Volume 62 - Number 3 - Fall 1996

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

62:30669 Gulbrandsen, Lars. Social homogamy and income distribution. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 89-105 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"The level of education in the Norwegian population has risen markedly over the past 25 years. Norway has also taken a significant step towards greater equality between men and women. Based on the changes that have taken place, this article presents an analysis of the relationship between degree of social homogamy and income distribution at family level. Has greater equality at the level of the individual led to greater socio-economic differences at the level of the family? To what extent are such differences correlated with social background, or have new differences emerged which are mainly based on married and cohabiting couples' own social position?"
Correspondence: L. Gulbrandsen, Institute of Applied Social Research, Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30670 He, Chengjin; Chen, Caixia. Household economy and population survey on a large agriculture-oriented county. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1995. 349-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In China...the ratio of the elderly people to the total population has been rising....On the one hand, this change will have an impact on the traditional pattern of family support for the elderly, forcing it to become less family oriented and more socialized; on the other hand, it will pose a question for the social and economic powers in China--especially in central and western China--about whether or not they can meet the challenge of socialized support for the elderly. At the same time, elderly support is related to other population issues, particularly that of family planning. With these and other questions in mind, we recently made an investigative trip to Renshou County, Sichuan Province [China]." Results of the investigation are presented in this paper.
Correspondence: C. He, Sichuan University, Population Research Institute, 29 Wangjianglu, Jiuyanqiao, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30671 Jensen, Svend E. H.; Nielsen, Søren B. Demographic transition and old age provision in Denmark. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 143-60 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
The authors investigate the nature and implications of demographic change in Denmark. "The first part is descriptive, including an overview of both past and projected demographic developments (section 2) and a brief characterization of existing pension systems in Denmark (section 3). The second part is more analytically based, including an analysis of the consequences for public expenditure of changing demographics (section 4) and a discussion of some macroeconomic and distributional aspects of population aging (section 5). Finally, section 6 sums up."
Correspondence: S. E. H. Jensen, Copenhagen Business School, Economic Policy Research Unit, Struensesgade 7-9, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30672 Kruse, Agneta. An ageing population, public expenditure and the pension system in Sweden. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 161-77 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of demographic structure and demographic changes on public expenditure and revenue, with special emphasis on the public pension system, which is organised as a pay-as-you-go system. The official forecasts for the Swedish pension system are based on only one population forecast, viz Statistics Sweden's main alternative. By combining a population model with a model of the Swedish pension system, the effects of different demographic scenarios can be illustrated."
Correspondence: A. Kruse, University of Lund, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 117, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30673 Li, Jianmin. Community development: an important way for coordinating development of population and social economy in rural areas of China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1995. 223-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Community is a basic social unit embodying extensive and complex social and economic relationships. Communities constitute the basic layer of social and economic relationships and activities in rural areas of China. Comprehensive development of communities is the basis for and route to socio-economic growth in rural China; it also has a positive effect on population. On the one hand, it will promote the development of various economic factors in favor of decreased childbirth and greater quality in child rearing; and on the other hand, it can create a social environment that helps change the expected social value of children."
