Volume 62 - Number 4 - Winter 1996

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

62:40651 Becker, Henk A.; Hermkens, Piet L. J. Solidarity of generations: demographic, economic and social change, and its consequences. ISBN 90-5170-260-4. 1993. 844 pp. Thesis Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This two-volume work presents the proceedings of a symposium, held on April 7-8, 1993 at Utrecht University in the Netherlands, on the problem of generations. The 33 papers are organized into sections on core issues in generations research, demographic change and social capital, cohort replacement and the legitimation of inequality, educational and professional careers, formation and dissolution of households and marriages, the elderly and solidarity of generations, and the solidarity of generations reconsidered. The primary geographical focus is on Europe in general, and particularly on the Netherlands.
Correspondence: Thesis Publishers, Postbus 14791, 1001 LG Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40652 Daatland, Svein O. Formal and informal care: new approaches. In: Health and mortality among elderly populations, edited by Graziella Caselli and Alan D. Lopez. 1996. 315-30 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
In this chapter, the author reviews the Scandinavian experience in organizing available resources to provide for a growing elderly population. The focus is on care and services, rather than on pensions and other forms of cash transfer to the elderly.
Correspondence: S. O. Daatland, Norwegian Institute of Gerontology, Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40653 Golini, Antonio; Vivio, Roberta. Strategies for the provision of social and health care services for the elderly. In: Health and mortality among elderly populations, edited by Graziella Caselli and Alan D. Lopez. 1996. 331-49 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors examine the impact of population aging on health and social services with respect to the need to reorganize financing, the types of services required, and the way the services are delivered.
Correspondence: A. Golini, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40654 Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. Women's education, autonomy, and reproductive behaviour: experience from developing countries. ISBN 0-19-829033-0. 1995. xvi, 306 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the relationships among women's education, autonomy, and reproductive behavior in developing countries. "Synthesizing the available literature from various disciplines and regions, this review addresses such topics as the ways in which educating women affects their lives and their autonomy, as well as the linkages of women's education to reproductive behaviour, distinguishing the pathways in this relationship and, at the same time, synthesizing the volume of data available on aspects of this relationship....In almost every setting, regardless of region, culture, or level of development, well-educated women have a greater say in their lives, including their reproductive lives, and bear fewer children than do uneducated women. In almost every setting where it has been studied, the relationship is genuine and cannot be explained by the fact that educated women marry better educated men or come from wealthier households. At the same time, the study cautions that a modest amount of education does not necessarily enhance women's autonomy, improve reproductive health, or increase reproductive choices in all contexts....The results...suggest that the impact of women's education is greatest among women with more than five or six years of schooling; it is also greatest when education offers women an expanded role in family decisions and control over resources."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40655 Kelley, Allen C. The consequences of rapid population growth on human resource development: the case of education. In: The impact of population growth on well-being in developing countries, edited by Dennis A. Ahlburg, Allen C. Kelley, and Karen O. Mason. 1996. 67-137 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper we assemble evidence on the ways in which Third World countries over the period 1960-1990 have responded in the provision and use of educational services in the face of population pressures. We take up three questions. First, have population pressures significantly constrained the pace of human capital growth in education?...Second, have education expenditures associated with population growth `crowded out' other areas of investment?...Third, have large families deterred schooling enrollments and attainment; and how have families underwritten the costs of schooling?"
Correspondence: A. C. Kelley, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40656 Rajan, S. Irudaya; Ramanathan, Mala; Mishra, U. S. Female autonomy and reproductive behaviour in Kerala: new evidence from the recent Kerala Fertility Survey. In: Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, edited by Roger Jeffery and Alaka M. Basu. 1996. 269-87 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"We argue...that low fertility or mortality [in Kerala, India] cannot be a result of the higher level of autonomy among its women (since that predates the declines in fertility and mortality) unless this autonomy has also been increased by any of the other changes which took place in Kerala during the past 50 years. We therefore need to examine the levels of female autonomy among women in Kerala using a known set of indicators. Our data come from the [1991] Kerala Fertility Survey (KFS)...."
