Volume 62 - Number 4 - Winter 1996

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

62:40211 Acs, Gregory. The impact of welfare on young mothers' subsequent childbearing decisions. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 31, No. 4, Fall 1996. 898-915 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The impact of welfare on fertility in the United States is explored, focusing on the theory that some women have many children to increase their incomes and to prolong their stay on welfare rolls. The author "examines the relationship between welfare and births to women who already have a child, using data on young mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). I find that variations in welfare benefit levels and the incremental benefit have no statistically significant impacts on the subsequent childbearing decisions of young mothers in general, nor on the subsequent childbearing decisions of women who received welfare in particular. Furthermore, mothers who received welfare to support their first children are no more likely to have additional children in any given year through the age of 23."
Correspondence: G. Acs, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

62:40212 Ainsworth, Martha. A symposium on fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan 1996. 79-222 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This special section contains four papers on aspects of fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. The papers attempt to provide some answers to two basic questions. The first concerns how Sub-Saharan Africa is different from other developing regions with regard to the factors influencing the demand for children, and, if it is different, the extent to which policies and programs associated with fertility decline in other regions will be effective in Africa. The second concerns whether high levels of fertility are the result of low levels of economic development that encourage large families, or a consequence of the insufficient provision of family planning information and methods.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: M. Ainsworth, World Bank, Policy Research Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

62:40213 Ainsworth, Martha; Beegle, Kathleen; Nyamete, Andrew. The impact of women's schooling on fertility and contraceptive use: a study of fourteen Sub-Saharan countries. World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan 1996. 85-122 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article examines the relationship between female schooling and two behaviors--cumulative fertility and contraceptive use--in fourteen Sub-Saharan African countries where Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) have been conducted since the mid-1980s. Average levels of schooling among women of reproductive age are very low, from less than two years to six. Controlling for background variables, the last years of female primary schooling have a negative relation with fertility in about half of the countries, while secondary schooling is associated with substantially lower fertility in all countries. Female schooling has a positive relationship with contraceptive use at all levels. Among ever-married women, husband's schooling exerts a smaller effect than does female schooling on contraceptive use and, in almost all cases, on fertility."
Correspondence: M. Ainsworth, World Bank, Policy Research Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

62:40214 Amin, Sajeda. Female education and fertility in Bangladesh: the influence of marriage and the family. In: Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, edited by Roger Jeffery and Alaka M. Basu. 1996. 184-204 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper explores the connections between women's status, education and fertility, drawing upon evidence from a long-term, intensive village study on family structure and change in two villages in north-west Bangladesh. While we utilise individual level data from the village study and from a large nationally representative fertility survey, the emphasis is on familial and contextual factors affecting women's lives."
Correspondence: S. Amin, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40215 Anderies, John M. An adaptive model for predicting !Kung reproductive performance: a stochastic dynamic programming approach. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 17, No. 4, Jul 1996. 221-45 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A stochastic dynamic programming model is presented that supports and extends work on the reproductive performance of the !Kung Bushmen [of Botswana]..., proposing that !Kung women and their reproductive systems may be maximizing reproductive success. The stochastic dynamic programming approach allows the construction of a whole-life model where the physical/environmental constraints along with the uncertainty about future events !Kung women face when making reproductive choices can be explicitly built in....By including the effect of the mother's mortality...the model allows for further exploration of the application of an adaptive approach to human reproductive performance. By adding some considerations about the risks of childbirth for the mother the model not only predicts optimal birth spacing...but also predicts the optimal time for a woman to begin and cease having children. These predictions coincide with menarche and menopause and shed light on their possible adaptive value."
Correspondence: J. M. Anderies, University of British Columbia, Institute of Applied Mathematics, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:40216 Basu, Alaka M. Girls' schooling, autonomy and fertility change: what do these words mean in South Asia? In: Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, edited by Roger Jeffery and Alaka M. Basu. 1996. 48-71 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper I...try to understand, first...what words such as education, autonomy and fertility change mean in the South Asian cultural milieu. Then...I try to understand the ways in which female schooling may lead to increased female autonomy and...the ways in which increased female autonomy in turn may lead to lower fertility. In each case, I begin with the problems--in defining the terms of interest, in interpreting relationships, and in drawing any lessons for South Asia from the non-South Asian experience."
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences, 104 Savage Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-6301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40217 Benefo, Kofi; Schultz, T. Paul. Fertility and child mortality in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan 1996. 123-58 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article examines individual, household, and community characteristics that may affect fertility in contemporary Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana and the relationship between child mortality and fertility. It was not possible to reject the null hypothesis that child mortality is exogenous. Treating child mortality as exogenous, fertility responds directly to child mortality, but by a smaller proportion than estimated in studies of East Asia and Latin America. Increases in female education and urbanization are likely to contribute to declines in fertility in both countries, but economic growth without these structural changes is not yet strongly related to lower fertility."
Correspondence: K. Benefo, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

