn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10142 Friedlander, Nancylee J. The relation of lifetime reproduction to survivorship in women and men: a prospective study. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 8, No. 6, 1996. 771-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The relation of lifetime reproduction to survivorship was investigated among 1,533 women and 1,230 men from Southern California who were born between 1880 and 1929....Follow-up for vital status was 100%...from baseline (1972-1974) through mid-1990. Cox proportional hazards analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index, estrogen use in women, and socioeconomic status....Parous women had significantly poorer survivorship than nulliparous women [among] the total group...and among women born 1880-1904...but not among women born 1905-1929....Analyses using number of biological children showed significantly poorer maternal survivorship `per child ever born' among the total group of women...and among women born 1880-1904...but not among women born 1905-1929....Further analyses confirmed that women's risk per child tended to increase with maternal age. Equivalent sets of analyses for men showed no relationship between reproduction and survivorship....Study findings...suggest that childbearing may increase or accelerate women's mortality from certain diseases which occur late in life, and that risk may increase with age."
Correspondence: N. J. Friedlander, University of California at San Diego, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093-0069. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:10143 Grønbæk, Morten; Deis, Allan; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Becker, Ulrik; Schnohr, Peter; Jensen, Gorm. Mortality associated with moderate intakes of wine, beer, or spirits. British Medical Journal, Vol. 310, No. 6988, May 6, 1995. 1,165-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The association between intake of different types of alcohol drinks and mortality is analyzed using data on 6,051 men and 7,234 women in Copenhagen, Denmark, who were followed over the period 1976-1988. "The risk of dying steadily decreased with an increasing intake of wine....Intake of neither beer nor spirits, however, was associated with reduced risk....The effects of the three types of alcoholic drinks seemed to be independent of each other, and no significant interactions existed with sex, age, education, income, smoking, or body mass index....Low to moderate intake of wine is associated with lower mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and other causes. Similar intake of spirits implied an increased risk, while beer drinking did not affect mortality."
Correspondence: M. Grønbæk, Copenhagen Hospital Corporation, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:10144 Hayward, Mark D.; Pienta, Amy M.; McLaughlin, Diane K. Inequality in men's mortality: the SES gradient and geographic context. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 96-02, Jun 1996. 39 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"The SES [socioeconomic status] gradient in mortality is pervasive, occurring across nations, time periods, and units of analysis. In this study, we reconsider this relationship by investigating the sensitivity of the SES mortality gradient to residential context in the United States....Drawing on 24 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey, we observe that, contrary to expectations, rural--not urban--men are advantaged in terms of life chances. Further, our models demonstrate that rural advantages in health coincide with a more equitable distribution of life chances across social classes. We discuss the implications of these results for contextualizing the SES gradient in mortality."
Correspondence: M. D. Hayward, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 501 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: HAYWARD@POP.PSU.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10145 Hertzman, Clyde; Kelly, Shona; Bobak, Martin. East-West life expectancy gap in Europe: environmental and non-environmental determinants. NATO ASI Series, Partnership Sub-Series 2: Environment, Vol. 19, ISBN 0-7923-4207-0. 1996. xvii, 235 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a workshop on the determinants of the life expectancy difference between Eastern and Western Europe, held in Surrey, England, March 20-22, 1995. "The workshop focused on the following questions: to what extent has the life expectancy gap which has opened up between Central and Eastern Europe and The West since the mid-1960s been caused by the degradation of the physical and socioeconomic environment, as opposed to unhealthy lifestyles or poor medical care? and, why has it increased following the profound political and economic changes which have swept the region since 1989?...The picture which emerges is both complex and comprehensive. It highlights the primary role of the social and economic environment, but affirms the subsidiary influences of the other determinants of health, and illustrates how societies can both produce and undermine the health of their citizens."