Correspondence: S. I. Rajan, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala State, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40657 Trappe, Paul. Population change, social security, and the family in sub-Saharan Africa. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 181-92 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This chapter is concerned with traditional social structures in Sub-Saharan Africa. It analyzes the family and the social security network and describes the changes that are affecting them. In particular, the author examines the negative aspects of twentieth-century changes in the region, which have included "disintegration of traditional social structures; a lack of social reintegration; high infant and child mortality; high and increasing population growth rates; high percentage of victims of disease, including AIDS; high illiteracy; increased propensity to natural and climatic disasters; and persistent decline of agricultural production per capita. Sub-Saharan Africa, however, is also a special case in positive terms: the development potential exists that could overcome the area's vulnerability to crises as well as provide its population a better future."
Translated from German by Mark Kyburz.
Correspondence: P. Trappe, Universität Basel, Institute of Sociology, Petersplatz 1, 4003 Basel, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40658 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division (New York, New York). Population and women. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women, Gaborone, Botswana, 22-26 June 1992. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/130, Pub. Order No. E.96.XIII.10. ISBN 92-1-151306-5. 1996. xiii, 435 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of one of the preparatory meetings for the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994. The report includes the recommendations of the meeting and the papers that were prepared for it. The papers are organized under the following topics: the value of women, women's autonomy, and population trends; women, health, and mortality; women, fertility, and family planning; women's education and its demographic impact; linkages between women's economic activity and population dynamics; and population, environment, and development: issues of special concern for women.
Correspondence: UN Sales Section, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40659 United Nations. Secretariat (New York, New York). The world's women 1995: trends and statistics. Social Statistics and Indicators, Series K, No. 12, Pub. Order No. E.95.XVII.2. ISBN 92-1-161372-8. 1995. xxiv, 188 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the second edition of a report, originally published in 1991, presenting data on women around the world. The report is co-sponsored by 11 UN institutions, and is an official document of the Fourth World Conference on Women. It presents and interprets a selection of statistics concerning women, and is intended to provide the numbers and analysis to show how conditions are or are not changing around the world for women. It has chapters on population, households, and families; population growth, distribution, and environment; health; education and training; work; and power and influence.
Correspondence: UN Publishing Division, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40660 Visaria, Leela. Regional variations in female autonomy and fertility and contraception in India. In: Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, edited by Roger Jeffery and Alaka M. Basu. 1996. 235-68 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This chapter has three distinct objectives. Firstly, I outline an approach to women's autonomy by delineating analytical categories that can be measured in large surveys. Secondly, I present district level data, derived from surveys conducted in two Indian states--Gujarat in Western India and Kerala in South India--to understand whether the degree of female autonomy and gender relations are different in the two regions. Thirdly, I consider fertility and related measures for women enjoying different degrees of autonomy to understand the extent to which autonomy is associated with or can explain regional variations in fertility behaviour."
Correspondence: L. Visaria, Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Near Gota Char Rasta, Gota, Ahmedabad 382 481, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

62:40661 Labaki, Boutros; Rjeily, Khalil A. The consequences of wars in Lebanon, 1975-1990. [Bilan des guerres du Liban, 1975-1990.] Comprendre le Moyen-Orient, ISBN 2-7384-1525-3. 1993. 256 pp. L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
An attempt is made to assess the cost of the wars that were fought in Lebanon from 1975 to 1990. Aspects considered are the human costs, including deaths, injuries, and permanent disabilities; losses in education and culture; the economic costs; and the costs associated with the forced population movements, both within the country and out of the country. Chapter 1 discusses mortality from the war, examining military and civilian losses separately and analyzing war-related mortality by social class. Chapter 2 looks at forced resettlements of the population within the country. Chapter 3 examines emigration, including emigrant characteristics and the consequences for the country of origin.
Correspondence: Editions L'Harmattan, 5-7 rue de l'Ecole-Polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

62:40662 Abeykoon, A. T. P. L. Demographic implications of health care in Sri Lanka. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, Jun 1996. 47-58 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Population projections for Sri Lanka for the next 25 years show that the ageing process will gradually gather momentum. By 2020, the country will experience South Asia's most rapid population ageing. This phenomenon will demand that a higher proportion of financial and human resources be allocated for health care services in the coming decades. The article makes a number of recommendations for policy and programme purposes in this regard."
