Volume 62 - Number 3 - Fall 1996

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

62:30557 Ando, Albert; Moro, Andrea. Demographic dynamics, labor force participation and household asset accumulation: case of Japan. NBER Working Paper, No. 5261, Sep 1995. 79 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"A dynamic model of the demographic structure of Japan is summarized. It is capable of tracing the dynamic development of the Japanese population, including the distribution of families by age, sex, and marital status of the head, as well as by the number and age of children and other dependents. This model is combined with a specification of the processes generating family income and consumption, and then used to generate the pattern of aggregate income, saving and asset accumulation for the period 1985-2090 under alternative fertility assumptions."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30558 Bartlett, Helen P.; Phillips, David R. Aging in the United Kingdom: a review of demographic trends, recent policy developments and care provision. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 24, No. 2, Dec 1995. 181-95 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"Although the U.K.'s population is not predicted to grow very much in the future, the population structure is changing and there is a shift towards a much older age distribution. The characteristics of demographic aging in the U.K. include a marked reduction in fertility rates, increasing rates of life expectation at birth..., increasing dependency ratios and variations in mortality and social class in old age. The U.K.'s demographic context has important implications for aged care policy and planning. This paper documents the demographic trends, reviews recent major policy changes and their impact on care provision, and discusses some of the emerging implementation issues that challenge the potential of such policies to meet the needs of an aging population."
Correspondence: H. P. Bartlett, Oxford Brookes University, School of Health Care Studies, Gipsy Lane, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30559 Bengtson, Vern L.; Mills, Teheran L.; Parrott, Tonya M. Ageing in the United States at the end of the century. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 24, No. 2, Dec 1995. 215-44 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"The belief that America is a `young' nation is widely held by many individuals in the United States. Historically, individualism, self-reliance, and an orientation towards youth have been cherished values reflecting...our national heritage and tradition dating from the 18th through the mid-20th century. However, America is no longer a `young' nation. Rather, we are an `aging' population, as we show in our analysis of demographic transitions reviewed in this paper. The phenomenon of `cultural (or structural) lag' is discussed in two different contexts: first--the context of the aging family; and second--the context of ethnic/racial minority groups. Finally, some of the relevant public policy responses to aging are described. We look at government programs in four major categories, namely, (1) income; (2) health care; (3) social services; and (4) housing."
Correspondence: V. L. Bengtson, University of Southern California, Department of Sociology, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2539. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30560 Bogie, Donald W. Age and race in the United States: the 1980s and beyond. In: Demographic and structural change: the effects of the 1980s on American society, edited by Dennis L. Peck and J. Selwyn Hollingsworth. 1996. 63-84 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This chapter begins with a discussion of various features of the age distribution of the U.S. population, including long-term changes in the median age, variations in age composition according to sex, race, and place of residence, and projected changes through the first half of the twenty-first century. The discussions of the racial and ethnic composition of the population will focus on current patterns and projected changes over the next several decades....The two major themes of this chapter are (1) that the U.S. population is growing older and (2) that this population is becoming more racially diverse."
Correspondence: D. W. Bogie, Auburn University, Center for Demographic and Cultural Research, Montgomery, AL 36849. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30561 Chen, Sue-Mei; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng. A comparative study on aging between Taipei City and Taiwan's rural areas. Journal of Population Studies, No. 17, Apr 1996. 31-58 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper extends research on the difference in ageing factors between Taipei City and Taiwan's rural area in terms of the changes in fertility, mortality, and migration rates....The analysis--based on data collected from 1968-1993 demographic data in Taiwan-Fukien Demographic Fact Book...provides strong evidence that population processes (fertility, mortality, and migration) have different influences on the population ageing of Tapei City and Taiwan's rural area."
Correspondence: S.-M. Chen, National Taiwan University, Population Studies Center, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30562 Das Gupta, Monica; Bhat, P. N. Mari. Intensified gender bias in India: a consequence of fertility decline. Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies Working Paper Series, No. 95.03, May 1995. 11, [10] pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effect of fertility decline on the manifestation of gender bias in India. It models the effects of changes in the distribution of births by birth order on the one hand, and intensification of gender bias at lower parities on the other hand, to see their independent and combined effect on net gender bias. The results show that the intensification effect outweighs the birth order effect. Changes in the juvenile sex ratios during 1981-91...indicate that an additional one million female children `went missing'....The data suggest that much of this shortfall...may be due to sex-selective abortion."
Correspondence: Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30563 Du, Peng. Fertility decline and population aging in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1995. 299-306 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses trends in fertility and population aging in China. The focus is on the impact of fertility decline on population aging. Population aging under conditions of low fertility is analyzed.
