Volume 62 - Number 3 - Fall 1996

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

62:30365 Andersson, Gunnar. Trends in marriage formation in Sweden 1971-1993. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 96, ISBN 91-7820-112-8. Aug 1995. 18, [8] pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to introduce a system of annual indexes of the risks of marriage formation and re-formation and to use the system to display such marriage risks for Swedish women over the years since 1971....We show that the propensity to marry has decreased considerably during our period of observation. This should be seen as a result of the increased prevalence of informal cohabitation among Swedish couples. When we account for parity and marital status, it turns out that the decreased propensity to marry mostly is a result of decreased marriage risks among women who have no children and among never-married women."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30366 Bergstrom, Ted; Schoeni, Robert F. Income prospects and age-at-marriage. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 1996. 115-30 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper provides an empirical investigation of a theoretical model of the marriage market. In the model, women are valued more for their ability to bear children and men are valued more for the ability to make money. Men cannot reveal their labor market ability to potential spouses until they enter the labor force. At the same time, the relevant information for evaluating females as spouses is revealed at a younger age. The model predicts that the income of males will be positively associated with age-at-first-marriage. We find empirical support for the model [based on U.S. data]. However, we also find the association between male earnings and age-at-first-marriage becomes negative for those who married after age 30, which was not predicted by the model. Consistent with the model, we do not find a strong relationship between earnings and age-at-first-marriage among females."
Correspondence: R. F. Schoeni, RAND, Labor and Population Program, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30367 Biégelmann-Massari, Michèle. Civil marriage dispensations from 1960 to 1992. I. Choosing a relative as one's spouse. [Les dispenses civiles au mariage de 1960 à 1992. I. Le choix d'un parent pour conjoint.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 61-91 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The French Code Civil prohibits certain marriages and allows others to be celebrated only with the prior authorization of the Head of State, who decides whether or not to grant `dispensation' based on information about the applicants' motivations and their occupations....In this paper, we study dispensations which involve marital ties or blood relationships. Since the number of applications for dispensation is decreasing, a study of the files supports some hypotheses about the present declining trends in the numbers of marriages, and more especially the decisive impact of women's economic activity."
Correspondence: M. Biégelmann-Massari, Université de Paris I, Institut de Démographie, 22 Rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30368 Biégelmann-Massari, Michèle. Civil marriage dispensations from 1960 to 1992. II. Posthumous marriages: convenience or love? [Les dispenses civiles au mariage de 1960 à 1992. II. Le mariage posthume: mariage de raison ou mariage d'amour?] Population, Vol. 51, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 369-96 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In December 1959 amendments to the French Code Civil made it possible to marry one's deceased `fiancé(e)'. This provision which is specific to French law has generated slightly fewer than 50 requests annually submitted to the President of the French Republic. An examination of these requests and of the socio-demographic profiles of the petitioners--most commonly women--forms an extension to our study of dispensations based on consanguinity. It also confirms that women's occupational activities strongly influence their negative views of the institution of marriage. The economic aspects involved in any union become apparent irrespective of any attempts made to highlight the emotional dimension of such petitions."
For Part I, also published in 1996, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: M. Biégelmann-Massari, Université de Paris I, Institut de Démographie, 22 Rue Vauquelun, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30369 Carmichael, Gordon A.; Webster, Andrew; McDonald, Peter. Divorce Australian style: a demographic analysis. Working Papers in Demography, No. 61, 1996. 42 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The authors investigate divorce trends in Australia "by examining marriage duration-specific proportions divorcing and cumulative rates of divorce calculated for both annual synthetic and real first marriage, remarriage and total marriage cohorts. The response to the introduction of `no-fault' divorce in 1976 is demonstrated....Reasons for the dramatically higher divorce rates in Australia in the last two decades are discussed, as is the failure of the adoption of objectively sounder mate selection and marriage timing practices since the early 1970s to have a more noticeable impact on divorce rates."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30370 Christoffersen, Mogens N. Children and divorces: an attempt to estimate the number of Danish children experiencing a divorce during their childhood. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 106-18 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
The author discusses ways of estimating the number of Danish children who experience a divorce during childhood. Sections are included on changes in divorce rates; undercounting of children in surveys; and dissolution of cohabiting families. Finally, a model is provided for forecasting the number of children experiencing divorce.
Correspondence: M. N. Christoffersen, Danish National Institute of Social Research, Borgergade 28, 1300 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30371 Furstenberg, Frank F. The future of marriage. American Demographics, Vol. 18, No. 6, Jun 1996. 34-40 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses changes in marriage patterns and styles in the United States. "Women's increased economic independence, modern contraception, and other shifts have led Americans to evaluate marriage outside of traditional constraints. They expect less financial security, but more in the way of companionship and shared work. Change always creates stress, but in the end, a new form of marriage could emerge that will carry Americans into a new era of family life."
Correspondence: F. F. Furstenberg, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30372 Gage, Anastasia J.; Meekers, Dominique. The changing dynamics of family formation: women's status and nuptiality in Togo. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 15-37 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to understand the relationship between women's status and nuptiality in Togo using data from the 1988 Togo Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS)....The following question is of interest: To what extent has women's status changed over time and how has it affected nuptiality patterns? The first part of the paper explores the linkages between women's status and nuptiality in sub-Saharan Africa in general. Our intention in this section is not to present a theoretical discussion of the definition of women's status--a highly elusive concept in most settings--but rather, to discuss the impact of women's changing socio-economic status on the timing of marriage, the type of unions formed, the deviation of the marital relationship from traditional patterns, and union stability. In the second section results are presented on family formation and women's status in Togo. The third section discusses marital dissolution in relation to women's status."