Correspondence: A. T. P. L. Abeykoon, Ministry of Health and Social Services, Population Division, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40663 Acharya, Sanghmitra; Kanitkar, Tara. Maternal and child mortality: a study of village Nirpura, district Meerut (U.P.). IIPS Research Report Series, No. 12, 1994-1995. iii, 38 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of the study was to understand the factors responsible for maternal and infants deaths [in the village of Nirpura, India] in the light of available infrastructure. The specific objective...is to identify the village level factors affecting the health care, particularly mother and child health care (MHC) services by examining: (a) quality of services rendered, (b) quality of care received, [and] (c) related social and cultural factors."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40664 Albrecht, Stan L.; Clarke, Leslie L.; Miller, Michael K.; Farmer, Frank L. Predictors of differential birth outcomes among Hispanic subgroups in the United States: the role of maternal risk characteristics and medical care. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 77, No. 2, Jun 1996. 407-33 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
This article explores why, despite problems associated with barriers to health access, Hispanics in the United States compare favorably with the general population regarding low birth weight and infant mortality rates. "This issue is addressed by using national linked birth/infant death records to assess the influence of a set of sociodemographic and medical care variables on prematurity, low birthweight, and mortality for five Hispanic subgroups: Cubans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Central/South Americans, and others." Results show that "Hispanic subgroups differ significantly on these measures of suboptimal birth outcomes. The most consistent finding relates to the relatively advantaged position of Cuban Americans and the relatively disadvantaged position of Puerto Ricans. Multivariate models indicate that while some of these differences are due, in part, to sociodemographic profiles, important differences remain even when controlling for these factors."
Correspondence: S. L. Albrecht, University of Florida, Health Sciences Center, Department of Health Policy and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 100177, Gainesville, FL 32610-0177. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40665 Barcellos, Christovam; Bastos, Francisco I. Social networks and the spread of AIDS in Brazil. [Redes sociais e difusão da AIDS no Brasil.] Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 121, No. 1, Jul 1996. 11-24 pp. Washington, D.C. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"This study is a spatial analysis of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil, which sought to incorporate variables reflecting economic and demographic events into a system for processing geographically referenced health information. Findings indicate that metropolises and regional urban centers, mainly those in the Southeast, play an important role in the spread of the epidemic, not only because of their population density but also because they are centers of trade and social interaction. In smaller cities located in the state of São Paulo, a large number of AIDS cases among injecting drug users are concentrated, revealing the routes and centers of cocaine use."
Correspondence: C. Barcellos, Avenida Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, 21045-900, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40666 Bastos, Francisco I.; Barcellos, Christovam. The social geography of AIDS in Brazil. [Geografia social da AIDS no Brasil.] Revista de Saúde Pública, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1995. 52-62 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The techniques of geographical analysis are used here to chart the dynamics of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil. "Recent trends of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil: the displacement toward medium sized cities and expansion frontiers, increasing report of AIDS cases among the poor and underprivileged, changes in the pattern of transmission with proportional augmentation of heterosexual transmission and IDUs [intravenous drug users] as transmission groups, are described and analysed. The geographical distribution of the AIDS cases registered between 1987-1993 in Brazil throughout the Brazilian States is evaluated by means of worksheets, maps, and non-parametric statistics."
Correspondence: F. I. Bastos, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Centro de Informações em Ciência e Tecnologia, Departamento de Informações para a Saúde, Avenida Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40667 Caselli, Graziella; Lopez, Alan D. Health and mortality among elderly populations. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-823337-X. 1996. xvi, 360 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This is a collection of 16 papers based on those presented at a seminar convened in June 1993 by the Committee on Adult Mortality, a committee of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP). The papers are grouped under four topics. The three introductory contributions define the concept of old age, describe the issues surrounding it, and assess the future prospects for extended survival. The next eight papers discuss trends and determinants of health status among older populations. There are three papers presenting mortality projections, and the final two contributions discuss strategies and policies for dealing with elderly populations.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40668 Delaunay, Valérie. Reproductive health and socioeconomic change in a rural environment in Senegal. The conceptual framework of a research project. [Santé de la reproduction et changement socio-économique dans un milieu rural sénégalais. Cadre conceptuel d'un programme de recherche.] ETS Notes et Projets, No. 2, May 1996. 18 pp. Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction [ETS]: Marseilles, France; Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération [ORSTOM]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study analyzes changes in reproductive health over time in a rural zone of Senegal. The area Niakhar, which has a population of around 28,000, has been the subject of a longitudinal survey since 1983. The author examines how various socioeconomic changes have affected health and reproduction.