Correspondence: P. Du, Chinese People's University, Institute of Demography, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30564 Golini, Antonio. Vitality and malaise in demography: outlook and strategies for the future. Polish Population Review, No. 7, 1995. 29-39 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"When dealing with age structures...the question could be posed...whether in the age structure such pronounced `distortions' already exist as to make a major contribution to plotting the course of demography and then, as a more or less inevitable consequence, to shaping the social and economic context. In other words, whether conditions of `demographic malaise' exist linked, on the one hand, to an extraordinarily young age structure and a consequent `excess' population growth...and, on the other, to an extraordinarily old age structure and a subsequent `excess' population decline....This study proposes to focus particularly on this second instance, which pertains to contemporary western populations or sub-populations, [using the example of Italy]."
Correspondence: A. Golini, Viale dell'Umanesimo 297, 00144, Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30565 Grundy, Emily. Population ageing in Europe. In: Europe's population in the 1990s, edited by David Coleman. 1996. 267-96 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author "demonstrates the demographic causes of the growth of the elderly population and compares the position in various countries of Europe." Sections are included on population size and age structure; projected changes in the elderly population; expectation of life at birth and at age 65; marital status distribution; the availability of children; the living arrangements of the elderly; and socio-demographic characteristics of Europe's population.
Correspondence: E. Grundy, King's College London, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, Cornwall House Annex, Waterloo Road, London SE1 8WA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30566 Gu, Shengzu; Zhu, Nong; Chen, Xinguang; Liang, Jersey. Old-age support system and policy reform in China. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 24, No. 2, Dec 1995. 245-73 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"With the on-going economic transition from the central planned system to a market-oriented system, the population aging process in China is also accelerating, and the support system for the elderly becomes an important issue demanding attention. With data from Chinese national statistics and a regional probability sampling survey in Wuhan Area, two supporting systems for the aged in China are examined in this paper. After a briefing of the population aging process in China, a detailed discussion of the two supporting systems, i.e. the formal and the informal support systems for the aged, including arrangement, operation and funding mechanisms of the systems, is made in terms of policy reform. Then follows an international comparison to highlight features and problems of the Chinese systems. Finally, solutions are proposed for the restructuring of China's pension systems."
Correspondence: S. Gu, Wuhan University, Department of Economics, Nong Zhu Institute of Population Research, Wuhan 430072, Hubei, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30567 Hobbs, Frank B.; Damon, Bonnie L. 65+ in the United States. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 190, Apr 1996. vii, [185] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report focuses on the elderly population of the United States. Particular attention is paid to future implications of the growth of the elderly population. "We will focus on the diversity of America's older population in terms of age, race, ethnicity, gender, economic status, longevity, health and social characteristics, and geographic distribution. Throughout, we will examine possible implications of the demographic changes." Data are from the 1990 census and recent official surveys.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30568 Holden, Constance. New populations of old add to poor nations' burdens. Science, Vol. 273, No. 5271, Jul 5, 1996. 46-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a description of demographic aging in the developing countries. The focus is on the extent to which such countries will be able to provide for the needs of a growing population of elderly.
Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

62:30569 Katus, Kalev. General trend of population aging in Estonia. Rahvastiku-Uuringud/Population Studies Series B, No. 27, 1995. 51 pp. Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre: Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng.
"The paper outlines general trends in population aging in Estonia. The process is analyzed in [the] European context, determining the most specific trends and the major time frames of the population aging. The analysis is mainly based on general indicators of the population aging calculated on census data....Using the same general indicators the population aging is followed up to the year...2030 on the basis of population prognosis."
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30570 Kerr, Don; Larrivée, Daniel; Greenhalgh, Patricia. Children and youth: an overview. Focus on Canada, Pub. Order No. 96-320E. ISBN 0-13-310640-3. 1994. 78 pp. Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada; Prentice Hall Canada: Scarborough, Canada. In Eng.
"This study documents some of the more fundamental characteristics of children and youth [in Canada], from basic demographic and family characteristics to many of their central educational and economic attributes....This publication defines children as all persons 0 to 14 years, and youth as all individuals 15 to 24 years....This study focuses on the characteristics of the young in 1991, and how these characteristics have changed from earlier censuses."
Correspondence: Prentice Hall Canada, 1870 Birchmount Road, Scarborough, Ontario M1P 2J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30571 Kojima, Hiroshi. Aging in Japan: population policy implications. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 24, No. 2, Dec 1995. 197-214 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper describes the trends in population aging in Japan and its demographic determinants and consequences. It discusses the sociocultural contexts of aging with special reference to the family. Then, it presents the results of multinomial logit analysis of data from the National Opinion Survey on Population Issues conducted by the Institute of Population Problems in 1990 to explore the possible acceptance of alternative population policies to slow population aging."
Correspondence: H. Kojima, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30572 Li, Nan; Tuljapurkar, S.; Feldman, M. High sex ratio at birth and its consequences. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1995. 213-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Significantly rising sex ratio at birth (SRB) [in China] and its consequences have long been a research focus and a government concern. Using recent data, this paper is a quantitative analysis [of] the high sex ratio at birth and its consequential problems such as `the imbalance of first marriage market' and `the burden of elderly people without male offspring'."