Correspondence: A. J. Gage, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30373 Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus. A competing-risks analysis of the choice between marriage and cohabitation: experience of Swedish men born in 1936-1964. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 64-76 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines family initiation behaviour among Swedish males born in the period 1936-64 with data from the 1985 survey of Swedish males, which had about 3,200 respondents. The study provides a systematic description of the national pattern of conjugal-union formation, within the context of theories about the relationship between various demographic and socioeconomic variables on the one hand and family initiation on the other. Analysis with competing-risks model shows a recent reversal of the greater popularity of unmarried cohabitation than marriage which had continued for the last few decades. Further, it is demonstrated that the effects on union formation of the different sociodemographic factors vary according to the type of union entered."
Correspondence: G. Ghilagaber, Uppsala University, Department of Statistics, P.O. Box 256, 751 05 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30374 Gilbertson, Greta A.; Fitzpatrick, Joseph P.; Yang, Lijun. Hispanic intermarriage in New York City: new evidence from 1991. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer 1996. 445-59 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study [uses] 1991 marriage records from New York City [to examine] trends in marital assimilation among Puerto Ricans and the non-Puerto Rican Hispanic population. The prevalence of intermarriage varies among the six Hispanic national-origin groups. Changes in intermarriage patterns since 1975 are documented. Results show very high rates of intermarriage with non-Hispanics among Cubans, Mexicans, Central Americans, and South Americans. Considerable intermarriage among Hispanics of different national origins is characteristic of all Hispanics. Finally, Puerto Ricans and Dominicans have distinct patterns of intermarriage...."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: G. A. Gilbertson, Fordham University, Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30375 Haines, Michael R. Long-term marriage patterns in the United States from colonial times to the present. History of the Family, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1996. 15-39 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of long-term trends in U.S. nuptiality. "Marriage in colonial North America was notable for being early (for women) and marked by low percentages never marrying....Between 1800 and the present there have been long cycles in nuptiality. Since about 1800, female age at first marriage rose from relatively low levels to a peak around 1900. Thereupon a gradual decline commenced with a trough being reached about 1960 at the height of the baby boom. There then began another, and rapid, upswing in female marriage age. Proportions never married at ages 45-54 replicated these cycles with a lag of about 20-30 years. Since 1880 (when comprehensive census data became available), male nuptiality patterns have generally paralleled those of women. Male marriage ages were higher than those of females with proportions never marrying also usually higher."
Correspondence: M. R. Haines, Colgate University, Department of Economics, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30376 Hammes, Winfried. Divorces, 1994. [Ehescheidungen 1994.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 12, Dec 1995. 887-92 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Data are presented on divorces in Germany in 1994. Topics covered include duration of marriage, number of children involved, age at divorce, the age difference between spouses, and differences between the former East and West Germany. Trends in marriages and divorces since 1965 are also reviewed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30377 Hancock, Peter J. The 1990 Indonesian census: preliminary indications of positive demographic trends in West Java. Journal of Population, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1995. 203-12 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"Unlike the rest of Southeast Asia...female age at marriage in Java remained relatively constant during the 1970s, and it was not until the early 1980s that these ages began to increase at any substantial level. Rising age at marriage in Java was the result of, among other things, the declining prevalence of parent-arranged marriages, economic development, educational improvements, and changes in Java's traditional social structures associated with increasing capitalism, industrialization and urbanisation." The author notes that female marriage in West Java, however, remained high due to a combination of religious, cultural, and socioeconomic factors. Recent data from the 1990 census indicate that changing conditions in West Java may lead to a significant shift in demographic trends in the region to bring it more into line with the rest of Java.
Correspondence: P. J. Hancock, Edith Cowan University, Center for Development Studies, Perth, WA, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30378 Haskey, John. The proportion of married couples who divorce: past patterns and current prospects. Population Trends, No. 83, Spring 1996. 25-36 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article provides estimates of the proportions of marriages which ended in divorce for the different groups of couples who have married since the 1950s [in England and Wales]. Over one quarter of all couples who married in the late 1970s and early 1980s had divorced by the end of 1994. As well as giving the overall proportion of couples married in a given year who subsequently divorced, estimates are provided of the corresponding proportions for different subsets of those couples--according to each partner's marital status before marriage, and age at marriage....A life table analysis is carried out to estimate the proportion of marriages which would end in divorce were the duration-specific divorce rates to remain unchanged at their 1993/94 levels. On this basis, two in five marriages would ultimately end in divorce; just under one half of couples would celebrate their silver wedding, whilst the average length of marriage would be 26 years."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30379 Hoem, Jan M. Educational capital and divorce risk in Sweden in the 1970s and 1980s. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 95, ISBN 91-7820-110-1. Aug 1995. 35, [5] pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper contains an account of our work to develop a surprisingly simple model for the divorce risk of women [in Sweden] with post-gymnasium educations, which roughly are educations that go beyond the level of the American junior college. The model is oversimplified in certain respects, but the features of behavior that we focus on are essentially unaffected by model respecification in extensive experiments....What is important seems to be the self-selection of women with different family values and perhaps different types of personality into the various educational groups, as well as the working conditions they face in their subsequent individual occupations."
This paper was presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30380 Hoem, Jan M. Educational gradients in divorce risks in Sweden in recent decades. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 84, ISBN 91-7820-088-1. Mar 1995. 64 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with the influence that a woman's educational achievement has on the risk that her marriage breaks down, as manifested in divorce behavior for first marriages in Sweden between the late 1960s and 1991. We will show that first-marriage divorce risks have increased considerably over recent cohorts, but that developments have been more favorable for more highly educated women than for women with less education."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30381 Kiernan, Kathleen E. Partnership behaviour in Europe: recent trends and issues. In: Europe's population in the 1990s, edited by David Coleman. 1996. 62-91 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we examine the demographic developments and the changing roles of men and women both in the market-place and in the home....We commence with an examination of marriage patterns across a range of European countries." Aspects considered include the rise of cohabitation and extramarital childbearing; divorce trends; single-parent families and economic effects; employment trends and earnings; attitudes of men and women; and sharing of domestic responsibilities.
