Volume 62 - Number 4 - Winter 1996

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

62:40412 Cohen, Robin. The sociology of migration. International Library of Studies on Migration, No. 3, ISBN 1-85898-000-3. LC 96-12607. 1996. xvii, 544 pp. Edward Elgar Publishing: Brookfield, Vermont/Cheltenham, England. In Eng.
This reader in human geography is a collection of previously published papers on aspects of the sociology of migration. The 20 papers included are organized into 10 parts. The titles of these parts are: the peculiarity of migrant labor, the dynamics of international labor migration, women migrants and the women left behind, enclaves and labor markets, the effects of return migration and remittances, migration and social structure, refugees and displaced persons, the brain drain, migration in Asia, and the state-system and migration.
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, 8 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham, Gloucester GL50 2HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40413 Cordell, Dennis D.; Gregory, Joel W.; Piché, Victor. Hoe and wage: a social history of a circular migration system in West Africa. ISBN 0-8133-8168-1. 1996. xv, 384 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Based on an unusual source--a retrospective survey of migration from 1900 to 1975--this book traces the history of internal and international labor migration involving colonial and contemporary Burkina Faso, the West African coast, and other parts of Africa. Interviews with returned migrants elicited information about age, matrimonial status, motives for migrating, employment, destinations, residence, and motives for returning. The survey...includes data on nearly one hundred thousand migrants and on 1.5 million instances of migration...[The data on women] show higher levels of female labor migration and more diverse patterns of mobility than previously suspected. Although the emphasis of the study is on the analysis of survey data, the book also integrates historical and anthropological research on burkinabè societies." The authors describe the circular migrant labor system as "a household strategy geared to survival, rather than accumulation and development," and conclude that the long-established circular migration patterns around Burkina Faso are contributing to "structural underdevelopment and massive poverty."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40414 Hoerder, Dirk; Nagler, Jörg. People in transit: German migrations in comparative perspective, 1820-1930. Publications of the German Historical Institute, ISBN 0-521-47412-4. LC 94-34289. 1995. xv, 433 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England; German Historical Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This volume contains empirical studies on German in-migration, internal migration, and transatlantic emigration from the 1820s to the 1930s, placed in a comparative perspective of Polish, Swedish, and Irish migration to North America. Special emphasis is placed on the role of women in the process of migration." The 17 papers are divided into sections on migration from East Elbian Germany and Galician Poland, internal migration and in-migration, female labor and marriage migration, and acculturation and return from the United States.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40415 Jayet, Hubert. Economic analysis of migrations: a critical overview. [L'analyse économique des migrations: une synthèse critique.] Revue Economique, Vol. 47, No. 2, Mar 1996. 193-226 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper presents a review of human migration economic analysis. [Migration can be considered] a specific form of location decision, motivated by differences among local labour markets or spatial disparities in amenities and local public goods. Introducing the intertemporal consequences of migration leads to the consideration of migration as a human capital investment. This intertemporal framework is needed for a better understanding of repeat migration. It is also useful for a better understanding of the links between migration and other forms of human mobility, e.g. professional or familial. Last, the paper examines the controversy on [the] efficiency of migrations: is migration able to reduce spatial disparities and to move the interregional system toward spatial equilibrium?"
Correspondence: H. Jayet, Université de Lille 1, Faculté de Sciences Economiques et Sociales, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:40416 Newton, P. W.; Bell, M. Population shift: mobility and change in Australia. Pub. Order No. 96 0308 5. ISBN 0-644-36118-2. 1996. ix, 443 pp. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This volume brings together a selection of the papers presented at a workshop on migration in Australia held at the University of Melbourne in November 1994. The 25 papers included are organized into four parts, each of which has an introductory essay summarizing points that arose when the papers were presented and discussed. Part 1 is concerned with international migration. Part 2 is on internal migration, and includes papers on the relation between economic and demographic trends, counterurbanization, repeat and return migration, and population decrease. Part 3 is on intra-urban mobility, and Part 4 examines some social perspectives of migration, including migration of the aged, the retired, the indigenous population, and women.
Correspondence: Australian Government Publishing Service, G.P.O. Box 84, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40417 Robinson, Vaughan. Geography and migration. International Library of Studies on Migration, No. 2, ISBN 1-85898-117-4. LC 96-5694. 1996. xxviii, 587 pp. Edward Elgar Publishing: Brookfield, Vermont/Cheltenham, England. In Eng.
This reader in human geography is a collection of previously published papers on geographical aspects of migration. The 32 papers included are organized into three parts. Part 1 is on macro-level aspects, and has sections that attempt to answer the questions: Does migration take place in discernible flows? What new flows are developing? Are there regularities in migration patterns? and Are there regularities in migrant characteristics? Part 2 combines macro- and micro-level approaches. Part 3 examines the impacts of migration upon participants, source areas, destination regions, and destination countries.
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, 8 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham, Gloucester GL50 2HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40418 Sivamurthy, M.; Kadi, A. S.; Madagi, S. B. Method for estimating the under-reporting of migrants in census data: illustrated with Indian data. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1995. 107-19 pp. Alberta, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The present paper suggests that an examination of the sex ratios of migrants by duration of stay at the place of enumeration, could reveal the occurrence of...under-reporting of migrants of one sex in comparison with the reporting of the migrants of the other sex. A method is presented for estimating the extent of the under-reporting....Migration data from the Indian censuses are analyzed and it is shown that male migrants have been under-reported in relation to the reporting of female migrants, and the under-reporting increases with increase in the duration of stay of migrants. The extent of the under-reporting of male migrants is estimated assuming that the reporting of the female migrants is complete. However, it must be noted that female migrants themselves might have been under-reported to some extent and hence the estimated under-reporting should be taken as an estimate of relative under-reporting of male migrants."
Correspondence: M. Sivamurthy, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

62:40419 Baganha, Maria I. B. Portuguese emigration trends in the twentieth century and their impact on the national economy. [As correntes emigratórias portuguesas no século XX e o seu impacto na economia nacional.] Análise Social, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1994. 959-80 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por.
Trends in emigration from Portugal are reviewed over the course of the twentieth century. Particular attention is given to the impact of emigration on Portugal's economy. The author concludes that Portuguese emigration during this century consisted essentially of persons with little or no professional or technical qualifications, and that its net effect on the Portuguese economy seems to have been positive rather than negative.
Correspondence: M. I. B. Baganha, Universidade de Coimbra, Faculdade de Economia, Avenida Dias da Silva 165, 3000 Coimbra, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40420 Beck, Roy. The case against immigration: the moral, economic, social, and environmental reasons for reducing U. S. immigration back to traditional levels. ISBN 0-393-03915-3. LC 95-51128. 1996. 287 pp. W. W. Norton: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This book makes the case against maintaining current levels of immigration to the United States. The author argues that current immigration policy primarily benefits a small minority of wealthy and powerful Americans at the expense of significant segments of the middle class and poor. The case is made for reducing numbers of legal immigrants, which in turn will reduce levels of illegal immigration. The author also asserts that large-scale immigration plays a significant role in depressing real wages for native workers, increases disparities between rich and poor, helps drive black Americans out of skilled trades into poverty, and contributes to crime and social disintegration in the cities. He concludes that the United States needs substantially fewer than 100,000 immigrants a year, but that 250,000 might be a more realistic target in view of humanitarian and other considerations.
Correspondence: W. W. Norton, 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40421 Benencia, Roberto; Gazzotti, Alejandro. Frontier migration and employment: facts and questions. [Migración limítrofe y empleo: precisiones e interrogantes.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 10, No. 31, Dec 1995. 573-611 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Frontier labor migration in Argentina is closely linked with poverty and social exclusion....The first part of this article concerns the impact of frontier migrants in the urban labor market on the basis of information collected by the Permanent Household Survey (EPH) in October 1993 and October 1994 in Greater Buenos Aires area, where, as per the last Population Census, over 50% of residents from frontier countries are settled. The second part focuses on the case study of Bolivian migrant workers who have found their own place in Argentine markets...in the field of vegetable-growing in the green belts surrounding bigger cities, sometimes including peddling of their product in urban areas by female family members."
Correspondence: R. Benencia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Laborales, Calle Viamonte 430/444, 1053 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40422 Bhagwati, Jagdish; Rao, Milind. The U.S. brain gain--at the expense of blacks? Challenge, Vol. 39, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 50-4 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
"Immigration has become a lightning rod of anger in the United States. [The authors] argue that one aspect of the debate is misplaced. Foreign Ph.D. students, they say, do not keep minorities out of doctoral programs in the United States."
Correspondence: J. Bhagwati, Columbia University, Department of Economics, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:40423 Blion, Reynald. From Ivory Coast to Italy. Burkina Faso migration patterns and national interests. [De la Côte-d'Ivoire à l'Italie. Pratiques migratoires des Burkinabè et logiques d'états.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 33, No. 121, Mar 1996. 47-69 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Ivory Coast represents nowadays the first immigration country of West Africa....The movement of Burkinabè migrants [from Burkina Faso], Bissa in particular, from Ivory Coast to Italy does not improve the fundamental instability....Italian restrictive immigration policy, at the beginning of the 1990s, in accordance with [the] Schengen agreement, has progressively prevented Burkinabè immigrants from obtaining a regular status, which would assure them of basic rights....New Italian laws, like the French immigration policy of the mid 1970s, are in fact discouraging return migration and fostering stable migration with the relevant integration policy for those, a small number indeed, who are granted a residence permit."
Correspondence: R. Blion, Université de Paris I, Centre d'Etudes Démographiques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40424 Bommes, Michael; Scherr, Albert. Migration and the third-world movement. [Migration und Dritte-Welt-Bewegung.] Forschungsjournal Neue Soziale Bewegungen, No. 3, Sep 1994. 99-110 pp. Opladen, Germany. In Ger.
The authors discuss the third-world movement's use of migration issues, particularly the technique of using European fear of migration from the South to frighten the North into helping those in poor countries. It is argued that a more fact-based view of migration is needed.
Correspondence: M. Bommes, Universität Osnabrück, Institut für Migrationsforschung und Interkulturelle Studien, Neuer Graben/Schloss, 4500 Osnabrück, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40425 Bonifazi, Corrado. Size and characteristics of foreign immigration in Italy. Labour, Vol. 8, No. 1, Spring 1994. 173-90 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"During the 1980s, Italy radically changed its position in the international migration system, from supplier of labour to user of foreign labour. But the nature of Italian immigration is different from that which has marked the post-war process of European development: new immigration flows are no longer an instrument of quantitative rebalancing of labour markets, but instead acquire a function of qualitative rebalancing in sectors where there appears to be a lack of labour supply in particular jobs and qualifications. This paper combines the information available from official sources with those obtainable by the numerous special surveys which have been carried [out]...in the last few years. This framework allows us to underline--even with the limitations due to still-backward documentation--the characteristics of present immigration, by now firmly rooted in the country but still far from reaching a stable and definitive arrangement."
Correspondence: C. Bonifazi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

62:40426 Bouvier, Leon F.; Poston, Dudley L.; Zhai, Nanbin B. Zero net international migration: what does it really mean? Backgrounder, No. 1-95, Jul 1995. 7 pp. Center for Immigration Studies: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The idea of `zero net migration' is gaining increasing currency. It has been assumed that if there is balance between the number of immigrants and emigrants, migration will have no impact on a country's population size. However, this article demonstrates that zero net migration is not necessarily the same as zero migration, and can result in a higher population than would have occurred without any migration at all." The examples of Germany and the United States are presented.