Correspondence: S. Tuljapurkar, Stanford University, Morrison Institute of Population and Resources, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30573 Longino, Charles F.; Bould, Sally; Smith, Mark H. State profiles of the oldest Americans in 1990: decade cohort changes and the disabled. Dec 1994. x, 536 pp. Wake Forest University, Reynolda Gerontology Program: Winston-Salem, North Carolina. In Eng.
This set of tables provides data by state on the U.S. population over age 85. The tables present data for 1980 and 1990 on ethnic groups, socioeconomic characteristics, income, marital and family status, residence characteristics, and disability.
Correspondence: Wake Forest University, Reynolda Gerontology Program, Winston-Salem, NC 27109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30574 Madrigal, L. Sex ratio in Escazú, Costa Rica, 1851-1901. Human Biology, Vol. 68, No. 3, Jun 1996. 427-36 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"I study the behavior of the SSR [secondary sex ratio] in Escazú, Costa Rica, from 1851 to 1901. Of particular interest is whether the SSR was seasonal, because Madrigal (1994) reported that in this population mortality is seasonal. The data were successfully modeled according to the Box-Jenkins methodology without incorporating a seasonal parameter. Thus the SSR did not fluctuate seasonally. For the time period under study no long-term trend was observed in the value of the SSR, which tended to fluctuate in accordance with the expected values. Finally, the behavior of the SSR was not observed to be influenced by the various epidemics that affected Escazú. These results indicate that, although severe epidemics and seasonal mortality affected the population, the community's SSR was not significantly affected by these stresses."
Correspondence: L. Madrigal, University of South Florida, Department of Anthropology, Tampa, FL 33620. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30575 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). The child population of Morocco: socio-demographic characteristics and protection of the child. [Population infantile au Maroc: caractéristiques socio-démographiques et protection de l'enfance.] Etudes Démographiques, 1996. 223 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This report concerns the population under age 15 in Morocco. The first part describes the demographic development of this population from 1960 to 1992. This section discusses the changing age and geographic distribution of the population under age 15, the characteristics of households with children, family size desired, future prospects, and the place of children in the country's population policy. The second and third parts deal with the socioeconomic environment affecting children (education and health), and social and legal measures designed to protect children. The data are from recent censuses, including that of 1982, and from official surveys, including a population and health survey undertaken in 1992.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques, Rue Mohamed Belhassan el Ouazzani, Haut-Agdal, B.P. 178, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30576 Myers, George C. Innovative strategies for comparative aging research. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 24, No. 2, Dec 1995. 159-72 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"After introductory comments on the theme of `ageing east and west', this paper looks at trends in ageing and responses to ageing over time, with particular reference to European experience. The evidence is reviewed in historical, cultural, religious, political and `social political' perspective. Attention is drawn to the different patterns of experience and of policy responses characteristic of the different countries and regions within Europe both past and present. The paper concludes with a review of [the] latest trends and prospects in `community care', which could signal a seeming point of convergence between east and west."
Correspondence: G. C. Myers, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30577 Prinz, Christopher. Future changes in the age structure and the problem of pensions in the Austrian case. [Zukünftige Altersstrukturveränderungen und das Pensionsproblem am Beispiel Österreichs.] Journal für Sozialforschung, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1994. 271-85, 312-3 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Projections of rapid demographic aging in Austria are reviewed up to the year 2050. "After the turn of the century the proportion of the population above age 60 will gradually increase from 20% to at least 30 if not as much as 40 or 50% by 2050. During the same period the population above age 80 will be multiplied by four." It is argued that drastic pension reform is needed to guarantee future pension payments and avoid a large increase in the pension contribution rate.
Correspondence: C. Prinz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Population Program, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30578 Roush, Wade. Live long and prosper? Science, Vol. 273, No. 5271, Jul 5, 1996. 42-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The trend toward demographic aging in developed countries is examined and its consequences are considered. While the primary focus is on the United States, a section is also included on Japan. The author notes that "burgeoning elderly populations threaten to overwhelm government benefit programs in the developed nations, but demographers differ on how great the challenge will be."
Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

62:30579 Rowland, D. T. Population momentum as a measure of ageing. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1996. 41-61 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper aims to show that the concept of population momentum clarifies the nature of the process of population ageing and provides a basis for comparative research through time and between countries. The paper discusses the role of momentum in age-structure change during the demographic transition and examines trends in total and age-specific momentum in nine countries with contrasting patterns of transition. The utility of the concept of momentum in the demographic study of ageing arises from its focus on cohort flow, from the insight it provides into the causes and consequences of ageing and from its ability to identify variations in the process through time."
