Volume 63 - Number 1 - Spring 1997

A. General Population Studies and Theories

Works of a general and comprehensive nature. Studies that are limited to well-defined problems of demography are cited under the relevant topic and are cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

A.1. General Population

Global population studies.

A.1.1. General Population--Long Studies

Comprehensive, book-length surveys of the present status of demography and its principal branches, including the historical development of these studies, analytical studies of demography as a whole, and global population studies.

63:10001 Grant, Lindsey. Juggernaut: growth on a finite planet. ISBN 0-929765-49-4. LC 96-35264. 1996. ix, 310 pp. Seven Locks Press: Santa Ana, California. In Eng.
"This book is meant to show the connections between population change and the major issues that face the world and to suggest how we in the United States can match our demography to our aspirations, and our aspirations to demographic realities....The fundamental human needs are not much discussed by futurists: food, water, shelter, work and dignity, a livable environment, and some confidence that they will last. I will focus on those issues and how they are being shaped by population change. I propose to start with global forces and their interactions, describe their varying impact in the poorest countries, the emerging industrial countries and the industrial world, show what those changes mean for the pursuit of U.S. national policies (e.g., environment, jobs, trade, welfare, health), and suggest how to stop the Juggernaut [of uncontrolled population growth]."
Correspondence: Seven Locks Press, P.O. Box 25689, Santa Ana, CA 92799. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10002 Lanza, Robert. One world: the health and survival of the human species in the 21st century. ISBN 0-929173-16-3. 1996. xvii, 325 pp. Health Press: Santa Fe, New Mexico. In Eng.
This is a collection of original essays by prominent scholars, scientists, and politicians from around the world on the human condition in the modern world and the prospects for the future health and survival of the human species. Some of the essays touch on population-related topics such as reproductive medicine, AIDS, and refugees. There is also an essay on population and development by Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund.
Correspondence: Health Press, P.O. Drawer 1388, Santa Fe, NM 87504. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10003 Pol, Louis G.; Kintner, Hallie J. Applied demography: demography and decision-making. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 5-6, Dec 1996. 403-584 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The papers in this special issue illustrate how demographic methods, data, theory and perspective contribute to public and private sector decision making....Why a special issue...on applied demography?...(1) Applications enrich both demographic theory and methods by identifying new [phenomena] to explain, new data sources to use, and new methodologies that must be employed. (2) Demography has a very ambivalent attitude toward publishing application in scholarly journals. (3) Editors and reviewers are much less comfortable with examples of application important to state and local government, and particularly to businesses. (4) Cognizant of points 2 and 3, some potential authors are reluctant to submit applied work to scholarly journals."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, Distribution Center, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10004 Stein, Dorothy. People who count: population and politics, women and children. ISBN 1-85383-279-0. 1995. ix, 238 pp. Earthscan Publications: London, England. In Eng.
The author "confronts the contentious political issues on all sides of the [population] debate, including immigration, demographic competition, gender ratios, reproductive research and children's rights. She argues that lower fertility rates are preferred by women themselves; are beneficial in their own right to both women and children; and should not be used as a bargaining chip in any other area of the development debate. Drawing on a large body of research in anthropology, child psychology and population studies she presents evidence that: the poor do not have large families as a form of financial security, or to put them to work, people without offspring are less lonely in old age, immigration and refugee controls--the main population policies in the North--have been more driven by politics and numbers than by rational calculation and human rights, childbirth can be more damaging to a woman's mental health than abortion, children benefit most in one-child families, social security does not require a large cohort of young workers, [and] child labour profits employers and local economies only at the expense of women, other children and their own development."
Correspondence: Earthscan Publications, 120 Pentonville Road, London N1 9JN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10005 Tapinos, Georges P. Demography: population, economy, and society. [La démographie: population, économie et sociétés.] Références, No. 524, ISBN 2-253-90524-0. 1996. 255 pp. Le Livre de Poche: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general introduction to the study of demography. The first part deals with the subjects covered in demography, the methods of demographic analysis, and the sources of data. The second part describes the history of population trends, including the demographic transition, population projections, and the factors affecting population growth. The third part examines economic and political issues, such as the relationship between population growth and economic development, demographic factors and social welfare, and population policy.
Correspondence: Le Livre de Poche, 43 quai de Grenelle, 75905 Paris Cedex 15, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.1.2. General Population--Short Studies

Short (fewer than 100 pages), general works on population and global population studies. Items on activities of research institutions in demography are also included.