Correspondence: Center for Immigration Studies, 1815 H Street NW, Suite 1010, Washington, D.C. 20006-3604. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40427 Bratsberg, Bernt; Terrell, Dek. Where do Americans live abroad? International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, Fall 1996. 788-802 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the factors that influence emigration of U.S. citizens. Data from a 1993 survey administered by the U.S. Department of State as part of an evacuation requirements report form the basis for the empirical analysis. The empirical analysis explains the distribution of U.S. citizens residing in 65 foreign countries in terms of economic and political characteristics of the foreign states. The study finds that U.S. citizens are more likely to reside in rich and close countries than in distant and poor countries and that the foreign country's ties to the U.S. immigrant population and the use of the English language are important determinants of where Americans settle abroad. Political conditions and U.S. military presence also influence the choice of foreign residence."
Correspondence: B. Bratsberg, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40428 Calavita, Kitty. Italy and the new immigration. In: Controlling immigration: a global perspective, edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Philip L. Martin, and James F. Hollifield. 1994. 303-26 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the new immigration to Italy and the responses to it on the part of both the government and various sectors of Italian society. A premise of this analysis is that this immigration is labor migration. Most of the immigrants come from Africa, Asia, and other developing countries, primarily for economic reasons. Therefore, this chapter focuses on the economic factors that made such workers needed in the Italian economy. In addition, it examines the ideological, cultural, and political context in an effort to shed light on the distinctive nature of Italy's response to the new immigration."
Correspondence: K. Calavita, University of California, Department of Criminology/Law and Society, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40429 Canny, Nicholas. Europeans on the move: studies on European migration, 1500-1800. ISBN 0-19-820419-1. LC 93-47546. 1994. xii, 329 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of 10 essays on aspects of migration in Europe in the past. It is a product of a symposium held in Dublin, Ireland, June 14-16, 1990. The papers are divided into three sections: the early experience, including the medieval period; migration from the three kingdoms (England, Scotland, and Ireland) in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; and continental European migration (involving the Netherlands, Germany, and France). The focus is on the major intercontinental migrations involving Europeans from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40430 Clark, W. A. V. Scale effects in international migration to the United States. Regional Studies, Vol. 30, No. 6, Oct 1996. 589-600 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
This study concerns regional variability in flows of international migration to the United States. Specifically, the author focuses on "the geographic concentration of flows by examining the variation in the characteristics of the flows to the largest immigrant states. The flows are analysed by country of origin and by age, skill levels and labour force participation. The paper also examines flows at a finer scale to counties within the largest receiving state, California. Just as across states in the United States, the variations across counties within California create disproportionate effects on particular localities. The paper documents the range of regional and local variation and argues that the scale effects are likely to increase because future flows are more likely to be dominated by network flows than by employment opportunities."
Correspondence: W. A. V. Clark, University of California, Department of Geography, 1158 Bunche Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1524. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:40431 Clarke, Harry. Australian and Canadian labour-cum-capital migrations: push factors, causality and the role of U.S. labour intakes. Schools of Economics and Commerce Discussion Papers, Series A, No. 95.07, ISBN 0-85816-998-3. Feb 1995. 38 pp. La Trobe University, School of Commerce: Bundoora, Australia. In Eng.
"Australian and Canadian labour and capital migrations are considered after about 1870. One issue is the extent to which `push' and `pull' mechanisms have stimulated factor migrations. Close relations between different factor flows to a given destination are consistent both with one factor chasing the other, with common business cycle effects and in the longer-term, with each factor jointly pursuing other undervalued resources. Relations between labour flows to different destinations suggests more weight should be placed on `push' influences than has been traditional. While both Australia and Canada have long experienced substantial `push' labour migrations the role (since the 1950s) of the U.S. as a competing destination has substantially impacted on these intakes and reduced national autonomy with respect to management of these movements."
Correspondence: La Trobe University, School of Commerce, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40432 Clarke, Harry. United Kingdom labour emigration and capital exports 1816-1991. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1996. 233-56 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper is concerned primarily with examining the nature of linkages between capital and labour emigration from the U.K. We also consider whether the primary impulses for emigration were push or pull influences--the main intent is to look at the relation between the flows rather than the determinants of either. The nature of the capital-labour link is examined qualitatively using historical argument and quantitatively using statistical tests and causality analysis. The starting time for analysis is the end of the Napoleonic Wars when useful data became available."
Correspondence: H. Clarke, La Trobe University, Department of Economics, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40433 Condon, Stephanie A.; Ogden, Philip E. Questions of emigration, circulation and return: mobility between the French Caribbean and France. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1996. 35-50 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"The last four decades have seen the establishment of close migratory links between the French Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe and the metropole....The present paper focuses on the...complex migratory links--including continuing emigration from the islands for work and education, return migration and circulation--which have come to characterise the 1980s....The paper aims also to contribute to the broader conceptualisation of migration and mobility. The principal conclusions reveal that the more straightforward labour migration of the years from 1963 to 1981 has been replaced by some considerable return migration (amongst young adults particularly) and circulation....The paper also demonstrates that the role of migration in reducing population growth and fertility in the islands has been much altered during the course of the 1980s."
Correspondence: S. A. Condon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40434 Cornelius, Wayne A.; Martin, Philip L.; Hollifield, James F. Controlling immigration: a global perspective. ISBN 0-8047-2497-0. LC 94-40568. 1994. xiv, 442 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
"This book reports the work of an interdisciplinary research team of immigration specialists, based in the Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies at the University of California, San Diego from 1990 through 1993....[It] is a systematic, comparative study of immigration policy and policy outcomes in nine industrialized democracies: the United States, Canada, Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Japan." The book has two interrelated hypotheses. The first is that there is a growing similarity among the industrialized, labor-importing countries as regards policy, policy effectiveness, immigrant assimilation, and public reactions to immigration; the second is that the growing gap between the goals of immigration policy and the actual results of such policies is also common to these countries.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40435 Cornelius, Wayne A. Japan: the illusion of immigration control. In: Controlling immigration: a global perspective, edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Philip L. Martin, and James F. Hollifield. 1994. 375-410 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
Japan, until recently, has been a significant exception among the industrialized countries in that its export-oriented manufacturers have built up consistent trade surpluses and given Japan a high per-capita gross national product with little or no reliance on foreign labor. The author describes the demographic and economic forces that are now transforming Japan into a major labor-importing country. These factors include below-replacement fertility and consequent demographic aging, the exhaustion of domestic labor reserves, changing lifestyles and attitudes toward manual work, the length of the current economic boom, and the strength of the yen. Three tenets of Japanese immigration policy are identified: "(1) foreign workers can be admitted only as a last resort; (2) no unskilled foreign workers are to be admitted; and (3) all foreign workers are short-term `guests' in Japan--not potential permanent settlers. [The author] shows how all three of these supposedly inviolable principles have been eroded by current de facto immigration policies. Moreover, employer sanctions introduced in 1990 to curb hiring of unauthorized foreign workers (virtually all of whom are visa overstayers) are rarely enforced."
Correspondence: W. A. Cornelius, University of California, Department of Political Science, 13333 Landfair Road, San Diego, CA 92130. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40436 Cornelius, Wayne A. Spain: the uneasy transition from labor exporter to labor importer. In: Controlling immigration: a global perspective, edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Philip L. Martin, and James F. Hollifield. 1994. 331-69 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
The author examines how the changes in international migration patterns that occurred between the 1970s and the 1980s have affected Spain. During that time, the country changed from a country of emigration to one of immigration. The focus is on the government's efforts to preserve legal access for the foreign workers on which major parts of its economy depend, while not allowing illegal immigration to get out of control and fuel the kinds of anti-immigrant political movements that are flourishing in some other European countries.
Correspondence: W. A. Cornelius, University of California, Department of Political Science, 13333 Landfair Road, San Diego, CA 92130. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40437 Delaunay, Daniel. Migrating women: Mexican women in the United States. [Mujeres migrantes: las mexicanas en Estados Unidos.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 10, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1995. 607-50, 742 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This analysis considers some aspects of the international migration of Mexican women, seen under the light of two recent statistical sources: the [U.S.] 1990 census and the 1993-1994...International Migration Survey at the Mexican Northern Border. The joint analysis of migrations and migrant inventories reveals the hidden scope of feminine exile, as well as some of its peculiarities, and offers numerical answers to two questions: How does sex differentiate Mexican immigrants in the United States? How does the migration affect work, marriage, child-bearing, etc. of Mexican women? The results suggest the need to address migration no longer as an action of individuals, but of families (most immigrants are married), and to place the mother or the wife at the gravity center of the household migratory space."
Correspondence: D. Delaunay, Institut Français de Recherche pour le Développement en Coopération, 24 rue Bayard, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40438 DeVoretz, Don J. Diminishing returns: the economics of Canada's recent immigration policy. Policy Study, No. 24, ISBN 0-88806-365-2. Jan 1995. vi, 381 pp. C. D. Howe Institute: Toronto, Canada; Laurier Institution: Vancouver, Canada. Distributed by Renouf Publishing, 1294 Algoma Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1B 3W8, Canada. In Eng.
This volume consists of 12 papers by various authors on aspects of immigration to Canada. It is a product of a recent conference entitled New Issues in the Economics of Immigration. The focus is on the shift that has occurred over the past 20 years in the countries of origin of immigrants, from developed to developing countries, and on the shift that has taken place from independent migration to family reunification. "The results indicate that immigration is still providing positive net returns to the Canadian economy: immigrant households contribute to the Canadian treasury, do not overuse the social security net, and continue to save more than Canadian-born households. Yet there is evidence that these returns are diminishing, which, in turn, may affect the ability of certain parts of the country and segments of the labor market to absorb immigrant flows successfully when these are at their peak. The authors make policy recommendations that they believe will help to offset some of the worrisome trends they see developing."
Correspondence: C. D. Howe Institute, 125 Adelaide Street East, Toronto, Ontario M5C 1L7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40439 Di Gennaro, Giacomo; Pizzuti, Domenico; Conte, Massimo. Immigration from outside the European Community in Campania: results of empirical research in three provinces. [L'immigrazione extracomunitaria in Campania: risultati di una ricerca empirica in tre province.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 33, No. 122, Jun 1996. 223-71 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The study is based on the results of empirical research and deals with non-European Community immigrants living in Campania [Italy]....The essential aspects analyzed in the study refer to immigrants' motivations, place and country of origin, working conditions at home and in the new environment, [and] characteristics of working activity in Campania. The final part deals with social integration and migrants' relations with local institutions. The specific character of Campanian immigration is for many reasons connected with a widespread irregular economy which deeply affects migrants' personal attitudes and strategies."
Correspondence: G. Di Gennaro, Istituto di Studi e Ricerche Sociali, Facoltà Teologica dell'Italia Meridionale, Naples, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40440 El-Shalakani, Mostafa H.; El-Sabah, Amal Y. A.; Iskander, Mahmoud A. An optimized model for substitution of expatriate workforce in a Gulf-Council country: the Kuwaiti case. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1996. 273-95 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article is based on data from a research project carried out during 1992-1994 to achieve a replacement mechanism and a model for the substitution of expatriate labour by Kuwaiti nationals. Since Kuwait can readily enforce its Kuwaitization policy in the public sector, the presented model aims at reducing the share of non-Kuwaitis in that sector over five years. Published data on distribution of the workforce in the public sector by nationality indicate that the non-Kuwaiti share of the total workforce is 38 per cent. The majority of [migrant] workers are unskilled or semi-skilled and engaged in production, commerce and services. Sex ratios are unbalanced and workers exhibit a high rate of literacy...."