Correspondence: K. E. Kiernan, London School of Economics, Department of Social Policy and Administration, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30382 Kojima, Hiroshi. Sibling configuration and marriage timing in Japan. Institute of Population Problems Reprint Series, No. 24, Feb 1996. 43 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This study aims to clarify the effects of sibling configuration (eldest-child status, sib size, birth position and the possession of older brothers, older sisters, younger brothers and younger sisters) on the probability of first marriage by the following three types of postnuptial residence in Japan: virilocal residence (living with the husband's parents immediately after marriage), uxorilocal residence (living with the wife's parents immediately after marriage) and neolocal residence (living independently from both sets of parents immediately after marriage). It also attempts to re-consider the empirical practice of separating the decision to marry from the decision about living arrangements...."
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30383 Latten, J. J. The hidden family. [Het verborgen gezin.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 44, No. 3, Mar 1996. 8-13 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Dutch society witnesses a continuous growth in the number of both singles and cohabitors. Despite this fact most young people indicate that they eventually desire to marry and to have children....When cohabitation is not recorded or registered in a uniform manner, statistics which consider only married couples with or without children as families underestimate the de facto number of families. If both married and unmarried couples are considered as family nuclei, as recommended by the United Nations, the total formal number of families in the Netherlands has to be augmented with approximately half a million `hidden' families consisting of unmarried couples."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30384 Locoh, Thérèse; Thiriat, Marie-Paule. Female multinuptiality and gender relations in West Africa: the case of Togo. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 39-72 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This article concerns union dissolution and remarriage in Togo. The analysis is based on the data collected in the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey [DHS]. The authors conclude by outlining an agenda for future studies of female multinuptiality: "Although demographic surveys are centred on women as far as all areas related to fertility are concerned, they quite neglect the `gender' aspect which seems to have become incontrovertible for studies of trends in demographic behaviour. New questions now need to be devised and added to fertility surveys and specific surveys devoted to nuptiality must be initiated; especially as everything points to a nuptiality `transition' as being already under way which may well turn out to be a precursor of the fertility transition in sub-Saharan Africa. It is important that we revert to a view of nuptiality that takes account of the life cycle and that we stop limiting our analyses to the last current union....Female multinuptiality...remains largely unexplored, not only in so far as the causes and consequences to women are concerned, but also in as far as male considerations are concerned."
Correspondence: T. Locoh, Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30385 Malhotra, Anju; Tsui, Amy O. Marriage timing in Sri Lanka: the role of modern norms and ideas. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 2, May 1996. 476-90 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This article contributes empirical evidence to the critique of modernization theory, which continues to underpin much social research on non-Western societies despite the frequent and open challenges to its legitimacy and ability in predicting family change. Our analysis employs longitudinal data, focus group information, and event history models to examine the timing of marriage for a cohort of young women in Sri Lanka. We argue that despite the infusion of modern ideational factors, family organization, interests, and cultural prescriptions have a substantial role to play in determining when young Sri Lankan women enter marriage. The results support our contention that the process of social change does not involve a linear shift from a consistent, packaged set of traditional conditions to modern ones, but rather a more complex interaction and coexistence of these two sets of values. Our results indicate that family and cultural factors continue to be important in determining marriage timing for the present generation of young women in Sri Lanka."
Correspondence: A. Malhotra, University of Maryland, Center on Population, Gender and Social Inequality, 3114 Art-Sociology Building, College Park, MD 20742-1315. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30386 Moring, Beatrice. Marriage and social change in south-western Finland, 1700-1870. Continuity and Change, Vol. 11, No. 1, May 1996. 91-113 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This article presents a case study of marriage, household, social mobility and migration patterns in the coastal area and islands of the south-west of Finland....Beginning in the eighteenth century...neolocal marriages (the establishment of an independent residence on marriage) became more common, the average age [of] marriage of the farmers rose while the average marriage age of the non-farming population decreased....[A] significant feature of mobility patterns is that more women than men were socially mobile. It is argued that the threat of downward social mobility may well have encouraged the children of farmers to out-migrate."
Correspondence: B. Moring, Renvall Institute of Historical Research, Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30387 Nabaitu, Januario; Bachengana, Cissy; Seeley, Janet. Marital instability in a rural population in south-west Uganda: implications for the spread of HIV-1 infection. Africa, Vol. 64, No. 2, 1994. 243-51 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The aim of this study was to examine people's beliefs about the causes of marital instability in a rural population cohort in south-west Uganda. Results from a baseline survey of HIV-1 infection in the cohort of over 4,000 adults (over 12 years old) showed a twofold increase in risk of infection in divorced or separated persons when compared with those who are married. A purposive sample of 134 respondents (seventy-two males, sixty-two females) selected to represent different ages, religions and marital status were asked in semi-structured interviews to comment on the reasons for continuing marital instability in their community. The most common reasons suggested for marital instability were sexual dissatisfaction, infertility, alcoholism and mobility....HIV infection was not mentioned as a direct cause of separation, but a small independent study revealed that seven out of ten couples separated on learning of a positive HIV test result of one or both partners. Marital instability is not uncommon in this population; there is evidence that HIV infection is making the situation worse."
Correspondence: J. Nabaitu, Medical Research Council, 20 Park Crescent, London W1N 4AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30388 Nath, Dilip C.; Land, Kenneth C.; Talukdar, Pijush K. A model that fits female age at first marriage in a traditional society. Janasamkhya, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, Dec 1992. 53-9 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"The female age at marriage is an important variable in the human reproduction process--especially in traditional societies in which almost all births occur within the marital context. This paper uses the Type I extreme value distribution to describe the female age at marriage pattern of a traditional society in India. A procedure to obtain maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters of the model is discussed. The model is found to be suitable for estimation of the observed proportion of ever married females, mean, median and model age at marriage."