63:10006 Adak, Dipak K.; Chaudhuri, Sarit K. Birth rate and death rate of Tripura (1971-1989): a study of time series. Journal of Human Ecology, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1996. 169-73 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Time series analysis on birth and death rates (1971-1989) of Tripura [India] has been performed to examine the trend in the successive intervals. The study reveals that in Tripura the death rates are less than half of the birth rates of total, rural and urban population. The imbalance between the birth and death rates emerges as one of the principal causes for population growth in the State. The other probable reason for rapid population growth is the high rate of immigration from the neighbouring country."
Correspondence: D. K. Adak, Anthropological Survey of India, Upper Lachumiere, Shillong 793 001, Meghalaya, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10007 Caldwell, J. C. Demography and social science. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 3, Nov 1996. 305-33 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to define the field of demography, identify the demographer, assess the extent to which demography is a social science and relate it to the other social sciences. It examines how changes in the outside world affect what demographers do and what they publish. As befits Population Studies's 50th anniversary, the role of journals, and especially of this journal is examined. The early role of the journal and of its longtime two editors in defining the field is discussed. The interface between demography and the other social sciences is examined, as is the extent to which demographers publish in journals other than specialist population ones."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Transition Centre, G.P.O. 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10008 Keyfitz, Nathan. Population growth, development and the environment. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 3, Nov 1996. 335-59 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"When Population Studies was founded in 1946 a main preoccupation of demographers and of the public was the prospective decline of the British population, and the falling off of its quality because on the average a poor family had more children than a better-off one. Over the course of the 50 years interests have shifted to the aging of populations as births decline and mortality improves; immigration, immigrants being welcomed for the decades after the war, and subsequently facing hostile political pressures; [and] environmental degradation and the spread of new diseases. The fall in the birth rate, required both for development and for protection of the environment, is spreading from the original industrialized countries of Europe and America to Asia, somewhat more slowly to Latin America, slowest of all to Africa."
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Center on American Children, 136 Irving Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10009 Kuroda, Toshio. Critical issue in the twenty-first century: a composite crisis around population. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 19, May 1996. 29-32 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author examines global population trends and their consequences. He suggests that the population explosion has led to a deterioration of the global environment, a decline in the availability of adequate food supplies, and a general collapse of peace and public order. The need for a global population plan to help solve the crises that will inevitably occur over the next 30 years is stressed.
Correspondence: T. Kuroda, 4-39-8 Chome, Sakuradai Nerimaku, Tokyo 176, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

63:10010 Swanson, David A.; Burch, Thomas K.; Tedrow, Lucky M. What is applied demography? Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 5-6, Dec 1996. 403-18 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Applied demography has recently gained recognition as an emergent specialization among practicing demographers. We argue that applied demography is intrinsically distinct from basic demography because it exhibits the value-orientation and empirical characteristics of a decision-making science while the latter exhibits the value-orientation and empirical hallmarks of a basic science. Distinguishing characteristics of applied demography are based on the context in which it places precision and explanatory power relative to time and resources as well as the fact [that] its substantive problems are largely exogenously-defined, usually by customers. The substantive problems of basic demography, on the other hand, are largely endogenously-defined, usually by academic demographers....We examine this conceptualization of applied demography in terms of the methods and materials that fall within its purview and discuss some important consequences, including research agendas and training programs."
Correspondence: D. A. Swanson, Portland State University, Center for Population Research and Census, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.2. Population Theory

Discussions of the main principles of demography and population theory not applied to actual data, including such concepts as Malthusianism, the demographic transition, overpopulation, optimum population, and stable and stationary population models as distinct from methodological studies and models using data, which are classified under N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models.