Correspondence: M. H. El-Shalakani, Kuwait University, Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40441 Fakiolas, Rossetos; King, Russell. Emigration, return, immigration: a review and evaluation of Greece's postwar experience of international migration. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jun 1996. 171-90 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper offers a review and evaluation of the Greek experience of international migration....The analysis is based partly on available published data, and partly on qualitative appraisals. Three major international migration phases are analysed--emigration, return migration and immigration--and the main socio-economic and cultural effects of these migration trends are discussed. The paper pays particular attention to the recent mass immigration movements, noting their heterogeneity...and describing their impact on the Greek labour market. The article concludes with some comments on the difficulties of formulating a Greek migration policy in the light of the country's location, open borders and internationalized economy."
Correspondence: R. King, University of Sussex, School of European Studies, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40442 Findlay, Allan M. The future of skill exchanges within the European Union. In: Europe's population: towards the next century, edited by Ray Hall and Paul White. 1995. 130-41 pp. UCL Press: London, England. In Eng.
The author examines why levels of international migration among the member states of the European Union declined during the 1980s despite the adoption of legislation designed to facilitate such migration. "Following a brief literature review, the chapter considers the limited secondary data available on international migration between European Union states. Attention is then focused on the insights that may be gained from recent survey results concerning the organization and behaviour of skilled international migration within the EU." The importance of cultural differences between member states and their effect on skilled migration are stressed.
Correspondence: A. M. Findlay, University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40443 Golini, Antonio. International population movements: imbalances and integration. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 286-302 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Global trends in international migration are analyzed in the context of underdevelopment, international inequalities, and the process of growing international political and social integration. The author concludes that developed countries must attempt to manage immigration rather than prohibit it, and to strive for full integration of those immigrants who are admitted.
Correspondence: A. Golini, Università degli Studi di Roma la Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40444 Gozálvez Pérez, Vicente. Foreign immigration in Spain (1985-1994). [L'immigration étrangère en Espagne (1985-1994).] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1996. 11-38 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"During the decade 1985-94, Spain [has had]...some growing and unexpected flows of foreign immigrations. The tradition of emigration of Spanish people, some grave difficulties of [the] employment market in the country, irregular entrance of workers from developing countries, the fear of a very rapid growth of these immigrants, the instability and marginality of their work, and the agreement of Spain in the European Union have led the government to develop an active migratory policy, first against the illegal flows and, more recently, in direction of the integration of immigrants in Spanish society....The article analyzes main features from some different groups of foreign workers, and in particular Africans: spatial repartition, demographic profile, migratory strategies and trajectories, uneasy insertion in the national employment market, and draws lastly the main features of the Spanish migratory policy."
Correspondence: V. Gozálvez Pérez, Universidad de Alicante, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Apartado Correos 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40445 Guibentif, Pierre. Portugal in the face of immigration. [Le Portugal face à l'immigration.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1996. 121-39 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The relatively recent phenomenon of migration into Portugal is broken down into three components: foreign immigrants, return of emigrants, and repatriation of those from the old African colonies in Angola and Mozambique. Changes in the flow of migrants since 1960 are noted, and the economic and social situation of the various groups of immigrants is examined. Changes in public policies aimed at addressing migration-related issues are also discussed.
Correspondence: P. Guibentif, Universidade Autônoma de Lisboa, Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa, Avenida Das Forças Armadas, 1600 Lisbon, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40446 Hamilton, Nora; Chinchilla, Norma S. Global economic restructuring and international migration: some observations based on the Mexican and Central American experience. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1996. 195-231 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between processes of global economic restructuring and international migration through an examination of Mexican and Central American immigration to the U.S. and the experiences of Central American and Mexican immigrants in the U.S. This relationship is analysed as one of mutual causation: on the one hand, global restructuring affects conditions in both sending and receiving countries (it is not only a factor in emigration but also in the economic and political receptivity to immigrants at their point of destination); on the other, international migration in turn has an important impact on countries of origin, receiving countries, and the relationship between them."
Correspondence: N. Hamilton, University of Southern California, Department of Political Science, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40447 Healy, Ernest. Welfare benefits and residential concentrations amongst recently-arrived migrant communities. People and Place, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1996. 20-31 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Despite some improvement since the early 1990s, high proportions of recently-arrived migrants [in Australia] remain dependent on unemployment benefits. Contrary to most analysts' expectations, there is evidence that disadvantaged migrants are becoming more, rather than less, residentially concentrated."
Correspondence: E. Healy, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40448 Hollifield, James F. Immigration and republicanism in France: the hidden consensus. In: Controlling immigration: a global perspective, edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Philip L. Martin, and James F. Hollifield. 1994. 143-75 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
The author first notes that, despite the growing anti-immigration rhetoric in France and the rise in political parties opposed to immigration, actual levels of immigration have not fallen below 100,000 a year since the early 1950s, the right to asylum has been respected, and liberal naturalization policies have been maintained. He concludes that this has been possible because of the importance of immigration to the republican synthesis, which developed over the 20 years preceding World War I, and the development over time of France as a country of immigrants. "The argument made here is that the more closely associated immigration is with the political myths that legitimate and give life to the regime, the easier it is for the state to justify its immigration and refugee policies and to manage the ethnic or distributional conflicts that often arise as a result of immigration."
Correspondence: J. F. Hollifield, Auburn University, Department of Political Science, Auburn, AL 36849. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40449 Huddle, Donald L. The net national costs of illegal immigration into the United States. Current World Leaders, Vol. 38, No. 2, Apr 1995. 11-34 pp. Santa Barbara, California. In Eng.
"This article examines the major economic pros and cons of illegal immigration and answers the question: what, if any, are the public and private costs of illegal immigration in the United States? In brief, the article finds that between four and 5.4 million illegal immigrants reside here....The article also finds that illegal immigrants and their own citizen children cost taxpayers an additional $12 to $16.2 billion annually for education, public services, and incarceration after deducting all local, state, and federal taxes paid in by them. In the private sector, illegal aliens are found to save their employers and owners of capital about $1.5 billion more than U.S. workers lose due to wage depression. The article also considers what legal and enforcement reforms would be necessary to dramatically slow the current flow of 300,000 illegals yearly and concludes that, although improvements in the system are now being proposed, the actual reforms will be insufficient to more than stem the currently rising tide of illegals due to economic instability in Mexico and the Third World."
Correspondence: D. L. Huddle, Rice University, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251. Source: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40450 Hugo, Graeme. Asia on the move: research challenges for population geography. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jun 1996. 95-118 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
This paper "summarises some of the major changes which have occurred in international migration to, from, and within Asia in the last two decades....A number of theoretical challenges are put forward regarding the complex interrelationships between international population movements, economic development and social change. The employment of systems approaches, neoclassical economic theory, social networks and institutional approaches, and the potential role of population geography in developing a more comprehensive explanation of the changing dynamics of international migration in the region, are discussed. Also considered are the gender dimension in migration, remittance flows and their consequences, and policy issues."
Correspondence: G. Hugo, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, G.P.O. Box 498, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40451 Iacovetta, Franca; Quinlan, Michael. Immigration and labor: Australia and Canada compared. [Inmigración y trabajo: Australia y Canadá comparados.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 10, No. 30, Aug 1995. 277-98 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Australia and Canada share...a common colonial history and many similarities in geography, economy, demography, etc., as well as a substantial anti-non anglo-celtic immigrant tradition, in spite of their being immigration countries. Those similarities and differences are analyzed here, as far as labor migration and relationships between immigrant and local labor are concerned. The arrival of European labor first, Asian later, was perceived similarly by both Australia and Canada, combining racial prejudice and unions' hostility towards contract labor migration as well as towards assisted migration. The evolution of those difficult relations through the 19th and 20th centuries is analyzed here."
Correspondence: F. Iacovetta, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40452 Irbec, Yusuf Z. Turkish immigrants in Western Europe: with reference to the German case. [Gli immigrati turchi nell'Europa occidentale con particolare riferimento alla Germania.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 33, No. 121, Mar 1996. 71-84 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The export of surplus manpower to Western Europe has been an important feature of the Turkish employment policy since the 1960s....Professional education, set up in the receiving countries for foreign workers, has played a vital role on the employment opportunities. This is particularly the case of Germany, where the greatest number of Turkish immigrants have settled. Second generation children of Turkish descent are in fact more and more encouraged to attend professional schools, since the German young generation aims at higher sectors of employment."
Correspondence: Y. Z. Irbec, Bilkent University, 06533 Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40453 Isbister, John. The immigration debate: remaking America. ISBN 1-56549-053-3. LC 95-20519. 1996. viii, 262 pp. Kumarian Press: West Hartford, Connecticut. In Eng.
This book is intended as a defense of current levels of immigration to the United States. It begins with a history of U.S. immigration and continues by reviewing the characteristics of current immigrants and their reasons for coming to the United States. The demographic, economic, and socio-cultural impacts of immigration on the United States are then assessed. Finally, some moral aspects of the immigration debate are reviewed. The focus is on defining what levels and qualities of immigrants are desirable, and on outlining the policies that can help achieve the best levels of immigration for the United States.
Correspondence: Kumarian Press, 14 Oakwood Avenue, West Hartford, CT 06119-2127. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40454 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). 1994 immigrants from former USSR by last republic of residence and by selected demographic characteristics. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 46, No. 9, Suppl., Sep 1995. 73-104 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
The demographic characteristics of recent immigrants who came to Israel from the former Soviet Union in 1994 are described. The emphasis is on differences in these characteristics by republic of former residence.
For a similar report concerning 1993, see 62:20492.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 13015, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40455 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Households of immigrants from USSR who arrived in Israel in October-December 1990: a follow-up survey, three years after immigration. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 46, No. 12, Suppl., Dec 1995. 131-90 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
Data on the characteristics of immigrant households from the former Soviet Union who arrived in Israel in the last quarter of 1990 are presented. The data are from a sample survey carried out in 1994, which included interviews with about 3,200 immigrants. The focus of the survey is on the absorption of immigrants into the labor force.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 13015, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40456 Jones, Philip N. Immigrants, Germans and national identity in the new Germany: some policy issues. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jun 1996. 119-31 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper considers how the role and status of Germany's diverse immigrant population has been affected by its new geopolitical situation, in particular unification, since 1989....The paper shows how the integration prospects for Germany's older immigrant populations have been dented by the combination of economic restructuring and a huge upsurge in new types of immigration. Prominent among the latter are ethnic German resettlers (or Aussiedler), and the paper examines how these immigrants find themselves in a weak position....The paper concludes that, although there would appear to be no major labour shortages within the economy, Germany has to develop a more extensive range of migration policies to cater for the huge demand for economically motivated migration. The alternative will inevitably be a further growth in illegal migration, which would not be helpful to the position of established immigrant populations."