Correspondence: D. T. Rowland, Australian National University, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Program, Acton, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30580 Yoon, Gene; Eun, Ki-soo. Understanding aging in Korea. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 24, No. 2, Dec 1995. 301-17 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This study discusses demographic trends, sociocultural characteristics, and policy choices of aging in [South] Korea....Although the proportion of the elderly was not so high as to worry about aging before 1990, it is projected that one in eight Koreans will be aged 65 or more in 2020. Because the care for the elderly is mostly expected to be provided by each family, not by the state or Korean society, the role of the family is pivotal in coping with [the] aging problem....Although adult children currently understand that their aged parents need assistance and support from them, they want to solve the issue of support for the elderly in a way different from the traditional....This paper examines how the changing attitude toward the old is reflected in family life in terms of living arrangement and physical contacts. This paper also describes and discusses the current situation of various welfare policies on the elderly in Korea."
Correspondence: G. Yoon, Yonsei University, Department of Psychology, 134 Shinchon-dong, Sudaemoon-gu, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30581 Zonta, L. A.; Astolfi, P.; Ulizzi, L. Early selection and sex composition in Italy: a study at the regional level. Human Biology, Vol. 68, No. 3, Jun 1996. 415-26 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"We have chosen four Italian regions with different degrees of industrialization and socioeconomic levels to study environmental differences in the sex ratio. The improvement in living and sanitary conditions during the last century has led to a progressive reduction in early male extramortality, and the sex ratio at birth has been almost unchanged at least to the first year of life and probably up to reproductive age. To investigate whether socioeconomic, cultural, or biological factors still influence the sex ratio at birth, we studied the stillbirth rate and the relations between newborn viability and sex composition as a function of maternal age and educational level. Our results suggest that in less favorable environments early selection against male newborns is almost twice that against female newborns when the mothers are the least favored for socioeconomic status, cultural level, and biological conditions (older than 39 years)."
Correspondence: L. A. Zonta, Università di Pavia, Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, via Abbiategrasso 207, 27100 Pavia, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

62:30582 Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Villena, Arturo. Body mass index and age at menarche in Peruvian children living at high altitude and at sea level. Human Biology, Vol. 68, No. 2, Apr 1996. 265-75 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"The present study was designed to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and age at menarche in girls (aged 10-19 years) living in Lima (150 m) and in Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m above sea level) [Peru]. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the relationships between BMI and both age at menarche and chronological age differ between girls living at low and at high altitude....From 10 to 16 years of age the Benn index of highlander girls was lower than that for girls at sea level, but at 17-19 years the differences disappeared. A later age at menarche was observed at high altitude than at sea level after controlling for socioeconomic status and for the Benn index....[The] data suggest that age at menarche has an effect on both age and the Benn index acting independently and that later age at menarche in girls from Cerro de Pasco is an independent effect of altitude."
Correspondence: G. F. Gonzales, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, P.O. Box 1843, Lima, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30583 Martin, John F. Hormonal and behavioral determinants of the secondary sex ratio. Social Biology, Vol. 42, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1995. 226-46 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The timing of insemination relative to ovulation and the frequency of insemination appear prominently in analyses of variations in human secondary sex ratios. Explanations invoking these variables are shown to be inadequate. A new synthetic model of sex determination is proposed in which the sex of offspring is powerfully determined by the state of the cervical mucus. The cervical state is then shown to be a function of hormonal factors endogenous to the female in interaction with the effects of pervious inseminations."
Correspondence: J. F. Martin, Arizona State University, Department of Anthropology, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30584 Panush, N.; Peritz, E. Potential demography: a second look. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1996. 27-39 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In the late forties Hersch (1944) and Mentha (1948) introduced, respectively, the concepts of `potential years of life' (PYL) and `potential years of life lost' (PYLL)....Our objectives are: (a) to draw attention to Hersch's concept of potential years of life (PYL) and to illustrate its usefulness; (b) to define and illustrate three different manners of computing PYLL and to recommend one that is simple, intuitively acceptable and reasonably accurate; (c) to propose some further indicators that can be derived from PYL, PYLL and the relations between them; and (d) to discuss briefly the assumptions underlying the calculation of PYL and PYLL, and in particular those assumptions that are made in the attribution of loss in potential years of life to specific risk factors."
Correspondence: N. Panush, 5b Truman Street, Kefar Saba, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30585 Wilmoth, John R.; Lundström, Hans. Extreme longevity in five countries: presentation of trends with special attention to issues of data quality. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1996. 63-93 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Data on the maximum age at death and other indicators of extreme longevity are assembled for five countries (Sweden, England & Wales, France, Japan, and the United States) over various time periods. The raw data are shown in both graphical and tabular formats. Two types of measures are presented: the extreme ages at death reported for a given year (i.e., the maximum, second, third, and fourth highest), and the upper percentiles of the age distribution of deaths by year. The analysis demonstrates that the upper tail of the age distribution of deaths has moved steadily higher over a period of at least 130 years in Sweden. Similar trends are observed (over shorter time periods) for other countries, although in many cases it is argued that the raw data are flawed due to misstatement (in particular, exaggeration) of age at death."