Correspondence: J. Li, Nankai University, Research Institute of Population and Development, Balitai, Tianjin 200071, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30674 Makinwa, Paulina; Jensen, An-Magritt. Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa. 1995. v, 448 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This volume examines research and policy issues that involve inter-relationships between women's status and demographic phenomena in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The volume stems from the considerable concern of both scholars and policy makers regarding the prospects for demographic change in this region in which rapid population growth is exacerbating development problems and making it more difficult for basic human needs to be met....The book is organized in two sections according to whether or not the focus of study is directly on the examination of hypothesized linkages (and their implications) between women's position and demographic phenomena. The first section contains chapters in which women's position is considered either as a contributory determinant or an outcome of changing marriage patterns, proximate determinants of fertility, morbidity and mortality, the spread and control of HIV/AIDS, and migration. Chapters in the second section mainly describe the condition of women, particularly how gender inequality and discriminations against women, in societies dominated by men, are manifested in daily life as typified by types of work that women do and how they accomplish them."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30675 Okojie, Christiana E. E. The relationship between women's status, proximate determinants and fertility in Nigeria. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 99-126 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper [explores] the interrelationships between women's status, proximate determinants and fertility. It...analyzes the paths through which socio-economic variables measuring women's status affect fertility through their effects on the proximate determinants: age at marriage, durations of breastfeeding and sexual abstinence and contraceptive use. Based on cross-sectional data from a sample of women from fifteen rural and urban communities in Edo and Delta States (formerly Bendel State) of Nigeria, reduced form equations have been estimated for fertility and its proximate determinants. The dependent variables were specified as functions of socio-economic and cultural variables measuring women's public and private status. Results have shown that socio-economic factors are by and large relevant for fertility decision making in Edo and Delta States in Nigeria."
Correspondence: C. E. E. Okojie, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30676 Oppong, Christine. Some roles of women: what do we know? Conceptual and methodological issues in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 363-88 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This paper offers an introductory overview of "several conceptual and methodological problems in some of the data bases of knowledge relating to women's roles, reproductive and productive. Such data form the foundation for economic and demographic analyses and the understanding of processes meant to inform population and development policy formulation and programming. It calls attention inter alia to some of the biases and lacunae in this process of creating knowledge and in particular [to] the widespread lack of adequate linkages between economic and demographic information." The geographical focus is on Sub-Saharan Africa.
Correspondence: C. Oppong, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30677 Trager, Lillian. Women migrants and hometown linkages in Nigeria: status, economic roles, and contributions to community development. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 291-311 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The paper examines the interrelationship between women's status, their economic roles, and participation in local-level community development among women migrants and return migrants in south-western Nigeria. It is based on in-depth interview and survey data collected among migrants and return migrants in five communities in the Ijesa region of Yorubaland...as well as among migrants from those communities now resident in the large cities of Lagos and Ibadan."
Correspondence: L. Trager, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Box 200, 900 Wood Road, Kenosha, WI 53141-2000. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30678 van de Walle, Etienne; van de Walle, Francine. A review of the demographic literature on the status and the condition of women in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 389-403 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter will trace some of the lines of arguments linking the status and the condition of women in sub-Saharan Africa with demographic processes. We review some of the anthropological literature that considers the evolving legal and social position of women in the region. This serves as an introduction to the more specifically demographic arguments that have related the occurrence of changes in the condition of women, or their failure to occur at the expected pace, to the levels and trends in demographic variables, particularly mortality, nuptiality and fertility. We end by listing a series of research topics where the condition of women is engaged, either by traditional but poorly understood mechanisms (sex preference and its impact on mortality, the custom of bridewealth) or by new circumstances (the current economic crisis and the HIV/AIDS epidemic)."
Correspondence: E. van de Walle, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30679 Weeks, John R. The six pillars of global population and social change. IPPSR Population Research Group Working Paper, No. 95-01, [1995]. 21 pp. Michigan State University, Institute for Public Policy and Social Research: East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
"There are six major pillars that support our understanding of global population and social change. The first three refer to the causes of population growth: mortality, fertility, and migration (especially international migration). The second three relate to the consequences of population growth: the role of women in society, development, and environmental degradation. When all six are connected, we have the framework for policy development and implementation."
Correspondence: Michigan State University, Institute for Public Policy and Social Research, Population Research Group, 321 Berkey Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

62:30680 Baldwin-Edwards, Martin; Schain, Martin A. The politics of immigration in Western Europe. West European Politics, Vol. 17, No. 2, Apr 1994. 225 pp. Frank Cass: London, England. In Eng.
"This Special Issue...is devoted to an analysis of how immigration has emerged as a political issue, how the politics of immigration have been constructed, and what have been the consequences of this construction for politics in Western Europe." The 10 papers included examine several aspects of this migration, including labor migration, asylum seekers, undocumented migrants, and resident aliens, emphasizing the different political implications of each type of migration.