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10146 Jessop, E. G. Deprivation and mortality in non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 50, No. 5, Oct 1996. 524-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author tests "the hypothesis that the relationship between deprivation and mortality is weaker among residents of non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales than among residents of metropolitan areas....[Data are from] the longitudinal study of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, a quasi-random 1% sample of the population of England and Wales....There was an association between deprivation and mortality which was clear for all cause mortality, more noticeable for respiratory disease, and less clear for deaths from accident, violence, and poison. In general, the results showed a remarkable similarity between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas....This study does not support the hypothesis that the relationship between mortality and deprivation differs between residents of metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales."
Correspondence: E. G. Jessop, West Surrey Health Commission, Ridgewood Centre, Old Bisley Road, Camberley, Surrey GU16 5QE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10147 Kaprio, Jaakko; Sarna, Seppo; Fogelholm, Mikael; Koskenvuo, Markku. Total and occupationally active life expectancies in relation to social class and marital status in men classified as healthy at 20 in Finland. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 50, No. 6, Dec 1996. 653-60 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "study differences in total life expectancy and in occupationally active life expectancy [in Finland] in relation to social class and marital status in men classified as healthy as young adults." The data concern 1,662 men who were followed up over some 46 years up to 1990. "Mean total life expectancy was highest among executives and managers..., next highest in clerical (white collar) workers..., and lowest in unskilled blue collar workers....Skilled workers and farmers were intermediate....The social class gradient known to exist for mortality is also present for occupational disability. Social class and marital status differences in mortality are already evident in early adulthood and continue into old age. Those with the highest life expectancy also have the largest proportion of their life span free of occupationally incapacitating disability."
Correspondence: J. Kaprio, University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health, Mannerheimintie 96A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10148 Lee, Chulhee. Socioeconomic background, disease, and mortality among Union army recruits: implications for economic and demographic history. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 34, No. 1, Jan 1997. 27-55 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
Mortality differentials among men in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century are analyzed. Specifically, the author "examines the effects of age, occupation, population size of place of residence, nativity, and household wealth on the disease and mortality experiences of Union army recruits while in service. The pattern of the mortality differentials among the army recruits was nearly the opposite of the normal pattern found among the civilian populations. The observed features of disease-specific mortality and timing of death suggest that the different degrees of exposure to disease prior to enlistment were probably the main determinant of the wartime mortality differentials. Wealth had a significant effect only for diseases on which nutritional influence is definite. Implications of these results for some issues in economic and demographic history are discussed."
Correspondence: C. Lee, University of Chicago, Department of Economics, 1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:10149 Lundberg, Olle; Kåreholt, Ingemar. The social patterning of mortality in a cohort of elderly Swedes. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 101-10 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"In this paper we analyze the impact of social class on mortality from mid-life onwards [among the aged in Sweden]. In 1968 1,860 persons born between 1892 and 1915 were interviewed and followed in the national cause of death registry for the period 1968-1991. In addition, 537 of the 563 survivors were re-interviewed in 1992....There are fairly small class differences in the probability of reaching old age. However, it appears that mortality differentials were steeper before retirement age than after. Still, the size of class differences in mortality seem smaller than expected on the basis of other studies. At the same time steep class gradients in illness and functional abilities exist among survivors. Some possible explanations for these somewhat contradictory findings are discussed."
Correspondence: O. Lundberg, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10150 Näyhä, Simo. Low mortality from ischaemic heart disease in the Sámi district of Finland. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jan 1997. 123-31 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is compared between the Sámi (Lapp) and Finnish areas of Northern Finland. During the period 1961-90 male mortality from IHD was 41% lower in the predominantly Sámi area (Utsjoki) and 37% and 24% lower in two partially Sámi areas (Enontekiö and Inari, respectively) than in the purely Finnish reference area (Kittilä). The corresponding differences for females were 47%, 36% and 19%. Mortality figures diverged over time, the excess mortality increasing in the areas having the greatest percentages of Finns in their population and the deficit increasing in the area where the percentage of Sámi was greatest....It is concluded that the epidemic wave of IHD in Finland, which culminated in the early 1970s, showed a time lag in the north, especially in the Finnish and predominantly Finnish areas, while there is no indication that this epidemic ever reached Utsjoki....The reasons for the anomalous trends in IHD in the far north of Finland remain unknown, but the local diet may play a role in them."