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Duke University, Department of Sociology, Durham, NC 27708-0088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30389 Ngondo a Pitshandenge, Séraphin. Polyandry among the Bashilele of western Kasai, Zaire: how it works and the role it plays. [La polyandrie chez les Bashilele du Kasaï occidental (Zaïre): fonctionnement et rôles.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 42, ISBN 2-87762-092-1. Jul 1996. 22 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The system of polyandry among the Bashilele of Western Zaire is described, and changes in its popularity over time are noted. "Polyandry appears as a response to polygamy, and to the apparent lack of partners for young men, and to the sexual taboos which accompany the pregnancy and the breastfeeding period. The collective wife plays also other social roles, such as mediating conflicts, and traditional healing. The life cycle of the collective marriage is often quite short: the collective wife passes through a first phase where she has a large number of partners that she does not choose, to a second phase with a smaller number of partners that she selects by herself; the collective marriage leads eventually toward a more conventional form of union."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30390 Nguyen, Huu Minh. Age at first marriage in Vietnam: patterns and determinants. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 96-1, 1995. 41 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"We examine patterns of age at first marriage in Vietnam and its determinants, as well as to compare these with findings from other Asian countries, using the data from 1991 Vietnam Life History Survey. The results show that socio-economic and political changes during the last few decades are associated with a shift to older ages of first marriage in Vietnam....The data also reveal variations in the way modernization factors affect age at marriage....It is suggested that war related effects make Vietnam's marriage age patterns a special case in Asia."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30391 Pagnini, Deanna L.; Morgan, S. Philip. Racial differences in marriage and childbearing: oral history evidence from the South in the early twentieth century. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 101, No. 6, May 1996. 1,694-718 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Using oral histories collected in 1938 and 1939 in the Southern United States, this article examines how African-Americans and whites viewed marriage and nonmarital childbearing. The authors document distinct racial differences in family norms and the sanctions that supported those norms. Giving birth outside a marital relationship was clearly not the stigmatizing event for African-Americans that it was for whites. The authors also found that African-Americans were more likely than whites to end marriages under similar conditions. These results suggest that debates about contemporary racial differences need to take into account the historical background, both cultural and demographic, of diverse groups."
Correspondence: D. L. Pagnini, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

62:30392 Peterson, Richard R. A re-evaluation of the economic consequences of divorce. American Sociological Review, Vol. 61, No. 3, Jun 1996. 528-36 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Over the last 20 years, researchers have focused considerable attention on the economic consequences of divorce. One book, Weitzman's The Divorce Revolution (1985), reports a 73 percent decline in women's standard of living after divorce and a 42 percent increase in men's standard of living. These percentages, based on data from a 1977-1978 Los Angeles sample, are substantially larger than those from other studies. I replicate...[this] analysis and demonstrate that the estimates reported in the book are inaccurate. This reanalysis...produces estimates of a 27 percent decline in women's standard of living and a 10 percent increase in men's after divorce. I discuss the implications of these results for debates about divorce law reform."
Correspondence: R. R. Peterson, Social Science Research Council, 810 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30393 Sassler, Sharon; Schoen, Robert. The impact of attitudes on marriage behavior. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 96-05, Apr 1996. 38 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"We examine the effect of career orientation and attitudes towards marriage on marriage timing. Data are from waves I and II of the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households, and we follow never married young adults ages 19 to 34 at the initial survey....We focus in particular on the following two questions: (1) Do attitudes towards marriage influence the likelihood of marriage, net of career orientation and experience? (2) Net attitudes towards marriage, are women and men with strong career orientations and experiences more likely to marry?"
This paper was presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30394 South, Scott J. Mate availability and the transition to unwed motherhood: a paradox of population structure. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 2, May 1996. 265-79 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are merged with 1980 census data and information on respondents' secondary school to examine the influence of mate availability on the timing of young women's first marriage and premarital childbearing. Event history models that treat first marriage (prior to first birth) and first birth (prior to first marriage) as competing risks reveal modest but statistically significant effects of mate availability on the timing of both life-course events. These effects work in opposite directions in influencing the likelihood that a young woman will become an unwed mother. For White women, an abundance of eligible males in the local marriage market increases the rate of exit from the single, childless state both by hastening entry into marriage and by increasing the risk of nonmarital childbearing. For Black women, the percentage of males in the local marriage pool who are employed accelerates the transition to marriage, while the percentage of males in the respondent's secondary school significantly elevates the risk of a premarital birth."
Correspondence: S. J. South, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30395 Tripathy, P. K.; Rao, I. S.; Pradhan, P. N. An integrated path analysis approach to study the variation in the age of female nuptiality of Orissa. Janasamkhya, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, Jun 1992. 31-43 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"In this article an attempt is made to study the effect of various socio-economic and demographic factors on the variation of the age at marriage of the females from one district to another district in Orissa [India]. Hence the study has been performed at state level by considering various districts as separate units of variation. For comparison, this work has been studied in three different situations of Orissa, namely, rural, urban and rural-urban combined."
Correspondence: P. K. Tripathy, Utkal University, Department of Statistics, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751 004, Orissa, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30396 Vaikule, Velga. Divorce trends in Latvia. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 313-20 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
The author examines recent trends in divorce in Latvia. Aspects considered include changes in the divorce rate, urban and rural differences, age factors, ethnic groups, and type of marriage or union. Comparisons with divorce trends in Russia are also made.
Correspondence: V. Vaikule, University of Latvia, Department of Demography, Rainis Boulevard 19, Riga 226098, Latvia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

62:30397 Aquilino, Willam S. The life course of children born to unmarried mothers: childhood living arrangements and young adult outcomes. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 2, May 1996. 293-310 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study explores the complex sequences of living arrangements among children born to unmarried mothers and the impact of childhood living arrangements on the young adult life course. Retrospective life history data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households are used to construct each respondent's trajectory of household and family transitions from birth through age 15. The analysis documents the wide diversity of household types experienced by children born to unwed mothers. Only 1 in 5 spent their entire childhood in a single-parent family, and nearly half coresided with grandparents or relatives while growing up. Multivariate analyses show that living arrangement trajectories after birth to a single mother influenced the likelihood of high school completion and enrollment in postsecondary school, the timing of residential independence, and the timing of entry into the labor force."