Correspondence: Frank Cass and Company, Newbury House, 890-900 Eastern Avenue, Newbury Park, Ilford, Essex IG2 7HH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30681 Pitanguy, Jacqueline. Feminist politics and reproductive rights: the case of Brazil. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 101-22 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this text I discuss the role that feminism, as a new actor in Brazilian politics, has played in the enhancement of women's rights as citizens and, more specifically, in the assertion of their reproductive rights. My purpose is to point out the limits and possibilities that the feminist movement has faced as it attempted to reshape the political arena by raising new questions, positioning them as relevant issues, including them in the discourse of those to whom society ascribes legitimacy as speakers, and transmuting women's demands, especially those related to reproductive health, into public policies. Although various actors, including the Catholic Church, have contributed nationally and internationally to advances and backlashes in the configuration of women's reproductive rights, I will focus mainly on the interaction between feminism and the state."
Correspondence: J. Pitanguy, Rio de Janeiro Catholic University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30682 Rajan, S. Irudaya. Demographic transition and political transition. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 31, No. 19, May 11, 1996. 1,168 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
This one-page article continues an ongoing debate about when the birth rate in India will decline to the replacement level of 21 per 1,000. The focus of this contribution is on the differences among states in the effectiveness of their family planning programs and in the timing of the fertility decline. The main question considered is how recent political events might affect the pace of the demographic transition. The author notes that the four states that show the slowest progress toward lower fertility are all in a state of political transition.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30683 Siegel, Jacob S. Geographic compactness vs. race/ethnic compactness and other criteria in the delineation of legislative districts. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, Apr 1996. 147-70 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Several criteria have evolved in law and tradition to constrain the delineation of Congressional and State and local legislative districts, such as population equality, geographic compactness, race/ethnic `compactness', and integrity of political boundaries. Among the various criteria, I focus on compactness, and in particular, the legal and mensural aspects....Many formulas for measuring compactness have been proposed and tested. Here the commonly used perimeter/circle measure and the circumscribed area/circle measure are compared by an examination of some simple geometric figures and 1990-Census-based [congressional districts]. Some problems with these measures are noted, and a new measure, the CV/radii measure (the complement of the coefficient of variation of the `radii' of the district), is proposed and illustratively applied." A comment by E. Walter Terrie and a rejoinder by Siegel are included (pp. 165-70).
Correspondence: J. S. Siegel, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, 231 Poulton Hall, Washington, D.C. 20057-1043. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

62:30684 Becker, Stan. Couples and reproductive health. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 96-02, May 1996. 58, [33] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This article will look at reproductive health from a couple perspective. In the first section I will review the literature on couples and reproductive health. Then I will give a conceptual framework for study of couples' reproductive health in the second section. After elaboration of an illustration, matters of data collection, statistical analyses and operations research are considered as well as limitations of the framework. The third section outlines some directions for future research and the final section gives challenges and conclusions."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30685 Brandling-Bennett, A. David; Libel, Marlo; Migliónico, Américo. Cholera in the Americas in 1991. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 241-52 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors analyze the incidence of cholera in the Americas in 1991. Sections are included on mortality from intestinal infectious diseases; the 1991 cholera epidemic; transmission of cholera; mortality from the disease; and the public health response.
Correspondence: A. D. Brandling-Bennett, Pan American Health Organization, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30686 Caraël, Michael; Allen, Susan. Women's vulnerability to HIV/STD in Sub-Saharan Africa: an increasing evidence. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 201-22 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper briefly reviews the epidemiology of HIV and STDs in sub-Saharan Africa. It focuses on the interrelationships between HIV and STDs and on the influence of cultural factors and sexual behaviour that promote their spread. The epidemic of HIV and other STDs in Rwanda provides a case study to illustrate the importance of non-regular sexual relations and to examine the relationship of the epidemic to marital status."