Correspondence: S. Näyhä, Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Kastelli Research Centre, Aapistie 1, 90220 Oulu, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10151 Nishida, Shigeki; Watahiki, Nobuyoshi. Sex differential in life expectancy at birth in Japan: (1) the sex differential in recent years. Japanese Journal of Health and Human Ecology, Vol. 62, No. 3, 1996. 127-38 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Reasons for the differences in life expectancy by sex observed in Japan in the period since 1990 are examined using data from official sources. The authors note that differences in mortality over age 50 account for around 70% of the sex differential in life expectancy at birth. They show that heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia and bronchitis, suicide, accidents, and particularly malignant neoplasms are the main contributors to sex differences in mortality, and conclude that male life expectancy could be improved by changes in male lifestyles.
For Part 2, also published in 1996, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: S. Nishida, Institute of Public Health, Department of Demography and Health Statistics, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10152 Räsänen, J.; Kauhanen, J.; Lakka, T. A.; Kaplan, G. A.; Salonen, J. T. Religious affiliation and all-cause mortality: a prospective population study in middle-aged men in eastern Finland. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 6, Dec 1996. 1,244-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We investigated the association between selected religious groups and all-cause mortality in 1,627 eastern Finnish men aged 42-60 years during 1984-1989 as a part of the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD)....Our findings indicate that mortality risk varies substantially by religious affiliation, and this variation cannot be attributed to differences in measures for a wide variety of health, behavioural, socioeconomic, biological, social, and other characteristics."
Correspondence: J. T. Salonen, University of Kuopio, Department of Community Health and General Practice, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10153 Rossow, Ingeborg; Amundsen, Arvid. Alcohol abuse and mortality: a 40-year prospective study of Norwegian conscripts. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jan 1997. 261-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relation between alcohol abuse and mortality is analyzed using data on more than 40,000 Norwegian male conscripts born in 1932-1933 who were followed up until 1991. "A total of 4,468 men died before the age of 60 (10.8% of the sample). Alcohol abusers were found to have an overall excess mortality of 3.3, increasing with age. The cumulative risk of death before the age of 60...was estimated to 0.405 for the alcohol abusers, and at least 6.7% of all deaths before the age of 60 could be attributed to alcohol abuse. Presence of chronic diseases at conscription did not confound the estimates of excess mortality in alcohol abusers, neither was any significant interaction between chronic diseases at conscription and later alcohol abuse found with respect to mortality. The most prevalent causes of death in the total sample were, in descending order, cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors, and accidents. The relative risks for alcohol abusers of death from accidents, cardiovascular diseases, and malignant tumors were estimated at 3.2, 2.5, and 1.8 respectively."
Correspondence: I. Rossow, National Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, Dannevigsveien 10, 0463 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10154 Van Poppel, Frans; Tabeau, Ewa; Willekens, Frans. Trends and sex-differentials in Dutch mortality since 1850: insights from a cohort--and period--perspective. Genus, Vol. 52, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 107-34 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This paper makes use of a recently established comparative series of period and cohort life tables for the Netherlands for the period 1850-1991. Trends in period and cohort life expectancy at birth for males and females are discussed. A simple spline function is used to identify turning points in these trends. Trends in the contribution of specific age groups to the changes in life expectancy and to male excess mortality were studied using the Arriaga method. For this purpose, the results of period and cohort analysis were compared."
Correspondence: F. Van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: poppel@nidi.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10155 Wanner, Philippe. Differential mortality by cause of death in Norway, 1970-1985. [Mortalité différentielle selon la cause de décès en Norvège, 1970-1985.] European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1996. 219-38 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Data from the three Norwegian censuses of 1960, 1970 and 1990 combined with information on migration status and survival between 1970 and 1985 have permitted the estimation, through logistic modelling, of the predictive abilities of different socio-economic indicators on the risk of death by cause. The risk has also been measured for each indicator separately, according to the path followed by the individual between 1960 and 1980. The study shows very strong disparities in risk both for men and for women, as well as a moderate reduction in differences in risk by age. The study also shows, among other things, the importance of taking account of socio-economic information covering as long a period as possible and to consider the cause of death in the study of differential mortality through a life-history approach."