Correspondence: P. N. Jones, University of Hull, School of Geography and Earth Resources, Hull HU6 7RX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40457 Kiefl, Walter. Bibliography on the integration of ethnic German immigrants into Germany. [Bibliographie zur Integration von Aussiedlern in Deutschland.] Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 86, 1996. 95 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
This unannotated bibliography lists works dealing with the integration of ethnic Germans who have emigrated from Eastern Europe to Germany. The citations, which are arranged alphabetically by author, include books, journal and newspaper articles, research reports, and other materials. Emphasis is on the years after 1985. A keyword index and a list of addresses for organizations working in this field are provided.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40458 Li, F. L. N.; Findlay, A. M.; Jowett, A. J.; Skeldon, R. Migrating to learn and learning to migrate: a study of the experiences and intentions of international student migrants. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1996. 51-67 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"The research reported here evaluates whether students come to the UK mainly for educational reasons, and therefore perceive their stay as temporary, or whether emigration for study is being used as part of a conscious strategy by people intending to become future labour migrants....The simplest interpretation of the results appears to be that migration, experienced as a result of international moves for study purposes, does not influence planning of further migration moves. But the research also indicates that migration for education is closely tied to other types of population redistribution and should be treated by population geographers as an integral part of international migration systems." Data were collected by questionnaire survey from 349 engineering students at Hong Kong universities and 82 Hong Kong students studying engineering in the United Kingdom.
Correspondence: F. L. N. Li, University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40459 Lindstrom, David P. Economic opportunity in Mexico and return migration from the United States. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 3, Aug 1996. 357-74 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"I analyze the influence of the economic characteristics of origin area on trip duration for Mexican migrants in the United States. I argue that migrants from economically dynamic areas in Mexico with favorable opportunities for employment and small capital investment have a larger incentive to stay in the United States longer and to withstand the psychic costs of separation from family and friends than do migrants from economically stagnant areas in Mexico, where the productive uses of savings are severely limited. In line with this argument we should expect investment opportunities in migrants' origin areas to be associated positively with migrants' trip duration in the United States. To test this hypothesis I use individual- and household-level data on U.S. migration experience collected in 13 Mexican communities. Evidence from parametric hazards models supports the idea that economic characteristics of origin areas influence the motivations and strategies of Mexican migrants in the United States."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. P. Lindstrom, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40460 López, Bernabé. North African migration to Spain: the return of the Moors. [Inmigración magrebí en España: el retorno de los Moriscos.] Colección el Magreb, ISBN 84-7100-610-3. 1993. 427 pp. Editorial MAPFRE: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is a collection of studies by various authors on current migration trends from Northern Africa to Spain. The first part examines the settlement and integration of immigrants from Morocco. The second part examines migration from Northern Africa as a whole. It is noted that the geographical distribution of this migrant population in Spain is similar to that of the Moorish population before its expulsion from Spain in the sixteenth century. However, the modern immigration is identified as economic in nature and is associated with Spain's joining the European Community.
Correspondence: Editorial MAPFRE, Paseo de Recoletos 25, 28004 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40461 Mackie, Gerry. Frustration and preference change in international migration. Archives Européennes de Sociologie, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1995. 185-208 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This article seeks an answer to the question: given the immense economic incentive to migrate from a poor country to a rich country, why, in many cases, do so few migrate, and why, in some cases, do so many migrate?" The logic of relative frustration is applied to the analysis of migration in order to challenge the view that limited immigration serves a beneficial safety-valve function. The point is illustrated using data from sending villages in Mexico. The author examines the concept of relative deprivation in the context of international migration and discusses the concept of adaptive preferences and models of the interaction between desire and opportunity. The author concludes that "migration does not occur in the absence of initial opportunity, but that once begun the migration process itself increases both the opportunity and the desire to migrate."
Correspondence: G. Mackie, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:40462 Mammey, Ulrich; Schiener, Rolf. The repatriate panel of the German Federal Institute for Population Research--methodological considerations on its representativeness. [Das BiB-Aussiedlerpanel--methodische Überlegungen zur Repräsentativität.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1996. 145-70 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The panel study of ethnic Germans of the Federal Institute for Population Research began with 1,200 representatively selected households, the members of which had in-migrated to Germany since 1989....Due to high geographical mobility, the addresses of only 600 households were known at the time of the second round of interviews three years later. Of these, 531 were suitable for the purpose of direct comparison with the original sample. The objective of this comparison is to demonstrate that the follow-up survey remains representative, despite the high degree of panel mortality. The results show that the validity of the data is not impaired by the loss of addresses."
Correspondence: U. Mammey, Statistisches Bundesamt, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40463 Martin, Philip. Migration poses major challenge for the Americas. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, Vol. 10, No. 3, Fall 1995. 66-71 pp. Knoxville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The author discusses the impact of immigration to the United States. Aspects considered include changes in the number of immigrants over time; illegal migration; migration policy; economic impacts of immigration; and immigrant assimilation and mobility.
Correspondence: P. Martin, University of California, Department of Agricultural Economics, Davis, CA 95616-8512. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40464 Martin, Philip L. Germany: reluctant land of immigration. In: Controlling immigration: a global perspective, edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Philip L. Martin, and James F. Hollifield. 1994. 189-225 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
Immigration trends affecting Germany in the period since World War II are the subject of this chapter, the focus being on the contrast between Germany's stated policy that it is not a country of immigration and the fact that it has developed into a major country of actual immigration. The policies that gave rise to the current situation, including the guest-worker and asylum policies as well as policies guaranteeing the right of return to those of German ethnic origin, are described. Germany's attempts to encourage the return of immigrants to their countries of origin, and its efforts to assimilate those who remain, are also discussed.
Correspondence: P. L. Martin, University of California, Department of Agricultural Economics, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40465 Matloff, Norman. How immigration harms minorities. Public Interest, No. 124, Summer 1996. 61-71 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author makes the case that minorities in particular are adversely affected by the current high levels of immigration to the United States."Handled in a sensible manner, immigration adds vigor to our society, broadens our world view, and simply makes America a more interesting place. But our current policy is an illogical hodgepodge in need of reform. Immigration is not the sole root of our problems, but it is certainly exacerbating them and, worse, making them increasingly difficult to solve. Like anything else, it is harmful to have too much of a good thing."
Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

62:40466 Messina, Anthony M. The impacts of postwar migration to Western Europe. Current World Leaders, Vol. 38, No. 2, Apr 1995. 88-101 pp. Santa Barbara, California. In Eng.
"This essay identifies and analyzes the four most important impacts of postwar migration to Western Europe. First, early postwar immigration facilitated the rapid and sustained expansion of the domestic economy. Second, it eventually precipitated major changes in domestic immigration and citizenship regimes. Third, the influx of millions of immigrants, refugees, asylees, and migrant workers profoundly and permanently altered the social and cultural bases of West European societies. And finally, postwar immigration exacerbated the social tensions that helped to undermine the consensual foundations of the postwar political order."
Correspondence: A. M. Messina, Tufts University, Department of Political Science, Medford, MA 02155. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40467 Misiti, Maura; Muscarà, Calogero; Pumares, Pablo; Rodriguez, Vicente; White, Paul. Future migration into Southern Europe. In: Europe's population: towards the next century, edited by Ray Hall and Paul White. 1995. 161-87 pp. UCL Press: London, England. In Eng.
The changing patterns of international migration affecting the countries of Southern Europe are reviewed. The authors note that, over the past decade, the migration balance of these countries has shifted from emigration to immigration, and they examine the political and economic factors related to this change. Possible future migration trends are then considered, focusing on the specific cases of Italy and Spain. The authors conclude that "demographic change, labour force evolution, economic restructuring, public opinion and governmental initiatives will all play vital roles in the future development of immigration scenarios. Throughout southern Europe economic growth at the turn of the twenty-first century will be based on smaller production units than were operative during the great period of migration to northwest Europe in the early post-war years, and in this post-industrial situation of diffused economic growth the relations between economic change and immigration will be complex and two-way in nature."
Correspondence: M. Misiti, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40468 Mita, Chiyoko. Eighty years of Japanese immigration in Brazil. [Ochenta años de inmigración japonesa en el Brasil.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 10, No. 30, Aug 1995. 431-52 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Japanese emigration to Brazil started in 1908 with some eight hundred subsidized contract workers for coffee plantations. Hard conditions made many of them flee, and the paulista government suppressed subsidies for these projects; however, the Japanese emigration to Brazil kept on under Japanese subsidies from 1925 until 1934 when Brazil imposed immigration quotas unfavorable to Japanese immigration. International circumstances in the late 1930s and local prohibition on the use of the Japanese language in Brazil caused many immigrants to return to Japan between 1939-1941. Emigration to Brazil restarted as diplomatic relations between Japan and Brazil were reestablished in 1952 but decreased in the late 1960s. Subsequent economic evolution in both countries caused Japanese emigrants in Brazil and their [descendants] to initiate dekasegui [labor] migration from Brazil to Japan as from the late 1980s."
Correspondence: C. Mita, Sophia University, Chiyoda-ku, Kioicho 7-1, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40469 Musterd, Sako; Muus, Philip. Immigration--mismatches in labour, housing and space: the effects of immigration of several nationalities with regard to the Netherlands. Applied Geography, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jul 1995. 279-96 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In the Netherlands, the sharp recent increase of the number of refugee immigrants (asylum seekers) runs parallel to increased numbers of immigrants of other types. Therefore, at least five types of immigrants should still be distinguished (labour migrants, migrants from former colonies, from EU countries, from other rich countries, and asylum seekers). Their spatial orientation in the Netherlands (urban, suburban, rural), by choice or by constraint, is the main focus of this study. The outcomes of the immigration processes have been confronted with general and spatial characteristics of the labour market and housing market. Matches and mismatches are discussed."
Correspondence: S. Musterd, University of Amsterdam, Department of Human Geography, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:40470 Pereira, Pedro T. Portuguese emigration 1958-1985: some empirical evidence. Empirical Economics, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1994. 647-57 pp. Heidelberg, Germany. In Eng.
"Supplying work in the home country or abroad must be seen as the result of the same decisional process. If that is true, the same set of variables should be used to explain the participation in the labor market and the emigration rates. Based upon empirical results [for Portuguese emigrants], we discuss some of the traditional conclusions of the economic literature. Our empirical results, for example, show that: (1) there is...strong support for considering home wages and the wages in the country of destination asymmetrically, (2) imperfections in the capital markets seem to play an important role when workers must pay for their moving expenses and (3) there is a differential in coefficients between the period before 1974 and after that date, as 1974 is the year most of the Central European countries changed their immigration policies."
Correspondence: P. T. Pereira, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia, Trav. Estevão Pinto, 1000 Lisbon, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40471 Pérez Molina, Rafael. The interrelation of cultural and occupational aspects in the integration of immigrants. [La interrelación de los aspectos culturales y laborales en la integración de los inmigrantes.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 33, No. 121, Mar 1996. 85-104 pp. Rome, Italy. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The study deals with immigrants' integration process in western societies and the ensuing relationship between cultural and economic aspects. Receiving countries are inclined to classify immigrants according to their ethnic origins. This policy is bound to have major consequences not only on social but also on occupational levels. Ethnicity deeply affects the labour-market and is responsible for a negative influence on the general integration process."