Correspondence: W. S. Aquilino, University of Wisconsin, Department of Child and Family Studies, 1430 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30398 Baker, Maureen. Canada's changing families: challenges to public policy. ISBN 0-919520-51-0. 1994. vii, 150 pp. Vanier Institute of the Family: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
This publication, which is also available in French, consists of 10 chapters by various authors on aspects of the family in Canada. The focus is on recent changes to the family and on the social policies needed to reflect those changes.
Correspondence: Vanier Institute of the Family, 120 Holland Avenue, Suite 300, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 0X6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30399 Bartholet, Elizabeth. Adoption rights and reproductive wrongs. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 177-203 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Reproductive rights talk is full of claims about women's rights to choose whether to conceive, and whether to abort the product of conception. I want to talk about the rights of women who cannot or do not choose to conceive, but who do want to raise children. And I want to talk about the rights of women who don't feel able to raise the children they are carrying in pregnancy, but don't want or haven't been allowed to abort. I want to talk about the right to adopt and the right to give a child up for adoption."
Correspondence: E. Bartholet, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30400 Bassuk, Ellen L.; Browne, Angela; Buckner, John C. Single mothers and welfare. Scientific American, Vol. 275, No. 4, Oct 1996. 60-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The factors that push families into homelessness in the United States are analyzed using data on some 450 single women and their children in Massachusetts. This group has been studied since 1992. Particular attention is given to the role that welfare, in the form of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), has played in the survival of these families. The authors conclude that "contrary to popular stereotypes, few low-income single mothers are teenagers or second-generation welfare recipients. Recent welfare reforms could force a majority of [poorly] housed mothers and their children into homelessness, despite their efforts to find work."
Correspondence: E. L. Bassuk, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

62:30401 Brunborg, Helge; Keilman, Nico. MOSART-H: a combined micro-macro model for simulation of households. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 435-52 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes work in progress concerning the construction of a combined micro-macro model to be used for the simulation of household dynamics. The model is called MOSART-H, and it is part of a larger model system called MOSART. MOSART projects and analyses individual life courses with respect to education, marriage, births, and labour market participation in Norway....This paper describes the current state of the project: the macromodel and the micromodel have been programmed and tested, and currently we are engaged in compiling the initial population and estimating the occurrence-exposure rates that describe household dynamics."
Correspondence: H. Brunborg, Statistisk Sentralbyrå, Research Department, Post Box 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30402 Chen, Chaonan. Living arrangements and economic support for the elderly in Taiwan. Journal of Population Studies, No. 17, Apr 1996. 59-81 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"This paper aims to find out the role of living arrangements in economic support for the elderly in Taiwan....To fulfill this goal, primary and secondary sources of living costs are used to derive four types of economic support for the elderly....Our analytical results suggest that living arrangements play a role of specification. Of the elderly who are not living with children, these have substantially greater proportions of the independent type than those living with children."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: C. Chen, Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30403 de Beer, J. Future trends in household composition: demography or behavior? [Toekomstige huishoudensontwikkeling: demografie of gedrag?] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 44, No. 4, Apr 1996. 6-10 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Changes in the number of households depend to a large extent on demographic developments. According to the Dutch household forecasts as much as 80% of the increase in the number of households between 1995 and 2010 will be caused by changes in the age structure and only 20% by changes in behaviour. The large impact of changes in the age structure on the number of households can be explained by the fact that the household situation of people is strongly correlated with their age."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30404 Duvold, Ellen-Merete. The Norwegian family: scenarios for 2020. Future consequences at the micro level of present-day family patterns. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 28-44 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"This article presents some potential future demographic and social consequences at the micro level of family patterns [in Norway] in the 1980s. I shall...illustrate how a number of premises for family networks in the future have already been laid. Two future family networks are outlined with a basis in two concrete family networks dating from 1991....Based on these networks I shall outline three ideal-typical scenarios for the year 2020: `stability', `withdrawal and fragmentation' and `continued instability'."
Correspondence: E.-M. Duvold, Institute of Applied Social Research, Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30405 Eggebeen, David J.; Snyder, Anastasia R.; Manning, Wendy D. Children in single-father families in demographic perspective. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 17, No. 4, Jul 1996. 441-65 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
This article examines single-parent families headed by fathers. "We use specially constructed child files from the 1960-1990 Public Use Microdata Samples data from the Census of Population to address two general questions: (a) To what extent has both the likelihood and the demographic characteristics of these families changed over time? (b) What are the consequences for children of living in different kinds of father-only families? We find that single-father families are comparatively rare, but increasing rapidly, especially since 1980. Increasingly, these families are formed by fathers who are young, never married, with low incomes, and fewer children. Analysis of the 1990 data reveals wide diversity in living arrangements among children in single-father families. Furthermore, the social capital of children's fathers, the availability of adults, and children's economic well-being vary markedly across these types of families."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. J. Eggebeen, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30406 Findley, Sally E.; Diallo, Assitan. Interactions between household structure and female migration in rural Mali. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 271-90 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper, we focus on the interrelations between household structure and female migration among women in rural Mali. The paper considers both directions of interaction: how household structure constrains or facilitates female migration and how migration in turn leads to changes in household structure. The study is based on a longitudinal survey of migration and household change in the Upper Senegal River Valley of Mali."
Correspondence: S. E. Findley, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30407 Goody, Jack. Comparing family systems in Europe and Asia: are there different sets of rules? Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 1-20, 201, 203 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In seeing Europe as the forerunner in the development of industrial capitalism and of lower fertility, historians have examined predisposing factors in the web of family variables that may have led to these conditions. The influential hypothesis by John Hajnal draws a sharp line between the regimes of Europe and the rest of the world, particularly Asia. It acknowledges that mean household size does not differ significantly in the two cases, but attributes the difference to the contrast between the `joint households' of the East and the single-couple arrangements of the West. This article contends that the data do not fully justify such a sharp dichotomy. In particular, the categorization exaggerates the differences with respect to internal structure and also with respect to the related problems of family labor and service, household fission, and the public (rather than the familial) safety net for the aged poor."