Correspondence: P. Wanner, Office Fédéral de la Statistique, Schwarzstorstrasse 96, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. E-mail: Philippe.Wanner@bfs.admin.ch. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10156 Watahiki, Nobuyoshi; Nishida, Shigeki. Sex differential in life expectancy at birth in Japan: (2) trends in sex differential in life expectancy at birth from 1920 to 1990. Japanese Journal of Health and Human Ecology, Vol. 62, No. 3, 1996. 139-53 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Sex differentials in life expectancy at birth in Japan are analyzed for the period 1920 to 1990. The results show that there was a general increase in differences in mortality by sex over time. "The sex differential in age-specific death rate in 0-4 year age group (particularly age 0) explained most of the sex differential in life expectancy at birth before 1947. After 1950, the age group of 60-79 played a major role in the sex differential in life expectancy at birth. It is noteworthy that female mortality exceeded male mortality in age groups of 2-41 before 1930. Consequently, excess of female mortality reduced the sex differential in life expectancy at birth at that period. As for the sex differential in mortality rates by causes of death, tuberculosis, pregnancy and childbirth related disease exerted a great influence...before 1940. Recently, malignant neoplasms, heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and accidents [have] become leading contributors to the sex differentials in life expectancy at birth."
For Part 1, also published in 1996, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: N. Watahiki, Institute of Public Health, Department of Demography and Health Statistics, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

63:10157 Berg, Cynthia J.; Atrash, Hani K.; Koonin, Lisa M.; Tucker, Myra. Pregnancy-related mortality in the United States, 1987-1990. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 88, No. 2, Aug 1996. 161-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors "use data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Pregnancy-Related Mortality Surveillance System to examine trends in pregnancy-related mortality and risk factors for pregnancy-related death....After decreasing annually after 1979, the reported pregnancy-related mortality ratio increased from 7.2 in 1987 to 10.0 in 1990. This increase occurred among women of all races. A higher risk of pregnancy-related death was found with increasing maternal age, increasing live-birth order, no prenatal care, and among unmarried women. The leading causes of pregnancy-related death were hemorrhage, embolism, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy....Increased efforts to identify pregnancy-related deaths have contributed to an increase in the reported pregnancy-related mortality ratio. More than half of such deaths, however, are probably still unreported."
Correspondence: C. J. Berg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop K-23, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10158 Bourbeau, Robert; Noël, Christine. The impact of demographic changes on the number and age distribution of traffic-accident casualties in Quebec: a projection for the period 1994-2016. [Impacts des changements démographiques sur le nombre et la répartition par âge des victimes de la route au Québec: une projection pour la période 1994-2016.] Collection de Tirés à Part, No. 374, [1995?]. 185-97 pp. Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate the extent of variation in the number of traffic victims and their age distribution [in the Canadian province of Quebec] in relation to demographic projections for the 1994-2016 period. Keeping the death and morbidity rates constant at the 1991-1993 average, we predict that the number of traffic victims will increase, which is not surprising in view of the projected population increase; but we also project that the age distribution of these victims will change considerably. The number of deaths will increase from 1,002 to 1,200 between 1994 and 2016 and the percentage of victims in the 45 years and over category will rise from 34% to 47%. In the same period, the number of injured will increase from 50,900 to 56,500, and the percentage of those 45 years and over will go from 24% to 33%."
Correspondence: Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10159 Daviglus, Martha L.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Orencia, Anthony J.; Dyer, Alan R.; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Walsh, Molly K.; Morris, Douglas; Shekelle, Richard B. Fish consumption and the 30-year risk of fatal myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 336, No. 15, Apr 10, 1997. 1,046-53 pp. Boston, Masachusetts. In Eng.