Correspondence: R. Pérez Molina, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40472 Portes, Alejandro. The economic sociology of immigration: essays on networks, ethnicity, and entrepreneurship. ISBN 0-87154-682-5. LC 94-20933. 1995. xvi, 310 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This collective work is a product of a project that examined aspects of immigration, ethnicity, and entrepreneurship in the United States from both economic and sociological perspectives. "The introductory chapter provides an overview of recent conceptual developments in economic sociology and the sociology of immigration and some of their key interlinkages....Chapter 2...explores how social definitions of time and normative expectations about the proper duration of migration episodes affect the economic prospects of immigrants and, in particular, their propensity toward entrepreneurship....Chapter 3 provides a review and critique of orthodox economic perspectives on labor markets and shows how the spatial delimitations that are usually assumed to circumscribe local markets are inappropriate in the case of immigrants whose networks render their perceptions and utilization of space much broader than those usually assumed in the economic literature." The remaining chapters examine aspects of entrepreneurship and acculturation.
Correspondence: Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40473 Pteroudis, Evangelos. Emigration and immigration in Greece: recent trends and political questions. [Emigrations et immigrations en Grèce: évolutions récentes et questions politiques.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1996. 159-89 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa; Ita.
"In order to give an account of the migrations related to Greece, the Greek territory can be characterized by several attributes that account for the way in which a certain form of migration has been understood in relation to this country. Therefore, Greece can be spoken of, not only as a space of work, circulation, settlement, especially for the citizens of the EEC and for clandestine immigrants, but also as a space of retirement, retreat and transit, whether for refugees or for people belonging to a Greek minority....We will attempt a statistical approach of the migratory phenomenon as well as a presentation of the figures for each country of origin, and a global appreciation of the economic and social importance of these migratory movements for Greece." The implications for migration policy are discussed.
Correspondence: E. Pteroudis, Université de Lausanne, Institut de Géographie, Bâtiment des Facultés de Sciences Humaines 2, 1015 Lausanne Dorigny, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40474 Rallu, Jean L. Recent trends in international migration and economic development in the South Pacific. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, Jun 1996. 23-46 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article attempts to estimate the size of the largest flows of migrants in the South Pacific, mainly from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa and Tonga, since 1980. Because the 1980s and early 1990s witnessed important changes in the economic situation and migration policies of developed countries in the Pacific, the article also attempts to determine the consequences of those changes on migration trends, characteristics of migrants, age-structure of island populations and island economies. Finally, it considers whether or not migration will continue to play a role in the future demographic and economic development of Pacific island countries."
Correspondence: J. L. Rallu, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40475 Rapson, Virginia. Welfare payments and New Zealand migration: myth and reality. People and Place, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1996. 34-45 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"There has been much concern about the level of social welfare payments reputedly received by New Zealanders in Australia. Analysis of these payments shows that the recent renegotiation of the Australia and New Zealand Social Security Agreement will shift much of the financial burden to the New Zealand Government. Recent migration patterns show increasing shares of non-New Zealand-born persons and older persons amongst the New Zealand citizens arriving in Australia."
Correspondence: V. Rapson, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Monash, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40476 Robertson, Lawrence R. The ethnic composition of migration in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, Vol. 37, No. 2, Feb 1996. 113-28 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impact of the disintegration of the Soviet Union on migration patterns within the newly independent states. Data on migration between Russia and the other 14 former Soviet republics are analyzed to reveal the magnitude and ethnic composition of migration after independence and to examine the assumption that Russians will tend to return to Russia, whereas members of other titular groups will emigrate to their respective newly independent states. The data suggest that nationalization not only pushes non-titular groups to emigrate from the former Soviet republics, but also pulls titular groups to immigrate to the newly independent states from Russia."
Correspondence: L. R. Robertson, University of Miami, Graduate School of International Studies, Coral Gables, FL 33126. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40477 Roe, Michael. Australia, Britain, and migration, 1915-1940: a study of desperate hopes. Studies in Australian History, ISBN 0-521-46507-9. LC 94-45796. 1995. x, 310 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This is a history of assisted migration from the United Kingdom to Australia in the period between the two world wars. The author examines the different perspectives and objectives of the governments of the two countries, the role of this migration in the British imperial system, and the relative lack of concern by both governments with the welfare of the migrants themselves. The total number of migrants amounted to about half a million.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40478 Sanchez Albornoz, Nicolás. The first transatlantic transfer: Spanish migration to the New World, 1493-1810. [El primer traslado transatlántico: la migración española al Neuvo Mundo, 1493-1810.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 10, No. 31, Dec 1995. 747-58 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The Spanish emigration to America along three centuries divided in two periods of equal length is analyzed. Between 1493 and 1650 roughly four hundred thousand people emigrated, mostly from Andalusia, Extremadura and New Castile....The bulk of emigrants came from urban middle strata and settled in towns. Emigration between 1650 and 1810 is estimated at roughly a quarter million people, whereby military men, colonists and public servants sent at public expense become relevant, as well as merchants travelling on their own....Throughout the three centuries, the emigration of Spaniards was mostly of [a] spontaneous nature."
Correspondence: N. Sanchez Albornoz, New York University, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40479 Schmidt di Friedberg, Ottavia. Migration strategies and ethnic networks compared: the Burkina Faso and Senegalese groups in Italy. [Strategie migratorie e reti etniche a confronto: i burkinabé e i senegalesi in Italia.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 33, No. 121, Mar 1996. 25-46 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"African immigration towards Italy is presented as part of the wider international context. The function of emigration networks is briefly examined. A comparison is made between the Burkinabé and Senegalese groups, the latter being the most important group from West Africa. The different ways of entering the labour market are studied according to the legal situation of migrants (whether regulars or clandestines), the Italian region of settlement, and above all according to the characteristics of the ethnic networks established by the two above-mentioned nationalities....The article shows how the choice of individual or group integration strategies depends both on cultural factors of the society of origin and on the economic and social situation of the Italian region of settlement."
Correspondence: O. Schmidt di Friedberg, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40480 Schwarz, Karl. The number of children of foreigners and their importance for population trends in the old German states. [Die Kinderzahl der Ausländer und ihre Bedeutung für die Bevölkerungsentwicklung in den alten Bundesländern.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996. 57-67 pp. Munich, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The contribution of children born in Germany of foreign nationals to the growth of the foreign population is often overlooked in the debate about immigration issues. Currently, some 100,000 such children are born annually in the old states [states of former West Germany]. Nearly half of them have Turkish parents. The Turks represent the only group, however, for which natural population growth is expected in the long term. Because foreigners living in Germany comprise a young population with a relatively low number of deaths, their numbers are generally rising steadily. Even without further immigration, the proportion of foreigners in the population in Germany is highly likely to rise by 1.5 million over the next 20 years. Should immigration quotas be instituted, this fact would have to be taken into account, as would the expected in-migration of ethnic Germans, the reunion of families and the admission of asylum-seekers."
Correspondence: K. Schwarz, Klopstockstraße 14, 65187 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40481 Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo M. Anxious neighbors: Belgium and its immigrant minorities. In: Controlling immigration: a global perspective, edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Philip L. Martin, and James F. Hollifield. 1994. 237-68 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
The current situation in Belgium concerning immigration is seen as a paradox. "On the one hand, unemployment among native workers and legal immigrants is relatively high, as is anti-immigrant sentiment; on the other, certain sectors of the economy have a continuing need for inexpensive, flexible, low-skilled workers, and their need draws more undocumented migrants. The following pages explore some of the central features in this paradox, as well as the specific regulations and formal and informal strategies for dealing with the problem of undocumented immigrants and asylum seekers. The chapter examines nativistic responses to the problem and explores some likely future scenarios. It concludes with an examination of how `non-policy' becomes policy when dealing with undocumented migrants and asylum seekers."
Correspondence: M. M. Suárez-Orozco, University of California at San Diego, Department of Anthropology, La Jolla, CA 92093. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40482 Tajima, Hisatoshi. The case of Brazilian, Peruvian, Argentine, Bolivian, and Paraguayan labor migrants of Japanese origin in Japan. [El caso de los nikkeis dekaseguis brasileños, peruanos, argentinos, bolivianos y paraguayos en Japon.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 10, No. 30, Aug 1995. 403-29 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Over 190,700 Latin American Dekasegi Nikkeis live currently in Japan. The flow of Dekasegi, or labor migrants, [began] in 1988 and increased dramatically as from 1990 in reaction to new immigration laws in Japan and worsening of economic conditions in Latin American countries. Cultural likeness contributed to attract Nikkeis and their descent to the land of their ancestors. These Dekasegi Nikkeis, especially those coming from Peru, and to a much lesser extent some Bolivians and Paraguayans, have started forming minority ethnic communities bound by cultural networks throughout the country."
Correspondence: H. Tajima, Josai International University, Faculty of Humanities, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40483 Taylor, J. Edward; Arango, Joaquín; Hugo, Graeme; Kouaouci, Ali; Massey, Douglas S.; Pellegrino, Adela. International migration and national development. Population Index, Vol. 62, No. 2, Summer 1996. 181-212 pp. Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"In this review, we examine theories, data, and research on the macroeconomic relationship between international migration and national development in all world regions. Earlier reviews have generally been pessimistic about the prospects for economic development as a result of international migration. Until recently, however, theories and data have not recognized the complex, multifaceted, and often indirect ways that international migration can influence the economic status of households, communities, and nations, and they have generally failed to appreciate how these relationships can change over time. When these complexities are incorporated into theoretical models, research designs, and data collection, a more nuanced and far more positive picture emerges. Given a supportive mix of macroeconomic policies and infrastructure, international migration may function as a dynamic force promoting economic growth and national development, so long as it does not bring about the selective emigration of scarce human capital needed for development at home."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40484 Taylor, J. Edward. Micro economy-wide models for migration and policy analysis: an application to rural Mexico. Development Centre Studies, ISBN 92-64-14687-3. 1995. 87 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Development Centre: Paris, France. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the impact of international migration on the places of migrant origin in developing countries. The author "uses data from rural household and farm surveys to estimate a micro economy-wide model of a typical migrant-sending village and then uses the model to examine the economic impacts of migration. The surveys were undertaken in Mexico....The micro-model used in the estimations is a form of aggregate computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, a modelling structure which is able to capture complex linkages and feedbacks of village production and expenditure. Simulations based on such models are likely to offer a more realistic view of the impacts of policy and market-induced change on village economies."
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Publications Service, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40485 Vernez, Georges; McCarthy, Kevin F. The costs of immigration to taxpayers: toward a uniform accounting framework. Population and Environment, Vol. 18, No. 1, Sep 1996. 9-36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Large scale immigration to the United States and a sluggish national economy have brought to the forefront of the current immigration policy debate, the question of whether immigrants fully pay--in the form of taxes--for the public services they use. Recent estimates of the costs of immigration differ so widely that they have confused rather than enlightened that debate. This paper argues that a uniform accounting framework must be agreed to if future studies are to provide credible and reliable estimates of costs and benefits upon which immigration policy can be formulated. The key conceptual, factual, and accounting issues that are to be addressed for the development of such a framework are outlined."