Correspondence: Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction, ORSTOM/LPE, Case 10, Centre St. Charles, 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseilles Cedex 3, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40669 Frank, Jeffrey. 15 years of AIDS in Canada. Canadian Social Trends, No. 41, Summer 1996. 4-10 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"Fifteen years ago, few Canadians had even heard of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Indeed, the first documented AIDS case in Canada was not reported until 1982. HIV/AIDS today represent one of the most pressing health and social issues facing society. An estimated 16,000 people had been diagnosed with AIDS in Canada by the end of 1994, and over half of these people had already died from AIDS-related causes. It is further estimated that up to 45,000 people have been infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. There is no vaccine or cure and the full impact of the disease has yet to be realized."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40670 Grantham-McGregor, Sally. Malnutrition and human development. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 233-47 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Focusing on protein-energy malnutrition, this chapter explores the extent of nutritional deficiencies and their impact on child development around the world. The relationship between nutritional deficiency and poor development among succeeding generations is noted.
Correspondence: S. Grantham-McGregor, University of the West Indies, Tropical Metabolism Research Unit, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40671 Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Stupp, Paul W. An alternative sampling strategy for obtaining child health data in a reproductive health survey. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jun 1996. 265-74 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Retrospective demographic surveys typically collect substantial information about child health. This information is often collected for all children born during a specified period. For women with several young children, the interview can become quite long. To shorten the interview, some surveys have asked child health questions only for the last child born. However, data on the last birth may be biased because last children have a younger age distribution and have longer subsequent birth intervals than does the average child. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach to collecting child health data--that child health questions be asked only for a child chosen randomly from among the respondent's children younger than age five. This alternative has the advantage of keeping the interview shorter but does not lead to biased information." Demographic and Health Surveys for the Dominican Republic, Sri Lanka, and Uganda were used to evaluate these sampling strategies.
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: L. Grummer-Strawn, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Nutrition, Mailstop K25, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40672 Guatemala. Instituto Nacional de Estadística [INE] (Guatemala City, Guatemala); Guatemala. Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social [MSPYAS] (Guatemala City, Guatemala); United States. Agency for International Development [USAID] (Washington, D.C.); United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York); Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton, Maryland). Guatemala: National Survey of Maternal and Child Health, 1995. [Guatemala: Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil, 1995.] Oct 1996. xxx, 245 pp. Guatemala City, Guatemala. In Spa.
This is the final report from the 1995 DHS survey undertaken in Guatemala involving a nationwide sample of 11,297 households and 12,403 women aged 15-49 with children under five. Following chapters on survey methodology, there are chapters on maternal and child health, infant and child mortality, lactation and infant nutrition, maternal mortality, knowledge and use of family planning methods, nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility preferences, and knowledge of AIDS and how to prevent the disease.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40673 Hanson, Lars Å. The state of children's health in the developing world. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 224-32 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a general review of the factors affecting infant and child health and mortality in developing countries, with particular attention given to data for Pakistan. The author considers the negative impact of population growth on child health, the efficacy of breast-feeding in reducing infant mortality, and the link between infant mortality and birthrates.
Correspondence: L. Å. Hanson, Göteborgs Universitet, Department of Clinical Immunology, Vasaparken, 411 24 Gothenburg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40674 Heikkinen, Eino; Jokela, Jukka; Jylhä, Marja. Disability and functional status among elderly people: cross-national comparisons. In: Health and mortality among elderly populations, edited by Graziella Caselli and Alan D. Lopez. 1996. 202-20 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The epidemiology of functional abilities and disabilities of elderly people living in urban areas of various countries around the world is described. Data are from four WHO surveys carried out between 1979 and 1986. Differences in the level of functional ability are analyzed by sex as well as culture.
