Volume 62 - Number 3 - Fall 1996

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

62:30189 Appleton, Simon. How does female education affect fertility? A structural model for the Côte d'Ivoire. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 58, No. 1, Feb 1996. 139-66 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A structural model relating fertility to its proximate [determinants] is estimated for the Côte d'Ivoire. The assumption of exogeneity of the proximate determinants is rejected and shown to understate their influence. The model allows identification of the means through which female education affects fertility. Secondary schooling is found to have particularly strong effects, raising the age of cohabitation and reducing the duration of breast-feeding. The two transmission mechanisms are offsetting since delayed cohabitation limits fertility whilst shortened breast-feeding increases it for older women. However, the impact via age at cohabitation dominates, except amongst the older cohorts."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30190 Berry, Brian J. L. From Malthusian frontier to demographic steady state: the Concordian birth rate, 1635-1993. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jun 1996. 207-29, 409, 411 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"An exceptionally early and rapid fertility decline was achieved in Concord, Massachusetts by 1815. This decline was succeeded by a new demographic regime characterized by remarkable cyclical responsiveness to macroeconomic and macropolitical events. The evidence for declining fertility during the eighteenth century is consistent with so-called Malthusian-Frontier explanations of colonial-era demography, whereas the nineteenth-century responsiveness to economic and political change reveals a much earlier onset of Easterlin fertility cycles than has previously been postulated. The transition from the first to the second regime followed the emergence of a market economy in rural Massachusetts in the decade after the American Revolution."
Correspondence: B. J. L. Berry, University of Texas at Dallas, School of Social Sciences, Richardson, TX 75083-0688. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30191 Bhat, P. N. Mari. On the quality of birth history data collected in National Family Health Survey, 1992-93. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1995. 245-58 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The comparison of age-specific fertility rates from the Sample Registration System with those derived from the NFHS [India's National Family Health Survey] birth history data suggests that older respondents in the survey tended to misplace their most recent births backward in time resulting in exaggeration of fertility declines in the recent period....However, various checks show that the NFHS data on the total number of children ever born to women appear to be nearly complete, except in Rajasthan. As such, comparison of estimates of average parities of older women from the survey with estimates of current fertility appears to provide more plausible levels of fertility declines in most states."
Correspondence: P. N. M. Bhat, JSS Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30192 Bledsoe, Caroline. "Children are like young bamboo trees": potentiality and reproduction in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Population, economic development, and the environment, edited by Kerstin Lindahl-Kiessling and Hans Landberg. 1994. 105-38 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter attempts to describe in very contemporary terms the nature and extent of the insecurities that make African families reluctant to reduce their fertility. It shows that the diverse skills and social ties that a family cultivates through children are the keys to its ability to cope with the considerable economic adversity and political peril that they face....The ethnographic material used here comes primarily from field data on child fosterage collected among the Mende people in Sierra Leone in 1981-2....Other materials come from an earlier field study on marriage in Liberia and a new project on contraception in the Gambia....Though limited particularly to coastal West Africa, the findings point to fresh ways of interpreting strategies surrounding reproduction elsewhere in time and place."
Correspondence: C. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30193 Catasús Cervera, Sonia I. The sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics of Cuban women. Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 1, Winter 1996. 87-98 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
The author analyzes variables associated with the reproductive behavior of women in Cuba, including contraception, abortion, and the formation and dissolution of unions. A brief characterization of the Cuban family is also provided.
Correspondence: S. I. Catasús Cervera, University of Havana, Center for Demographic Studies, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