62:40218 Bosveld, Willemien. The ageing of fertility in Europe: a comparative demographic-analytic study. ISBN 90-5170-382-1. 1996. 285 pp. Thesis Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Dut.
"In the past, many women had their children when they were young, whereas nowadays the trend is to have children at an older age. This book provides insight into the changes in tempo and quantum of post-war fertility among birth cohorts in a number of European countries. Based on an advanced demographic-analytic approach, it demonstrates how age and parity distributions have changed between successive cohorts and the effects of these changes on period fertility. How cohort life course patterns have changed varies between countries because of country-specific characteristics, opportunities and constraints."
Correspondence: Thesis Publishers, P.O. Box 14791, 1001 LG Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40219 Caldwell, Bruce. Female education, autonomy and fertility in Sri Lanka. In: Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, edited by Roger Jeffery and Alaka M. Basu. 1996. 288-321 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this chapter I explore the linkages between female schooling, autonomy and fertility in Sri Lanka. I do not seek to be predictive in the sense of saying that so many years of schooling will create so much autonomy and ultimately lead to a specific degree of reduction in fertility. Rather I seek to investigate a very complex and confusing interrelationship....Accepting that fertility control of some kind has been practised in Sri Lanka for much longer than elsewhere in South Asia, the issue for this paper is whether this was related to female schooling and autonomy."
Correspondence: B. Caldwell, Australian International Development Assistance Bureau, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40220 Cleland, John; Jejeebhoy, Shireen. Maternal schooling and fertility: evidence from censuses and surveys. In: Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, edited by Roger Jeffery and Alaka M. Basu. 1996. 72-106 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to review the evidence concerning the relationship between schooling and fertility and its proximate determinants, with special reference to South Asia. The main focus is on the findings of censuses and large demographic surveys. An implicit assumption of our approach is that interpretation of findings from large-scale surveys can go beyond mere numerical description and yield valuable insights about the possible pathways of influence."
Correspondence: J. Cleland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40221 Fattah, Mohamed N. A. The relational Gompertz model in detecting the recent changes of fertility in Egypt. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 27, No. 2, Dec 1993. 82-101 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"The main objective of this research is to detect the recent changes in fertility in Egypt using Gompertz's relational model....The analysis [in] this chapter is based on the data collected in the maternity history section of the PAP/child (1991) and DHS 1992 individual questionnaire for ever married women aged 15-49 years....It turns out that fertility is still high in Egypt although there is an indication that it has declined from the level prevailing in the recent past."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40222 Ferroukhi, D.; Zemamouche, S. An econometric analysis of data on duration in demography. [Analyse économétrique des données de durée en démographie.] Collections Statistiques, No. 51, [1993?]. 161 pp. Office National des Statistiques: Algiers, Algeria. In Fre.
This work concerns the application of the econometric concept of duration data in demography. It includes three separate studies that attempt to use this concept for the study of fertility in Algeria. The first part examines birth intervals as duration data using data from the 1986 National Algerian Fertility Survey. The second part looks at intergenerational changes in fertility, and the third part examines birth spacing.
Correspondence: Office National des Statistiques, 8-10 Rue des Moussebiline, Algiers, Algeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40223 Gallagher, Sally K.; Stokes, Randall G.; Anderson, Andy B. Economic disarticulation and fertility in less developed nations. Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 2, Spring 1996. 227-44 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"A large body of research and theory seeking to explain fertility levels in less developed nations has stressed the effects of economic development on family-level decision making. While clearly a major factor, economic development levels fail to explain much of the variation in fertility rates. Some researchers have attempted to remedy this shortcoming by taking into account cross-national variation in income distributions, on the grounds that this approach provides a more refined indication of the real social consequences of economic development. The present analysis extends this tradition of research by arguing that the degree of disarticulation [a distorted mode of economic growth] provides a theoretically more powerful and empirically more accurate way to operationalize these hypothesized distributional effects on fertility levels."
Correspondence: S. K. Gallagher, Oregon State University, Department of Sociology, Fairbanks 307, Corvallis, OR 97331. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40224 Goodkind, Daniel. Chinese lunar birth timing in Singapore: new concerns for child quality amidst multicultural modernity. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 3, Aug 1996. 784-95 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"In line with traditional folk beliefs, many Chinese societies throughout the world (with the exception of China itself) began in the 1970s and 1980s to exhibit birth fluctuations during significant lunar zodiac years--baby booms during the auspicious Year of the Dragon and baby busts during the inauspicious (for daughters) Year of the Tiger....The article details how lunar birth fluctuations have been influenced by and have influenced official policies instituted by Singapore's shrinking Chinese majority. None of the assimilative social forces discussed here can be expected to weaken lunar birth timing in the future, although government intervention may inhibit its reoccurrence."
Correspondence: D. Goodkind, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40225 Gould, W. T. S.; Brown, M. S. A fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa? International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1996. 1-22 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"There is now substantial evidence for fertility decline in the majority of countries of sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reviews that evidence, identifying the large variation in the extent of change, particularly between Southern Africa and West Africa, and sets it in the context of the demographic transition model, concluding that it is not yet clear whether or to what extent the recent African experience and likely future trends are consistent with the experience of demographic change in other continental areas. The discussion examines issues for theory (how unique is Africa?), for method (what are the limitations of dependence on large-scale, standardised demographic surveys for fertility data?) and for policy (how have the survey data been used and interpreted to formulate population policy?) raised by the recent African experience."
Correspondence: W. T. S. Gould, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40226 Jeffery, Roger; Basu, Alaka M. Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility change in South Asia. ISBN 0-8039-9276-9. LC 95-35991. 1996. 339 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This...volume challenges the popular notions that there is a universal and causal relationship between rising levels of schooling and declining levels of fertility, and that schooling enhances female autonomy. Presenting primary evidence from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh and utilising existing census and survey data, the eleven original papers in this book explore the interrelated issues of women's autonomy, girl's schooling, and fertility reduction in South Asia. The volume concludes that schooling is indeed important for women and should definitely be supported and encouraged, but not because of the possible impact it may have on fertility decline. Further, that while resources should continue to be devoted to the spread of education, this should not be at the expense of providing women-friendly contraceptive and maternal/child health services, which give couples the ability to successfully plan the size of the family they want."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, M-32 Greater Kailash Market I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40227 Jeffery, Roger; Basu, Alaka M. Schooling as contraception? In: Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, edited by Roger Jeffery and Alaka M. Basu. 1996. 15-47 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this introduction our main task is as follows. To begin with, we need to unpack some of the terms which enter into the title of this book. What has been meant by female education, by women's autonomy, and by fertility in the demographic literature? How do these discussions relate to those in neighbouring disciplines? What are the implications of these discussions for the indicators to be used in empirical research? Because education and female autonomy are thought to have combined and separate effects on fertility, we will then set out the key elements in how they are thought to affect the proximate determinants of fertility: in particular, natural fertility, demand for children, and access to contraception. In this context we will consider in more detail the related issue of the extent to which female schooling reduces fertility via the impact it has on child mortality." The geographical focus is on South Asia.
Correspondence: R. Jeffery, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40228 Kalipeni, Ezekiel. The fertility transition in Africa. Geographical Review, Vol. 85, No. 3, Jul 1995. 286-300 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Some African countries may be going through the initial stages of the fertility transition. In this article multivariate analysis based on country-level data from 1980 and 1993 assesses spatial variations and changes in fertility rates. Demographic and socioeconomic factors such as education, rural or urban residence, status of women, and use of contraceptives are important factors in determining the onset of the fertility transition. Over the long term, fertility will decline to acceptable levels as Africa continues to experience socioeconomic and cultural changes. Of special importance in the transition is the status of women in society."
Correspondence: E. Kalipeni, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40229 Kraus, Jaroslav; Tomek, Ivan; Velebil, Petr. Results of reproduction and health research, the Czech Republic 1993: Part 1. [Výsledky pruzkumu reprodukce a zdraví, CR 1993: 1. cást.] Demografie, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1996. 105-20 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
This article "deals with two basic spheres: natality (abortion rate) and family planning. Natality was evaluated by current indicators such as specific female birth rate, by age, aggregate fertility, and/or median age at birth of the first child." Women were also asked about contraceptive use, knowledge of contraceptive methods, and reasons for use or nonuse.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40230 Kravdal, Øystein. How the local supply of day-care centers influences fertility in Norway: a parity-specific approach. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jun 1996. 201-18 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In order to assess how expansion of day care facilities affects fertility, the Norwegian Family and Occupation Survey of 1988 was linked with individual register-based migration histories and time-series data on day-care coverage rates in all Norwegian municipalities. Many factors affect both the allocation of resources to day-care centers and a woman's probability of giving birth. The local coverage rate is positively associated with the probability of advancing from parity two...[and] contributed to a moderate rise in third-birth rates after the mid 1970s. However, if the aggregate employment rate for women is also regarded as a confounder, the effect of day care may actually be insignificant. Moreover, the effect fades at higher coverage levels. Finally, there are indications that second- and first-birth probabilities decline with increasing provision of day care. These results suggest that further efforts to improve the supply of private and public day care...will have little stimulating effect on fertility."
Correspondence: Ø. Kravdal, University of Oslo, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 1095, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40231 Lam, David A.; Miron, Jeffrey A. The effects of temperature on human fertility. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 3, Aug 1996. 291-305 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Monthly birth and temperature data for a variety of states and countries are used to estimate the effect of short-run temperature fluctuations on fertility. Regressions of monthly births on a flexible specification of lagged monthly temperature show that temperature has quantitatively important effects on both seasonal and nonseasonal variation in births. Summer temperature extremes reduce conceptions in the southern United States, explaining a substantial part of the observed seasonal birth pattern. Extreme cold shows no evidence of affecting conceptions. The results also show significant seasonality in births even after accounting for temperature. Controls for monthly temperature do not explain the persistent spring peak in births in northern Europe. This finding suggests that other factors play an important role."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. A. Lam, University of Michigan, Department of Economics, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40232 Letamo, Gobopamang. Contributions of the proximate determinants to fertility change in Botswana. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jul 1996. 325-38 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study uses Bongaarts's model to examine the relative contributions of three proximate determinants (non-marriage, contraceptive use and postpartum infecundability) to fertility change using data from the 1984 and 1988 Botswana Family and Health Surveys. Breast-feeding is shown to be the most important proximate determinant of fertility, followed by contraceptive use, and finally non-marriage, both in 1984 and 1988. However, contraceptive use increased between 1984 and 1988 leading to fertility decline over this period. Marriage is the least important proximate determinant of fertility, probably due to the high prevalence of premarital childbearing. Other factors such as induced abortion could have played a major role in the fertility decline but their effect could not be estimated due to lack of accurate data."
Correspondence: G. Letamo, University of Botswana, Department of Demography, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40233 Mahadevan, Kuttan. Demographic transition and development strategies in India. ISBN 81-7018-855-5. 1996. viii, 143 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. Distributed by D. K. Publishers Distributors, 1 Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. In Eng.
This study of the demographic transition in India is based on a review of the literature published from 1974 to 1992. "The first part of the report focuses on historical changes and regional variations [in] fertility, general mortality and infant mortality rate (IMR). Following these vital events, subsequent discussion focuses on demographic transition at the all India level and also briefly highlights...the fascinating Demographic Transition completed in Kerala state. The second part of the report covers major studies on determinants of fertility behavior. The third part highlights...[the] family planning programme and research. The fourth part relates to studies on determinants of mortality and at the end, a comprehensive list of references [to] studies, published in the form of papers, reports, books, theses and the like [has] been presented."
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing Corporation, A-6 Nimri Commercial Centre, Near Bharat Nagar, Ashok Vihar, Delhi 110 052, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40234 Matthiessen, Poul C. Regional aspects of reproduction and family formation in Denmark. [Regionale aspekter af reproduktion og familiedannelse i Danmark.] Nationaløkonomisk Tidsskrift, No. 1996/Suppl., 1996. 115-20 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
"Similar to the trends in other industrialized countries, Denmark has since the mid-1960s experienced substantial changes in the demographic components which are determining the reproduction rate and formation of families. At present the development is characterized by a widespread formation of couples at an early age, which in most cases is commenced without a marriage certificate. Further the fertility level has decreased and there has been an increase in the average age of females at first child birth. These changes have also taken place in the three selected geographic areas; however, most of the deviations from the national average that were prevailing before the changes are still present."
Correspondence: P. C. Matthiessen, Carlsbergfondet, H. C. Andersens Boulevard 35, 1553 Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40235 Montgomery, Mark R.; Lloyd, Cynthia B. Fertility and maternal and child health. In: The impact of population growth on well-being in developing countries, edited by Dennis A. Ahlburg, Allen C. Kelley, and Karen O. Mason. 1996. 37-65 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This chapter explores the relationship between levels of fertility, on the one hand, and levels of mortality and morbidity among women and children, on the other....Our task in this chapter is first to weigh the evidence that has been accumulated, and then to consider its implications for government investments in family planning programs. That is, we shall ask whether family planning programs can be justified in terms of their health benefits for women and children, these benefits being derived from changes in the level, timing and spacing of fertility." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: M. R. Montgomery, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40236 Norden, R. H. On the distribution of completed parities when fertility is heritable. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1996. 95-128, 171 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Over the last one hundred years, there has been, in many developed countries, a demographic convergence towards the two child family. The possible implications for population growth of such a tendency are considered in this paper in terms of both family limitation and also the intergenerational transmission of fertility. These two effects interact so that as the proportion of two-child families increases, the possible influence of mother-daughter fertility associations on population growth decreases, though even now it could override otherwise significant changes in either or both of the birth and death intensities. In particular, it is shown that according...to how fertility is transmitted through generations, it is still possible to have zero growth rates consistently with a widely dispersed stable distribution of family size as well as a typical mortality regime."
Correspondence: R. H. Norden, St. Wulstans, Abbey Road, Chilcompton, Bath BA3 4HY, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40237 Otani, Kenji. The Cigno model and cumulative fertility in Canada and Japan: the effects of wife's education and work experience. Review of Economics and Business, Vol. 24, No. 1-2, Mar 1996. 1-26 pp. Osaka, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper examined the effects of wife's education and work experience on fertility comparing Canada and Japan on the basis of the modified Cigno model....We used the micro data of the [1984] Canadian Fertility Survey and the Ninth Japanese National Fertility Survey [undertaken in 1987]....Finally we discussed the implication of these findings [for] future fertility trends with a reference to the result of decomposing recent changes in total fertility rate in Canada and Japan."
Correspondence: K. Otani, Kansai University, Faculty of Economics, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita-shi, Osaka 564, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40238 Patel, Tulsi. Fertility behaviour: population and society in a Rajasthan village. ISBN 0-19-563539-6. 1994. xvi, 287 pp. Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present research attempts a holistic perspective on fertility behaviour through a monographic study of a village community. A holistic perspective here means an integrated view of the village community and its functioning, especially in relation to people's fertility. The aim is to understand fertility behaviour as an integral part of village society." The village concerned is Mogra, located in the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan, and the data were collected during the course of in-depth interviews of 713 women and their husbands conducted in 1984-1985. In addition to examining the cultural and social factors affecting fertility, the author considers the effects of child mortality on fertility, and the impact of both indigenous and modern methods of fertility control.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road, Delhi 110 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40239 Pennec, Sophie; Blanchet, Didier; Kojima, Hiroshi. Women's labour force participation and family size: the case of France and Japan. Institute of Population Problems Reprint Series, No. 26, May 1996. 76-106 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
The authors investigate the impact of women's labor force participation on fertility, with a focus on the examples of France and Japan. A model is developed that postulates "that both activity and fertility behaviours change in response to changes in a set of three latent explanatory variables: the value attributed to work, the value attributed to raising a large family, and the degree of incompatibility between work and family care. Identification of the changes in these three explanatory factors allows [discrimination] between the two different potential scenarios for the explanation of the joint increase in labour force participation rates and decrease in fertility: the scenario where both variables would change in reaction to an increasing inclination to work, and the scenario where the same change would result from a change in attitudes toward large families."
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40240 Pick, William M.; Obermeyer, Carla M. Urbanisation, household composition and the reproductive health of women in a South African city. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 10, Nov 1996. 1,431-41 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on urbanisation, household structures and women's reproductive histories. It examines the relationships between household composition, migration, other socio-demographic variables, and fertility and infertility in a group of women in a rapidly growing South African city." The data are from a survey, carried out in 1989-1990, of 659 households in a suburb of Capetown.
Correspondence: W. M. Pick, University of the Witwatersrand, Medical School, Department of Community Health, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40241 Raftery, Adrian E.; Lewis, Steven M.; Aghajanian, Akbar; Kahn, Michael J. Event history modeling of World Fertility Survey data. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1996. 129-53, 171 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Event history analysis seems ideally suited for the analysis of World Fertility Survey [WFS] data, which consists of full birth histories and related information, but it has not been much used for this purpose. This may be because event history analysis has practical drawbacks for WFS data, namely partial dates, computational burden, the need to take account of five clocks at once and the difficulty of interpreting coefficients. We propose a modeling strategy for the event history analysis of WFS data which overcomes these problems, and we apply it to the previously unanalyzed WFS data from Iran. This yields estimates of the time of onset of fertility decline and the extent to which it was due to compositional changes in the population. It also enables us to determine whether it was a period effect, a cohort effect, or both....In addition, the usefulness of ACE [an Alternating Conditional Expectation algorithm] as an exploratory tool for determining the best coding of independent variables is illustrated."
Correspondence: A. E. Raftery, University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195-3340. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40242 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Morgan, S. Philip; Offutt, Kate. Education and the changing age pattern of American fertility: 1963-1989. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 3, Aug 1996. 277-90 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using pooled data from the 1980, 1985, and 1990 [U.S.] Current Population Surveys, we describe fertility trends by age and education for the period 1963-1989. Interest focuses on whether the effects of education have changed across this period. We show that women with college degrees experienced dramatic shifts toward later ages of childbearing. This shift is consistent with arguments we develop about the increased opportunity for women to pursue careers and about changes in the availability of child care."
Correspondence: R. R. Rindfuss, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB# 8120, 124 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40243 Rychtaríková, Jitka. Current changes in the characteristics of reproduction in the Czech Republic and the international situation. [Soucasné zmeny charakteru reprodukce v Ceské republice a mezinárodní situace.] Demografie, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1996. 77-89 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes reproduction trends in the Czech Republic and compares them with patterns in some other European countries since World War II. "Population in the East has a stronger feeling of insecurity and of a certain personal distress and this fact contributes apparently towards creating...different family strategies compared to the past."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40244 Sathar, Zeba A. Women's schooling and autonomy as factors in fertility change in Pakistan: some empirical evidence. In: Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, edited by Roger Jeffery and Alaka M. Basu. 1996. 133-49 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Since schooling, despite its low level of pervasiveness, [has] an impact on fertility in Pakistan, it remains worthwhile to investigate why this is so. To what extent is female schooling a measure of the relative status of women? How important is the position of women in influencing fertility? These are the questions which are explored in this paper."
Correspondence: Z. A. Sathar, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40245 Scotese, Carol A.; Wang, Ping. Can government enforcement permanently alter fertility? The case of China. Economic Inquiry, Vol. 33, No. 4, Oct 1995. 552-70 pp. Huntington Beach, California. In Eng.
The authors "quantitatively assess the main sources of fertility fluctuations in China and find that only preference shifts, involving education, health care and the employment and social status of women, can generate a statistically significant long-run decline in fertility growth. However, the government's enforcement power can explain some short-run movements in fertility. To examine the effect of key variables, we modify a growth model with endogenous fertility to represent the average rural household's fertility decisions under government imposed constraints. The model provides the structure necessary to econometrically identify shocks to government enforcement ability, agricultural output and preferences toward fertility."
Correspondence: C. A. Scotese, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40246 Srinivasan, K. Recent fertility trends and prospects in India. Current Science, Vol. 69, No. 7, Oct 10, 1995. 577-86 pp. Bangalore, India. In Eng.
"There is an increasing pace of fertility decline in large parts of...[India] in...recent years. Among the proximate determinants, the variables that have played a dominant role in fertility changes directly...are natural fertility and contraceptive use and indirectly, female literacy and infant mortality. For [the] future, we can expect the TFR to be in the range of 2.9 to 3.0 by the year 2001 and 2.00 to 2.13 by the year 2011. The spurt in the female literacy rate will have a major impact on...future fertility levels."
Correspondence: K. Srinivasan, Population Foundation of India, B-28 Qutab Institutional Area, Tara Crescent, New Delhi 110 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40247 Street, Alan. Projecting complete cohort fertility in Singapore. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, Mar 1996. 59-86 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper has been to describe one way in which complete cohort fertility rates [for Singapore] may be projected into the future, with the underlying purpose, essentially, of addressing the issue of population replacement. It is certainly not claimed that this is the only way or indeed necessarily the best way to make such projections but, based as it is on the secure foundation of partial cohort fertility, it possesses the advantage of being grounded in objectively determined past fertility performance....The paper seeks to justify the use of cohort fertility measures in the approach to answering questions concerning population replacement and ends with a very brief review...of some practical issues and of a method that could be used where the available data are not as comprehensive as they are in Singapore."
Correspondence: A. Street, Skandia International Insurance Corporation, 13-10 Ocean Building, 10 Collyer Quay, Singapore 049315. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40248 Thang, Nguyen Minh; Swenson, Ingrid. Variations in Vietnamese marriages, births and infant deaths by months of the Julian calendar and years of the Vietnamese and Chinese astrological calendars. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jul 1996. 367-77 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The timing of births and marriages in Vietnam appears to have some statistically significant relationships with the signs of the Chinese and Vietnamese astrological calendars. Years considered to be good years have significantly more births and marriages than years that are not considered as desirable. Births and marriages also have some significant variations with seasons of the year. Infant deaths do not appear to have any significant relationships with the astrological signs although infant mortality has some significant relationships with seasons of the year. The findings indicate that there is some purposeful planning for marriages and births to coincide with optimal times defined in the astrological calendars."
Correspondence: I. Swenson, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB8120, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40249 Tolnay, Stewart E. Structural change and fertility change in the South, 1910 to 1940. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 77, No. 3, Sep 1996. 559-76 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper provides new information about the decline in [U.S.] southern fertility that occurred between 1910 and 1940....This analysis focuses specifically on fertility change, rather than static cross-sectional differences across geographic areas. Fertility change and structural change are measured for state economic areas (SEAs) within the South....The findings show that southern fertility fell mainly because of a reduced pace of childbearing by married couples, rather than less exposure to marital fertility. Further, marital fertility decline was sharper in areas that experienced larger reductions in the number of farms per capita, and greater increases in education and manufacturing activity. Marriage became less common in SEAs that saw growth in manufacturing opportunities."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: S. E. Tolnay, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40250 Torrado, Susana. Reproduction in Argentina: facts and ideas. [Procreación en la Argentina: hechos e ideas.] ISBN 950-515-372-4. 1993. 397 pp. Ediciones de la Flor: Buenos Aires, Argentina; Centro de Estudios de la Mujer: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
Changes in fertility in Argentina are analyzed over time. The study begins with a chapter on methods of fertility analysis. The author then analyzes fertility trends from 1870 to 1980 in the context of the country's socioeconomic progress. Focusing on fertility differentials by social class and geographic region, she presents a more detailed analysis of fertility in 1980. Finally, attempts to influence fertility through policy measures are described. The author notes that the process of change from high to low fertility took place prior to the general availability of modern contraceptive methods. It also occurred despite opposition from political, religious, and military authorities to lowering fertility through family planning. She notes that the poorer members of society, who now want to achieve a low level of fertility, still have difficulty in obtaining access to modern contraception.
Correspondence: Ediciones de la Flor, Anchoris 27, 1280 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40251 Udjo, Eric O. Is fertility falling in Zimbabwe? Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan 1996. 25-35 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"With an unequalled contraceptive prevalence rate in sub-Saharan Africa, of 43% among currently married women in Zimbabwe, the Central Statistical Office (1989) observed that fertility has declined sharply in recent years. Using data from several surveys on Zimbabwe, especially the birth histories of the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines fertility trends in Zimbabwe. The results show that the fertility decline in Zimbabwe is modest and that the decline is concentrated among high order births. Multivariate analysis did not show a statistically significant effect of contraception on fertility, partly because a high proportion of Zimbabwean women in the reproductive age group never use contraception due to prevailing pronatalist attitudes in the country."
Correspondence: E. O. Udjo, University of Botswana, Department of Demography, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40252 Vlassoff, Carol. Against the odds: the changing impact of schooling on female autonomy and fertility in an Indian village. In: Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, edited by Roger Jeffery and Alaka M. Basu. 1996. 218-34 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the relationships between female schooling, autonomy and fertility in a village in Maharashtra [India] from the perspectives of unmarried adolescent girls and young married women, and the changes in these relationships over a 12-year period. It argues that the above associations are not as straightforward as is often suggested, and that educational advancement and fertility decline may be simultaneous, but relatively independent, processes, while female autonomy plays a marginal, and somewhat equivocal, role."
Correspondence: C. Vlassoff, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40253 Wadhera, Surinder; Millar, Wayne J. Pregnancy outcomes. [Issue des grossesses.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 8, No. 1, Summer 1996. 7-15 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
This article examines trends in the outcomes of pregnancies in Canada over the period 1974-1992, including live births, abortions, and miscarriages or stillbirths. "An estimated 525,100 pregnancies ended in Canada during 1992. While this was a substantial increase from 438,300 in 1974, the pregnancy rate in 1992--77 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15-44--was actually lower than in 1974, when it had been 85 per 1,000. As the pregnancy rate declined, there was a shift in outcomes. The share of pregnancies that ended in live births fell from 79% to 76%, and the proportion ending in miscarriages/stillbirths went from 9% to 5%. A growing proportion of pregnancies ended in abortions: 19% in 1992, compared with 12% in 1974."
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40254 Wang, Yan. The impact of boy preference on fertility in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1996. 69-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"[Son] preference is prevalent in China and has long become a focus of concern by both the academic circles and the government. However, the question about the extent of the impact of the sex of existing children on fertility has never received a direct and quantitative answer. Using data from a sample survey and analysis techniques from a life table and the Arnold-Index method, this article quantitatively calculates the specific amount of influence the sex of children already born to women may have on the women's later fertility behavior."
Correspondence: Y. Wang, Beijing Medical University, Research Office of the Public Health College, Xue Yuan Lu, Northern Suburb, Beijing 100083, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40255 Welti Chanes, Carlos. Fertility in Mexico. [La fecundidad en México.] ISBN 970-13-0176-5. 1994. [viii], 251, [14] pp. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática [INEGI]: Aguascalientes, Mexico. In Spa.
This is one in a series of monographs presenting analyses of data from the 1990 census of Mexico. This study concerns fertility and contains chapters on the marital status of the female population, fertility levels and trends, and fertility rates. The focus is on changes in period fertility from 1980 to 1990 rather than on changes in cohort fertility. This is examined at both the state and national levels. Some attention is also given to fertility differentials by socioeconomic status.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática, Edificio Sede, Avenida Héroe de Nacozari Número 2301 Sur, Fracc. Jardines del Parque, C.P. 20270, Aguascalientes, AG, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40256 Yadava, K. N. S. Status and fertility of women in rural India. ISBN 81-85445-83-4. 1995. x, 142 pp. Manak Publications: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of this book is to define women's status in rural eastern Uttar Pradesh [India] and to examine its impact on fertility." The data concern 864 women from 590 households living in rural areas. Following chapters on survey methodology, there are chapters on women's status in the region; the relationship between women's status and fertility, fecundability, and knowledge, attitude, and practice of family planning; and women's status and fertility.
Correspondence: Manak Publications, G-19, Vijaya Chowk, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi 110 092, India. Location: Columbia University Library, New York, NY.