Correspondence: J. Goody, University of Cambridge, St. John's College, Cambridge CB2 1TP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30408 Guo, Zhigang; Goldstein, Alice; Goldstein, Sidney. Changing family and household structure. In: China: the many facets of demographic change, edited by Alice Goldstein and Wang Feng. 1996. 123-34 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines changes in family size and structure in the period 1952 to 1987 and how these are related to other demographic trends. A variety of sources will be used, but major reliance is placed on three censuses China has taken in 1953, 1962, and 1982, and on the 1987 National Sample Survey."
Correspondence: Z. Guo, People's University, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30409 Heath, Sue; Miret, Pau. Living in and out of the parental home in Spain and Great Britain: a comparative approach. Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure Working Paper Series, No. 2, ISBN 0-9527065-1-2. 1996. 39 pp. Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper is primarily concerned with drawing out the differences in young people's living arrangements which exist between Spain and Great Britain. Spain is still overwhelmingly characterised by traditional patterns of household formation, in contrast with Britain where there is a diversity of household forms and transitional routes. The paper identifies the major differences in patterns of young people's living arrangements in the two countries, and then attempts to draw out the contextual factors which have shaped the divergent experiences of young people in Spain and Britain. As a secondary concern, we are interested in seeing how useful the individualisation thesis is for understanding these differences, and while the thesis will not be rejected entirely, its validity will be questioned. First, however, the paper will briefly consider previous research on the living arrangements of young people in Europe, in order to place the experiences of young people living in Spain and Britain in a broader context."
Correspondence: Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30410 Hesse, Klaus. Structure of private households and families. [Strukturen privater Haushalte und Familien.] Studien zur Haushaltsökonomie, Vol. 11, ISBN 3-631-46484-3. 1994. 237 pp. Peter Lang: Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In Ger.
This work consists of seven papers by various authors who examine topics on household economics. Papers are included on population and private households, large households, household finances, expenditures and wealth, household work, household analysis and planning, and household behavior and standard of living. The primary geographical focus is on Germany.
Correspondence: Peter Lang, Eschborner Landstraße 42-50, Postfach 940225, 6000 Frankfurt 90, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30411 Hsueh, James C.-t. Single-parent households in Taiwan: estimation from one percent 1990 census data. Journal of Population Studies, No. 17, Apr 1996. 1-30 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"This research employs one percent [data from the] random sample from the 1990 Census...in Taiwan...[to estimate] the proportion of single-parent households [of]...overall households...as 3.9%....We also report the frequency and percentage distribution of `single-parent household' by 23 administration districts in Taiwan."
Correspondence: J. C.-t. Hsueh, National Taiwan University, Department of Sociology, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30412 Juby, Heather. From minimal household units to household projections: an application to Canadian data. [Le ménage et ses unités minimales: illustration d'un modèle de projection à l'aide de données canadiennes.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 1995. 35-64 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The headship rate method for household projections has been criticised for its silence concerning household composition, while alternative models have yet to resolve how to estimate households from the distribution of individuals by household status projected by their models. By combining an indicator of household composition with an indicator of headship, the method proposed here attempts to remedy these problems. The application to Canadian households could be viewed as an adaptation of the headship rate method, but would ideally serve as the second step of a model more representative of the household formation process."
Correspondence: H. Juby, Université du Québec, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Urbanisation, 3465 rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30413 Krishnakumari, K. Impact of sibling size on contemporary eligible couples' family size norm. Janasamkhya, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, Dec 1992. 45-51 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"A number of earlier studies have established the positive correlation that has been found between the number of children born to a family and the number of children in the husband's and wife's family. The main aim of the present study is to see whether this relationship holds true in the case of families in Trivandrum district [India]. It is also the objective of this study to verify the variations in this relationship between the first born and later born children."
Correspondence: K. Krishnakumari, University of Kerala, Department of Demography, Trivandrum 695 034, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30414 Lauterbach, Wolfgang. Life expectancy, life courses, and generational consequences in families, or: how long do family generations know each other? [Lebenserwartung, Lebensverläufe und Generationenfolgen in Familien oder: wie lange kennen sich familiäre Generationen?] Arbeitspapier, No. 10, Oct 1994. [vi], 43 pp. Universität Konstanz, Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät: Konstanz, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of twentieth-century demographic trends on the experience of family membership in Germany is explored. "Using event history analysis and the data of the German Socio-economic panel, it is shown, on the basis of six different birth cohorts, that both World Wars and the period after World War II have had profound negative effects on the interwoven life courses of fathers and their children. But there has been only a limited influence on the life courses of mothers and their children. One surprising result is that grandparenthood in Germany is for a broader part of the people a phenomenon of the 20th century--one that arose especially for children born after World War II."
Correspondence: Universität Konstanz, Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät, FG Soziologie, Postfach 55 60 (D33), 78434 Konstanz, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30415 Ledent, Jacques. Toward a projection of families according to their principal characteristics. [Vers une projection des familles selon leurs caractéristiques principales.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 1995. 3-33 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article describes the main ingredients of a methodology currently under development for projecting families [in Canada]--these groups of individuals linked by conjugal ties or by blood--according to their principal characteristics: family type and number/ages of children. The crux of this methodology is a multidimensional model which can be viewed as an extension of the traditional cohort-components model that incorporates the conjugal and parity statuses of women. With an appropriate generalization of the conjugal status variable and the addition of an appendage for dealing with the special case of step families, this model eventually allows one to shift from the number of women according to demographic status (stemming from cross-classifying conjugal status and numbers of children present) to those families according to their main characteristics."