Correspondence: M. Caraël, World Health Organization, Global Programme on AIDS, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30687 Castilho, Euclides A.; Szwarcwald, Célia L.; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia. AIDS in Brazil. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 230-40 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors assess trends in AIDS incidence and mortality in Brazil. The focus is on survival following the diagnosis of AIDS-related disease in adults, 1980-1989; the impact of AIDS on mortality differentials; and the impact on life expectancy.
Correspondence: E. A. Castilho, Fundaçao Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Brasil 4365, C.P. 926, 21045-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30688 Coombs, David W.; Capper, Stuart A. Public health and mortality: public health in the 1980s. In: Demographic and structural change: the effects of the 1980s on American society, edited by Dennis L. Peck and J. Selwyn Hollingsworth. 1996. 101-26 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The main objective of this chapter is to assess the public's health in the United States and to discuss some of the factors affecting public health service delivery during the past decade. The sections that follow will (1) briefly describe federal, state, and local public health systems and their functions, (2) delineate how the systems and their environment have changed during the past decade, and (3) examine major changes in the health status of the American people during the 1980s and the responses of the public health system."
Correspondence: D. W. Coombs, University of Alabama, School of Public Health, Birmingham, AL 35294. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30689 DaVanzo, Julie. Potential health impacts of family planning. RAND Labor and Population Program Reprint Series, No. 95-11, 1996. [18] pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"In 1986, the Committee on Population of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) appointed the Working Group on the Health Consequences of Contraceptive Use and Controlled Fertility...to investigate the potential impacts of family planning on women's and children's health. In 1989, that group issued the report Contraception and Reproduction: Health Consequences for Women and Children in the Developing World....This paper summarizes the main points of the NAS report and reviews more recent evidence regarding these issues, especially regarding some of the methodological issues that arise in trying to assess the effects of family planning on health."
Correspondence: RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30690 Essex, Max; Mboup, Souleymane; Kanki, Phyllis J.; Kalengayi, Mbowa R.; Brewer, Paula J. AIDS in Africa. ISBN 0-7817-0110-4. LC 93-24662. 1993. xxii, 728 pp. Raven Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of 33 papers by various authors about the AIDS epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. The papers are divided into sections on epidemiology, clinical manifestations and treatments, preventive strategies, the social and economic impact of the disease, and geographic variations. The purpose of the book is to summarize "the primary biomedical, epidemiologic, and human realities that researchers, care providers, volunteers, and health officials in Africa confront each day in battling the AIDS epidemic. In producing this book, our objective was twofold: to facilitate research, treatment, and intervention work throughout Africa, and to contribute to the understanding of AIDS in general."
Correspondence: Raven Press, 1185 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30691 Fildes, Valerie; Marks, Lara; Marland, Hilary. Women and children first: international maternal and infant welfare 1870-1945. Wellcome Institute Series in the History of Medicine, ISBN 0-415-08090-8. LC 92-7627. 1992. xxiii, 311 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collective work that consists of 12 papers by various authors on aspects of the international movement to improve maternal and infant welfare during the last decades of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century. "The articles show the great diversity in the timing of maternal and infant welfare campaigns and in the approaches used by governments, institutions and individuals: the problems they met, how these were overcome, and to what extent they were successful in reducing mortality and achieving the longterm health and well-being of women and children....The responses of the mothers are central to the book, and the articles also focus on the many actors who were involved in conceiving and implementing programmes: women's organizations, local voluntary associations, doctors, midwives, health visitors and public health administrators, local and national governments."
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30692 Frenk, Julio; Bobadilla, José L.; Lozano, Rafael. The epidemiological transition in Latin America. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 123-39 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter analyses the health situation in some selected Latin American countries. Using information on mortality by cause of death, it is shown that epidemiological profiles vary significantly over time and among countries....It is clear from the discussion in this chapter that it is impossible to generalize about levels and trends of health indicators in Latin America. We have shown that the epidemiologic transition is occurring in all the countries studied, but at different paces and with different characteristics."