62:40257 Yusuf, Farhat; Siedlecky, Stefania. Family formation patterns among migrant women in Sydney. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan 1996. 89-99 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A demographic survey among a probability sample of 980 married migrant women was carried out in Sydney in 1988. The sample included 507 Lebanese, 250 Turkish and 223 Vietnamese women. The study revealed differences in family formation patterns within and between the three groups and between them and the general population. Family size had declined among all three groups compared with their family of origin, and it was clear that the younger women would not achieve the same family size as the older women. Migrant women tended to marry earlier than the general population and to start their families earlier. While they showed a strong preference for their children to marry within their own ethnic and religious group, nearly one-third said it was up to the choice of the individual. Overall, the future family size of younger migrant women is expected to converge towards the Australian norm."
Correspondence: F. Yusuf, Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Demographic Research Group, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40258 Zakharov, Sergei V.; Ivanova, Elena I. Fertility decline and recent changes in Russia: on the threshold of the second demographic transition. In: Russia's demographic "crisis", edited by Julie DaVanzo and Gwendolyn Farnsworth. 1996. 36-83 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"This paper surveys fertility trends in Russia since the beginning of the 1900s, focusing on the 1980s and 1990s, with comparisons to selected countries....[It] examines fluctuations in post-war fertility, completed fertility of post-war generations, and the timing of fertility. Distinguishing features of the fertility decline in Russia appeared over the recent transitional period and in the post-war trends, as well. An extremely large contribution by younger mothers to the total number of births and short intervals between successive births have been characteristic of Russian fertility patterns in the last two decades. The paper introduces period and cohort analyses of Russian fertility trends in 1979-1993. Though the tempo of cohort fertility reflects shifts in the timing of births, the results of cohort analysis show that the female post-war cohorts have stabilized towards the two-child family. The findings of the present research help to identify the historical point that Russia's fertility transition has reached." Some comments by discussants are included (p. 83).
Correspondence: S. V. Zakharov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Economic Forecasting, Center for Demography and Human Ecology, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40259 Zhang, Erli; Su, Ronggui. Trend analysis of fertility in China in the 1990s. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1996. 51-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Fertility...in China in the early 1990s...dropped below replacement level, due to 20 years of continued socioeconomic development since the adoption of the reform policies and the persistent enforcement of birth control practices. Because many women postponed marriage and childbearing in the early 1990s, fertility is expected to surge in the mid and late 1990s. However, as long as efforts are made to carry on family planning and improve services, fertility will remain below the replacement level. At present, the basis for the low-fertility rate is still precarious. In addition, there is always the danger of `heaping' after a period of `dormancy' in marriage and fertility."
Correspondence: E. Zhang, State Family Planning Committee, Planning and Statistics Bureau, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

62:40260 Chaudhury, Rafiqul H. Factors affecting variations in fertility by states of India: a preliminary investigation. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, Jun 1996. 59-68 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper has been to study the inter-state variation in fertility [in India] in relation to certain aspects of female status (education and employment) and the survival status of children (infant/child mortality). Of these three status variables, survival status of children, particularly the child mortality rate, emerges as the single most important factor explaining inter-state variations in fertility. The chances of survival of a child are strongly related to fertility: the lower the chances of survival of a child (in other words, the higher the child mortality rate), the higher is the fertility rate....Female labour force participation, particularly a woman's participation in activities outside the home for someone else, turns out to be the second most important variable affecting fertility....Female education, at less than the primary level, is the third most important variable explaining inter-state variations in fertility."
Correspondence: R. H. Chaudhury, UNDP, P.O. Box 107, Kathmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40261 East, Patricia L. Do adolescent pregnancy and childbearing affect younger siblings? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1996. 148-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To understand the consequences of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing on siblings, a [U.S.] study compares 309 younger brothers and sisters of pregnant, parenting and never-pregnant teenagers. Compared with the younger siblings of never-pregnant teenagers, the younger sisters of pregnant teenagers see school and career as less important, are more accepting of adolescent childbearing, perceive younger ages as appropriate for first intercourse, marriage and childbearing and engage in more problem behavior. The younger sisters of parenting teenagers are more accepting of teenage childbearing than are younger sisters of never-pregnant teenagers and have more definite intentions of having a child at a young age. Compared with boys who have a never-pregnant older sister, younger brothers of pregnant and parenting teenagers are more accepting of nonmarital childbearing, ascribe more importance to childbearing, perceive fewer problems related to early childbearing, have lower self-esteem and report engaging in more drug use and partying behavior."
Correspondence: P. L. East, University of California, School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40262 Luker, Kristin. Dubious conceptions: the politics of teenage pregnancy. ISBN 0-674-21702-0. LC 95-52833. 1996. 283 pp. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
"In this book we will look at what American society can and should be doing for teenage parents and their children, as well as ways in which teenagers might be persuaded to postpone childbearing. The discussion will be shaped by what is sometimes called the social-construction model of analysis. This model assumes that whatever the `facts' about pregnancy and parenthood among teenagers, the public is nonetheless concerned because teenagers and their pregnancies have come to represent a host of other worrisome changes that are deeply rooted in American society--changes involving race, age, gender, and poverty....How can society's concern about teenagers and their babies be mobilized to good effect? How can such anxiety be made less confused and inchoate--be made to reflect real problems? Most centrally, how can society ensure that this anxiety--which relates to sexuality, race, poverty, gender, and a changing world economy--not simply exacerbate the existing problems of young women and their babies?"
Correspondence: Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40263 Narring, Françoise; Michaud, Pierre-André; Sharma, Vinit. Demographic and behavioral factors associated with adolescent pregnancy in Switzerland. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 232-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this research note, we seek to describe the general characteristics of 15-20-year-old women [in Switzerland] who have ever been pregnant in a sample representative of high school and vocational students....We then analyze the relationships between social, demographic and lifestyle variables, sexual behavior characteristics and pregnancy history." Results indicate that "5% of 1,726 sexually active adolescents in [this] group of 3,993...women...had ever been pregnant; most of these women (80%) had terminated their pregnancy....Multiple logistic regression analysis identified seven factors associated with pregnancy: having had four or more sexual partners; not having used contraceptives at first intercourse; ever use of less-effective contraceptive methods; having used illicit drugs during the last 30 days; living apart from one's parents; recently experiencing stress; and perceiving a lack of future prospects."
Correspondence: F. Narring, Institut Universitaire de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Bugnon 17, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40264 Oris, Michel. Fertility and migration in the heart of the industrial revolution. History of the Family, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1996. 169-82 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Using research into the formation of industrial populations in the nineteenth century, this article examines the relationships between immigration and natality in Tilleur, an exemplary locality for studying the industrial revolution in Belgium. The main purpose is to test the general hypothesis positing a distinction between a foundation phase and a maturation phase in the process through which an industrial population is formed. The results are a contribution to the debate about the beginning of the fertility transition in industrial cities, and its relations to differential nuptiality and fertility in light of spatial origins."
Correspondence: M. Oris, University of Liège, Laboratory of Demography, 32 place du XX-Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

62:40265 Heinrichs, Jürgen. Environment and fertility: introduction to aspects of sexual ecology (contribution to world population trends). [Umwelt und Fertilität: Einführung in Aspekte der Sexualökologie (Beitrag zur Weltbevölkerungsentwicklung).] Politikwissenschaft, Vol. 25, ISBN 3-8258-2040-8. 1994. 120 pp. Lit: Münster, Germany. In Ger.
This book focuses on the interplay between fertility and the environment, with a special emphasis on environmentally caused infertility. There are chapters on occupational medicine and fertility, population growth and environmental damage, environmental causes of lowered fertility, experiences on the various continents, and human rights in these matters, as well as a chapter on information sources and an appendix containing news documents.
Correspondence: Lit Verlag, Dieckstraße 73, 48145 Münster, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