Correspondence: J. Ledent, Université du Québec, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Urbanisation, 3465 rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30416 Lesthaeghe, Ron; Moors, Guy. Living arrangements, socio-economic position, and values among young adults: a pattern description for France, West Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands, 1990. In: Europe's population in the 1990s, edited by David Coleman. 1996. 163-221 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In the present chapter, we attempt to provide evidence for the hypotheses that (a) attitudes and values concerning religious, political, and ethical issues are still closely associated with the distribution of individuals over the various forms of living arrangements; and (b) these associations hold for both sexes and irrespective of socioeconomic positions. In short, the basic aim is to show that ideational factors and aspirations regarding the nature of a relationship are necessary complements to the economic theories which have failed so far to incorporate them....The data used here stem from the European Values Survey (EVS) held in 1990 in a number of Western countries....The main conclusion is that the associations between the various value orientations and the types of living arrangement are either completely or largely resistant to controls for socio-economic position....Second, we have found in this European data-set that single home-leavers and cohabitants resemble each other in terms of the three value dimensions studied....Third, the present data equally confirm that parental religiosity or secularity is a factor involved in the selections made by their children."
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Steunpunt Demografie, Centrum voor Sociologie, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30417 Lewis, Roger D. Demographic data and the potential demand for housing: a cohort approach. [Données démographiques et demande éventuelle de logements: une approche par cohorte.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 1995. 65-86 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation is actively involved in conducting research on demographic change and housing demand. Household projections are at the center of this research....CMHC is working with the Joint Center for Housing Studies at Harvard University to develop a cohort-based method for extrapolating headship and ownership rates. The method offers advantages over other approaches in that it recognizes differences between generations, provides a useful framework for analysis, and offers considerable flexibility in tailoring projection assumptions. Preliminary cohort-based potential housing demand projections show broad consistency with current low levels of housing market activity and point to continuation of some of the established trends in the past twenty years."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30418 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Gage, Anastasia J. High fertility and the intergenerational transmission of gender inequality: children's transition to adulthood in Ghana. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 127-46 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper will address the ways in which sibsize affects boys' and girls' transition to adulthood in terms of living arrangements, time allocation, educational achievements and the timing of marriage, using Ghana as an example....Children of primary and secondary school age (ages 6-17) are the focus of our analysis....Using data from the first wave of the Ghana Living Standards Measurement Survey (GLSS 1988-89), we explore differences by sex in the effects of sibsize on fostering, school participation, work hours and parental educational investments. Before exploring each of these topics in turn, however, we begin with a discussion of childhood in West Africa in a modernizing economy based on a review of the literature and, in the process, identify the factors most likely to affect a child's path through adolescence."
Correspondence: C. B. Lloyd, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30419 Lockwood, Matthew. Marriage, household demography and women's participation in rice growing in coastal Tanzania. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 337-49 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This paper analyzes "the degree to which women [in African households] have independent sources of income over which they can exercise control....An element of this separation is that women often [grow] farm crops on their own account rather than wholly or mainly for family food consumption....In the flood plains of Rufiji District, in coastal Tanzania, the crop which women farm on their own account and which forms the basis of much of their independently controlled income is rice. This paper addresses the question of which factors, and particularly which demographic factors, affect women's participation in rice cultivation."
Correspondence: M. Lockwood, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9RH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30420 Mogelonsky, Marcia. The rocky road to adulthood. American Demographics, Vol. 18, No. 5, May 1996. 26-35, 56 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses changes in the path toward adulthood and self-sufficiency among young people in the United States. "More than one-fifth of 25 year-old Americans still live with their parents, and the definition of adulthood is no longer clear. The full-nest syndrome is more common among whites than other races, and many adult children are free to spend their wages on luxuries without paying rent. While few kids want to stay home forever, more of them aren't leaving home without good reasons."
Correspondence: M. Mogelonsky, American Demographics, 127 West State Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30421 Palomba, Rossella; Quattrociocchi, Luciana. Images of the changing Italian family. [Images de la famille italienne en mutation.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 353-67 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Changes in the structure of Italian families throughout the 1980s are assessed by comparing data from the ISTAT surveys of 1983 and 1990. The results are presented from the individual's point of view and [the authors] show how they fit into different familial configurations. Marriage remains the central element in Italian families, and the choice for young adults is easy: either they remain in their parental household, or they marry--most commonly in order to have children. Among those aged 30-39 the number of single parents has increased following a moderate increase in marriage breakdown....Family structures remain simpler in Italy than the neighboring Western countries, but the strong continuity in family structure does not mean that there [have] been no changes, only that it is more difficult to capture them by statistical methods."
Correspondence: R. Palomba, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30422 Patil, R. L. Measurement of household socio-economic status. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1995. 259-68 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In the present analysis we have made a modest attempt to develop a socio-economic index for the household as a unit giving the weightage to different socio-economic attributes of individuals in the household. Our sample consists of both rural and urban households [in India] and so only the aspects which are common and did not interfere in the classification of socioeconomic status were taken into account and a scale was developed for the measurement of SES of households."
Correspondence: R. L. Patil, JSS Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30423 Pennec, Sophie. The importance of four-generation families in France. [La place des familles à quatre générations en France.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 31-59 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In the past, households that contained retired persons in a family consisting of four successive generations were rare, but the situation is different today. This study is based on cohorts of females born [in France] between 1920 and 1950 and seeks to determine the proportion of women who at present, or [who] may in the future, live in such families after having reached the age of 50. It is shown that women born in 1950 are now more likely than those born 30 years earlier to belong to a four-generation family....We construct a simple model to help compensate for the lack of data but, more importantly reconstitute various generations from data on mortality and fertility alone....It is shown that the expected increase in four-generation families is mainly due to increased life expectancy, and especially increased longevity of parents, and an increase in the number of women who reach very old ages."