Data on 1,822 men aged 40 to 55 from the Chicago Western Electric Study are used to examine the relation between base-line fish consumption and the 30-year risk of death from coronary heart disease. "During 47,153 person-years of follow-up, there were 430 deaths from coronary heart disease; 293 were due to myocardial infarctions....Cox proportional-hazards regression showed that for men who consumed 35 g or more of fish daily as compared with those who consumed none, the relative risks of death from coronary heart disease and from sudden or nonsudden myocardial infarction were 0.62...and 0.56...respectively, with a graded relation between the relative risks and the strata of fish consumption....These data show an inverse association between fish consumption and death from coronary heart disease, especially nonsudden death from myocardial infarction."
Correspondence: M. L. Daviglus, Northwestern University Medical School, Department of Preventive Medicine, 680 North Lake Shore Drive, Suite 1102, Chicago, IL 60611. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:10160 de Mateo, Salvador; Regidor, Enrique. Standardisation or modelling of mortality rates. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 50, No. 6, Dec 1996. 681-2 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "compare the results obtained when estimating a standardised rate using the conventional technique of stratified analysis and using Poisson regression, and...evaluate the speed of the two techniques in making the calculation....The trend in motor vehicle accident mortality in males from 1985 to 1992 in Spain was compared....The stratified analysis took two hours and the Poisson regression 15 minutes to complete. In the stratified analysis a single estimate for each year was obtained, whereas the model of Poisson regression that best fitted the data included an interaction term between age and year....Poisson regression can be considered a serious alternative to stratified analysis when the objective is to compare mortality rates standardised by one or two variables."
Correspondence: S. de Mateo, National Centre of Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10161 Fawcus, Susan; Mbizvo, Michael; Lindmark, Gunilla; Nyström, Lennarth. A community-based investigation of avoidable factors for maternal mortality in Zimbabwe. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 319-27 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A community-based investigation of maternal deaths was undertaken in a rural province (Masvingo) and an urban area (Harare) of Zimbabwe in order to assess their preventability. Avoidable factors were identified in 90 percent of the 105 rural deaths and 85 percent of the 61 urban deaths. Delay in seeking treatment contributed to 32 percent and 28 percent of rural and urban deaths, respectively. Lack of transportation delayed or prevented access to health facilities in the rural area, a major problem in 28 percent of the cases studied. Suboptimal clinic and hospital management was identified in 67 percent and 70 percent of rural and urban deaths, respectively. Lack of appropriately trained personnel contributed to suboptimal care. In both settings, the severity of patients' conditions was frequently unrecognized, leading to delays in treatment and referral, and inadequate treatment. Appropriate community and health-service interventions to reduce maternal mortality are discussed."
Correspondence: S. Fawcus, Grooteschuur Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10162 Håheim, L. Lund; Holme, I.; Hjermann, I.; Leren, P. Smoking habits and risk of fatal stroke: 18 years follow up of the Oslo study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 50, No. 6, Dec 1996. 621-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The risk of fatal stroke in relation to smoking habits is analyzed using data from the Oslo study, a prospective cohort study of the epidemiology and preventive aspects of cardiovascular disease. The study involved 16,209 Norwegian men aged 40-49, of whom 85 died from stroke. "Daily cigarette smoking increased the risk of fatal stroke three and a half times. Combined cigarette and pipe or cigar smoking had a higher risk than smoking cigarettes only. An increased risk was found in relation to increased daily cigarette consumption."
Correspondence: L. L. Håheim, Life Insurance Companies Institute of Medical Statistics, Ullevål Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10163 Hunink, Maria G. M.; Goldman, Lee; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Goldman, Paula A.; Williams, Lawrence W.; Tsevat, Joel; Weinstein, Milton C. The recent decline in mortality from coronary heart disease, 1980-1990: the effect of secular trends in risk factors and treatment. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 277, No. 7, Feb 19, 1997. 535-42 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article examines whether secular trends in risk factor levels, case-fatality rates, and event rates in patients with CHD [coronary heart disease] can account for the observed decline in CHD mortality from 1980 to 1990 [in the United States], and it analyzes the proportional impact of these changes." Data are from the published literature and from official sources. "[The] results suggest that primary and secondary risk factor reductions explain about 50% of the striking decline in coronary mortality in the United States between 1980 and 1990 but that more than 70% of the overall decline in mortality has occurred among patients with coronary disease."