62:40266 Accampo, Elinor A. The rhetoric of reproduction and the reconfiguration of womanhood in the French birth control movement, 1890-1920. Journal of Family History, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jul 1996. 351-71 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Birth control movements that emerged in Europe and the United States during the last third of the nineteenth century lost their emancipatory and feminist potential in the twentieth century as they succumbed to control by the medical profession, eugenicists, and institutionalized goals of planned parenthood. The neo-Malthusian movement in France, however, retained a radical character and became a focal point for the convergence of libertarian, feminist, and anarchist concerns. By emancipating women from their `biological destiny' and separating sexuality and reproduction, neo-Malthusian rhetoric reconfigured womanhood and established the basis for women's development as full individuals and citizens."
Correspondence: E. A. Accampo, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40267 Ahituv, Avner; Hotz, V. Joseph; Philipson, Tomas. The responsiveness of the demand for condoms to the local prevalence of AIDS. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 31, No. 4, Fall 1996. 869-97 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the degree to which the local prevalence of AIDS increases the demand for disease-preventing methods of contraception among young adults [in the United States]. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY-1979), we find substantial evidence that the use of condoms was quite responsive to the prevalence of AIDS in one's state of residence, and this responsiveness has been increasing over time. We present both cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence estimating that a 1 percent increase in the prevalence of AIDS increases the propensity to use a condom significantly and up to 50 percent for the most prevalence-responsive groups. Our findings lend support to the existence of a self-limiting incentive effect of epidemics--an effect that tends to be ignored in epidemiological theories of the spread of infectious diseases."
Correspondence: V. J. Hotz, University of Chicago, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

62:40268 Alan Guttmacher Institute (New York, New York). Readings on emergency contraception. ISBN 0-939253-42-9. 1996. 63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report contains a selection of articles published in either Family Planning Perspectives or International Family Planning Perspectives between 1992 and 1996 on emergency contraception. The geographical focus is worldwide. The topics covered include the effectiveness of different regimens and the impact of emergency contraception on unintended pregnancy.
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40269 Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF] (Paris, France). Methods of regulating human reproduction: impacts on fertility and health. [Les modes de régulation de la reproduction humaine: incidences sur la fécondité et la santé.] No. 6, ISBN 2-7332-7013-3. 1994. xi, 777 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of an international conference held in Delphi, Greece, October 6-10, 1992, on aspects of fertility control. The 66 papers are divided into six sessions. The first session looks at the social pressures that affect fertility in various countries around the world. The second session examines policies affecting fertility, and includes both pro- and antinatalist policies. The next two sessions are concerned with methods to increase and decrease fertility. There are also sessions on problems of data collection and analysis, and on the health impact of fertility control methods. The geographical focus is worldwide, with particular emphasis on the French-speaking countries of Africa and Europe.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de France, 108 Boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40270 Bertrand, Jane T.; Makani, Bakutuvwidi; Edwards, Michael P.; Baughman, Nancy C.; Niwembo, Kinavwidi L.; Djunghu, Balowa. The male versus female perspective on family planning: Kinshasa, Zaire. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan 1996. 37-55 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Males have often been neglected in both family planning programmes and in surveys used to design and evaluate such programmes. A 1988 study on fertility, family planning and AIDS in Kinshasa, Zaire, provides comparable data on 3,140 men and 3,485 women of reproductive age which served as the basis for analyzing male/female differences. The study indicated a fair degree of similarity in the attitudes, beliefs, knowledge levels and practices of men and women regarding fertility and family planning. Where they differed (e.g. on expected or ideal number of children, the desire for more children at parity 7 or above), men tended to be more pronatalist than women. The implications of the findings for future family planning programmes are discussed."
Correspondence: J. T. Bertrand, Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40271 Caldwell, John C. The International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 1994. Is its Plan of Action important, desirable and feasible? Health Transition Review, Vol. 6, No. 1, Apr 1996. 71-123 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This is an introduction to a forum on the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and on its resulting Plan of Action. Consisting of 12 papers by various authors, it examines aspects of establishing family planning programs in developing countries.
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40272 Cleland, John; Kamal, Nashid; Sloggett, Andrew. Links between fertility regulation and the schooling and autonomy of women in Bangladesh. In: Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, edited by Roger Jeffery and Alaka M. Basu. 1996. 205-17 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The objectives of this analysis are two fold. First, we wish to establish whether or not the exposure of [Bangladeshi] women to formal schooling enhances their autonomy or position....Secondly and more importantly, we seek to assess the effects of schooling and autonomy on contraceptive practice. Special interest lies in the answers to two closely related questions: To what extent is it possible to account for the link that usually exists between schooling and fertility behaviour in terms of any empowering effect of schooling? And does high autonomy have a major impact on contraceptive use, after controlling for potentially confounding factors such as socio-economic status and urban-rural residence?"
Correspondence: J. Cleland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40273 Crosier, Adam. Women's knowledge and awareness of emergency contraception. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jul 1996. 87-91 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The aim of this study was "to assess women's knowledge, awareness and use of emergency contraception, and to investigate women's views of how access to information about emergency contraception might be improved....A sample of 1,354 women [in the United Kingdom] aged 16 to 49 was identified from a national omnibus survey of 125,000 individuals. Seven hundred and ninety eight interviews were conducted by telephone with women aged 16 to 49 over a one week period in November 1994....There was found to be very little `spontaneous' awareness of the term, `emergency contraception'. When a list of various contraceptive methods was read aloud, however, 97 per cent of the sample had heard of the misleadingly named `morning after pill'. Less than a quarter of these were able to say accurately how long emergency contraceptive pills could be used following unprotected sex or contraceptive failure."
Correspondence: A. Crosier, Health Education Authority, Hamilton House, Mabledon Place, London WC1H 9TX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40274 Devi, D. Radha; Rastogi, S. R.; Retherford, Robert D. Unmet need for family planning in Uttar Pradesh. National Family Health Survey Subject Report, No. 1, May 1996. 25 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The unmet need for family planning in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh is examined. Using data from the 1992-1993 National Family Health Survey, the authors show that 30 percent of currently married women of reproductive age have an unmet need for family planning, roughly the same percent as are currently practicing family planning. They also note that the need for contraception to space births is particularly acute. "Considerable need for spacing exists, but 89 percent of that need is unmet. It is therefore not surprising that 55 percent of all unmet need for contraception in the state is due to unmet need for spacing. These findings support the widespread perception that demand for temporary methods exceeds supply, and that a greatly increased effort is needed to meet the demand for temporary methods....Substantial proportions of women with unmet need...say that they do not intend to use family planning at any time in the future. " The variations in unmet need by women's socioeconomic characteristics are explored.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40275 El-Zanaty, Fatma; Hussein, Enas M.; Shawky, Gihan A.; Way, Ann A.; Kishor, Sunita. Egypt Demographic and Health Survey, 1995. Sep 1996. xxiv, 348 pp. National Population Council: Cairo, Egypt; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This is the main report from the 1995 DHS survey, the third DHS survey to be carried out in Egypt. It involved a nationally representative sample of 14,779 ever-married women aged 15-49. Following introductory chapters on survey methodology, there are chapters on fertility; knowledge, attitudes, and ever use of family planning; current use of family planning; nonuse and intention to use family planning; fertility preferences; the proximate determinants of fertility; infant and child mortality; maternal health care; child health; infant feeding and maternal and child nutrition; female circumcision; and women's status.
Correspondence: National Population Council, P.O. Box 1036, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40276 El-Zanaty, Fatma H. Women segmentation based on contraceptive use. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jun 1994. 19-54 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper represents the main results obtained from the in-depth analysis of the 1992 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data for women. Three main groups were of interest, current [contraceptive] users, discontinuers and non-users. The main characteristics of each group were studied, then cluster analysis was applied [to] each group, which helps to identify homogenous subgroups. Accordingly, special attention can be given to each segment based on their characteristics. The results of the cluster analysis indicated that, the key variables from which natural groups emerge are area of residence, level of education, age, parity, desire for more children, intention to practice family planning and husband's approval. The clusters were mapped according to age and level of intention to use family planning."
Correspondence: F. H. El-Zanaty, Cairo University, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, P.O. Box 12611, Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40277 Fathonah, Siti. Contraceptive use dynamics in Indonesia. DHS Working Paper, No. 20, Jul 1996. 31 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report is based on the DHS Model Further Analysis Plan on Contraceptive Use Dynamics....The analyses use data from the 1994 Indonesia DHS survey. The main aim of this report is to provide a comprehensive, descriptive analysis of contraceptive discontinuation, switching, and failure in Indonesia that is of interest to policymakers and researchers. The structure of this report is as follows: Background, Data and Methodology, Contraceptive Discontinuation Rates, Discontinuation Rates by Reason for Discontinuation, Contraceptive Switching Behavior, and Contraceptive Failure Rates. The report concludes with a discussion of the main findings and their policy significance."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40278 Feyisetan, Bamikale J.; Ainsworth, Martha. Contraceptive use and the quality, price, and availability of family planning in Nigeria. World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan 1996. 159-87 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Nigeria has experienced high fertility and rapid population growth for at least the past thirty years. Only recently have public authorities launched efforts to promote contraceptive use. In this article, individual women are linked to the characteristics of the nearest health facility, pharmacy, and source of family planning to assess the relative importance of women's socioeconomic background and the characteristics of nearby services on contraceptive use. The results suggest that the limited levels of female schooling...are constraining contraceptive use, especially in rural areas. Another major constraint to increased contraceptive use is the low availability of family planning services in Nigeria....Outpatient or consultation fees at nearby health facilities do not appear to be constraining demand for modern contraceptive methods."
Correspondence: B. J. Feyisetan, Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