Correspondence: E. Heikkinen, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40351 Jyväskylä, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40675 Howson, Christopher P.; Harrison, Polly F.; Hotra, Dana; Law, Maureen. In her lifetime: female morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. ISBN 0-309-05430-3. LC 95-72800. 1996. xi, 308 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This book presents a report from the Committee to Study Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. The committee, which was set up by the National Research Council's Institute of Medicine, had two main objectives for the report: first, to elaborate and test the life-span model and its utility for the analysis of health and illness, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa; and second, to provide a unified documentary base that could be used in developing an agenda for research and health policy focused on female health in this region. There are chapters on nutritional status; obstetric morbidity and mortality; nervous system disorders; mental health problems; cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases; injury; occupational and environmental health; tropical infectious diseases; and sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40676 Jensen, Eric; Westley, Sidney B. Do family planning programs enhance children's health? Asia-Pacific Population and Policy, No. 38, Jul 1996. 4 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The authors discuss the effects of family planning programs on child health and welfare, with a focus on the presumed benefits of smaller families. Data from the 1993 National Demographic Survey of the Philippines are used as an example.
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40677 Kimball, Ann M.; Berkley, Seth; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Gayle, Helene. International aspects of the AIDS/HIV epidemic. Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 16, 1995. 253-82 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"This review provides...information on the epidemiology, prevention, and new technologies of the ongoing HIV pandemic. These aspects are key to international policy discussions surrounding the public health response to the international spread of HIV. Our understanding of the impact of AIDS on other diseases is evolving, as is our insight into the demographic and economic effects of the epidemic on the global community. Observations on the success of certain prevention strategies allow rational allocation of resources in newly affected epidemic areas. Information on the origin and nature of HIV transmission exemplifies the phenomenon of global emerging infections. As world populations are brought closer together through transportation, communication, trade, and commerce, insight into emerging infections of epidemic potential becomes increasingly important to the practitioner of public health."
Correspondence: A. M. Kimball, University of Washington, Department of Health Services and Epidemiology, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40678 Kraus, Jaroslav; Tomek, Ivan; Velebil, Petr. Results of reproduction and health research, the Czech Republic, 1993: Part 2. [Výsledky pruzkumu reprodukce a zdraví, CR 1993: 2. cást.] Demografie, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1996. 181-93 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
This article "aims at the following topics: problems of health of pregnant women, sexual behaviour of young women and attitudes towards health." Data are from a 1993 survey on reproduction and health research in the Czech Republic.
For Part 1, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40679 Mann, Jonathan M.; Tarantola, Daniel J. M. AIDS in the world II: global dimensions, social roots, and responses. ISBN 0-19-508994-4. LC 96-20008. 1996. xxxiv, 616 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume represents a continuing effort to track the global AIDS pandemic and to describe the efforts, successes, and failures of attempts to curb its course and mitigate its impact. "Part I provides recent information on the global epidemiology of HIV/AIDS and analyzes recent trends. The pandemic has become increasingly complex and fragmented, targeting populations characterized by a high degree of social and economic vulnerability. Part II summarizes the state of scientific progress in HIV/AIDS research....Part III examines how people are responding to the HIV/AIDS pandemic--as individuals or through organized community efforts--and Part IV analyzes the collective efforts of governments, intergovernmental institutions, and nongovernment organizations (NGOs). A series of original surveys provides the most up-to-date account of national and international action against HIV/AIDS. Then Part V brings these several threads--epidemiology, research, individual and collective response--together into a new analytic framework to inform a truly modern understanding and response to the pandemic. It shows how risk, risk-taking behaviors, and risk-generating situations are linked to societal environment, and it ties this analytical framework to pragmatic and conceptual dimensions of human rights protections and promotion."
For the first edition, published in 1992, see 60:10652.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40680 Mbizvo, M. T.; Mashu, A.; Chipato, T.; Makura, E.; Bopoto, R.; Fottrell, P. F. Trends in HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence and risk factors in pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe. Central African Journal of Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 1, 1996. 14-21 pp. Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
"The objective of the present study was to determine the HIV prevalence rate and the risk factors in pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in the Greater Harare area of Zimbabwe. Women presenting for antenatal care in four maternity clinics between May 1994 and June 1995 were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies following informed consent, counselling and completion of a questionnaire....Present findings indicate a 30.4% HIV prevalence rate for a sample of 1,168 pregnant women in Harare. This rate is much higher than the 18% HIV prevalence rate reported for 1,008 pregnant women in the same Greater Harare area in 1990."