Correspondence: M. G. M. Hunink, University of Groningen, Department of Health Sciences, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:10164 Levi, F.; Vecchia, C. L.; Lucchini, F.; Negri, E. Worldwide trends in cancer mortality in the elderly. European Journal of Cancer, Vol. 32, No. 4, 1996. 652-72 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Trends in age-standardised mortality for all cancers and 21 cancers or groups of cancers over the period 1955-1992 were analysed for 33 countries from four continents in a population aged 65-84 years. Mortality from all neoplasms in the elderly showed heterogeneous patterns in various countries and in the two sexes. Trends were generally more favourable for females than for males, reflecting essentially the earlier and more extensive impact of the lung cancer (and other tobacco-related neoplasms) epidemic in elderly males, in addition to the earlier decline of gastric cancer and a widespread decline of cervical cancer rates in females. In several countries, particularly from western Europe, but also Japan, cancer mortality trends were more favourable over the last two decades than in earlier calendar periods. Some countries of northern and central Europe...showed stable or even downward trends over time for total cancer mortality in both sexes, particularly in males."
Correspondence: F. Levi, Universitaire Vaudois, Centre Hospitalier, Institut Universitaire de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Falaises 1, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10165 Meslé, France. Medical causes of death. [Les causes médicales de décès.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, edited by Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, and Guillaume Wunsch. Aug 1996. 209-34 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Fre.
The author first examines some of the problems involved in developing the International Classification of Diseases used to classify causes of death. In the second part, he describes some of the demographic methods used to analyze these data and compares results from different approaches. The geographical focus is worldwide.
Correspondence: F. Meslé, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10166 Nordlund, Anders. Cancer mortality in Sweden from 1931 to 1992. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 111-8 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"Trends in age-standardized cancer mortality for Swedish men and women, between 1931 and 1992, were studied using official cause of death statistics. Overall, age-standardized cancer mortality increased by about 16 percent among men and decreased by about six percent among women during the period studied. Among both men and women older than 70 years, age standardized cancer mortality increased. In all other age groups decreases occurred. During the period studied, a number of changes have occurred that affect cause of death registration, for example, changes in classification routines and improved diagnosis. The exact magnitude of these effects on the observed trends is difficult to estimate, but it seems clear that a bias towards increasing age-standardized cancer mortality has been introduced. Furthermore, this bias may be substantial, thus obscuring the real trends in age-standardized cancer mortality."
Correspondence: A. Nordlund, Linköping University, Institute of Tema Research, Department of Health and Society, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10167 Osler, Merete; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Sørensen, Svend; Rostgaard, Klaus; Jensen, Gorm; Iversen, Lars; Kristensen, Tage S.; Madsen, Mette. Trends in mortality, incidence and case fatality of ischaemic heart disease in Denmark, 1982-1992. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 6, Dec 1996. 1,154-61 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In Denmark...a decline in mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) has been observed. The present study assesses whether the decline in IHD mortality is due to a decrease in incidence and/or case-fatality, and whether parallel changes occurred in the various manifestations of IHD requiring hospitalization....Sex-specific, age-standardized annual mortality, incidence and case-fatality rates of AMI [acute myocardial infarction]..., narrowly defined IHD (NIHD...) and broadly defined IHD (BIHD...) were calculated for the period 1982-1992....During the entire period the age-standardized mortality of AMI, NIHD and BIHD decreased in both men and women. The incidence of AMI and NIHD decreased, while the incidence of BIHD remained constant....The declining mortality from IHD in Denmark may be partly due to declining incidence as well as declining case fatality, but changes in disease manifestation or diagnostic drift may also contribute...."