62:40279 Graham, Anna; Green, Lora; Glasier, Anna F. Teenagers' knowledge of emergency contraception: questionnaire survey in south east Scotland. British Medical Journal, Vol. 312, No. 7046, Jun 22, 1996. 1,567-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The level of knowledge about emergency contraception among young people in Scotland is explored. The data concern 1,206 pupils aged 14 and 15 years in secondary schools in Lothian and were collected in 1995. The results show that "one third of sexually active girls aged under 16 in Lothian have used emergency contraception. This may help explain the fairly constant teenage pregnancy rates despite increasing sexual activity. Scottish teenagers are well informed about the existence of emergency contraception. However, many do not know when and how to access it properly."
Correspondence: A. F. Glasier, Family Planning and Well Woman Services, 18 Dean Terrace, Edinburgh EH4 1NL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:40280 Hoa, H. T.; Toan, N. V.; Johansson, A.; Hoa, V. T.; Höjer, B.; Persson, L. Å. Child spacing and two child policy in practice in rural Vietnam: cross sectional survey. British Medical Journal, Vol. 313, No. 7065, Nov 2, 1996. 1,113-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The reproductive history of women in rural Viet Nam is explored using data on 1,132 women who had at least one child under five years of age in 1992 in the Red River Delta area. The results suggest that most families do not adhere to the official family planning policy, which stipulates that couples should have a maximum of two children with three to five years spacing between births. "The mean age at first birth was 22.2 years. The average spacing between the first and the second child was 2.6 years. Mothers with a lower educational level, farmers, and women belonging to the Catholic religion had shorter spacing between the first and second child and also a higher probability of having a third child. In addition, women who had no sons or who had lost a previous child were more likely to have a third child."
Correspondence: H. T. Hoa, c/o B. Höjer, Karolinska Institute, Division of International Health Care Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:40281 Hynie, Michaela; Lydon, John E. Sexual attitudes and contraceptive behavior revisited: can there be too much of a good thing? Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1996. 127-34 pp. Mount Vernon, Iowa. In Eng.
"A longitudinal study was performed to explore a possible curvilinear relationship between sexual attitudes and contraceptive behavior. A community sample of 62 [Canadian] women recorded their sexual and contraceptive behavior for five consecutive weeks using daily diary reports. During an initial testing session, participants were asked to report their contraceptive behavior in the last month and to predict their contraceptive behavior for the coming month. Women reported using less effective contraceptive methods during the five weeks than they had for the month prior to the study and than they had predicted for the month concurrent with the study. Both the consistency and effectiveness of women's contraceptive behavior over the five weeks were found to have a quadratic (inverted-U) relationship with their sexual attitude....The results are discussed with respect to biases inherent in subjective retrospective data and the possible link between an extremely positive emotional orientation toward sexuality and willingness to engage in high-risk sexual behavior."
Correspondence: M. Hynie, McGill University, Department of Psychology, 1205 Dr. Penfield Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40282 Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia J.; Gordon, Vivian V. Maternal correlates of adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1996. 159-65, 185 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Maternal disapproval of premarital sex, maternal discussions about birth control and the quality of the parent-child relationship may have an important influence on adolescents' sexual activity and the consistency of their contraceptive use. Findings from a survey of 751 black [U.S.] youths showed that adolescent perceptions of maternal disapproval of premarital sex and satisfaction with the mother-child relationship were significantly related to abstinence from adolescent sexual activity and to less-frequent sexual intercourse and more consistent use of contraceptives among sexually active youths. Teenagers who reported a low level of satisfaction with their mother were more than twice as likely as those highly satisfied with their relationship to be having sexual intercourse. Discussions about birth control were associated with an increased likelihood that adolescents were sexually active. Such discussions were not significantly related to consistent contraceptive use for female adolescents, but were associated with increased contraceptive use for male teenagers."
Correspondence: J. Jaccard, State University of New York, Department of Psychology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40283 Johnson, J. Timothy; Macke, Beth A. Estimating contraceptive needs from trends in method mix in developing countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep 1996. 92-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Data from 106 national surveys conducted in 35 countries between 1974 and 1992 permit calculation of changes in total and method-specific prevalence and of annual rates of change, upon which contraceptive forecasts can be based. In all, 44% of women in the most recent surveys were practicing contraception; 36% were using a modern method. Between the first and most recent surveys, total contraceptive prevalence rose at an annual rate of 5%, and modern method use increased by 6% annually. The increases were most rapid in Sub-Saharan Africa (9-10% annually) and slowest in Latin America and the Caribbean (3-4%). Whereas reliance on sterilization grew by 8% yearly, increases in prevalence of the pill, IUD and condom were 2% or less annually. In most regions, reliance on sterilization has changed at a much quicker pace than use of other methods; the exception is North Africa and the Middle East, where the annual increase for sterilization has been modest, but IUD use has climbed quite rapidly."
Correspondence: J. T. Johnson, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Program Services and Evaluation Section, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40284 Kamal, Nashid. Influence of family head's reproductive behaviour on the use of modern contraceptive methods by other members of the family in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jul 1996. 297-303 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A study in Bangladesh showed that the probability of use of modern contraception by eligible family members of a household increases significantly if the household head himself is a user. Multinomial logistic regression showed that contraceptive use was also significantly related with maternal age, parity, education, socioeconomic status and experience of child mortality. Inclusion of ever use of modern contraceptives by the family head or his wife, showed family head's religiosity to be a significant predictor of use, apart from his age and parity, and after controlling for socioeconomic correlates."
Correspondence: N. Kamal, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40285 Kanojia, J. K.; Nirbhavane, N. C.; Toddywala, V. S.; Betrabet, S. S.; Patel, S. B.; Datte, S.; Gaur, L.; Saxena, B. N. Dynamics of contraceptive practice amongst urban Indian women. National Medical Journal of India, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1996. 109-12 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this study, a mixed urban population was surveyed....Two thousand parous women from different social and educational backgrounds residing in the metropolis of Mumbai (Bombay), Maharashtra were included in the study....Fifty per cent of illiterates, semi-literates and high-school educated, and 80% of college-educated couples said that they had no gender preferences for their children, but actual practice belied this. Regardless of the level of education, 25%, 75% and 95% of all couples were sexually active by 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after childbirth. Awareness regarding the availability of various contraceptives increased with education; 20% of all graduate couples used condoms or the rhythm method immediately after marriage. After the birth of their first child, 80% of educated couples used spacing methods whereas even after the birth of their third child more than 50% of the uneducated did not....Spacing methods were popular among the educated, and terminal ones among the uneducated. Steroidal contraceptive pills were not popular with any group, regardless of the level of education."
Correspondence: V. S. Toddywala, Institute of Research and Reproduction, Metabolic Department, Jehangir Merwanji Street, Parel, Mumbai 400 012, Maharashtra, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40286 Khan, Mehrab A. Factors affecting use of contraception in Matlab, Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jul 1996. 265-79 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the relationship between family planning, perceived availability of contraceptives, and sociodemographic factors in rural Bangladesh. Data are from the 1990 KAP survey in the Matlab treatment and comparison areas, using a sample of about 8,500 married women of reproductive age. The contraceptive prevalence rate was 57% in the treatment area but substantially lower in the comparison area where mainly traditional methods of family planning were used by women who did not know of a source of supply of contraceptives. Education has no effect on contraceptive use in the treatment area but in the comparison area, modest but consistent differentials in use by level of education were found. Number of living children is the best predictor for contraceptive use, followed by number of living sons, and the attitude of respondents and their husbands towards family planning."
Correspondence: M. A. Khan, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40287 Knodel, John; Pramualratana, Anthony. Prospects for increased condom use within marriage in Thailand. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep 1996. 97-102 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"The transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from infected husbands to their wives is now an important component of the AIDS epidemic in Thailand. Although the value of condoms in reducing the spread of HIV is well-known among Thai men and women, the rate of condom use for contraception among married couples has never exceeded 2%. Focus groups and individual interviews with both urban and provincial Thai men and women reveal a number of formidable barriers to increasing the rate of marital condom use: condoms are widely perceived as interfering with male sexual pleasure, and they are primarily considered to be a prophylactic for use with prostitutes. The potential for increasing the use of condoms as a method of marital contraception appears limited, as highly effective alternatives are widely available....Findings suggest that general promotion of condoms for use during extramarital sex, together with advocacy of voluntary HIV testing for individuals at high risk of infection and counseling for those testing positive, are practical recommendations."
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40288 Landry, David J.; Forrest, Jacqueline D. Private physicians' provision of contraceptive services. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 203-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Private physicians provide family planning services to the majority of American women. According to data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, office-based physicians received on average 13.5 million visits annually for contraceptive services during 1990-1992. Private insurance was the expected form of payment for 38% of visits, while managed care covered 22% of visits, and Medicaid or another source of public assistance subsidized 12%; 22% were self-paid and 6% covered by other sources. The majority of patients who received contraceptive services gave a reason other than general family planning or care regarding a specific contraceptive as the primary purpose for their visit, although women covered by a managed care plan or through public funding were the most likely to give general family planning needs as the main reason. Women whose visit was listed as publicly funded were less likely to have a contraceptive prescribed or provided or to obtain a Pap test than were those expected to pay with private insurance."
Correspondence: D. J. Landry, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40289 Maynard-Tucker, Gisèle. Haiti: unions, fertility and the quest for survival. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 9, Nov 1996. 1,379-87 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This essay examines Haitian cultural and programmatic barriers to modern contraception and reports on types of unions as they relate to pregnancy and the prevalence of contraception." The data are from three mini-surveys and represent 2,383 rural and urban women. The results show that contraceptive usage is higher among urban (23%) than rural (13%) women, and that the choice of contraceptive method is influenced by the medical staff involved and by the availability of specific methods. Recommendations are made about ways to increase contraceptive usage, including improvements in the family planning services provided, increased support for first-time users, and improved education for women to encourage their greater economic independence.
Correspondence: G. Maynard-Tucker, International Health and Development Associates, 18133 Coastline Drive, Suite 4, Malibu, CA 90265. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40290 Measham, Anthony R.; Heaver, Richard A. Supplement to India's Family Welfare Program: moving to a reproductive and child health approach. Directions in Development, ISBN 0-8213-3500-6. Mar 1996. vii, 113 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a companion volume to a report on the policy issues that India faces concerning its family welfare program. This supplement contains edited versions of the background papers on which the main volume was based. There are papers on the government's action plan to revamp the program, family welfare policy issues, estimates of unwanted and wanted fertility, gender and poverty concerns in a reproductive health program, reproductive and child health services, the management of reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS, IEC efforts and social marketing, management and evaluation of a reproductive and child health program, enhancing the role of private voluntary organizations, and financing India's reproductive and child health program.
For the full report, also published in 1996, see 62:30287.
Correspondence: World Bank, Publications Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40291 Oliver, Raylynn. Contraceptive use in Ghana: the role of service availability, quality, and price. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper, No. 111, ISBN 0-8213-3020-9. LC 94-31691. Feb 1995. xi, 46 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper, individual women are linked to the characteristics of the nearest pharmacy, health facility and source of family planning to assess the relative importance of socioeconomic background and the availability, price and quality of family planning services on contraceptive use and fertility. The source of data is the 1988-89 Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS). The results suggest that raising levels of female schooling will also raise contraceptive use and lower fertility, particularly in rural areas."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40292 Parazzini, Fabio; Negri, Eva; Ricci, Elena; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo. Correlates of oral contraceptive use in Italian women, 1991-93. Contraception, Vol. 54, No. 2, Aug 1996. 101-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In order to understand the determinants of oral contraceptive (OC) use in Italy, we analyzed data on 1,577 women aged under age 60 (median age 50 years) admitted as controls in a case-control study of breast cancer....In this Italian population, OCs were more likely to have been used by more educated and parous women, and by women reporting a history of induced abortions. Furthermore, OC use was less frequently reported by overweight women, but the finding was of borderline statistical significance."
Correspondence: F. Parazzini, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Eritrea 62, 20157 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40293 Potter, Linda; Oakley, Deborah; de Leon-Wong, Emelita; Cañamar, Ruth. Measuring compliance among oral contraceptive users. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1996. 154-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Irregular use of the pill compromises the effectiveness of this highly reliable method. The consistency of pill-taking has traditionally been estimated through women's own reports of their patterns of pill use. In this study, self-reported data on pill-taking were compared with data from an electronic device measuring compliance among 103 [U.S.] women attending university health services and publicly funded family planning clinics. In three months of pill use, the electronic and self-reported data agreed on the number of days when pills were missed only 45% of the time; the level of agreement dropped from 55% in the first month to 38% in the third month. In each month, the proportion of women reporting no missed pills was much higher than the proportion recorded electronically (53-59% compared with 19-33%), and the proportion missing at least three pills according to the electronic data was triple that derived from the women's reports (30-51% vs. 10-14%). In addition, the electronic data recorded substantially more episodes in which women missed pills on two or more consecutive days (88 vs. 30)."
Correspondence: L. Potter, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40294 Rahman, M. Mujibur; Islam, M. Nurul; Islam, M. Mazharul. Users of traditional methods of contraception in Bangladesh: 1981-91. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jul 1996. 257-64 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the changing patterns of knowledge, attitude and use of traditional methods of contraception, compared to modern methods, over the last five contraceptive prevalence surveys in Bangladesh (1981-91). The results show that knowledge of at least one method of family planning is universal in Bangladesh and usage is higher at all ages for women who are using modern methods than for those who are using traditional methods. Educated women and those in employment are more likely to use modern contraceptive methods."
Correspondence: M. M. Rahman, University of Chittagong, Department of Statistics, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40295 Schuler, Sidney R.; Hashemi, Syed M. Family planning outreach and credit programs in rural Bangladesh. Human Organization, Vol. 54, No. 4, Winter 1995. 455-61 pp. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. In Eng.
"Results of this recent study in rural Bangladesh suggest that programs that draw women out of their homes and reduce their dependence on men are contributing to greater use of contraception. One such program, Grameen Bank, now has female members in nearly half of all Bangladesh villages. Participation in the program was found to be associated with high levels of contraceptive use even among women who have not been exposed to family planning outreach. For nonparticipants in communities where the program works, the combination of home visits by female family planning workers and the presence of Grameen Bank in the village appears to have a dramatic effect on contraceptive use."
Correspondence: S. R. Schuler, JSI Research and Training Institute, Empowerment of Women Research Program, 1616 North Fort Myer Drive, Arlington, VA 22209. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40296 Sollom, Terry; Gold, Rachel B.; Saul, Rebekah. Public funding for contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services, 1994. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1996. 166-73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we present the results of our [fiscal year] 1994 survey on [U.S.] public funding for contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services. These data are then analyzed with the results of previous survey data collected between 1980 and 1992. The purpose of this research is to examine current spending for family planning services in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and other federal jurisdictions from various funding sources and to identify trends in public funding for family planning services." Results indicate that "in 1994, federal and state funding for contraceptive services and supplies reached $715 million. Funding totaled $148 million for contraceptive sterilization and $90 million for abortion services....The largest source of public funds for family planning services continues to be the joint federal-state Medicaid program....State funds continue to be the second largest source, providing almost one-quarter of reported public expenditures in 1994."
Correspondence: T. Sollom, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40297 Soonthorndhada, Amara. Sexual attitudes and behaviours and contraceptive use of late female adolescents in Bangkok: a comparative study of students and factory workers. IPSR Publication, No. 202, ISBN 974-588-356-5. 1996. ix, 95 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
This study examines attitudes toward premarital sex and contraceptive usage among adolescent women in Thailand. The data concern 500 unmarried female adolescents in Bangkok, of whom 250 attended secondary schools and 250 worked in factories. The results indicate that despite their general awareness of contraceptive methods, many young women did not know of a place where they could obtain contraceptive services. Among the few women who were sexually active, 5 out of 15 did not use birth control; this was due to a reported lack of knowledge about contraception.
Correspondence: Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40298 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Report of the survey of knowledge, attitude and family planning practice in the southern region of Thailand, 1994. ISBN 974-236-184-3. [1996?]. [xii], 49, 111 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
Results of a KAP survey carried out in southern Thailand in 1994 are presented. The survey involved all women aged 15-49 residing in 10,308 households in both urban and rural areas. The data for Muslim and Buddhist women are analyzed separately. The results indicate that knowledge of contraception is almost universal; that approval of contraception is higher among Buddhist women (91.3%) than among Muslim women (70.6%); and that contraceptive practice also differs significantly by religion (77.2% of Buddhist women said they had ever practiced contraception compared to 36.9% of Muslim women). Consideration is also given to differences in contraceptive methods chosen.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40299 Thompson, M. S. Contraceptive implants: long acting and provider dependent contraception raises concerns about freedom of choice. British Medical Journal, Vol. 313, No. 7069, Nov 30, 1996. 1,393-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
In response to a recent editorial in the British Medical Journal, the author discusses some issues concerning contraceptive implants. "Implanted contraceptives may increase the choice of contraceptive methods, but they put control of fertility increasingly into the hands of the medical profession. Herein lies their greatest problem: their potential to increase providers' control over clients' choice. There is the danger that certain groups of women may be targeted for their use: in the United States the coercive use of Norplant for mothers receiving welfare benefit has been suggested. Long acting contraceptives are a contraceptive of choice only when they are available without pressure, as part of a wider menu; when instant removal on request is guaranteed; and when there is an open and free flow of information and opinions between users, health professionals, and special interest groups."
Correspondence: M. S. Thompson, Apartado Postal 38, 29200 San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:40300 Toan, N. V.; Hoa, H. T.; Trong, P. V.; Höjer, B.; Persson, L. Å.; Sundström, K. Utilisation of reproductive health services in rural Vietnam; are there equal opportunities to plan and protect pregnancies? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 50, No. 4, Aug 1996. 451-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "describe the utilisation of reproductive health services (family planning, antenatal care, and delivery services) and the socioeconomic determinants for utilisation of health services [in Tien Hai district, Viet Nam]....In spite of a relatively high educational level in the population and services which are generally available, there was an under utilisation of antenatal and delivery care and there was no equal opportunity for different groups of mothers to use these services. Family planning services were, however, frequently used and were used to the same extent by different groups of mothers. Except for abortion, alternatives to the intrauterine device method were rarely available. If pregnancies are to be protected in an efficient way in rural Vietnam, reproductive health care must be strengthened and efforts should be made to reach the women who are not using these services at present."
Correspondence: N. V. Toan, c/o B. Höjer, Karolinska Institute, Department of Public Health Services, Division of International Health Care Research, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40301 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division (New York, New York). Family planning, health and family well-being. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/131, Pub. Order No. E.96.XIII.12. ISBN 92-1-151308-1. 1996. xiv, 458 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a UN expert group meeting held in Bangalore, India, October 26-30, 1992, one of six such meetings convened as part of the preparations for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, Egypt. It contains a report of the meeting and its recommendations, as well as a selection of the papers prepared for the meeting. These papers are grouped under eight topics: general overview, society and family planning, lessons learned from existing family planning programs, issues in the implementation of family planning programs, family planning and health, family planning and family well-being, people's involvement in the future development of family planning programs, and discussion notes.
Correspondence: United Nations Secretariat, Population Division, Room DC2-1950, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40302 Varea, C.; Crognier, E.; Bley, D.; Boetsch, G.; Baudot, P.; Baali, A.; Hilali, M. K. Determinants of contraceptive use in Morocco: stopping behaviour in traditional populations. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan 1996. 1-13 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The determinants of modern contraceptive use in traditional populations are analysed in married women aged 30-44 living in the province of Marrakech (Morocco)....The probability of contraceptive use increases with female age at marriage and decreases with the woman's age, indicating a generational change in reproductive behaviour. The socioeconomic variables education, employment and residence, have no significant independent predictive character on contraceptive use, although the interaction between education and residence does. The paper evaluates the hypothesis that traditional populations in the initial phase of their demographic transition resort to modern contraception in order to stop childbearing, when they have reached a desired number of children, rather than to space births or reduce their fertility."
Correspondence: C. Varea, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Biología, 28049 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