Correspondence: J. Frenk, Apartado Postal 22-729, 14001 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30693 Gage, Anastasia J.; Sommerfelt, A. Elisabeth; Piani, Andrea L. Household structure, socioeconomic level, and child health in Sub-Saharan Africa. DHS Analytical Report, No. 1, May 1996. vii, 60 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This is the first report in a planned series presenting in-depth analyses of DHS data. "This report provides some insight into variations in household structure in sub-Saharan Africa and the relationship of household structure and socioeconomic status to children's health outcomes....The analysis focuses on full immunization coverage and the management of diarrhea in 11 countries. The households studied are divided into two primary groups: elementary and extended....These findings suggest that an understanding of the relationships between household structure, poverty and child health would aid community health workers in identifying situations in which children may not be receiving recommended health care or adequate treatment, and may help minimize the number of missed opportunities for vaccination coverage."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30694 Geronimus, Arline. The weathering hypothesis and the health of African-American women and infants: implications for reproductive strategies and policy analysis. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 77-100 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper, I will discuss a...conceptual model for understanding the relationship of maternal age to birth outcome which I call the `weathering hypothesis.' This model suggests that high rates of teenage childbearing among identifiable populations within a highly industrialized country such as the United States is an adaptive social response to disadvantage. In particular, I will focus on the possible implications for healthy reproduction at different maternal ages of the impact of social inequality on the health of young through middle aged adults....I will also consider the implications of population differences in the rate of deteriorating health in young adulthood. In addition, I will consider the constraints that severe health uncertainty may place on disadvantaged populations, if they are to maximize the chances of healthy reproduction...."
Correspondence: A. Geronimus, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30695 Graham, Hilary. Smoking prevalence among women in the European Community 1950-1990. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jul 1996. 243-54 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The paper reviews trends in tobacco use among women in the European Community (EC) between 1950 and 1990. The data suggest that EC countries occupy different points on what appears to be a common prevalence curve. Southern EC countries are represented in the early phases of this curve, marked out by sharply rising prevalence. In northern EC countries, female smoking prevalence appears to have peaked....Young women in higher socio-economic groups have led the way into cigarette smoking in both northern and southern Europe, with smoking prevalence declining first among women who are privileged in terms of their education, occupation and income. Because the decline in prevalence has yet to be repeated among women in more disadvantaged circumstances, cigarette smoking among women in the EC is likely to become a habit increasingly linked to low socio-economic status."
Correspondence: H. Graham, University of Warwick, Department of Applied Social Studies, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30696 Hewitt, Christopher; Peverley, J. Roger. The spread of HIV into the general population of the USA: a simulation. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, Aug 1996. 311-25 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The spread of HIV from injection drug users and male homosexuals into the general U.S. population is simulated, using survey data on sexual behavior. We estimate that approximately 150,000 persons are currently infected with HIV through heterosexual transmission, the majority of whom are female partners of drug-using or bisexual men. The estimated number of AIDS cases generated by the model is close to the CDC statistics for males, but much higher for females. We conclude that prevention efforts should be targeted towards these high risk groups rather than the general population."
Correspondence: C. Hewitt, University of Maryland, Department of Sociology/Anthropology, Baltimore, MD 21228. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30697 Johnstone, Kim. The impact of cancer on the New Zealand population. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 21, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1995. 72-84 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"Across the last four decades the incidence of cancer in New Zealand has been rising among the middle-aged and elderly, Maori and non-Maori, and male and female alike. This trend is not a result of population ageing, but will compound with that in the years ahead to produce greatly increased numbers of cancer cases requiring expensive treatment and extensive care. This paper explores some of the variations in cancer incidence, the factors behind the rise, and likely consequences for New Zealand and New Zealanders....[It] concentrates on two issues, the age structure of cancer and the predominance of the disease among the elderly, and the relationship between cancer mortality and cancer morbidity."