Correspondence: J. R. Wilmoth, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

62:30586 Achdut, Lea. Income inequality, income composition and macroeconomic trends: Israel, 1979-93. Economica, Vol. 63, Suppl., No. 250(S), 1996. 1-27 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The paper offers several explanations for income inequality trends in Israel during 1979-93. Two types of analysis are employed: decomposition of the Gini coefficient by income source and population sub-group, and time-series regression on macroeconomic variables. It is found that the slight increase in inequality over the period is a result of opposing forces, and that the major difference between the inflation (1979-84) and stabilization (1985-93) periods is in the inequality-reducing effect of direct taxes, increasing in the first period while declining in the second. Unemployment had a regressive impact, whereas inflation acted as a progressive tax in the first period but not in the second."
Correspondence: L. Achdut, National Insurance Institute, Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30587 Ahlburg, Dennis A. Remittances and the income distribution in Tonga. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, Aug 1996. 391-400 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Receipt of remittances from migrants decreased the inequality of income in Tonga. Policies that attempt to affect migration or remittance flows, such as policies to improve the administration and collection of taxes, should take into account any undesirable effects on the distribution of income."
Correspondence: D. A. Ahlburg, University of Minnesota, Industrial Relations Center, 100 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30588 Blau, Francine D.; Kahn, Lawrence M. Wage structure and gender earnings differentials: an international comparison. Economica, Vol. 63, Suppl., No. 250(S), 1996. 29-62 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using microdata to analyse the gender pay gap in ten industrialized nations, we focus on the role of wage structure--the prices of labour market skills--in influencing the gender gap. We find wage structure enormously important in explaining why the U.S. gender gap is higher than that in most other countries. We conclude that the U.S gap would be similar to that in Sweden and Australia (the countries with the smallest gaps) if the United States had their levels of wage inequality. This finding reflects the larger penalty in the United States for those with low skill levels or employed in low-wage sectors."
Correspondence: F. D. Blau, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30589 Duleep, Harriet O.; Regets, Mark C. Admission criteria and immigrant earnings profiles. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer 1996. 571-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To estimate the effect of admission criteria on immigrant earnings profiles, we use 1980 census data on individuals matched to Immigration and Naturalization Service information on admission criteria for country-of-origin/year-of-entry immigrant cohorts. We find that nonoccupation-based immigration, most of which is family-based, is associated with lower entry earnings but higher earnings growth than occupation-based immigration. The higher estimated earnings growth is sufficient for nonoccupation-based immigrants to catch up with occupationally admitted immigrants after eleven to eighteen years in the United States."
Correspondence: H. O. Duleep, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30590 Galor, Oded; Tsiddon, Daniel. Income distribution and growth: the Kuznets hypothesis revisited. Economica, Vol. 63, Suppl., No. 250(S), 1996. 103-17 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study develops a general equilibrium model in which the evolution of income inequality and output conforms with the Kuznets hypothesis. The paper presents a novel endogenous mechanism that generates the inverted-U relation between income inequality and per capita output, and captures the reciprocal influence between the two. Unlike previous attempts for a comprehensive theoretical modelling of this phenomenon, the evolution of the economy is consistent with another important empirical observation: namely, that output growth is accompanied in the early stages of development by a widening wage differential between skilled and unskilled labour, whereas in a later stage this wage differential declines."
Correspondence: O. Galor, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30591 Gemmell, Norman. Evaluating the impacts of human capital stocks and accumulation on economic growth: some new evidence. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 58, No. 1, Feb 1996. 9-28 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Various hypotheses have been put forward in recent years concerning the contribution of human capital to economic growth. This paper argues that school enrolment rates--by far the most commonly used human capital measure in growth regressions attempting to test these hypotheses--conflate human capital stock and accumulation effects and lead to misinterpretations of the role of labour force growth. An alternative education-related human capital measure is constructed which is capable of distinguishing between stocks and flows. Applying this measure to samples of developed and less developed countries during the 1960-85 period suggests not only that there are important growth effects associated both with `initial' stocks of, and subsequent growth in, human capital, but also that this new measure out-performs the simple school enrolment rates used in previous analyses."
Correspondence: N. Gemmell, University of Nottingham, Centre for Research in Economic Development and International Trade, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30592 Kritz, Mary M.; Makinwa, Paulina. Women's control over resources and demand for children: the Hausa and Yoruba cases. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 73-97 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"We begin with a discussion of the dimension of gender structure--women's economic activity and earnings control--deemed of particular importance for demand for children. The paper then examines how gender structure, particularly the organization of the family and women's work, differs in two Nigerian ethnic groups, the Hausa and Yoruba in Kano and Ondo states, respectively. Finally, we use survey data gathered in 1991 to measure the effects of women's work and earnings control on the demand for children in those two ethnic groups."
Correspondence: M. M. Kritz, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30593 Landale, Nancy S.; Oropesa, R. S. Immigrant children and the children of immigrants: inter- and intra-ethnic group differences in the United States. IPPSR Population Research Group Working Paper, No. 95-02, [1995]. 26 pp. Michigan State University, Institute for Public Policy and Social Research: East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
"Using data from a child file created from the five percent Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 U.S. Census, this paper provides a descriptive portrait of the socioeconomic circumstances of children by ethnicity and generation in the United States. Using a variety of indicators of well-being, we show that immigrant children from Latin America are highly disadvantaged, relative to immigrant children from Asia. Generational comparisons within origin groups generally suggest improvements in children's circumstances as their families spend additional time in this country."