62:40303 Kambic, R. T.; Lamprecht, V. Calendar rhythm efficacy: a review. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1996. 123-8 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors review the literature concerning the unplanned pregnancy rate associated with the calendar rhythm method of natural family planning. Specifically, they analyze eight studies published between 1940 and 1989. They show that the pregnancy rates of from 15 to 18.5 indicated by the best of these studies are in the same range of effectiveness as those associated with more modern natural family planning and barrier methods. The need is stressed for more clinical trials of the calendar method to establish its true effectiveness.
Correspondence: R. T. Kambic, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40304 Kazi, Afroze; Kennedy, Kathy I.; Visness, Cynthia M.; Khan, Talat. Effectiveness of the lactational amenorrhea method in Pakistan. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 64, No. 4, Oct 1995. 717-23 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present study was to determine the contraceptive effectiveness of lactational amenorrhea method in a cohort of women who ordinarily breastfeed their infants. This prospective trial was conducted among rural and urban women in Pakistan who received no special ongoing support for breastfeeding, but who chose to use the lactational amenorrhea method as their contraceptive." Results indicate that "the lactational amenorrhea method was found to be highly effective for 6 months. A high degree of contraceptive protection endures for a full year during lactational amenorrhea, but not after the return of menses during breastfeeding."
Correspondence: K. I. Kennedy, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40305 Ramos, Rebecca; Kennedy, Kathy I.; Visness, Cynthia M. Effectiveness of lactational amenorrhoea in prevention of pregnancy in Manila, the Philippines: non-comparative prospective trial. British Medical Journal, Vol. 313, No. 7062, Oct 12, 1996. 909-12 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The contraceptive effectiveness of lactational amenorrhoea is examined using data on 485 low-income women from urban Manila, the Philippines. The results indicate that this method "was 99% effective when used correctly (that is, during lactational amenorrhoea and full or nearly full breast feeding for up to six months). At 12 months the effectiveness during amenorrhoea dropped to 97%."
Correspondence: K. I. Kennedy, 2201 South Fillmore Street, Denver, CO 80210. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:40306 Soroodi-Moghaddam, Sheitaneh. Quinacrine pellet method of nonsurgical female sterilization in Iran: preliminary report on a clinical trial. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep 1996. 122-3, 127 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa.
"For a study of the safety, efficacy and acceptability of female sterilization with quinacrine pellets in a private setting, data on 160 women who obtained the procedure in Tehran between September 1990 and April 1994 were evaluated. Three-fourths of the women were monitored for at least one year, and more than half were monitored for more than two years. By the end of the study period, two women had become pregnant, for a gross pregnancy rate of 1.2%; neither pregnancy was ectopic. Within the first two months after the procedure, about half of the women reported complications or side effects, which were minor and easily treatable; after the first two months, the only side effect reported was delayed menses. The cost of sterilization with quinacrine pellets is one-10th that of surgical sterilization. However, knowledge about the method is not widespread within the medical community in Iran."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40307 Van Look, P. F. A.; Pérez-Palacios, G. Contraceptive research and development, 1984 to 1994: the road from Mexico City to Cairo and beyond. ISBN 0-19-563630-9. 1994. xvi, 546 pp. Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This book records the proceedings of a symposium organized by the Government of Mexico and the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Renowned international experts review the progress made in the field of fertility regulation research since 1984, when Mexico City hosted the International Conference on Population. The book not only covers the biomedical aspects of contraceptive research, it also includes chapters on knowledge gained through social science research and on the perspectives of women's health advocates."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road, Delhi 110 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40308 World Health Organization. Family and Reproductive Health (Geneva, Switzerland). Improving access to quality care in family planning. Medical eligibility criteria for initiating and continuing use of contraceptive methods. No. WHO/FRH/FPP/96.9, 1996. 143 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This document is designed to improve access to quality care in family planning programs. It reviews the medical eligibility criteria for selecting methods of contraception, and summarizes the recommendations of two WHO scientific working groups convened in Geneva in 1994 and 1995. "The document provides recommendations for appropriate medical eligibility criteria based on the latest clinical and epidemiological data and is intended to be used by policy-makers, family planning programme managers and the scientific community. It aims to provide guidance to national family planning/reproductive health programmes in the preparation of guidelines for service delivery of contraceptives. It should not be seen or used as the actual guidelines but as a reference."
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Family Planning and Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

62:40309 Ahlburg, Dennis A.; Diamond, Ian. Evaluating the impact of family planning programmes. In: The impact of population growth on well-being in developing countries, edited by Dennis A. Ahlburg, Allen C. Kelley, and Karen O. Mason. 1996. 299-335 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The aims of this chapter are: (1) to investigate the relationship between fertility decline and family planning programmes, with a particular emphasis on the use of contraceptives; (2) to assess the contribution of family planning programmes to fertility decline; (3) to discuss the components of a good family planning programme....We discuss the avenues through which a family planning programme and socioeconomic development can affect fertility...[and] discuss the numerous approaches that have been employed to identify the impact of family planning programmes (and socioeconomic development) on fertility." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: D. A. Ahlburg, University of Minnesota, Center for Population Analysis and Policy, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40310 Card, Josefina J.; Niego, Starr; Mallari, Alisa; Farrell, William S. The Program Archive on Sexuality, Health and Adolescence: promising "prevention programs in a box". Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 210-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The Program Archive on Sexuality, Health and Adolescence (PASHA) identifies programs aimed at preventing pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases among [U.S.] teenagers, and makes materials from interventions with demonstrated effectiveness available to practitioners around the country. With the assistance of a panel of experts, PASHA has identified an initial group of 15 pregnancy prevention and 15 sexually transmitted disease prevention programs for inclusion in its collection; to date, 24 programs have accepted PASHA's invitation to participate. Once a program agrees to participate, PASHA packages all materials required to replicate or adapt the intervention, along with a user's guide, two evaluation instruments and a directory guiding users to sources of assistance. As additional effective programs are identified and agree to submit their materials for archiving and distribution, they will be added to the collection."
Correspondence: J. J. Card, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health, and Adolescence, Sociometrics Corporation, 170 State Street, Suite 260, Los Altos, CA 94022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40311 Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Samara, Renee. Impact of publicly funded contraceptive services on unintended pregnancies and implications for Medicaid expenditures. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 188-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we use updated national-level data to estimate the annual numbers of unplanned pregnancies, births and abortions averted by use of publicly funded family planning services in the United States....We also estimate the number of unplanned pregnancies averted in each state. Additionally, we assess the public-sector benefits of averting unplanned pregnancies in terms of two measures: the number of women who would become eligible for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) or Medicaid if they experienced an unplanned pregnancy; and a cost-benefit ratio capturing savings to Medicaid....This analysis presents several indications that public funding for family planning services is both socially beneficial and fiscally prudent. In the late 1980s, roughly one-fourth of women using reversible contraceptives depended on a publicly funded provider--most of them on family planning clinics....For 1994, we estimate that 1.5 million unplanned pregnancies were averted among the 6.5 million women who obtained contraceptive services from family planning clinics; nearly one million of these women attended Title X-funded sites."
Correspondence: J. D. Forrest, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40312 Fort, Alfredo L. More evils of CYP. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1996. 228-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Much controversy has arisen about the usefulness of couple-years of protection (CYP) as an indicator to measure family planning program effectiveness....Unfortunately, little discussion has taken place and few recommendations have been made about how to use CYP wisely in different contexts, or about its limitations when comparisons are made between different types of programs....Apart from not addressing the more sustainable aspects of quality in family planning programs, an overemphasis on CYP heavily favors clinic-based services, to the detriment of the community-based modes of service delivery."
Correspondence: A. L. Fort, CARE-Peru, Apartado Postal 11-0628, Lima 11, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40313 Khandker, Shahidur R.; Latif, M. Abdul. The role of family planning and targeted credit programs in demographic change in Bangladesh. World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 337, ISBN 0-8213-3707-6. LC 96-32183. 1996. vii, 32 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper pursues the following questions: (i) whether family planning programs were important in contributing to the recent fertility decline in Bangladesh, and (ii) whether targeted credit programs for the poor aiming to alleviate poverty could improve the use of contraceptives and reduce infant mortality and fertility....Based on the household survey data from 87 rural villages in Bangladesh, this paper suggests that government family planning programs as well as other health care interventions have contributed toward the recent reduction in fertility by increasing contraceptive use and reducing infant mortality."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40314 Kiragu, Karungari; Krenn, Susan; Kusemiju, Bola; Ajiboye, Joseph K. T.; Chidi, Ibiba; Kalu, Otum. Promoting family planning through mass media in Nigeria: campaigns using public service announcements and a national logo. IEC Field Report, No. 5, Jul 1996. xi, 58 pp. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This report analyzes the impact of two nationwide multimedia campaigns conducted in 1992 in Nigeria and designed to increase awareness, approval, acceptance, and use of family planning. The two campaigns involved a series of messages broadcast on radio and television promoting the benefits of family planning and encouraging the use of modern contraceptive methods. Also, more than one million pieces of printed matter featuring the country's new national child spacing symbol were distributed. "Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between campaign exposure and three family planning outcomes: favorable attitudes toward family planning, communication between spouses, and current contraceptive use. The analysis controlled for many potential confounding factors, including education, age, gender, religion, parity, and ownership of a radio or television set. Results show that campaign exposure was positively associated with all three outcomes."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40315 Kirby, Douglas B.; Brown, Nancy L. Condom availability programs in U.S. schools. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 196-202 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"School condom availability programs have been promoted as a promising approach for increasing condom use among students, for reducing the risk of infections with the human immunodeficiency virus and with other sexually transmitted diseases and for preventing unintended pregnancy. Data from a telephone survey of key individuals at school condom programs across the United States suggest that as of January 1995, at least 431 public schools in 50 U.S. school districts made condoms available--2.2% of all public high schools and 0.3% of high school districts. In about half of the schools that were surveyed, students obtained more than one condom per student per year, on average, and in 14% students obtained more than six. Students in alternative schools, in smaller schools, in schools that made condoms available in baskets and in schools with health clinics obtained more condoms per student per year than did students in other schools."
Correspondence: D. B. Kirby, ETR Associates, Santa Cruz, CA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40316 Phillips, James F.; Hossain, Mian B.; Arends-Kuenning, Mary. The long-term demographic role of community-based family planning in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1996. 204-19 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Experimental studies demonstrating the effectiveness of nonclinical distribution of contraceptives are typically conducted in settings where contraceptive use is low and unmet need is extensive. Determining the long-term role of active outreach programs after initial demand is met represents an increasingly important policy issue in Asia, where contraceptive prevalence is high and fixed service points are conveniently available. This article examines the long-term rationale for household family planning in Bangladesh--where growing use of contraceptives, rapid fertility decline, and normative change in reproductive preferences are in progress, bringing into question the rationale for large-scale deployment of paid outreach workers. Longitudinal data are analyzed that record outreach encounters and contraceptive-use dynamics in a large rural population. Findings demonstrate that outreach has a continuing impact on program effectiveness, even after a decade of household visitation."
Correspondence: J. F. Phillips, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40317 Thomas, Duncan; Maluccio, John. Fertility, contraceptive choice, and public policy in Zimbabwe. World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan 1996. 189-222 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Zimbabwe has invested massively in public infrastructure since independence in 1980. The impact of these investments on demographic outcomes is examined using household survey data matched with two community level surveys. A woman's education is a powerful predictor of both fertility and contraceptive use. These relationships are far from linear and have changed shape in recent years. After controlling for household resources, both the availability and quality of health and family planning services have an important impact on the adoption of modern contraceptives. In particular, outreach programs such as mobile family planning clinics and community-based distributors (CBDs) have been especially successful. However, not all women are equally served by this infrastructure. For example, CBDs have a bigger impact on younger, better educated women, while mobile family planning clinics appear to have more success with older, less educated women."
Correspondence: RAND, Labor and Population Program, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