Correspondence: K. Johnstone, University of Waikato, Population Studies Centre, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30698 Kremer, Michael. Can having fewer partners increase prevalence of AIDS? NBER Working Paper, No. 4942, Dec 1994. 51 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Under asymmetric information about sexual history, sexual activity creates externalities. Abstinence by those with few partners perversely increases the average probability of HIV infection in the pool of available partners. Since this increases prevalence among the high activity people who disproportionately influence the disease's future spread, it may increase long-run prevalence. Preliminary calculations using standard epidemiological models and survey data on sexual activity suggest that most people have few enough partners that further reductions would increase steady-state prevalence."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30699 Lerner, Susana; Quesnel, André; Yanes, Mariana. The diversity of reproductive trajectories and institutional interactions. [La pluralidad de trayectorias reproductivas y las transacciones institucionales.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1994. 543-78, 783-4 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article presents results from research carried out between 1989 and 1991 in a rural region in the state of Morelos [Mexico], beginning from an analysis centered in the interactions between health agents and women....Using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, several reproductive trajectories were identified and analyzed, allowing an assessment, on the one hand, of the intensity of women's interactions with health institutions, their community, and their partner and, on the other hand, a characterization of the social trajectories of women as a fundamental factor in their integration with the biomedical system."
Correspondence: S. Lerner, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30700 Murray, Christopher. Epidemiology and demography of tuberculosis. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 199-216 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to bring together the rather disparate lines of research into the demography and epidemiology of tuberculosis and to provide a general picture of the historical decline in tuberculosis and its current levels in developing countries." Sections are included on pathogenesis, progression from infection to disease, epidemiology, mortality decline and tuberculosis, and the risk of infection in developing countries.
Correspondence: C. Murray, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30701 Orubuloye, I. O. Women's control over their sexuality: implications for STDs and HIV/AIDS transmission in Nigeria. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 223-31 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The extent to which women have the power to refuse sex, or insist that their partner use a condom will be a major factor in the containment of the spread of STDs and HIV/AIDS. Women are usually more at risk of STDs and AIDS because of the behaviour of their male partner than through their own sexual activity....Evidence from the study presented here shows that Yoruba women will increasingly refuse to have sex with infected partners. The right to refuse sex derives from their economic independence, the ease with which they can break up marriages and return to their families of origin and the traditional expectation that it is primarily women who are responsible for ensuring that sexual relations do not take place during pregnancy and the post-partum period...." This study was conducted in June 1991, in the Ekiti District of Nigeria.
Correspondence: I. O. Orubuloye, Ondo State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ondo State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30702 Pebley, Anne R.; Goldman, Noreen; Rodríguez, Germán. Prenatal and delivery care and childhood immunization in Guatemala: do family and community matter? Demography, Vol. 33, No. 2, May 1996. 231-47 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper we investigate family choices about pregnancy-related care and the use of childhood immunization [in Guatemala]. Estimates obtained from a multilevel logistic model indicate that use of formal (or `modern') health services differs substantially by ethnicity, by social and economic factors, and by availability of health services. The results also show that family and community membership are very important determinants of the use of health care, even in the presence of controls for a large number of observed characteristics of individuals, families, and communities."
Correspondence: A. R. Pebley, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30703 Quinn, Thomas C. Global burden of the HIV pandemic. Lancet, Vol. 348, No. 9020, Jul 13, 1996. 99-106 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author describes the epidemiological features of the HIV pandemic, including its evolution, economic and demographic impact, geographic characteristics, and projections over the next four years. He notes that "within the global pandemic of HIV infection there are many different epidemics, each with its own dynamics and each influenced by many factors including time of introduction of the virus, population density, and cultural and social issues. Effective management strategies depend on knowledge of all these factors. By the year 2000, WHO projections are that 26 million persons will be infected with HIV, more than 90% of whom will be in developing countries. To control AIDS, countries must not only promote changes in individual behavior but also address social issues such as unemployment, rapid urbanization, migration, and the status of women."