Correspondence: M. T. Mbizvo, University of Zimbabwe Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O. Box A178, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Source: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40681 McCoy, H. Virginia; Correa, Ronald; Fritz, Emma. HIV diffusion patterns and mobility: gender differences among drug users. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jun 1996. 249-64 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The travel patterns of injecting drug users (IDUs) and the extent to which they engage in high risk drug and sexual activities were examined as an explanation of diffusion of the HIV virus from one community to another. The study population of 49,621 was comprised of subjects recruited from approximately 60 sites...[in the United States] from 1988-1991. While the data are limited in some ways, they partially support a diffusion explanation of HIV transmission for males and females. The analysis demonstrates that low prevalence cities were significantly more likely to have been the destinations of both men and women who engaged in high risk drug and sexual activities. In addition, HIV seropositive drug users who engaged in high risk drug and sexual behaviors in destination cities were more likely than seronegatives to travel to high or low seroprevalence areas than to moderate prevalence areas."
Correspondence: H. V. McCoy, Florida International University, College of Health, Department of Public Health, 3000 NE 145 Street, North Miami, FL 33181-3600. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40682 Mertens, T. E.; Low-Beer, D. HIV and AIDS: where is the epidemic going? Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, Vol. 74, No. 2, 1996. 121-9 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This paper presents the methods and results of global HIV/AIDS estimates, describes subcontinental characteristics of the epidemic, and discusses important trends which emerge and their possible determinants....Of the total prevalent HIV infections, the majority remain concentrated in eastern, central and southern Africa, but the epidemic continues to evolve with diffusion of infection from urban to rural areas, to West and South Africa, to India and south-east Asia, and to a lesser extent--with proportional shifts to heterosexual infections--in North America, western Europe and Latin America. The past concentration of infections has led to a relentless rise in AIDS cases and subsequent mortality. Recent data suggested that AIDS is emerging as a leading cause of death in adults aged 25-44 years in substantial areas of the developed and developing worlds."
Correspondence: T. E. Mertens, World Health Organization, Division of Development of Policy, Programme and Evaluation, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40683 Miller, Kate; Rosenfield, Allan. Population and women's reproductive health: an international perspective. Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 17, 1996. 359-82 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"This paper gives a brief overview of current world population or demographic issues, followed by a discussion of the ICPD [International Conference on Population and Development] proceedings and various notable aspects of the ICPD Programme of Action. It then focuses on six of the most pressing reproductive health concerns facing women today: gender inequalities, access to contraceptive services, sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV), maternal mortality, unsafe abortion, and adolescent pregnancy. Because the ICPD Programme of Action is intended to have far-reaching consequences for each of these issues, it is taken as a focal point of analysis."
Correspondence: K. Miller, Columbia University, School of Public Health, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40684 Orubuloye, I. O.; Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat; Jain, Shail. The third world AIDS epidemic. Health Transition Review, Vol. 5, Suppl., 1995. ii, 305 pp. Australian National University, Health Transition Centre: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The present book...is a collection of papers resulting from research produced from across the African continent, carried out between 1992 and 1995. The papers have been selected from four workshops held between 1994 and 1995....All papers focus on the social and behavioural aspects of AIDS....This collection...emphasizes the social, sexual and economic context of the disease both in the general population and in high-risk groups. However, there is...greater stress on the social effects of the disease, on interventions and on care and counselling. The collection ends with glances at areas which may well become more important in the future. The first emphasizes legal issues which the epidemic makes it imperative to face. The second is the most recent invasion of Asia by the epidemic."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40685 Pais, Prem. HIV and India: looking into the abyss. Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 1, No. 3, Jun 1996. 295-304 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Serosurveillance of high risk groups started in India in October 1985. The first positive cases were detected in 1986. As of mid-1994, official figures stood at 15,000 HIV positive cases and 559 cases of AIDS. This is most certainly an underestimate because of under reporting. Among high risk groups, prevalence has risen rapidly. Between 1986 and 1994, prevalence has risen from 1.6 to 40.0% in sex workers, 1.4 to 40% in STD clinics and 0 to 70% in i.v. drug abusers in various studies. The penetration into the general population is uncertain. As in Africa, infection has been mainly by heterosexual intercourse, with commercial sex workers, long distance truck drivers and migrant labour serving as vehicles of spread. Other routes of infection are transfusion of blood and blood products and i.v. drug use. Dependence on professional blood donors is the main cause of infected blood supplies. Ninety per cent of cases with HIV infection are aged between 15 and 45 years and belong to socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. The male to female ratio is 5:1, with female cases being mainly sex workers. The predominant virus is HIV-1 but cases with HIV-2 and mixed infection are being reported from port cities. The present situation in India is similar to the early pattern in Africa where a sharp increase in seroprevalence among high risk groups was followed by spread to the general population."