Correspondence: S. Pennec, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30424 Robson, Elsbeth. The economic activities and status of rural Muslim Hausa women in northern Nigeria. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 313-36 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This paper concentrates on "household economics and women's status in...[Muslim] Hausa households and communities [in northern Nigeria. The study takes] a feminist position in conceptualising the household as the basic unit of production and reproduction, as well as the prime site of women's oppression....The paper concludes that, according to cultural norms, Hausa women have low economic status and are viewed as `provided for' in ideological terms. Furthermore, it is concluded that the gender divisions of labour within, and outside, rural Hausa households reflect and sustain the subordination of women in their inferior social and economic position relative to men."
Correspondence: E. Robson, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30425 Staat, Matthias; Wagenhals, Gerhard. Lone mothers: a review. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 1996. 131-40 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper briefly reviews recent empirical studies on the economic behavior of lone mothers concentrating on the duration of lone motherhood, on labour supply, and on the determinants of their welfare participation. We start out by sketching some stylised facts about lone-mother-families in various countries. With this background we give a guided tour through the empirical literature followed by a summary of the policy implications of the results presented."
Correspondence: G. Wagenhals, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30426 Trost, Jan. Households, families and dissolution. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 77-88 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"In order to see how the phenomenon of the family is conceptualized I will briefly present two sets of data--one [from Sweden] is quantitative and the other is qualitative....The quantitative data show that some stress consanguinity, some stress conjugality, some stress the principle of the same domicile. Some do not stress these restrictions and accept a surprisingly wide variety of social groupings as families. The qualitative data also show a wide variety in the meanings of the term family. The same basic units or dyads are reported; spousal units, cohabitational units, parent-child units, master-dog units, sibling units, ex-spousal units, etc."
Correspondence: J. Trost, Uppsala University, Department of Sociology, Box 513, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30427 Varley, Ann. Women heading households: some more equal than others? World Development, Vol. 24, No. 3, Mar 1996. 505-20 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper explores the validity of the statement that one-third of the world's households are headed by women. It examines the implications of using economic criteria to define household headship and of recent interest in woman-maintained households and concealed woman-headed households. There is a danger of underplaying the diversity of woman-headed households and of marginalizing older women by identifying woman-headed households with single mothers of dependent children. Ultimately, too narrow a focus on particular household types undermines our ability to further a truly gendered analysis of the household in development research and practice."
Correspondence: A. Varley, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30428 Wall, Richard. Comparing households and families at the European level: problems and perspectives. [Comparer ménages et familles au niveau européen: problèmes et perspectives.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 93-115 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Classifications of households and their members are [of interest only if] they help to identify key characteristics of family and residence models. Those outlined here satisfy this need by indicating the number of individuals of different sexes, ages, and marital status who are living as a couple, or as single parents, as well as the number who are living with relatives, with unrelated persons, or on their own....Tables in this study provide evidence for the assessment of co-residence calculated from sample (one per cent), of the Censuses of England and Wales for 1981 and of Great Britain in 1991....Attention is given to [the] individual's position in the household....Tables were designed to provide better information on the characteristics of households that include unrelated persons to indicate de facto marital status, or single parenthood, and to point out the relative rarity of non-traditional households...."
Correspondence: R. Wall, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30429 Wang, Shuxin. On a young-elderly support system maintained in separation in urban areas. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1995. 371-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article expounds on factors causing the weakening of the cohabitation-based elderly support tradition [in China]. Taken into consideration are macro-social forces such as the development of urbanization, changes in people's ideas, advances in social welfare, and the decline of the fertility rate, and the increase in the number of nuclear families and elderly households following the implementation of the family planning policy and forces at the micro-family level. The article analyzes the feasibility, realizability, problems, and counter measures of the young-elderly support system maintained in separation."
Correspondence: S. Wang, Beijing College of Economics, Population Research Institute, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30430 Willert, Hanne. Three-generation families in 19th century rural Denmark. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 260-78 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"This paper wants to challenge the findings of historical demographers who maintain that Danish household structure...has remained the same throughout the last three centuries. They have based their findings on several cross-section studies of the population, but these results seem to be contradicted by a number of ethnological, longitudinal analyses of few families at the time. I have therefore planned my study as a combination of a cross-section study of all the cottagers in one village in 1870 and a longitudinal analysis of the same population from 1834 until 1880, in order to compare the two different methods for family studies on a broader material. The result of my analysis is that in the village studied, [approximately] half of the cottage families appearing in the 1870 census had formed three-generation families at least once through a period of 46 years, although the incidence of three-generation families in the year 1870 according to the census was only 13%....An additional study into the actual composition of households of old people at the time of the census confirmed that nearly everybody over 60 years lived with their--married or unmarried--children."
Correspondence: H. Willert, University of Copenhagen, Cultural Sociology, Frue Plads/Nørregade 10, P.O. Box 2177, 1017 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30431 Yusuf, Farhat; Siedlecky, Stefania. Family formation patterns among migrant women in Sydney. Actuarial Studies and Demography Research Paper, No. 002/95, ISBN 1-86408-063-9. Sep 1995. 16 pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"The present paper deals with aspects of family formation among [three groups of migrant women from Lebanon, Turkey, and Viet Nam living in Sydney, Australia], including in particular their age at marriage, their attitude towards ideal age at marriage and the characteristics of the future spouses of their children, their current fertility and future fertility expectations. Some comparisons have also been made with other census and survey data published by the Australian Bureau of Statistics."
Correspondence: Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30432 Zanatta, Anna L.; De Rose, Alessandra. The lone child in Italy: the frequency and determinants of a choice. [Il figlio unico in Italia: frequenza e determinanti di una scelta.] Materiali di Studi e di Ricerche, No. 8, Sep 1995. iii, 24 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Based on data from the 1979 Italian National Fertility Survey, this article examines families with only one child in Italy. The characteristics of women who decide to have only one child are analyzed, using logistic regression analysis. The authors also consider the motivations of women and couples who decide to have one child only. Women choosing to have only one child tend to marry late, be highly educated and professionally qualified, and live in the north of the country or in urban areas. The importance of costs, benefits, and lifestyle decisions on the choice of family size is stressed.
Correspondence: Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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