Correspondence: T. C. Quinn, Johns Hopkins University, 720 Rutland Avenue, Ross 1159, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30704 Rahkonen, Ossi; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Lahelma, Eero; Karisto, Antti. Social class, gender and illness--a Nordic experience. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 127-39 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"The aim of the article is first, to analyse social class differences in limiting long-standing illness among men and women in [Finland, Norway, and Sweden], and second, to discuss the reasons behind the differences, suggest further approaches to the research and discuss the implications for health and welfare policy....The data used in this study consist of three nation-wide Level of Living Surveys carried out in 1986-87 in Finland (N=11,783), Norway (N=4,211) and Sweden (N=4,699)."
Correspondence: O. Rahkonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Social Policy, P.O. Box 33, Hallituskatu 8, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30705 Rushing, William A. The AIDS epidemic: social dimensions of an infectious disease. ISBN 0-8133-2044-5. 1995. xiii, 288 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This monograph examines various aspects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic from a sociological perspective. The first part is concerned with the social etiology of the disease. It discusses high-risk groups in the United States, the origin of HIV/AIDS in Africa, and trends in HIV/AIDS preventive behavior. The second part considers societal reactions to the disease. It covers such topics as fear of contagion, moralizing and scapegoating, the role of science in societal reactions, the problem of personal responsibility, treatment and prevention, and problems in the eradication and control of HIV/AIDS.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30706 Sköld, Peter. From inoculation to vaccination: smallpox in Sweden in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jul 1996. 247-62 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study deals with the extent to which both inoculation and vaccination were practiced [in Sweden in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries], and the success they achieved in reducing the threat from smallpox, and is focused on the transition from the former to the latter method. We shall trace the establishment of a public health organization, scrutinize the introduction of inoculation in Sweden, and attempt to explain its relative failure....Our aim is to describe and analyse the experience of preventive measures during these years, in which Sweden ceased to be a country in which there was little provision of protection against smallpox to one in which the disease had become rare."
Correspondence: P. Sköld, University of Umeå, Department of Historical Demography, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30707 Tagoe, Eva. Maternal education and infant/child morbidity in Ghana: the case of diarrhoea. Evidence from the Ghana DHS. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 169-200 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Given the importance of infant/child morbidity in developing countries in general and specifically in Ghana, the main objectives of this study are as follows: 1. To document the extent of diarrhoeal differential by [certain] key socio-economic, demographic, household, health and cultural characteristics....2. To examine, by the use of a multivariate analysis, the relationship between maternal education and childhood diarrhoea among children under five years old in Ghana."
Correspondence: E. Tagoe, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30708 Tanaka, Atsuko; Takano, Takehito; Nakamura, Keiko; Takeuchi, Sachiko. Health levels influenced by urban residential conditions in a megacity--Tokyo. Urban Studies, Vol. 33, No. 6, Jun 1996. 879-94 pp. Glasgow, Scotland. In Eng.
"Influences of residential conditions in a megacity on the health levels of residents were investigated. Correlations between mortalities and specified residential-condition indicators in study areas randomly selected from the megacity Tokyo were examined. Indicators representing housing and city planning were significantly correlated with mortalities after adjusting for socio-economic differences between the communities. Urbanisation to a certain level seems to have been associated with good health; however, the most densely developed artificial urban environment seems to be associated with negative health outcomes. Coping skills with regard to health problems are discussed in relation to health levels. A survey elucidated that the coping attitude of the elderly is related with their educational level, family structure, frequency of receiving health information and contact with a family doctor."