63:10011 Blackorby, Charles; Bossert, Walter; Donaldson, David. Leximin population ethics. Mathematical Social Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 2, Apr 1996. 115-31 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This paper concerns the ethical issues that arise when policy decisions have to be taken that affect population size and characteristics. Such policies include social security systems, intertemporal resource allocation decisions, and policies designed to influence fertility rates. The authors provide characterizations of Leximin principles for social evaluation in an intertemporal framework, so that they can be used to compare social alternatives with different population sizes. "The main axioms used in our characterizations are Hammond Equity together with Independence of the Utilities of the Dead (a plausible intertemporal consistency requirement) for the Critical-Level Leximin principles, and Positional Leximin Consistency (an axiom that allows non-constant critical levels) for the Positional-Extension Leximin principle. The performance of these principles is compared in the pure population problem and we argue that the Critical-Level Leximin principles are ethically more attractive than Positional-Extension Leximin."
Correspondence: W. Bossert, University of Waterloo, Department of Economics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:10012 Kirk, Dudley. Demographic transition theory. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 3, Nov 1996. 361-87 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Demography has produced one of the best documented generalizations in the social sciences: the demographic transition. What is the demographic transition? Stripped to its essentials it is the theory that societies progress from a pre-modern regime of high fertility and high mortality to a post-modern regime of low fertility and low mortality. The cause of the transition has been sought in the reduction of the death rate by controlling epidemic and contagious diseases. Then, with modernization, children become more costly. Cultural changes weaken the importance of children. The increasing empowerment of women to make their own reproductive decisions leads to smaller families. Thus there is a change in values, emphasizing the quality of children rather than their quantity."
Correspondence: D. Kirk, Stanford University, Food Research Institute, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10013 Mishra, Vinod. A conceptual framework for population and environment research. IIASA Working Paper, No. 95-20, Feb 1995. 33 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This paper is an attempt to set some basic parameters and outline the scope for population and environment research....The paper outlines an integrated theory of population, development, and environment. The proposed theory presents population and environment in a `transition paradigm'. This theory builds on the demographic transition theory and integrates various existing theoretical ideas into a dynamic framework. Demographic transition theory has been modified by incorporating environmental dimensions and rethinking the relationships between demographic processes and development as they interact with environmental changes....The proposed theory is a generalized explanation of population-development-environment relationships and encompasses a wide variety of circumstances."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10014 Piché, Victor; Poirier, Jean. Differences and agreements in the debates and theories concerning the demographic transition. [Divergences et convergences dans les discours et théories de la transition démographique.] Collection de Tirés à Part, No. 380, [1996?]. 111-32 pp. Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The authors first examine how the various theories about the demographic transition evolved, and review the debate concerning the relative importance of economic and cultural factors in bringing about the transition. They then attempt to go beyond that debate and develop a general theory of the demographic transition, combining various structural approaches developed by Greenhalgh and others. The importance of the relevant socioeconomic factors to demographic change is stressed.
Correspondence: Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10015 Piché, Victor; Poirier, Jean. Institutional approaches to the study of fertility. [Les approches institutionelles de la fécondité.] Collection de Tirés à Part, No. 379, [1995?]. 117-37 pp. Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The development of sociological theories concerning fertility change is first reviewed. The authors then focus on the institutional approach to the study of fertility, describing the problems demographers have had in dealing with this concept. They consider two basic questions: How do those who take an institutional approach explain the process of decision-making in fertility matters; and how do they explain the impact of institutions and changes affecting them on the behavior of individuals and families? They conclude with a discussion of the methodological implications of the answers to these questions for the study of the demographic transition.
Correspondence: Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10016 Sarrible, Graciela. Population theory. [Teoría de la población.] Textos Docents, No. 73, ISBN 84-922004-0-5. 1996. 55 pp. Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona: Barcelona, Spain. In Spa.
This is a general introduction to the development of population theory over time. There are chapters on population theory before Malthus, Malthus, Marx, other theories, the demographic transition, the fertility decline, gender issues, and population and development. A general bibliography is included.
Correspondence: Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona, Balmes 21, 08007 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10017 Zavala de Cosío, María E. The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe. In: The fertility transition in Latin America, edited by José M. Guzmán, Susheela Singh, Germán Rodríguez, and Edith A. Pantelides. 1996. 95-109 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In the first part of this study, [the author describes] the `European model of demographic transition', based on the demographic parameters emphasized by Chesnais....In the second part, the fertility transitions of Latin America and Europe are compared. In this comparison [the author attempts] to go beyond individual differences to the identification of some of the general mechanisms that mark the appearance of new reproductive norms in non-Malthusian societies."
Correspondence: M. E. Zavala de Cosío, Université de Paris X, 200 avenue de la République, 92001 Nanterre Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.3. Interrelations with Other Disciplines

Interdisciplinary studies of demographic problems and studies of the interaction of demography with other disciplines. This coding is also used for reports, studies, and surveys from other disciplines that include information of demographic interest.