Correspondence: M. Osler, University of Copenhagen, Department of Social Medicine, Blegdamsvej 3, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10168 Polásek, Vladimír. Suicides in the Czech Republic. [Sebevrazdy v Ceské republice.] Demografie, Vol. 38, No. 4, 1996. 248-61 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews trends in suicide in the Czech Republic. Aspects considered include the number of suicides, sex and age distribution, methods of suicide, seasonal variations, and geographical differences.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10169 Rahlenbeck, Sibylle I.; Kahl, Hermann. Air pollution and mortality in East Berlin during the winters of 1981-1989. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 6, Dec 1996. 1,220-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The relationship between air pollution and mortality in East Berlin was examined for the winters of 1981-1989....Regression analysis included daily mean levels of sulphur dioxide...and suspended particulates (SP), and was controlled for temperature, humidity, week-day, month, and year....The results show that short-term associations between air pollutants and mortality in East Berlin did exist during the winters 1981-1989. Since the coefficients for SP and [sulphur dioxide] dropped when controlling for the other pollutant species, a similar strength of association with mortality for both pollutants was found."
Correspondence: S. I. Rahlenbeck, Gondar College of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10170 Ravindran, J.; Mathews, A. Maternal mortality in Malaysia 1991-1992: the paradox of increased rates. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 16, No. 2, Mar 1996. 86-8 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This paper aims to show that the establishment of a better data collection and reporting system in Malaysia since 1991 has led to an apparent increase in the maternal mortality ratio....Because of improved surveillance, the maternal mortality ratio may continue to appear to rise for a few years but should decline after that reflecting the improvement in the health status and service delivery in Malaysia."
Correspondence: J. Ravindran, Seremban General Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 70300 Seremban, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10171 Read, Jennifer S.; Troendle, James F.; Klebanoff, Mark A. Infectious disease mortality among infants in the United States, 1983 through 1987. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 2, Feb 1997. 192-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relative importance of infectious disease as a cause of infant mortality in the United States is analyzed using NCHS Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Sets for 1983 through 1987. The results show that "infection was the underlying cause of death for over 16,000 infants, representing the fourth leading cause of mortality in this cohort. Almost 90% of infectious disease deaths during infancy were due to noncongenital infections, and the majority of these deaths occurred during the postneonatal period. Low birthweight, preterm birth, and male gender were independently associated with postneonatal mortality due to noncongenital infection." The authors note the need for a revision of the NCHS classification system for causes of infant mortality to include a category for infectious diseases.
Correspondence: J. S. Read, National Institutes of Health, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 4B11F, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:10172 Robles, Sylvia C.; White, Franklin; Peruga, Armando. Trends in cervical cancer mortality in the Americas. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 30, No. 4, Dec 1996. 290-301 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
An assessment of trends in cervical cancer mortality in the Americas is presented based on data from the Pan American Health Organization. "Trends were estimated for countries where data were available for at least 10 consecutive years, the number of cervical cancer deaths was considerable, and at least 75% of the deaths from all causes were registered. In contrast to Canada and the United States, whose general populations had been screened for many years and where cervical cancer mortality has declined steadily (to about 1.4 and 1.7 deaths per 100,000 women, respectively, as of 1990), most Latin American and Caribbean countries with available data have experienced fairly constant levels of cervical cancer mortality (typically in the range of 5-6 deaths per 100,000 women). In addition, several other countries (Chile, Costa Rica, and Mexico) have exhibited higher cervical cancer mortality as well as a number of noteworthy changes in this mortality over time."
Correspondence: S. C. Robles, Pan American Health Organization, Program on Noncommunicable Diseases, Division of Disease Prevention and Control, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10173 Rodríguez Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas, José R.; García Colmenero, Carmen; del Rey Calero, Juan. Lower consumption of wine and fish as a possible explanation for higher ischaemic heart disease mortality in Spain's Mediterranean region. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 6, Dec 1996. 1,196-201 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"There is an apparent paradox in the geographical distribution of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in Spain. The Mediterranean regions, those with the lowest consumption of total and saturated fats, register the highest mortality due to IHD. This paper seeks to explain this paradox by examining the provincial distribution of IHD mortality in Spain and their known risk factors, dietetic and non-dietetic....Mortality data were taken from official vital statistics, while data on diet and other lifestyle habits were obtained from representative, large-scale, sample-based population surveys. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were run on standardized IHD mortality ratios for the period 1983-1987 and potential dietetic and non-dietetic determinants in 1980-1981....Based on correlation analyses of ecological data, lower consumption of wine and fish may explain the apparent paradox of higher IHD mortality in the presence of a lower intake of saturated fats in Spain's Mediterranean regions."