Correspondence: P. Pais, St. Johns Medical College Hospital, Department of Medicine, Bangalore 560 034, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40686 Robine, Jean-Marie; Mathers, Colin; Brouard, Nicolas. Trends and differentials in disability-free life expectancy: concepts, methods, and findings. In: Health and mortality among elderly populations, edited by Graziella Caselli and Alan D. Lopez. 1996. 182-201 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
Some of the problems, concepts, and issues involved in the study of disability-free life expectancy are discussed in this chapter. Attention is given to the differences among total survival, handicap-free survival, disability-free survival, and impairment-free survival. Comparisons are made among selected developed countries with regard to differences in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy.
Correspondence: J.-M. Robine, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Montpellier, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40687 Rozenfeld, Boris A. The crisis of Russian health care and attempts at reform. In: Russia's demographic "crisis", edited by Julie DaVanzo and Gwendolyn Farnsworth. 1996. 163-74 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
The author describes the deterioration of health services in Russia in recent years and its causes. He concludes that "the main state programs for improving the health of the Russian population are underfunded and suffer from lack of resources in general. No conditions can yet be foreseen for the reanimation of an effective preventive and curative health care system. Many famous medical research centers, especially on the federal level, are left without proper financial support. Progress in all spheres of health care is under great stress." Comments by discussants are included (p. 174).
Correspondence: B. A. Rozenfeld, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Economic Forecasting, Center for Demography and Human Ecology, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40688 Senturia, Kirsten D. Maternal and child health in Albania. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 7, Oct 1996. 1,097-107 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The study reported here documents current health conditions for pregnant women and their offspring in Albania. Data for the study were collected in 1993 and 1994 from field sites throughout Albania. A total of 3,250 medical charts from 1993 were abstracted from five maternity houses. Interviews were conducted during 1993-1994 with 1,199 pregnant women who were followed through their pregnancies. Of these women, 938 were located at delivery. Their infants were weighed and assessed. The data show that infant birth weights, gestational ages and mortality rates are now comparable to the rest of Europe. Maternal disease rates and spontaneous and therapeutic abortion rates are also surprisingly low considering the previous reports. However, fertility rates remain relatively high compared to Western Europe. The results show that despite the degeneration of health services, maternal and child health in Albania is much better than expected and vastly improved over the pre-communist era."
Correspondence: K. D. Senturia, 2240 Crest Drive, El Cajon, CA 92021. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40689 Stoneburner, Rand L.; Low-Beer, Daniel; Tembo, George S.; Mertens, Thierry E.; Asiimwe-Okiror, Godwill. Human immunodeficiency virus infection dynamics in East Africa deduced from surveillance data. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 144, No. 7, Oct 1, 1996. 682-95 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors deduce hypotheses of HIV incidence dynamics from birth cohort analyses of Ugandan acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) incidence from 1987 to 1992 and from the age and sex distribution of sexually transmitted disease: an age dependency for HIV risk; a period effect of varying HIV incidence growth; and a replenishment of HIV-susceptible populations through demographic renewal. The hypotheses are tested by incorporating them into a model that generates patterns of HIV incidence, prevalence, and AIDS cases that are consistent with empiric data. When applied to Uganda, the modeled HIV incidence is characterized by a short temporal concentration of high incidence, followed by a decline, stabilization, and concentration in younger ages. The ensuing HIV dynamics result in a rapid build-up and subsequent stabilization of prevalence and mortality in years 10 and 13, respectively, after epidemic onset. When this model is used to forecast scenarios from 1980 to 2000, HIV prevalence declines in some populations, which is different from earlier scenarios."