62:40318 Yoder, P. Stanley; Hornik, Robert; Chirwa, Ben C. Evaluating the program effects of a radio drama about AIDS in Zambia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1996. 188-203 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study describes an approach to the analysis of data that is designed to isolate program effects for evaluations and applies that approach to a program in Zambia designed to disseminate AIDS information. Evidence is considered that a radio drama broadcast for nine months had an impact on knowledge and behavior related to AIDS among Bemba speakers in northern Zambia. Using results from large sample surveys (1,600 men and women), conducted before and after the drama was broadcast, the analyses compare changes in knowledge and behavior in those most likely and least likely to have listened to the broadcast. While the population as a whole had improved its knowledge substantially, and some people reported having reduced risky behavior, attributing these changes to the program itself was not possible."
Correspondence: P. S. Yoder, University of Pennsylvania, Annenberg School for Communications, 3620 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6220. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

62:40319 Briggs, L. A. Secondary school teachers opinion about contraceptive practice and pregnancy among school girls in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: implications for family planning programmes. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jun 1994. 1-9 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"This study examines the viewpoint of secondary school teachers on reproductive health--specifically their attitude towards contraceptive practice among sexually active schoolgirls and their general opinion on teenage pregnancy. A sample survey of teachers was conducted in all the registered girls' and mixed post primary schools in Port Harcourt [Nigeria]. A substantial proportion of teachers were of the opinion that sexually active schoolgirls should not be encouraged to use contraceptives because it damages the reproductive organs. A greater proportion (33.8%) of teachers were also of the opinion that schoolgirls should restrain from sex until they are married. This was closely followed by the suggestion that sexually active girls should use contraceptives (20.8%). [A] majority (48.3%) of teachers however advocated...sex education programmes in schools in order to prevent unwanted pregnancies."
Correspondence: L. A. Briggs, College of Education, PMB 5047, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40320 Grady, William R.; Tanfer, Koray; Billy, John O. G.; Lincoln-Hanson, Jennifer. Men's perceptions of their roles and responsibilities regarding sex, contraception and childrearing. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 221-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the 1991 [U.S.] National Survey of Men examine men's perceptions about their roles in relation to those of women in a couple's decision-making about sex, contraception and the rearing of children. A majority of men (61%) perceive that there is gender equality in sexual decision-making, and more than three-quarters (78%) believe that men and women share equal responsibility for decisions about contraception. However, men are three times as likely to say that women play a greater role in a couple's decisions about sex as they are to believe that men have the greater voice (30% compared with 9%). In contrast, men are more than twice as likely to perceive that men have a greater responsibility in contraceptive decisions as they are to say that women do (15% compared with 7%). Finally, 88% of men strongly agree that a man has the same responsibilities as a woman for the children they have together."
Correspondence: W. R. Grady, Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, 400 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40321 Haughton, Dominique; Haughton, Jonathan. Using a mixture model to detect son preference in Vietnam. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jul 1996. 355-65 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Son preference is strong in Vietnam, according to attitudinal surveys and studies of contraceptive prevalence and birth hazards. These techniques assume a single model is valid for all families, but it is more plausible that son preference is found for some, but not all, families....This paper specifies and estimates a two-Weibull regression model, applied to the interval between the second and third births. The data come from the Vietnam Living Standards Survey of 1992-93. Applying information criteria, graphs, and martingale-based residuals, the two-Weibull model is found to fit better than a one-Weibull model. Roughly half of parents have son preference and, curiously, a propensity for fewer children. The other group has more children, no son preference, and is colourless in the sense that the birth interval is difficult to predict on the basis of the regressors used."
Correspondence: D. Haughton, Bentley College, Department of Mathematical Sciences, 175 Forest Street, Waltham, MA 02154. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40322 Holzer, Werner; Münz, Rainer. Desire to have children in Austria. [Kinderwunsch in Österreich.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996. 69-102 pp. Munich, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Of Austrians of both genders 20-39 years of age, more than half (1993: 56%) desire to have at least one child, or at least one more child. Only a small minority (8%) plans to remain childless for life....As a rule, there is a discrepancy between desired and actual family size....Overall, Austrians have somewhat fewer children than they actually desire to have....Of the 20-39-year-olds who do not wish to have children, the majority (72%) indicated that they already had the number of children they desired under the existing circumstances....In the event that certain family policy measures were actually instituted, two-thirds (64%) of those 20-39 years of age who desire to have (another) child expect such measures to provide substantial support for the realization of that desire."
Correspondence: W. Holzer, Österreichisches Statistisches Zentralamt, Abteilung 1 (Bevölkerung), Hintere Zollamtsstraße 2b, Postfach 1000, 1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40323 Lu, Rongkan; Wang, Minyang. An evaluation of the social benefits of population education in China's ordinary middle schools. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1996. 103-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Through follow-up investigations and comparative analysis [of] the later marriage and fertility behaviors of the senior high school students [in China] from the classes 1982 through 1986 in five rural educational trial and non-trial high schools, this article examines the impact of population education on changing students' viewpoints on population, marriage, and fertility, and on standardizing their marriage and fertility behaviors, and bringing them to abide by the family planning policy. Findings suggest that popularizing population education in middle schools is a prerequisite project for advancing the country's population transformation."
Correspondence: R. Lu, Shandong College, Population Education Research Institute, College of Education, 25 Shanda Road South, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40324 Mace, Ruth. When to have another baby: a dynamic model of reproductive decision-making and evidence from Gabbra pastoralists. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 17, No. 4, Jul 1996. 263-73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Maximizing reproductive success involves having as many children as possible that can themselves reproduce successfully. Thus, when [parents in Gabbra, Kenya] decide to have another baby, they must trade off the probability that they will be able to afford to raise the child and marry it off successfully when it reaches maturity against the risk that feeding and raising that child would diminish the family herd, harming the marriage prospects of other children and possibly even leading to household destitution. Here I use a dynamic, state-dependent optimality model to analyze this trade-off. The decision to have another baby depends on household wealth and the number of children they already have. Parents should not necessarily reproduce at the maximum rate to maximize reproductive success, and the costs of marrying off a child have a large impact on the optimal family size."
Correspondence: R. Mace, University College London, Department of Anthropology, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:40325 Obermeyer, Carla M. Fertility norms and son preference in Morocco and Tunisia: does women's status matter? Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan 1996. 57-72 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the normative and behavioural dimensions of son preference in Morocco and Tunisia, using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of the two countries. It considers three measures of son preference: (1) mothers' ideal number of children, and any preference for having more sons than daughters; (2) the desire for additional children, given their existing family; (3) reported use of contraception in relation to the existing number of children of each sex. The analyses indicate a moderate preference for sons in both countries, and suggest that this preference is somewhat stronger in Tunisia. These findings are interpreted within the cultural context of the two countries, and in particular societal notions of women's status."
Correspondence: C. M. Obermeyer, Harvard University, School of Public Health, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40326 Razzaque, Abdur. Reproductive preferences in Matlab, Bangladesh: levels, motivation and differentials. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, Mar 1996. 25-44 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines whether reproductive preferences and the motivation behind the preferences are similar in two areas of Bangladesh; it also attempts to determine whether reproductive preferences vary by sociodemographic subgroups. In both areas, mean desired family size was found to be slightly over three children and women said that they preferred to have two sons. Also, it [was] found that the economic cost of children and knowledge of family planning were mainly responsible for the small family-size desire. The article draws out a number of implications for policy and programme purposes."
Correspondence: A. Razzaque, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40327 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Brewster, Karin L.; Kavee, Andrew L. Women, work, and children: behavioral and attitudinal change in the United States. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep 1996. 457-82, 603, 606 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The United States at mid-century had a strong norm that mothers of young children should be full-time homemakers. Since then, there has been a strong trend toward higher levels of labor force participation of mothers of preschool-age children. Since the early 1970s, this trend in labor force participation has been accompanied by stable fertility rates. In this article, using attitudinal data, the authors show that there has been a substantial weakening of the norm that mothers of preschool children should stay home with their children. This change in measured attitudes is pervasive and appears to have been led by well-diffused behavioral change. The authors conclude by arguing that this change in attitudes has played an important role in the stabilizing of U.S. fertility levels."
Correspondence: R. R. Rindfuss, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