63:10018 Egerö, Bertil. In the frontline or the backwater? The Nordic countries and the global population drama. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 33, 1996. 7-20 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"Backed by a long history of domestic population statistics and analysis, Nordic social science--including demography--could well be in the forefront of international scientific attention to the global drama of population dynamics and development. But this appears not to be the case. The paper is devoted to a discussion of this state of affairs. Following a brief presentation of the current state of population dynamics, it offers a few examples to show the value of a wider social science approach to the analysis of population/development relations. Dramatic features in current development are contrasted against the relative lack of engagement of demographers and social scientists today. Finally, a case is made for the strengthening of links between demography and social science in general...."
Correspondence: B. Egerö, University of Lund, Department of Sociology, Programme on Population and Development, P.O. Box 117, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.4. Textbooks and Teaching Programs

Major demographic textbooks and teaching aids, general surveys and collections of readings that are particularly suitable as supplements to coursework, studies on the organization and coverage of training programs in demography, and selected items on population education.

63:10019 Burch, Thomas K. Defining a new demography: curricular needs for the 1990's and beyond: perspectives from North America. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 96-6, ISBN 0-7714-1906-6. May 1996. 16 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
This paper focuses on the need to make the maximum use of the techniques of computer modeling in the training of demographers.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10020 Frey, William H.; First, Cheryl L. Investigating change in American society: exploring social trends with U.S. census data and StudentChip. ISBN 0-534-52344-7. 1997. x, 234 pp. Wadsworth: Belmont, California. In Eng.
This is a software and workbook package that enables students to analyze and compare data sets compiled from the U.S. census from 1950 to 1990. There are sections on population structure, including cohorts, ages, and change; race and ethnic inequality; immigrant assimilation; labor force; marriage, divorce, cohabitation, and childbearing; gender inequality; households and families; poverty; children; and the older population. The software package includes data sets tailored for each section as well as StudentChip, a statistical package in the Chipendale family, for analyzing the data. The workbook includes tutorials, an introduction to each topic, questions for class discussion, suggestions for group projects, and a short list of relevant World Wide Web sites. A floppy disk containing the data sets and StudentChip is included for use with a PC.
Correspondence: Wadsworth Publishing, 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, CA 94002. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10021 Livi Bacci, Massimo; Blangiardo, Gian C.; Golini, Antonio. Demography. [Demografia.] Guide agli Studi di Scienze Sociali in Italia, ISBN 88-7860-100-4. 1994. xiv, 582 pp. Edizioni della Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli: Turin, Italy. In Ita.
This is one in a series of publications describing the current status of the various social sciences in Italy. The first three chapters explain what demography is, how it has developed over time, and its academic organization in Italy. The next two chapters introduce the methods used by demographers and the topic of historical demography. The following chapters examine the interrelations between demography and biology, sociology, and economics. There are also chapters on human reproduction, population characteristics, migration and spatial distribution, knowledge about demographic issues and their relevance, and political and ethical issues.
Correspondence: Edizioni della Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli, Via Giacosa 38, 10125 Turin, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:10022 Weeks, John R. Population: an introduction to concepts and issues. 6th ed. ISBN 0-534-26460-3. LC 95-21581. 1996. xxii, 682 pp. Wadsworth: Belmont, California. In Eng.
This textbook is designed as a general introduction to the basic concepts of population studies, to enable the student to develop his or her own demographic perspective, and to better understand one of the world's major problems. The book is organized into five parts, which deal with demographic perspectives, including data sources; population processes, including fertility, mortality, and migration; population structure and characteristics; population and social issues, such as women and household structure, aging, urbanization, economic development, and the environment; and using the demographic perspective either in demographic policy-making, or in business, social policy, and political planning. A glossary of key population terms is included.
Correspondence: Wadsworth Publishing, 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, CA 94002. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.