Correspondence: R. L. Stoneburner, International Center for Migration and Health, 24 Avenue de Beau-Séjour, 1206 Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:40690 Svanborg, Alvar. The health and survival of the elderly: evidence from the Gothenburg Longitudinal Study. In: Health and mortality among elderly populations, edited by Graziella Caselli and Alan D. Lopez. 1996. 221-32 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter presents research results mainly from a longitudinal study of 70-year-olds in Gothenburg, Sweden. The aim is to illustrate possible answers to some of [the] questions about health and mortality trends in the older Swedish population, as well as to shed light on some of the determinants of and implications for better societal planning for future generations of older people."
Correspondence: A. Svanborg, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40691 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division (New York, New York). Reproductive rights and reproductive health: a concise report. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/157, Pub. Order No. E.96.XIII.11. ISBN 92-1-151307-3. 1996. vi, 46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
One in a series on special themes, this report was prepared to assess progress in implementing the program of action adopted at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. "The present report provides a summary of recent information on selected aspects of reproductive rights and reproductive health and covers such topics as entry into reproductive life; reproductive behaviour; contraception; abortion; maternal mortality and morbidity; sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS; reproductive rights; and population information, education and communication with respect to reproductive rights and reproductive health."
Correspondence: UN Publishing Division, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40692 van de Mheen, Perla J.; Gunning-Schepers, Louise J. Differences between studies in reported relative risks associated with smoking: an overview. Public Health Reports, Vol. 111, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 420-6 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The authors reviewed the published literature on smoking-related diseases to determine (a) the extent of variation between studies in reported relative risks associated with smoking for heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive lung disease and (b) the effect that this variation has on the population attributable risk for smoking and the potential impact fraction." The geographical focus is primarily on developed countries. The authors conclude that "the main reasons for the variation in reported relative risks were: misclassification of former smokers as never smokers, the use of mortality rate ratios rather than incidence rate ratios, a possible period effect suggesting increasing relative risks over time, and differences in the amount smoked. It is far more likely that these factors are responsible for the observed variation between studies than that the variations reflect true biological differences between populations."
Correspondence: P. J. van de Mheen, Academic Medical Center, Institute of Social Medicine, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40693 Waldron, Ingrid; Hughes, Mary E.; Brooks, Tracy L. Marriage protection and marriage selection--prospective evidence for reciprocal effects of marital status and health. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 1, Jul 1996. 113-23 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Panel data for a large sample of women in the United States taken from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women are used to examine the relationship between marital status and health. "Analyses of the prospective data indicate that there were significant marriage protection effects, but only among women who were not employed. Specifically, for women who were not employed, married women had better health trends than unmarried women in each follow-up interval. It appears that marriage had beneficial effects on health for women who did not have a job which could provide an alternative source of financial resources and social support. In addition, analyses of the prospective data provide limited evidence for marriage selection effects. Specifically, women who had better health initially were more likely to marry and less likely to experience marital dissolution, but only for women who were not employed full-time and only during the first follow-up interval."
Correspondence: I. Waldron, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

62:40694 James, William H. Are "natural" twinning rates continuing to decline? Human Reproduction, Vol. 10, No. 11, 1995. 3,042-4 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the extent to which the increase in twinning rates that has occurred in England and Wales since 1980 is a consequence of hormonal induction of ovulation and various other techniques of assisted reproduction. "It is tentatively concluded here that the `natural' twinning rate has recently been increasing in England and Wales and Belgium. These conclusions are based on two assumptions: (i) that in England and Wales, conceptions by young women are infrequently preceded by medical assistance; and (ii) in Belgium, the rate of medically assisted conceptions is not lower in East Flanders than in the rest of Belgium. Direct data on these points would test these conclusions."
Correspondence: W. H. James, University College London, Galton Laboratory, Wolfson House, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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