Correspondence: Michigan State University, Institute for Public Policy and Social Research, Population Research Group, 321 Berkey Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30594 Lerman, Robert I. The impact of the changing U.S. family structure on child poverty and income inequality. Economica, Vol. 63, Suppl., No. 250(S), 1996. 119-39 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyses links between rising income inequality, child poverty and one-parent families in the United States from 1971 to 1989. One test reallocated weights so that 1989 proportions of children by mother's marital status resembled the 1971 distribution. A second method used: (1) simulated marriages among unmarried men and unmarried mothers in 1989 to reproduce 1971 marital patterns; and (2) earnings responses induced by the simulated marriages. The results indicate that the trend away from marriage accounted for almost half the increase in child income inequality and more than the entire rise in child poverty rates."
Correspondence: R. I. Lerman, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30595 Maas, Ineke. Demography and aging: long term effects of divorce, early widowhood, and migration on resources and integration in old age. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 24, No. 2, Dec 1995. 275-99 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"Do characteristics of the marital and migration history of the elderly population of West-Berlin matter for their present resources and societal integration? To answer this question we analyse data from the Berlin Aging Study. We show that for resources in old age, it is important when and under what circumstances women lost their partner. Divorced women and WWII widows are financially worse off than never married women, still married women, and more recent widows, and they also evaluate their health more negatively than others. The migration history seems equally important. Financial resources, social resources, and societal integration in old age depend on characteristics like region of birth and having experienced flight or expulsion."
Correspondence: I. Maas, Max-Planck-Institute for Human Development and Education, Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30596 Weinberg, Daniel H. A brief look at postwar U.S. income inequality. Current Population Reports, Series P60: Household Economic Studies, No. 191, Jun 1996. 4 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses long-term changes in income inequality in the United States. The impacts of changes in the labor market, household composition, and living arrangements are considered.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOM, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30597 West, Kirsten K. Poverty in the midst of plenty. In: Demographic and structural change: the effects of the 1980s on American society, edited by Dennis L. Peck and J. Selwyn Hollingsworth. 1996. 169-86 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
"In this chapter, the size and characteristics of the population in poverty in the 1980s [are] examined....To understand the trends, an assessment of the income distribution is offered. Similarly, the size and characteristics of the population that is working, yet not earning sufficient wages to be above the official poverty threshold, [are] examined. Finally, to put the findings in perspective, the concept of relative income is introduced."
Correspondence: K. K. West, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30598 Winkelmann, Rainer. Unskilled labor and wage determination: an empirical investigation for Germany. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 1996. 159-71 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This article contributes to the ongoing debate on native wage impacts of immigration. I propose a mobile-fixed factor distinction as a framework in which to think about the differential impact of immigration on various labor market groups. Skilled workers are treated as a fixed factor of production since the strong reliance on skill certification in Germany inhibits mobility and shelters from competition. Unskilled workers, in contrast, receive competitive wages. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for 1984-1989 I estimate panel wage regressions for groups of workers separated by skill certification. I find that university graduates' wages increase, and the wages of workers without postsecondary degree decrease, as the industry share of unskilled workers increases. The effect for apprentices is ambiguous."
Correspondence: R. Winkelmann, University of Canterbury, Department of Economics, P.B. 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

62:30599 Adams, David P. Malaria, labor, and population distribution in Costa Rica: a biohistorical perspective. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 27, No. 1, Summer 1996. 75-85 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author examines the extent to which malarial conditions helped bring about residential segregation in Costa Rica from the sixteenth century on. He concludes that "malaria may not have been the cause of the ethnic, cultural, and geographical segregation that has persisted in Costa Rica for almost five centuries; but it did provide a convenient rationale for it."
Correspondence: D. P. Adams, Duke University, Department of Community and Family Medicine, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

62:30600 Falah, Ghazi. Living together apart: residential segregation in mixed Arab-Jewish cities in Israel. Urban Studies, Vol. 33, No. 6, Jun 1996. 823-57 pp. Glasgow, Scotland. In Eng.
"This paper examines features of residential segregation in five mixed Arab-Jewish cities in Israel; the role of ideology and state politics among the charter group--i.e. the Jewish population--is considered to be a dominant factor in this social process. Utilising available Israeli census data supplemented by the author's own field survey, the study indicates that all five cities have experienced a continuous trend of high indices of segregation and hypersegregation. The spatial manifestation of this trend is a classic display of sectoral (but not concentric) patterns of residency. Concomitantly, the scope of both social and economic interactions between the two communities sharing the same urban space remains underdeveloped. The city has effectively provided a sense of local identity: both groups live in and are part of the same place, yet this space is not a locus for genuine integration. A situation of neighbours without neighbourly relations marks the residential reality of Israeli mixed cities." This paper mainly concerns the period 1961-1983.