Correspondence: G. Vernez, RAND, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40486 Waldrauch, Harald. Theories on migration and migration policy. [Theorien zu Migration und Migrationspolitik.] Journal für Sozialforschung, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1995. 27-49 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"In its first part the article gives a short historical overview of theories on migration....The author tries to clarify the term[s]...`migration policy' and...`migration' itself and assesses the usefulness of various migration typologies. The final chapter analyses determinants and trends of migration policies in Europe in the 1990s: the continuing pressures for migration in developing countries, the end of numerous barriers to emigration, the revival of nationalistic concepts of immigration and exclusionary tendencies founded on culturalistic arguments, the process of harmonizing control mechanisms in the European Union, and the influence of international human rights declarations on the formulation of migration policies."
Correspondence: H. Waldrauch, Institut für Höhere Studien, Abteilung Politikwissenschaft, Stumpergasse 56, 1060 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40487 White, Paul; Sporton, Deborah. East-West movement: old barriers, new barriers? In: Europe's population: towards the next century, edited by Ray Hall and Paul White. 1995. 142-60 pp. UCL Press: London, England. In Eng.
The prospects for migration from the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union to Western Europe are examined. "This chapter considers the circumstances that will control such movement, the channels through which flows might occur, and the possible outcomes of both actual and latent demands for movement." The authors conclude that the process of migratory adjustment to the new political, economic, and ethnic realities in Eastern Europe will be a long one. They note that one major result of the changes that have occurred has been the adoption of tighter controls on immigration by the countries of Western Europe. "The irony of the fall of the Iron Curtain is that beforehand the peoples of eastern Europe had no freedom to leave their own countries: now they have that freedom they have nowhere to go. In a decade's time we may look back on the early 1990s as a period of relative openness of the whole of Europe before the controls are reimposed from a different direction."
Correspondence: P. White, University of Sheffield, Department of Geography, Sheffield S10 2TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40488 Williamson, Chilton. The immigration mystique: America's false conscience. ISBN 0-465-03286-9. LC 96-3841. 1996. xvii, 202 pp. BasicBooks: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author attempts to examine the contemporary immigration situation in the United States from philosophical, historical, and ecological perspectives, in contrast to economic or political perspectives. He first considers how the concept of the United States as a nation of immigrants developed. He then develops the argument that mass immigration is not in the best interests of the United States culturally, environmentally, politically, or even economically.
Correspondence: BasicBooks, 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY 10022-5299. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40489 Yanaguida, Toshio; Akagui, Taeko. Mexico and Japanese emigrants. [México y los emigrantes japoneses.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 10, No. 30, Aug 1995. 373-401 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Japanese immigration to Mexico began in the last decade of the 19th century with a coffee growing project, and proved a failure. Subsequent attempts [at] sending contract labor migrants by emigration agencies, which involved 10,000 Japanese emigrants in 1901-1908, were also unsuccessful, and Mexico turned for Japanese emigrants into a short step on their way to the United States. The evolution of those who remained in Mexico and the different developments of the Japanese communities in Mexico [are] analyzed here until the period after World War II."
Correspondence: T. Yanaguida, Keio University, 2-15-45 Mita, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40490 Yukawa, Joyce. Migration from the Philippines, 1975-1995: an annotated bibliography. ISBN 971-8789-05-7. 1996. vi, 221 pp. Scalabrini Migration Center: Quezon City, Philippines; Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli: Turin, Italy. In Eng.
This bibliography primarily concerns labor migration from the Philippines. It begins with an introductory essay on trends, issues, and research. The bibliography itself is organized into two parts. The first part contains general studies and the second part is organized by region and country of destination. Author and subject indexes are provided.
Correspondence: Scalabrini Migration Center, 4 13th Street, New Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

62:40491 Boyle, Paul. Public housing as a barrier to long-distance migration. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1995. 147-64 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
The relationship between migration and housing tenure in Britain is explored, with particular reference to those living in subsidized housing provided by local councils. "In this study, data have been extracted from the 1991 Sample of Anonymised Records to assess the impacts of tenure on long-distance migration compared with short-distance migration. Logit models are used to control for the effects of a wide range of socio-economic variables, allowing the independent impact of tenure to be identified. It is shown that long-distance migrants are less likely to move into council housing than other tenures, but it is argued that this does not support the assumption that the sale of council housing will necessarily increase labour mobility."
Correspondence: P. Boyle, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40492 Champion, Tony. Internal migration, counterurbanization and changing population distribution. In: Europe's population: towards the next century, edited by Ray Hall and Paul White. 1995. 99-129 pp. UCL Press: London, England. In Eng.
This chapter examines trends in internal migration in Europe. "It begins with an overview of the population redistribution trends that have affected Europe since the mid-century, looking in particular detail at the counterurbanization experience and the extent to which this has backtracked since the 1970s. It then reviews the various explanations that have been put forward to account for these past trends in order to provide a framework for anticipating how patterns may develop over the next few years. It finishes by attempting to look into the future by discussing how two major elements of past population redistribution--economic restructuring and population deconcentration--may evolve over time and then by examining two examples of scenario-based exploration."
Correspondence: T. Champion, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40493 Chávez Galindo, Ana M.; Savenberg, Sandra. A new migratory horizon in Central Mexico: 1970-1990. [Nuevo horizonte de la migración en el centro de México: 1970-1990.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 10, No. 2, May-Aug 1995. 295-345, 481 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"During the last few decades migration in Central Mexico has undergone important changes. Not only have populations been moving increasingly towards the periphery and decreasingly towards the center, but those originally living in the center are also moving to the immediate periphery. This behavior allows us to claim that Central Mexico is undergoing a process of deconcentration or suburbanization. This study describes the way in which such a process has developed and the situation of geographical entities within that process. Analysis of the new regional configuration takes into account demographic growth and the direction and characteristics of migration in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and its surrounding states during the last twenty years."
Correspondence: A. M. Chávez Galindo, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias, Avenida Universidad s/n, Segunda Circuito, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Estada Morelos, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40494 Clark, David E.; Knapp, Thomas A.; White, Nancy E. Personal and location-specific characteristics and elderly interstate migration. Growth and Change, Vol. 27, No. 3, Summer 1996. 327-51 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of locational and individual characteristics upon interstate retiree migration, particularly in state-level public policy variables. Data regarding the characteristics of individual movers are drawn from the 1990 U.S. Census of Population and Housing 5% Public Use Microdata Sample. The household data are merged with location-specific attributes including both natural amenities and local fiscal variables." Three alternative models are developed, involving push factors, pull factors, and differences in site characteristics experienced by migrants. "The results indicate that both personal and locational characteristics are important factors determining the decision of elderly migrants to change their state of residence. While there is some limited support for the push and pull specifications, the difference model is found to provide the best overall fit."
Correspondence: D. E. Clark, Marquette University, P.O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:40495 De Jong, Gordon F.; Richter, Kerry; Isarabhakdi, Pimonpan. Gender, values, and intentions to move in rural Thailand. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, Fall 1996. 748-70 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article explores gender differences in the intentions to move among a sample of young adults in rural northeastern Thailand. Based on the value-expectancy framework of migration decisionmaking, an explanatory model is tested which includes migration-related value measures along with individual, household and community-level determinants of both intentions to move and change in intentions to move. Multinomial logistic regression results based on data from the 1992 Thailand National Migration Survey provide some support for the hypothesis of gender-specific determinants of both intentions to move and the reconsideration of migration intentions. For men, value measures of affiliation and comfort, social networks, the presence of young children in the family, and land holdings are significant determinants of migration decisionmaking; for women income and comfort values, the presence of elderly persons in the household, community size, and crop losses are the salient factors."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: G. F. De Jong, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40496 Doan, Mau Diep; Gubry, Patrick; Huguet, Jerrold W.; Trinh, Khac Tham. The emergence of spontaneous migration in Viet Nam: the cases of Vung Tau and Dong Nai. [L'émergence des migrations spontanées au Viêt-Nam: le cas de Vung Tau et du Dong Nai.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 45, ISBN 2-87762-097-2. Nov 1996. 48 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Vie.
"Spontaneous migrations (that are not organized or sponsored by the State) had largely disappeared in Vietnam, but today [they are] increasing rapidly following the initiation in 1986 of a policy of economic liberalization, which meant a slackening of administrative controls. This study examines various aspects of spontaneous migration to two areas in the south of the country, Vung Tau and Dong Nai, one urban and one rural. The social and demographic characteristics of the migrants and their housing, employment, migration histories, relations with their places of origin, evaluation of their move and future plans are examined." The focus is on future prospects for rural-urban migration.
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40497 El-Rouby, M. G. Socio-economic and urbanization profiles of internal migration in Egypt: a canonical correlation analysis. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 27, No. 2, Dec 1993. 102-23 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"Data on in- and out-migration in Egypt by governorate and on variables believed to interact with migration are examined. The purpose is to identify the dimensions through which the basic demographic phenomenon can be rationally structured. This objective is approached through a general multivariate analysis technique known as canonical correlation analysis....A number of variables believed to act as determinants of migration are used and arbitrarily classified into four groups to represent four distinct migration profiles, namely, sociodemographic, economic, urbanization, and health profiles....The analysis shows that the economic profile of migration is the most pronounced one of the four profiles examined."
Correspondence: M. G. El-Rouby, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40498 Frey, William H.; Liaw, Kao-Lee; Xie, Yu; Carlson, Marcia J. Interstate migration of the U.S. poverty population: immigration "pushes" and welfare magnet "pulls" Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 6, Jul 1996. 491-536 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study evaluates the social and demographic structure of [U.S.] poverty migration during the 1985-90 period based on an analysis of recent census data. Particular attention is given to the roles of two policy-relevant factors that are proposed to be linked to poverty migration. The first of these is the role of immigration from abroad and its effect on the net out-migration of longer-term residents with below-poverty incomes, from States receiving the highest volume of immigrants....The second involves the poverty population `magnet' effect associated with State welfare benefits....Our findings are fairly clear. The high volume of immigration to selected U.S. States does affect a selective out-migration of the poverty population, which is stronger for whites, Blacks and other non-Asian minorities as well as the least-educated."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40499 Gensler, Howard. The effect of welfare on migration. Social Science Research, Vol. 25, No. 3, Aug 1996. 281-91 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
"The impact of differences in welfare funding levels and economic opportunity at the state level on interstate migration of low-income families is determined. The data set is derived from the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey for the years 1979 to 1990, inclusive. Newly estimated descriptive welfare statistics permit detailed state level analysis....The poor are found to be attracted to states with greater economic opportunity in all cases and to avoid high welfare states, with the exception of single female household heads, who actually participate in the new state's welfare system. Even in this case, the effect on migration is relatively small compared to the effect of superior economic opportunities and small in absolute magnitude as well."
Correspondence: H. Gensler, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, School of Business and Management, Department of Accounting, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40500 Gober, Patricia; Jeffery, Charles F.; McHugh, Kevin E. Using moving-industry data to depict U.S. migration patterns. Growth and Change, Vol. 27, No. 2, Spring 1996. 231-51 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Migration analysis is hindered by the lack of up-to-date migration data. This paper examines the feasibility of using information from the American Moving Conference (AMC), the trade organization of the moving industry, to develop timely estimates of gross in- and out-migration and net migration rates at the state level. When adjusted for the spatially varying size of migrant households and the spatially varying market share of the professional moving industry, the number of AMC inbound and outbound shipments provides useful, but slightly imperfect, estimates of migration in 1990 and 1991. Viewed as a time series, adjusted AMC shipment data accurately reveal the major migration stories of the last decade. AMC-based estimates for 1992, 1993, and 1994 provide a picture of state in- and out-migration for years in which official data are not yet available."