62:40328 Costa, Marie. Abortion: a reference handbook. Contemporary World Issues, 2nd ed. ISBN 0-87436-827-8. LC 96-12251. 1996. xviii, 339 pp. ABC-Clio: Santa Barbara, California. In Eng.
"The purpose of this book is to provide access to the available information, as well as the full spectrum of thought, on abortion. It does not attempt to promulgate any view, except the view that all voices should be heard and listened to. As objectively as possible, it presents historical and factual background information, along with resources for further exploration into the social, psychological, legal, medical, political, and moral aspects of abortion." It includes sections on abortion laws and policies worldwide and in the United States. It also contains information about number of abortions, characteristics of women having abortions, abortion-related deaths, abortion techniques, abortion complications, and sources of data.
Correspondence: ABC-Clio, 130 Cremona Drive, P.O. Box 1911, Santa Barbara, CA 93116-1911. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40329 Fonseca, Walter; Misago, Chizuru; Correia, Luciano L.; Parente, João A. M.; Oliveira, Francisco C. Determinants of induced abortion among poor women admitted to hospitals in the northeast region of Brazil. [Determinantes do aborto provocado entre mulheres admitidas em hospitais em localidade da região Nordeste do Brasil.] Revista de Saúde Pública, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1996. 13-8 pp. Fortaleza, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"In Brazil, abortion is legally allowed only when it is necessary to save a woman's life or when pregnancy has occurred following rape. Despite this law, induced abortion is widely carried out. This study presents the findings as to the determinants of 2,084 abortions admitted to two major obstetric hospitals in Fortaleza, Brazil, between October 1992 and September 1993....The study findings indicate that self-administration of medicines plays an important role in terminating pregnancy. Among the 2,074 women who admitted to terminating the pregnancy 66% reported using misoprostol to induce abortion....Among women who were hospitalized for complications from abortion about 59.7% were 20 to 29 years old and 22.6% were aged less than 20....Most of the women (59.2%) reported less than 2 live births and 11.8% had experienced a previous abortion; 61.1% of the women were not using a contraceptive method at the time of conception."
Correspondence: W. Fonseca, Fundação Instituto de Estudos e Projetos sobre a Saúde da Mulher, Criança e Adolescente, Rua Silva Jatahy, 15 Sala 801, Fortaleza 60170-020 Ceará, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40330 Githens, Marianne; Stetson, Dorothy M. Abortion politics: public policy in cross-cultural perspective. ISBN 0-415-91224-5. 1996. xiii, 234 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors comparing abortion politics and policies in various developed countries. "The role of political institutions and groups in defining policy [is] examined along with their impact on implementation. Emphasis is given to the importance of both the domestic political environment and regional organizations, such as the European Union." The 10 papers are organized into four parts, titled Rhetoric and reform: struggles over the law; The reality factor: availability and access to abortion services; Rhetoric, reality, and rights: the implications of the policy environment; and Beyond abortion: new reproductive technologies.
Correspondence: Routledge, 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40331 Hadley, Janet. Abortion: between freedom and necessity. ISBN 1-85381-858-5. 1996. xiii, 238 pp. Virago: London, England. In Eng.
In this book, the author "considers abortion politics with an international perspective and explores some of the new issues affecting the abortion controversy, such as the abortion pill and prenatal testing for birth defects. She challenges many of the arguments offered by the pro-life and pro-choice advocates, arguing for a renewed feminist commitment to abortion as a fundamental element of sexual freedom."
Correspondence: Virago, Brettenham House, Lancaster Place, London WC2E 7EN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40332 Henshaw, Stanley K.; Kost, Kathryn. Abortion patients in 1994-1995: characteristics and contraceptive use. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1996. 140-7, 158 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Results of a 1994-1995 [U.S.] survey of 9,985 abortion patients reveal that women who live with a partner outside marriage or have no religious identification are 3.5-4.0 times as likely as women in the general population to have an abortion. Nonwhites, women aged 18-24, Hispanics, separated and never-married women, and those who have an annual income of less than $15,000 or who are enrolled in Medicaid are 1.6-2.2 times as likely to do so....When age is controlled, women who have had a live birth are more likely to have an abortion than are those who have never had children. Catholics are as likely as women in the general population to have an abortion, while Protestants are only 69% as likely and Evangelical or born-again Christians are only 39% as likely. Since 1987, the proportion of abortions obtained by Hispanic women and the abortion rate among Hispanics relative to that for other ethnic groups have increased. The proportion of abortion patients who had been using a contraceptive during the month they became pregnant rose from 51% in 1987 to 58%."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40333 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Demographic characteristics of women applying for interruption of pregnancy in Israel, 1992. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 45, No. 11, Suppl., Nov 1994. 25-54 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
Data are presented on the characteristics of the women who applied for legal induced abortion in Israel in 1992. Of 18,477 applications, 17,873 were approved.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 13015, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40334 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Socio-demographic characteristics of women applying for interruption of pregnancy in Israel, 1993. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 46, No. 11, Suppl., Nov 1995. 177-212 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
Information is presented on the demographic and social characteristics of the 17,165 women who applied for legal abortion in Israel in 1993; of these applications, 16,670 were approved.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 13015, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40335 Joffe, Carole. Doctors of conscience: the struggle to provide abortion before and after Roe v. Wade. ISBN 0-8070-2100-8. LC 95-11851. 1995. xvi, 250 pp. Beacon Press: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This is a study of the providers of induced abortion in the United States, and how the services they provided were affected by the legalization of abortion following the Roe v. Wade decision of 1975. It is based on interviews with 45 individuals, defined by the author as "physicians of conscience". Consideration is also given to the problems faced by doctors performing legal abortions in the face of the threat of violent opposition from anti-abortion activists.
Correspondence: Beacon Press, 25 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108-2892. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40336 Johansson, Annika; Tuyet, Le Thi Nham; Lap, Nguyen The; Sundström, Kajsa. Abortion in context: women's experience in two villages in Thai Binh Province, Vietnam. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep 1996. 103-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"The government of Vietnam adopted a two-child policy in the 1980s to curb population growth; Vietnam now has one of the highest abortion rates in the world. In rural Thai Binh Province, where some local authorities strictly enforce the national population policy through a system of financial incentives and disincentives, 114 abortions occurred for every 100 births in 1991. A survey in two villages in Thai Binh among 228 women who had abortions that year revealed that contraceptive choice was limited; the IUD was essentially the only modern method used, and many women had given it up because of side effects. On average, the women had had 2.4 live births and 1.5 abortions....The most frequent reasons for choosing an abortion were wanting to save money and to avoid being fined for exceeding the two-child limit. Husbands were the most important persons in sharing the abortion decision; parents and parents-in-law often did not agree with the decision....The village where the national population policy guidelines were more stringently enforced had twice the abortion ratio of the village where enforcement was more lenient."
Correspondence: A. Johansson, Karolinska Institute, Department of International Health and Social Medicine, Unit of International Health Care Research, Stockholm 104 01, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40337 Johnston, Heidi B.; Hill, Kenneth H. Induced abortion in the developing world: indirect estimates. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep 1996. 108-14, 137 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"An analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data provides indirect estimates of the prevalence of abortion in 21 developing countries by rearranging Bongaarts's proximate determinants model to allow calculation of the index of abortion from the other principal proximate determinants of fertility (marriage, contraceptive use and postpartum insusceptibility to pregnancy), average total fecundity and total fertility. On average, abortion appears to have an influence on fertility similar to that of contraceptive use. This influence appears to be particularly strong in the four Latin American countries in the analysis, where abortion reduces fertility by 38-55%. In contrast, abortion's fertility-reducing effect is only 6-19% in the Near East and 0-32% in Africa. In five countries for which two sets of DHS data are available, this reductive effect appears to have increased over time."
Correspondence: H. B. Johnston, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40338 Kulczycki, Andrzej; Potts, Malcolm; Rosenfield, Allan. Abortion and fertility regulation. Lancet, Vol. 347, No. 9016, Jun 15, 1996. 1,663-8 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a general review of the place of induced abortion in fertility regulation around the world, in the light of recommendations adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. "To achieve their desired fertility, women use a combination of contraception and abortion, and some societies also place constraints on marriage and sexual activity. The degree to which these means are adopted varies considerably, but for the foreseeable future abortion will remain an important element of fertility regulation. Globally, complications of unsafe abortion affect hundreds of thousands of women each year, and account for as many as 100,000 deaths annually (about two in ten maternal deaths), mainly in poor countries, where abortion typically remains illegal. Access to safe abortion is both essential and technically feasible and should be provided in combination with good quality family planning services."
Correspondence: M. Potts, International Family Health, Parchment House, 13 Northburgh Street, London EC1V OAH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:40339 Meier, Kenneth J.; Haider-Markel, Donald P.; Stanislawski, Anthony J.; McFarlane, Deborah R. The impact of state-level restrictions on abortion. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 3, Aug 1996. 307-12 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This research examines 23 different laws passed by [U.S.] state governments in an effort to restrict the number of abortions. It assesses both laws passed and laws actually enforced after the Supreme Court permitted states to restrict access to abortion in 1989. None of the policy actions by state governments has had a significant impact on the incidence of abortion from 1982 to 1992. Abortion rates continue to reflect past abortion rates, the number of abortion providers, whether the state funds abortions for Medicaid-eligible women, urbanism and racial composition of the population. Recent restrictive policies have not affected these trends."
Correspondence: K. J. Meier, University of Wisconsin, Department of Political Science, Milwaukee, Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40340 Pérez, Amanda B.; Abracinskas, Lilian; Beramendi, Carmen; Flores Colombino, Andrés; França, Omar; Grela, Cristina; Guillot, Gervasio; Labandera, Heraclio; Lamas, Daniel; Montano, Pedro; Sanseviero, Rafael; Sapriza, Graciela; Vaillant, Víctor; Verdier, Pablo. Abortion: voices in a debate. [Aborto: voces de una polémica.] 1994. 259 pp. ARCA: Montevideo, Uruguay. In Spa.
This book contains 13 specially commissioned articles by prominent people representing various positions in the debate over abortion, which is illegal in Uruguay. They are grouped under the following topics: the definition of abortion and concept of life, the legislative history of abortion in Uruguay, the reality of abortion, the current debate, and statistics.
Correspondence: ARCA, Andes 1118, Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40341 Popov, Andrej A. Family planning and induced abortion in post-Soviet Russia of the early 1990s: unmet needs in information supply. In: Russia's demographic "crisis", edited by Julie DaVanzo and Gwendolyn Farnsworth. 1996. 84-112 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"The paper notes that the incidence of abortion in Russia is by far the highest in the world. The unavailability of efficient contraceptives and the official legitimization of abortion have led to the formation of an `abortion culture,' in which abortion has become the main, if not the only, method of birth control--readily available free of charge in virtually all clinics and often performed in improper hygienic conditions and even without anesthesia. The concentration of women's reproductive activity in early ages is also linked to abortion...: women try to achieve their desired number of children in young age and then abort all subsequent unwanted pregnancies without fear of secondary sterility and other reproductive complications that are often caused by frequent abortions. Only in recent years, as the availability of effective contraceptives has increased and the negative effects of abortion have been openly discussed in the media, have abortion rates begun a slow decline." Brief comments by discussants are included (p. 112).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40342 Porter, Elisabeth. Culture, community and responsibilities: abortion in Ireland. Sociology, Vol. 30, No. 2, May 1996. 279-98 pp. Colchester, England. In Eng.
"The defence of abortion from individualistic rights-based arguments understates social context and ostracises communities that draw on the language of collective responsibilities. In trying to understand restrictive abortion legislation in Ireland, I argue for a more constructive, less oppositional debate. As the basis for dialogue, I focus on the common ground of women's experiences, their changing social roles and general commitment to nurture others. The defence of abortion from responsibility-based arguments reconceptualises abortion from an individual woman's private dilemma, to a social conflict of care that requires culturally sensitive and morally responsible choices."
Correspondence: E. Porter, University of Ulster, Department of Social and Community Sciences, County Londonderry BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40343 Sun, Wei. A note on "An economic approach to abortion demand". American Economist, Vol. 39, No. 2, Fall 1995. 90-1 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
An abortion demand model originally developed by Donna S. Rothstein is reestimated using a continuous abortion price variable instead of a dummy variable. Results indicate that in contrast to the estimations of the previous study, abortion price and Medicaid funding have insignificant effects on the demand for abortion in the United States. Policy implications are discussed.
For the study by Rothstein, published in 1992, see 59:30320.
Correspondence: W. Sun, University of Notre Dame, Department of Economics, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40344 Udry, J. Richard; Gaughan, Monica; Schwingl, Pamela J.; van den Berg, Bea J. A medical record linkage analysis of abortion underreporting. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1996. 228-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Inaccuracy in women's reports of their abortion histories affects many areas of interest to reproductive health professionals and researchers. The identification of characteristics that affect the accuracy of reporting is essential for the improvement of data collection methods. A comparison of the medical records of 104 American women aged 27-30 in 1990-1991 with their self-reported abortion histories revealed that 19% of these women failed to report one or more abortions. Results of logistic regression analysis indicate that nonwhite women were 3.3 times as likely as whites to underreport. With each additional year that had elapsed since the first recorded abortion, women became somewhat more likely to underreport (odds ratio of 1.3), while each additional year of a woman's education slightly decreased the likelihood of underreporting (odds ratio of 0.7)."
Correspondence: J. R. Udry, University of North Carolina, Department of Sociology, CB 3210, Hamilton Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7460. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

62:40345 Altieri, P.; Monari, P.; Montanari, A. Biometric aspects of the menstrual cycle. [Aspetti biometrici del ciclo mestruale.] Statistica, Vol. 55, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1995. 285-302 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper we examine some biometric aspects of women's fertility cycle and we statistically test a hypothesis concerning the effects of hormone interactions on cycle temporal dynamics. The data base has been provided by the Catholic Marriage Advisory Council Centre...and concerns 31,290 cycles (belonging to 1,781 women), classified according to their length, the length of pre and post ovular phases and woman's age. The distributional model of cycle and phase lengths has been estimated by a kernel procedure and interesting statistical cause-effect relationships have been highlighted showing a sort of hormonal balancing action on the physiological process."
Correspondence: P. Altieri, Università di Bologna, Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica III, Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40346 Cramer, Daniel W.; Xu, Huijuan. Predicting age at menopause. Maturitas, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1996. 319-26 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"The average or median age at menopause is around 50 years, but the probability of menopause at earlier ages is less well appreciated as are other factors which impact on age at menopause. Recently the authors completed a study [in the United States] of variables that might predict age at menopause using a cross-sectional study of 8,000 women aged 45-54 in greater Boston and a more intensive case-control study of several hundred women with early menopause sampled from the cross-sectional study. The methods and results of this study have been described in four articles....In this paper, we will use these data as well as other published information to illustrate some of the statistical, epidemiologic, and clinical issues relevant to predicting when a woman will make her menopausal transition."
Correspondence: D. W. Cramer, Brigham and Women's Hospital, OB-GYN Epidemiological Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40347 Hinde, P. R. Andrew; Mturi, Akim J. Social and economic factors related to breast-feeding durations in Tanzania. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jul 1996. 347-54 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Some social and economic factors related to breast-feeding durations in Tanzania are analysed using current status data taken from the 1991-92 Tanzanian Demographic and Health Survey. Proportional hazards and proportional odds models are estimated. The results show that breast-feeding durations vary according to the region of residence of the mother and child (and whether they are living in a rural or an urban area), the age of the mother at the time of the birth, the order of the birth, and the mother's religion."
Correspondence: P. R. A. Hinde, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO9 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40348 Randall, Walter. The annual temporal pattern of human births in the USA. Biological Rhythm Research, Vol. 26, No. 5, 1995. 505-20 pp. Lisse, Netherlands. In Eng.
The impact of temperature on annual changes in the patterns of human conceptions in the United States is analyzed using official data for the period 1945-1988. "The data are transformed to remove linear trends, and to remove over-all mean differences, and to remove differences in amplitude. The data are then clustered into...regional groups....The subtle changes with time are described, and a comparison with a...[Tasmanian] pattern indicates, along with other data, that temperature is irrelevant in effecting the annual pattern of changes in conceptions."
Correspondence: W. Randall, University of Iowa, Department of Psychology, Iowa City, IA 52242. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40349 Setel, Philip. The effects of HIV and AIDS on fertility in East and Central Africa. Health Transition Review, Vol. 5, Suppl., 1995. 179-89 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This article addresses the potential effects of AIDS on fertility and reproductive decisions in East and Central Africa. The problem is seen in terms of a tightly knit continuum of biological, epidemiologic and cultural contexts, and the prevailing conditions of response to the epidemic....HIV and AIDS may well diminish the fertility of affected individuals and groups in Africa, but probably not through conscious action on the part of infected persons themselves. The damage done by the virus to reproductive physiology, its effects during pregnancy, its synergistic relationship with STDs and the conditions of risk for HIV that relate to STDs and STD-induced infertility, will all contribute to a spectrum of interconnected effects that could lower fertility among people with HIV. Under present circumstances, it seems unlikely that a sufficient number of infected people will know about their disease early enough to respond in such a way as to affect the total fertility of large groups or nations."
Correspondence: P. Setel, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

62:40350 Carmichael, Gordon A. From floating brothels to suburban semirespectability: two centuries of nonmarital pregnancy in Australia. Journal of Family History, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jul 1996. 281-315 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"The sexual revolution that through the 1950s and 1960s saw nonmarital fertility and marital childbearing following premarital conception rise rapidly in Australia, especially among women in their teens and early twenties, received considerable research attention. Now, in the mid-1990s, childbearing following nonmarital pregnancy has assumed a very different character. The pregnant teenaged bride is almost a thing of the past, and nonmarital births occur mainly at normative reproductive ages within consensual unions. Similar trends have occurred in other developed countries, but Australia boasts an unusual precedent for this new phase, in that during its early years of colonial settlement, convictism also gave rise to widespread childbearing within consensual unions. This precedent and the distinctive circumstances that produced it are explored in the context of tracing the full and varied history of fertility associated with nonmarital coitus in Australia."
Correspondence: G. A. Carmichael, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40351 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Births from pre-marital pregnancies among Jews, 1972-1990. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 46, No. 11, Suppl., Nov 1995. 157-76 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
"This publication presents data on first births of Jewish married women [in Israel] who became pregnant prior to marriage." The data are for the period 1972-1990.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 13015, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).


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