Correspondence: G. Falah, University of Wales, Department of Geography, Lampeter, Dyfed SA48 7ED, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:30601 Hansen, Julia L. Residential segregation of blacks by income group: evidence from Oakland. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, Aug 1996. 369-89 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper presents evidence on variation in segregation levels experienced by economic subgroups of blacks in Oakland, California and its surrounding county. The central finding is that in this area, one of the most racially integrated in the USA, higher-income blacks exhibit a substantially higher level of integration with whites than do lower-income blacks. In addition, higher income blacks made more progress toward integration in the 1970s. In the 1980s, however, inequality among blacks declined somewhat as lower middle-income blacks experienced the greatest gains in integration. By 1990, very-high income blacks in Oakland had achieved full integration with whites....Results of this study do not constitute evidence that increased black incomes would eliminate residential segregation. The continued significance of race, even for high-income blacks, is underscored by the finding that their exposure to whites is significantly lower than expected, given the disproportionate presence of whites among high-income households."
Correspondence: J. L. Hansen, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30602 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Blanc, Ann K. Children's schooling in sub-Saharan Africa: the role of fathers, mothers, and others. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jun 1996. 265-98, 409-11 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"This article examines some of the familial determinants of children's enrollment and educational attainment in sub-Saharan Africa....We begin by reviewing the determinants of children's schooling within the context of family support networks in sub-Saharan Africa. We further describe current levels of school participation and progress among girls and boys of primary school age as well as several markers of familial support for...seven countries....Finally, we report on multivariate findings that assess the relative contribution of various household and parental characteristics in explaining variations among children in current enrollment and grade-four completion."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: C. B. Lloyd, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30603 Ma, Z.; Liaw, K.-L.; Zeng, Y. Spousal-residence separation among Chinese young couples. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 28, No. 5, May 1996. 877-90 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The factors affecting the residential separation of spouses in China are examined. "Based on the microdata of the 1987 National Population Survey, we find that the variation in spousal-residence separations among Chinese young couples in the mid-1980s is well explained by personal and household factors within a multivariate model. The separations were aggravated by migrations for the reasons of employment or education. Although marriage migrations reduced the number of separations, those who had been married for a short period of time...were more prone to be separated. It is ironic that the higher a person's level of education, the greater the tendency for them to suffer the pain of spousal-residence separation. Household status could also be a very important factor: the lower the household status of a married individual, the more likely that he (or she) would be separated from their spouse."
Correspondence: Z. Ma, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Division of Social Science, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:30604 Obermeyer, Carla M. Religious doctrine, state ideology, and reproductive options in Islam. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 59-75 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This chapter assesses the compatibility of Islam with ideas of reproductive choice through an examination of Islam's doctrinal principles and their interpretations, and reviews available indicators of reproductive health in countries of the Middle East as a measure of reproductive choice. It argues that while the doctrine has a degree of flexibility on issues of reproduction, the political context is a key factor for understanding the way in which religious doctrine is interpreted. The role of the state in shaping women's options through interpretations of religious doctrine is illustrated through a discussion of the dramatic reversals in Iran's population policy."
Correspondence: C. M. Obermeyer, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30605 Schuler, Sidney R.; Hashemi, Syed M.; Cullum, Amy; Hassan, Mirza. The advent of family planning as a social norm in Bangladesh: women's experiences. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 7, May 1996. 66-78 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Based on findings from ethnographic research in six villages [in Bangladesh], this paper describes how family planning came to be defined as a domain in which women are encouraged to take initiative, in contrast to other spheres of life. It traces women's experiences and perceptions of family planning in the context of fertility transition, and examines some of the effects of family planning on women's lives. The results suggest that by bringing contraceptives to women in their homes, the family planning programme has empowered women within the reproductive sphere. At the same time, however, the patriarchal system that keeps women isolated and dependent is being reinforced. To counter this, a shift in emphasis towards clinic-based family planning services, improvements in quality of care, and interventions specifically aimed at reducing women's social and economic dependence on men are advocated."
Correspondence: S. R. Schuler, JSI Research and Training Institute, 1616 North Fort Myer Drive, Arlington, VA 22209. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

62:30606 Evinger, Suzann. How to record race. American Demographics, Vol. 18, No. 5, May 1995. 36-41 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"Is there a better way to measure race and ethnicity [in the United States]? Government classifications were widely criticized, but research shows no easy way to reflect the complex ways Americans identify themselves. Multiracial people, Native Americans, and Hispanics have the most trouble with the current system. The government will decide whether race questions will be different on the 2000 census."