Correspondence: F. Rodríguez Artalejo, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Avenida Arzobispo Morcillo s/n, 28029 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10174 Ruzicka, Lado T.; Choi, Ching Y. Demographic and social profile of suicide mortality in Australia. Genus, Vol. 52, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 135-54 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"In Australia, death rates from suicide of young and middle-aged men increased between the early 1970s and the early 1990s, whereas those of older men and of women declined markedly. The article identifies the possible extent of underreporting of suicides. The study then examines variations in the incidence of suicide by selected social characteristics of the population: marital status, social class and economic conditions, province of residence and country of birth. It closes by suggesting a tentative conceptual model linking social structures with levels of suicide."
Correspondence: L. T. Ruzicka, The Old School, George Street, Major's Creek, nr. Braidwood, NSW 2622, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10175 Samb, Badara; Aaby, Peter; Whittle, Hilton; Seck, Awa M. C.; Simondon, Francois. Decline in measles case fatality ratio after the introduction of measles immunization in rural Senegal. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 145, No. 1, Jan 1, 1997. 51-7 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The epidemiology of measles has been investigated in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal, during two periods, 1983-1986 and 1987-1990. Following a major increase in immunization coverage beginning in 1987, the case fatality ratio for all ages declined fourfold from the first to the second period....The measles incidence for children under 10 years of age declined by 69%...and the risk of dying of measles by 91%....Vaccinated children who contracted measles had significantly lower case fatality ratio than unvaccinated children with measles....Children infected by an immunized case tended to have lower case fatality ratio than those infected by an unimmunized index case...and immunized index cases generated fewer secondary cases than unimmunized index cases....Measles immunization may contribute to lower mortality directly through reduced incidence and indirectly through increases in age at infection, less severe infection for immunized cases and changes in transmission patterns leading to reduced severity of measles."
Correspondence: P. Aaby, Statens Seruminstitut, Department of Epidemiology Research, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:10176 Trivedi, S. K.; Khanna, Anoop. Study of causes of maternal mortality at sub-district level. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1995. 37-44 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"The study analyses the causes of maternal deaths and suggests certain concrete measures to reduce the incidence of preventable maternal mortality. Apart from analysing the causes of maternal deaths, the study includes a case control study [in Rajasthan, India] to compare the characteristics of death cases with the cases in which women gave birth and survived. The study was conducted in both directions, i.e., retrospectively and prospectively."
Correspondence: S. K. Trivedi, Indian Institute of Health Management Research, 1 Prabhudayal Marg, Sanganer Airport, Jaipur, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10177 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Projected smoking-related deaths among youth--United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 45, No. 44, Nov 8, 1996. 971-4 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"To assess the need for continued [U.S.] public health efforts to prevent nicotine addiction, CDC used a model including data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to project the future impact of smoking on the health of children and teenagers. This report presents the findings of the analysis, which indicate that, if current tobacco-use patterns persist, an estimated 5 million persons who were aged 0-17 years in 1995 will die prematurely from a smoking-related illness."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10178 Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, Judith H.; van Poppel, Frans W. A.; Mackenbach, Johan P. Reclassifying causes of death to study the epidemiological transition in the Netherlands,1875-1992. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1996. 327-61 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article describes a method for reclassifying causes of death in the Netherlands for the period 1875-1992....A method developed by Vallin and Meslé (1988), which involves `dual correspondence tables' and `fundamental associations', was used to create nosologically continuous categories. These categories were tested for statistical continuity during the transition years of one ICD-revision [International Classification of Diseases] to the next, using ordinary least squares regression analysis. The reclassification procedure resulted in a nested classification consisting of three levels of refinement of causes of death: 27 causes, 1875-1992; 65 causes, 1901-1992; and 92 causes, 1931-1992. On the basis of this classification, 43% of all deaths in 1875-79 and 98% of all deaths in 1992 could be allocated to either communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases or external causes."
Correspondence: J. H. Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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