Correspondence: P. Gober, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287-0104. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:40501 Guang, Hua Wan. Peasant flood in China: internal migration and its policy determinants. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1995. 173-96 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Based on a set of micro-level survey data, this paper...aims at revealing and discussing the facts and patterns of internal migration in China. Cross-country comparisons will be made when appropriate. It will become clear that many features of the Chinese case are unique, and some may be surprising. In particular, rural-rural migration is found to be positively related to distance while out- and net migration is negatively related to education. Female participation in migration is found to be extremely low and the tails of the age distribution of migrants are remarkably thin."
Correspondence: H. W. Guang, University of Sydney, Department of Agricultural Economics, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40502 Gutiérrez Montes, Rodolfo; Vázquez Benitez, Gabriela. Shaping of the migratory process in northern Mexico, 1930-1990. [Conformación del proceso migratorio al norte de México, 1930-1990.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 10, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1995. 569-605, 741 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"During the third decade of this century Mexican geographical structure began to change notoriously. Due to the strong influence of [the] North American economy, the north of Mexico became progressively one of the most important regions in the country, with the emergence of favorable perspectives of economic growth. Soon it became attractive to migration from the demographically pressed regions of Central Mexico. Thus, the north of Mexico was favored by the presence of qualified workers and a growing population. However, the region was not evenly populated, due to geographic, historic, and socio-economic factors that...[affect] the processes of migration and settlement. Some regions present important changes in their migratory flow, evidenced by the presence of new entities of origin and the disappearance of others."
Correspondence: R. Gutiérrez Montes, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Escuela de Humanidades, Apartado Postal 459, Avenida Alvaro Obregón y Julian Carrillo s/n, 21100 Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40503 Halfacree, Keith H. Household migration and the structuration of patriarchy: evidence from the USA. Progress in Human Geography, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jun 1995. 159-82 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The article begins by summarizing the evidence on the gender dimension of migration for married (or cohabiting) couples using material from the USA....The article goes on to argue that there is a need to view the `wife's sacrifice' which typically results from such migration not solely from within the household but in the context of society as a whole. The gendered experience of migration is then linked to structures of patriarchy utilizing insights derived from structuration theory. Finally, as an agenda for the future, it is argued that any sustained attack on patriarchy in the context of migration also requires a critical engagement with the normative status of residential migration more generally. This necessitates dealing with the economic logic of capitalism itself."
Correspondence: K. H. Halfacree, University of Wales, Department of Geography, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40504 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Internal migration in Israel, 1994. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 46, No. 12, Suppl., Dec 1995. 191-248 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
Data on internal migration in Israel are presented for 1994. Time series data concerning the whole population are provided for the period 1984-1994. The data for 1994 are given separately for Jews and non-Jews.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 13015, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40505 Liang, Zai; White, Michael J. Internal migration in China, 1950-1988. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 3, Aug 1996. 375-84 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper examines the long-term patterns of migration within China between 1950 and 1988. The analysis uses data from China's 1988 2/1,000 Fertility and Birth Control Survey, which asks respondents about their most recent interprovincial move. The results suggest that long-term migration patterns can be explained by political and economic changes in China. We argue that the approaches we introduce can offer significant insight into long-term migration patterns for countries where historical data on migration are unavailable or unreliable."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Z. Liang, City University of New York, Queens College, Department of Sociology, 65-30 Kissena Boulevard, Flushing, NY 11367-1597. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40506 Newbold, K. Bruce. Internal migration of the foreign-born in Canada. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, Fall 1996. 728-47 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article uses the Public Use Sample file of the 1986 Canadian census to characterize and explain the interprovincial migration patterns of the foreign-born in Canada. Simple overall in- and outmigration rates are calculated for the foreign-born and compared to the interprovincial migration rates for Canadian-born migrants, specifically primary, return and onward migrants. A two-level nested logit model is then applied for foreign-born migrants age 20-64 to study the effects of personal factors and provincial attributes on their interprovincial migration patterns. The foreign-born have higher in- and outmigration rates than primary migrants, with Ontario having a strong ability to attract and retain the foreign-born. Despite these differences, the foreign-born respond to economic variables in a rational way and relatively little of the migration decision process can be explained by place-of-birth effects. Selectivity with respect to personal factors (i.e., education, age, sex, family type) is similar to the Canadian-born."
Correspondence: K. B. Newbold, University of Illinois, P.O. Box 4348, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40507 Oe, Moriyuki. Cohort analysis of population distribution change in Japan: processes of population concentration in the Tokyo region and its future. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 51, No. 3, Oct 1995. 1-19 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper aims at analyzing the relationships between net-migration and the transition of population distribution from the perspective of cohort analysis. The article consists of three parts: (1) review of...previous studies...; (2) evaluation of the transition of population distribution in Japan...; (3) presentation of a new projection method, where a basic concept of a new method for regional population projection and the preliminary trial for the Tokyo Region are discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40508 Podolák, Peter. Interregional migration pattern in Slovakia: efficiency analysis and demographic consequences. Geoforum, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1995. 65-74 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The patterns of interregional migration within Slovakia from 1970 to 1990 and their consequences for the Slovakian population are analyzed. The author calculates the migration efficiency, or net movement of population relative to total migration, for each administrative district. He concludes that interregional migration has declined both absolutely and as a percentage of total migration, and that a trend toward short-distance migration has become evident. As migration between the northwestern and southeastern parts of the country has declined, intraregional rural-urban migration has increased.
Correspondence: P. Podolák, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography, Stefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava, Slovakia. Location: Syracuse University Library, Syracuse, NY.

62:40509 Pooley, Colin G.; Turnbull, Jean. Migration trends in British rural areas from the 18th to the 20th centuries. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 3, Sep 1996. 215-37 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Longitudinal residential histories are used to examine the extent to which three rural areas in Britain had distinctive migration histories from the 18th to the 20th centuries. Migration flows into and out of the regions are used to examine the extent to which the regions were integrated into the British migration system, and the relative importance of rural to urban migration is assessed....Analysis reveals a high degree of short-distance mobility within regions and emphasises the dominance of London in longer-distance migration....It is also suggested that the role of towns in the migration system has previously been overemphasised, with much migration taking place between small settlements and some movement from large cities to smaller towns and villages....The analysis challenges some accepted notions about migration in the past, and contributes to the debate about the extent to which British regions became part of a national economic and social system from the 18th century."
Correspondence: C. G. Pooley, Lancaster University, Department of Geography, Lancaster LA1 4YB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40510 Pujadas, Isabel; García Coll, Arlinda; Puga González, Dolores. Internal migration in Spain: recent trends and future prospects (1971-2001). [Migraciones interiores en España: tendencias recientes y perspectivas de futuro (1971-2001).] Revista de Geografía, Vol. 29, No. 3, Oct-Dec 1995. 150 pp. Universitat de Barcelona, Departaments de Geografia: Barcelona, Spain. In Spa.
This special issue is devoted to internal migration in Spain. The first part presents an analysis of internal migration trends over the period 1971-1990. The second part examines likely future trends up to the year 2001. Attention is given to changes in the age of migrants over time. The authors also discuss how the various regions are affected by migration.
Correspondence: Universitat de Barcelona, Departaments de Geografia, Ciutat Universitària, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40511 Rees, Philip; Duke-Williams, Oliver. The story of the British special migration statistics. Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol. 111, No. 1, 1995. 13-26 pp. Glasgow, Scotland. In Eng.
"This paper describes a new data set from the 1991 Census called the Special Migration Statistics. Before release for general use by the U.K. social science and geographic community, it was essential to understand and to thoroughly check the data. This paper reports on the structure of the database and the checks carried out to verify its internal and external consistency. Finally, the paper summarises the pattern of migration revealed by the statistics for two illustrative spatial systems: wards in a large northern city and regions in Great Britain." The focus is on internal migration.
Correspondence: P. Rees, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:40512 Sebastian, A. Estimation of district-wise migration for selected major states of India. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 13, 1994-1995. 50 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This project has two specific objectives: (a) To study the pattern of migration at the district level in...selected states [in India] in 1971 and 1981. (b) To estimate the net migrants during the period 1971-1981 at district level in the selected states."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40513 Serow, William J. Demographic and socioeconomic aspects of elderly migration in the 1980s. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1996. 19-38 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"Trends and changes in some of the principal aspects of migration behavior among the elderly [in the United States] are reviewed and summarized, focusing on the demographic, social, geographic, and economic dimensions. Also considered are differences in migration behavior along these dimensions from a temporal perspective as well as in comparison to the migration behavior of the younger population. When possible, the article provides insight on behavioral differences among the various age categories within the older population, differentiating between the youngest and oldest components of the group and recognizing the striking differences between the youngest and oldest members of the older population in nearly all aspects of the migration process."
Correspondence: Haworth Press, Haworth Document Delivery Center, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40514 Taylor, John; Bell, Martin. Population mobility and indigenous peoples: the view from Australia. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jun 1996. 153-69 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes an emerging field of demographic enquiry focused on the population mobility of indigenous minorities in Australasia and North America. Political, scientific and policy rationales for research on the spatial dynamics of such groups are advanced as a prelude to a review of the Australian literature. This review is structured around four complementary perspectives on mobility: the propensity to move; spatial redistribution; flows and networks; and migration careers. Comparison of the relative strengths of mobility research on the indigenous and non-indigenous populations against these four perspectives assists in identifying outstanding research needs and priorities. Commonalities in the patterns and processes of indigenous mobility in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the U.S. suggest the value of more detailed cross-national comparisons, and also provide a basis for contemplating an indigenous variant of Zelinsky's hypothesised mobility transition."
Correspondence: J. Taylor, Australian National University, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

62:40515 Bariagaber, Assefaw. Linking political violence and refugee situations in the Horn of Africa: an empirical approach. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1995. 209-34 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author attempts to establish the relationship between political violence and refugee migration in the countries located in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Somalia, and the Sudan) over the period from the 1960s to the present day. The results indicate significant differences among the countries studied; besides violence, other factors influencing the decision of people to become refugees include a growing awareness of the benefits of refugee status and a trend toward following the example set by previous refugees.
Correspondence: A. Bariagaber, University of Nebraska, Department of Political Science, Kearney, NE 68849. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40516 Black, Richard. Population displacement from Mozambique and its effect on neighboring countries: the case of Eastern Province, Zambia. [Deslocamento da população moçambicana e o seu impacto nos países vizinhos: o caso da "Eastern Province" da Zâmbia.] Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, No. 16-17, 1992-1994. 155-70 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"This article analyses the processes of local development in an area affected since 1987 by an influx of Mozambican refugees. It is suggested that although impact of the refugees on the local economy was multidimensional, it was also fundamentally positive for the region. Economic effects resulted not only from the injection of capital through the international assistance programme aimed at the refugees, but also directly from the increase in population of the area, which created new production and markets. There were also important social and political changes, although to a certain extent, the decision to establish a settlement programme for the refugees reduced the possibility of integrated development for refugee and local communities."