Correspondence: S. Evinger, Office of Management and Budget, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30607 Matkovic, Gordana. The Serb population in the former Yugoslavia. [Srpsko stanovnistvo u SFR Jugoslaviji.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 33, No. 1-4, Jan-Dec 1995. 71-9 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"This article analyzes demographic development [among the] population of Serb ethnic affiliation in [the] former Yugoslavia. The analysis refers to the 1948-1991 period and pertains to the country as a whole with the data for republics and provinces shown separately....The nondemographic factors which generated the increase or the decrease in Serb population have been pointed out, as well as their share in total population of a specific region. Also, the concentration of Serb population in the specific regions is linked with the changes in their size during particular intercensal periods."
Correspondence: G. Matkovic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Ekonomski Institut, Studentski trg 1, 11001 Belgrade 6, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30608 Nault, François; Gauvin, Pierre R.; George, M. V. Population projections of registered Indians in Canada, 1991-2015. [Projections de la population des Indiens inscrits du Canada, 1991-2015.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 1995. 109-27 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article presents the most recent projections for the population of registered Indians in Canada....The projections are based on the method of regional components for which patterns for the period 1975-1990 are analyzed. The data, derived from the DIAND's [Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development] Indian Registry, have been adjusted for under-enumeration and late registration of events. The reinstatements which followed amendments to the Indian Act in 1985 have been taken into consideration. Results show that the population of registered Indians in Canada will continue to be young and experience rapid growth over the course of the period 1991-2015."
Correspondence: F. Nault, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30609 Raduski, Nada. Ethnic composition of the population of Kosovo, Methohija, and Vojvodina by commune, 1981-1991. [Etnicki sastav stanovnistva opstina Kosova i Metohije i Vojvodine, 1981-1991.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 33, No. 1-4, Jan-Dec 1995. 81-102 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper gives a survey of ethnic composition of the population of the Republic of Serbia and its provinces based on the 1991 census and attempts to evaluate the changes in the population composition by ethnic affiliation. Major attention is given to the investigation of ethnic composition of the population of Kosovo and [Methohija] and Vojvodina by commune. The time frame of the analysis is the period from 1981 to 1991."
Correspondence: N. Raduski, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade,Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30610 Sutton, Gordon F.; Chilton, Roland; Tingos, Kathryn; Pereira, Janna. Ethnic/racial self-identification and the census undercount. In: American Statistical Association, 1993 Proceedings of the Government Statistics Section. [1993]. 97-102 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
This study examines the extent to which changes in preferences for racial and ethnic identification affect the problem of the undercount in U.S. censuses. The authors use the examples of the Puerto Rican and Native Indian populations as recorded in censuses over the course of the twentieth century. They show that the changing nature of self-reporting of these minorities affects the enumerated size of the populations concerned. A Preference Index is developed, defined as "the percent of change in a population age-cohort in excess or in deficiency from one census to the next." This Index can be used to estimate both overcounts and undercounts of ethnic populations in the United States.
Correspondence: G. F. Sutton, University of Massachusetts, MISER, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30611 Tolts, Mark. Trends in Soviet Jewish demography since the Second World War. In: Jews and Jewish life in Russia and the Soviet Union, edited by Yaacov Ro'i. 1995. 365-82 pp. Frank Cass: London, England. In Eng.
The author examines demographic trends among Soviet Jews since World War II and focuses on their declining numbers over time. Aspects considered include age/sex structural correlates of demographic erosion; mixed marriage and its consequences; the balance of births and deaths; household composition; and recent trends.
Correspondence: M. Tolts, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Gaster Building, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30612 Wiercinski, Mateusz. Some problems in the demography of the tribal populations in India. Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 3-4, Spring-Summer 1996. 261-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Some of the problems involved in the study of the demography of India's tribal populations are described. They include "limitations set by the varying definitions of a tribe, by changes to the list of officially recognised tribes, by qualitative and quantitative deficiencies in demographic data, by administrative changes to India's regions and by the reclassification of tribes as castes."
Correspondence: M. Wiercinski, Pedagogical University, Kielce, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30613 Woolbright, Louie A.; Hollingsworth, J. Selwyn. Cross-racial births in the United States, 1968-1988. In: Demographic and structural change: the effects of the 1980s on American society, edited by Dennis L. Peck and J. Selwyn Hollingsworth. 1996. 187-204 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The focal concern of this chapter is to document and analyze the rapid increase in cross-racial births in the United States. This growth reflects, in part, social change in race relations, especially since the 1960s, which has brought about changes in the ways in which people define themselves. This change, as a major basis for self-identification, points to a declining significance regarding the racial category with which people identify."
Correspondence: L. A. Woolbright, Alabama Center for Health Statistics, Montgomery, AL. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30614 Zvidrins, Peteris. Recent changes of ethnic structure in the three Baltic states. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 336-50 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this article is to analyse changes in the ethnic structure of the Baltic states. The recently published 1989 census data allow us to analyse the dynamics of ethnic structure in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania during the last few decades." Aspects considered include ethnic composition in urban and rural areas, language knowledge, and language use assimilation.
Correspondence: P. Zvidrins, University of Latvia, Center of Demography, Rainis Boulevard 19, Riga 226098, Latvia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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