Correspondence: A. Tanaka, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, School of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Environmental Science, Tokyo 113, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:30709 Thomas, Richard. Modelling space-time HIV/AIDS dynamics: applications to disease control. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 3, Aug 1996. 353-66 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"This paper applies the outputs of a family of HIV/AIDS models to problems in disease control. The epidemic models comprising this suite include single and multiregional representations each adopting either a one or two risk population format. Here, risk is expressed in terms of activity rates and those at low risk are characterized by a reproduction rate of less than unity which defines a simulated epidemic that cannot start. These models are applied to the following problems in prevention and control: first, estimating the impact of national variations in population growth rates on the predicted size of the epidemic, second, constructing control charts to assess the impact of intended interventions, third, evaluating the consequences of targeting preventative action at those at high risk; and last, evaluating the implications for international control of differences between the serological and simulated pandemic pathways. The discussion sets these findings within the context of forming health policy."
Correspondence: R. Thomas, University of Manchester, School of Geography, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30710 van der Veen, Willem J. Life-saving in the neonatal intensive care unit and its consequences for survivors: a study on the quantity and quality of infant and child life. Nethur-Demography Paper, No. 37, May 1996. 25 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author draws on the literature from developed countries to examine the consequences of saving infant lives in neonatal intensive care units. The focus is on infants that are preterm and of low birth weight. He concludes that "life-saving in the neonatal intensive care unit therefore involves both human benefits and costs: 1. a large proportion dies, despite life-saving efforts; 2. a large proportion survives without any measurable developmental problems; 3. a proportion of the survivors faces major handicaps; 4. a proportion of the survivors faces subtle developmental deficits which become increasingly evident in the course of time."
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30711 Yu, Elena S. H.; Xie, Qiyi; Zhang, Konglai; Lu, Ping; Chan, Lillian L. HIV infection and AIDS in China, 1985 through 1994. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 8, Pt. 1, Aug 1996. 1,116-22 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes data on the distribution of and risk factors for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in China." Data are derived from HIV and AIDS tests conducted during a period of 10 years and from a review of the literature for the period 1985-1995. The results indicate that "overall, more males than females had HIV infection. Intravenous drug use was the primary source of transmission, followed by heterosexual contacts. Only a small number of the persons tested were homosexual, but their proportion of HIV seropositivity ranked third to that of drug users; that of general hospital patients ranked fourth....HIV infection and AIDS in China began as a highly regionalized and largely rural problem in Yunnan Province. However, HIV infection and AIDS have become an emerging urban problem. HIV seropositivity is low among several groups thought to have an elevated risk."
Correspondence: E. S. H. Yu, San Diego State University, Graduate School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Diego, CA 92182-0405. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30712 Zurayk, Huda. Women's reproductive health in the Arab world. West Asia and North Africa Regional Papers, No. 39, Apr 1994. 38 pp. Population Council: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the reproductive health situation of women in the Arab world, and examines the underlying social context....The paper demonstrates wide variations among Arab countries on the indicators used to represent the elements of concern. On most indicators, the Gulf countries show the best performance in terms of reproductive health of women, while the resource-poor countries of Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen show poor performance. The case of Egypt is examined to illustrate within-country differentials that exist between rural and urban areas, and uneducated and educated women."
Correspondence: Population Council, P.O. Box 115, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

62:30713 Calafell, F.; Bertranpetit, J.; Rendine, S.; Cappello, N.; Mercier, P.; Amoros, J.-P.; Piazza, A. Population history of Corsica: a linguistic and genetic analysis. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 23, No. 3, May-Jun 1996. 237-51 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"We present a study of genetic and linguistic differentiation within the island of Corsica, as well as a genetic comparison with other Mediterranean populations, aimed at discerning the internal population structure of the island and its affinities with other Mediterranean populations." The results indicate that "when compared to other Mediterranean populations, Corsica showed a certain degree of differentiation, although not so marked as that of Sardinia. Corsica presented genetic affinities with Campania, Sicily, Liguria, Provence and Latium, while distances with Tuscany and Sardinia were larger. These results can be interpreted as a reflection of the prehistoric isolation of Corsica and the relative contribution to the island gene pool of prehistoric and historic invaders and immigrants from several populations."
Correspondence: F. Calafell, Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Biologia, Laboratori d'Antropologia, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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