Correspondence: R. Black, University of Sussex, School of African and Asian Studies, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40517 Legoux, Luc. Refugees in the world. [Les réfugiés dans le monde.] Population et Sociétés, No. 315, Jul-Aug 1996. [4] pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent global trends in the situation concerning refugees are reviewed. There are sections on the growth in refugee numbers, the decline in places of asylum, paths toward a policy of prevention, and numbers of asylum seekers in France and the European Community.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40518 Tóth, Pál P. Refugees arriving in Hungary, 1988-1994. [A Magyarországra menekülok, 1988-1994.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 74, No. 5-6, May-Jun 1996. 438-59 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
The distribution of refugees arriving in Hungary between 1988 and 1994, mainly from Romania and Yugoslavia, is analyzed by citizenship, ethnicity, age, and sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

62:40519 Bonifazi, Corrado; Heins, Frank. Return migrations in the Italian migration system: a reexamination. [Le migrazioni di ritorno nel sistema migratorio italiano: un riesame.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 33, No. 122, Jun 1996. 273-303 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The authors discuss trends in return migration in Italy, with a focus on regional differences. "On a regional level, the effects of return migration are very much connected with socio-economic structure. Only highly developed and autonomous regions can absorb productive investments and changes brought about by return migration. Several southern regions--especially those with greater migration experience--have shown in the last decades a very poor socio-economic development." The study is concerned with both internal and international migration.
Correspondence: C. Bonifazi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40520 Datta, Kavita. Rural homes and urban dwellings? Gender, migration and the importance of tenure in Gaborone, Botswana. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1995. 183-95 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"The issue of return migration has been widely debated in African migration literature in view of strong rural-urban ties and urban growth based largely on in-migration. On the basis of fieldwork in Botswana, it is argued that there are important gender differences in terms of the commitment to rural and urban areas. It has been postulated in past studies that the decision to remain in towns depends in part upon urban tenure and it is argued that home owners are more likely than tenants to be permanent urban dwellers. Again, there are important gender differences and women appear to be more committed to the urban dwelling than men."
Correspondence: K. Datta, University of Wales, Department of Geography, Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40521 Gubry, Patrick; Lamlenn, Samson B.; Ngwé, Emmanuel; Tchégho, Jean-Marie; Timnou, Joseph-Pierre; Véron, Jacques. Return to the village: a solution to the economic crisis in Cameroon? [Le retour au village: une solution à la crise économique au Cameroun?] ISBN 2-7384-4225-0. 1996. 206 pp. L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study of return migration, which was conducted in 1992, focuses on the two most densely populated areas of Cameroon. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the extent of return migration and to determine the motivations underlying the migrants' departure and their return to the village. The following questions were posed: What is the actual extent of the phenomenon? What are the reasons behind return migration? What problems do the migrants encounter upon returning? How permanent is their return? Is return migration a feasible strategy for decongesting large urban centers in economic crisis and promoting development of rural areas? Two surveys were conducted, one to gather general statistics on the population, and the other to collect information about the migrants in particular. The study found that economic reasons linked to the crisis were the greatest factors underlying return migration; but since the villages do not possess the prerequisites for successful economic development, renewed migration at the first opportunity is likely. The authors conclude that return migration is a consequence of the current economic crisis, not a solution to it.
Correspondence: Editions l'Harmattan, 5-7 rue de l'Ecole-polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40522 Hogan, Timothy D.; Steinnes, Donald N. Arizona sunbirds and Minnesota snowbirds: two species of the elderly seasonal migrant genus. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1996. 129-39 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using comparable definitions and two statewide surveys, it is estimated that the elderly seasonal migration rate is higher in Arizona during the summer (10.1%) than it is in Minnesota during the winter (9.2%). More attention is given to the Arizona seasonal migrants, or Sunbirds, since they have not been studied as much as Snowbirds. While Sunbirds are similar in many ways to Snowbirds, they tend to be older. This age difference, along with a tendency for both types of seasonal migrants to have been recent permanent migrants, suggests that permanent migration may be a precursor to seasonal migration."
Correspondence: T. D. Hogan, Arizona State University, Center for Business Research, Tempe, AZ 85287-4406. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

62:40523 McHugh, Kevin E.; Mings, Robert C. The circle of migration: attachment to place in aging. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 86, No. 3, Sep 1996. 530-50 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we explore the meaning of home, place, and migration among elderly seasonal migrants who circulate between northern (summer) and Sunbelt (winter) residences. The central focus is on evolving attachments and relationships with place over the life course. We conceptualize the circle of migration to and from home places in terms of three phases: separation, experience and return....We glean three strikingly different life-course trajectories in the migrations and place attachments among elderly seasonal migrants: still rooted in home place (circular), suspended between dual homes (pendular), and footloose (linear)."
Correspondence: K. E. McHugh, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287-0104. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40524 Robolis, S.; Xideas, E. The economic determinants of Greek return migration to the islands of the East Aegean. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1996. 297-319 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"The purpose of this article is to investigate the economic determinants of Greek return migration to the islands of the East Aegean, a region comprising hundreds of islands of different size in four administrative departments....[It] examines the sensitivity of return migration flows to changes in economic variables which influence decisions to return....The purpose...is to investigate the effect on return migration not only of economic development in the host country (push factors) but also of economic development in the islands of the East Aegean (pull factors), given their isolation from the mainland and their different economic structures."
Correspondence: S. Robolis, University of the Aegean, Department of Business Administration, Chios, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40525 Schenk-Sandbergen, Loes. Women and seasonal labour migration. Indo-Dutch Studies on Development Alternatives, No. 16, ISBN 81-7036-444-2. LC 94-45240. 1995. 345 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a collection of five studies by various authors on aspects of seasonal migration in India. The focus is on the gender-specific causes and consequences of seasonal rural labor migration in India. The work begins with a general overview of the topic followed by three case studies which analyze the transformation processes involved in such migrations in different socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological conditions. "These case studies also deal with different categories of women involved in the migration process: married, unmarried, abandoned, and tribal women `staying behind' while men migrate. The case studies reveal a grim picture of the effects of survival migration. The contributors show that economic gains are minimal, that there is little improvement in the economic status of women, and that there is a reinforcement of traditional gender roles--indeed, an increasing subordination of women."
Correspondence: Sage Publications, M-32 Greater Kailash Market I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

62:40526 Chan, Kam Wing. Urbanization and rural-urban migration in China since 1982: a new baseline. Modern China, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jul 1994. 243-81 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Was rural-urban mobility really on the decrease during the period 1982-1987? Or is this simply another statistical anomaly such as those that we have encountered only too frequently in studying Chinese urbanization?...More generally, what was the overall trend of urbanization and rural-urban migration in the 1980s?...The object of this article is to tackle these questions....[It] attempts to establish a baseline of urban population growth and rural-urban migration for the post-1982 years, especially the intercensal period of 1982 to 1990."
Correspondence: K. W. Chan, University of Washington, Department of Geography, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

62:40527 Chang, Sen-dou. The floating population: an informal process of urbanisation in China. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 3, Sep 1996. 197-214 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to employ substantial source materials to shed light on the characteristics of population migration in a centrally planned society that is in the process of transforming to a market economy. In order to compare rural-urban migration in China with that in other developing countries, the data on 1985-1990 interprovincial population migration have been analysed. Some demographic research techniques on population migration, such as the impact on the place of origin and the place of destination, have been employed to assess the influence of rural-urban migration on China's long-term economic development. Economic betterment appears to be the sole motivation of rural population migration in China."
Correspondence: S.-d. Chang, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Geography, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40528 Doan, Mau Diep; Trinh, Khac Tham. Survey of spontaneous migration to a rural and an urban area in Viet Nam. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 142, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1644. 1996. ix, 57 pp. UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The authors present the results of a survey of internal migration carried out in Viet Nam in 1994. The survey involved 509 households in a rural area of Dong Nai province and 496 households in Vung Tau city. The report has chapters on household characteristics, employment, childbearing and family planning, and migration history. The authors conclude that most migration is the result of poor economic conditions in the rural place of migrant origin.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40529 Gu, Shengzu; Jian, Xinhua. The dual function of and counter-measures for rural population migration. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1996. 59-68 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article holds the premise that migration of the rural population [to urban areas] has a dual function for economic development and social stability. A manageable amount of migration of population is extremely conducive to economic development and social stability; an unmanageable amount can be very detrimental. Therefore, the extent to which population migration remains [within] reason is the key to giving full play [to] the positive role of rural population migration and eliminating or mitigating its negative one."
Correspondence: S. Gu, Wuhan University, Population Research Institute, Wuhan 43072, Hubei, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40530 Khalatbari, Parviz. Urbanization in the developing countries--an ominous process? [Die Verstädterung in den Entwicklungsländern--ein verhängnisvoller Prozeß?] In: Ein Puzzle, das nie aufgeht: Stadt, Region und Individuum in der Moderne, edited by Sibylle Meyer and Eva Schulze. ISBN 3-89404-371-7. 1994. 285-301 pp. Edition Sigma: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The worldwide trend toward urbanization is described, comparing developed and developing countries. The author explores the demographic background of urbanization in the developing countries, and the mounting pressures on rural populations. He discusses the extent of rural-urban migration in the past and into the future, and maps out the consequences. These include slum-building and massive poverty. He concludes that the disproportionate number of people living in misery may soon pose a threat to world peace.
Correspondence: P. Khalatbari, Gesellschaft für Demographie, Parkaue 3, 10367 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40531 Tcha, Moonjoong. Altruism and migration: evidence from Korea and the United States. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 44, No. 4, Jul 1996. 859-78 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author uses data from South Korea and the United States for the period from the early 1960s to the 1980s to examine the impact of intergenerational altruism on a family's decision to migrate from rural to urban areas. Use is made of an urban-to-rural income ratio. "The variable is the ratio of the weighted average of blue-collar and white-collar incomes in urban areas to farm income. Weights are chosen iteratively and related to time and altruistic discount rates between generations. The model will show that the higher the altruism in the family, the higher the weight of the white-collar income."
Correspondence: M. Tcha, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:40532 Truong, Si Anh; Gubry, Patrick; Vu, Thi Hong; Huguet, Jerrold W. Migration and employment in Ho Chi Minh City. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, Jun 1996. 3-22 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Data obtained from a 1994 survey of migrants to Ho Chi Minh City [Viet Nam] form the basis for this study. The analysis finds that, following the Government's economic liberalization policies since 1986, the City's growth rate between 1989 and 1994 was 3.5 per cent annually, with the rate of natural increase being about 1.6 per cent and that of migration 1.9 per cent annually. Migration since 1989 has been concentrated in the age group 15-29 and is composed of a greater proportion of females than previously. More of recent migrants are single and have moved to attend school. Among females, there has been an increase in the proportion migrating for economic reasons. The article concludes with a number of recommendations for policy purposes."
Correspondence: S. A. Truong, Institute for Economic Research, Information and Population Studies Section, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40533 Yang, Quanhe; Guo, Fei. Occupational attainments of rural to urban temporary economic migrants in China, 1985-1990. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, Fall 1996. 771-87 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Since the inauguration of reform in 1978, a large number of Chinese peasants were released from agricultural production and became `surplus labor'. Because a large proportion of rural-urban population mobility assumes the form of temporary movement, attention to such movement is therefore essential to any assessment of social, economic and political changes in urban and rural China and of the overall urbanization process. The present study uses the 1 percent sample of the 1990 census data of China to study long-term rural to urban temporary economic migrants, the provincial pattern and variation of these migrants, and their economic activities represented by the occupational attainments in cities in comparison with urban residents."
Correspondence: Q. Yang, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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