62:30194 Chi, Peter S. K.; Hsin, Ping-Lung. Family structure and fertility behavior in Taiwan. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, Aug 1996. 327-39 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The present analysis is based on the 1990 Taiwan Human Resources Survey to study the relationships between family structure, women's complete fertility and birth spacing. Imputed family size, as measured by either the ideal number of children expressed by a married woman or the number of actual surviving children whichever is larger, is used as a proxy of a woman's complete fertility. The results indicate [that] a majority of married couples in Taiwan begin married life living with the husband's parents and later move out to establish a nuclear unit. This limited experience in the extended family exerts an upward pressure on imputed family size even when other relevant variables are statistically controlled. Further, the effect of living with the husband's parents on shorter duration of birth spacing is only limited to the time when the parents provide free child-care for married couples."
Correspondence: P. S. K. Chi, Cornell University, College of Human Ecology, Department of Consumer Economics and Housing, Ithaca, NY 14853-4401. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30195 Choe, Minja Kim; Wu, Jianming; Zhang, Ruyao; Guo, Fei. The pace of family building in modern China. In: China: the many facets of demographic change, edited by Alice Goldstein and Wang Feng. 1996. 135-49 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the family-building behavior of Chinese women by analyzing their age at first marriage and the interval between marriage and the birth of their first child....We analyze how policies on marriage and fertility, on the one hand, and socioeconomic conditions, on the other, have affected trends in the age at first marriage and the interval between marriage and the first birth, using data from six areas in China that represent contrasting geographic, political, and socioeconomic conditions. We also discuss the implications of our findings on future population dynamics and the changing status of women."
Correspondence: M. K. Choe, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30196 Coleman, David. New patterns and trends in European fertility: international and sub-national comparisons. In: Europe's population in the 1990s, edited by David Coleman. 1996. 1-61 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter describes European fertility patterns and differences in the early 1990s, their recent trends, and some of their components in terms of timing, birth order, and births inside and outside marriage. Its aim is descriptive, not analytic; it does not attempt to explain the trends in terms of detailed changes in the broader economic or social environment."
Correspondence: D. Coleman, University of Oxford, Department of Applied Social Studies and Social Research, Barnett House, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2ER, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30197 Conrad, Christoph; Lechner, Michael; Werner, Welf. East German fertility after unification: crisis or adaptation? Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jun 1996. 331-58, 410, 412 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, East Germans have drastically changed their demographic behavior. Marriages and births have dropped to an unprecedentedly low level. The authors track birth rates of the East German population, past, present, and future and propose a simulation model of future cohort fertility. Their hypotheses build on the historical record of reproductive behavior in the German Democratic Republic between 1960 and 1989 and on an analysis of the pattern of change between 1990 and 1994. They argue that East German couples will rapidly westernize their family size by trying to reach completed fertility levels of the corresponding West German cohort. This implies that the resulting adaptation process includes the postunification crisis as a logical first step."
Correspondence: C. Conrad, Freie Universität Berlin, Department of History, 16-18 Kaiserswertherstraße, Berlin (Dahlem) 14195, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30198 Decroly, Jean-Michel; Grimmeau, Jean-Pierre. Fertility changes in Europe: states and regions. [Les fluctuations de la fécondité en Europe: etats et régions.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1996. 79-91 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper analyses the annual evolution of the Total Fertility Rate for [all of] Europe (except the ex-USSR) on the scale of the states (since 1950) and of the regions (since 1960). It shows the periods of coherent evolution and the turning points. The chronology at the regional level does not differ from that of states. The fertility evolution is very homogeneous inside three supra-national entities. Any regional diffusion processes can be observed."
Correspondence: J.-M. Decroly, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire de Géographie Humaine, Campus de la Plaine, C.P. 246, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30199 Diamond, Ian; Clarke, Sue; Clarke, Paul. The impact of marital breakdown on the quantum and tempo of childbearing in England and Wales. Actuarial Studies and Demography Research Paper, No. 001/96, ISBN 1-86408-237-2. Mar 1996. 17, [18] pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
The authors examine "the past impact of marital breakdown on fertility of women aged 16 to 50 in England and Wales. Using data from the 1990-1993 rounds of the General Household Survey, the paper finds that in general marital breakdown has little impact on the ultimate childbearing, as a group, of women who experience marital breakdown as opposed to those who do not. However, divorced women who do not remarry are more likely to remain childless and there is certainly evidence that women who remarry with exactly two children from their first marriage have a high chance of having a third child with their new partner."
Correspondence: Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30200 Dwivedi, S. N. On the estimates of the fecundability from interlive birth interval data. Janasamkhya, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jun 1993. 19-39 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This study derives some probability models for all closed birth intervals and last closed birth intervals under [the] same set of assumptions. The models have been applied to some observed data taken from [India's] Varanasi Survey (1978). Models considered for analysis are presented in section two of the paper while section three deals with [the] illustration of models."
Correspondence: S. N. Dwivedi, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30201 El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil. Twentieth century family life cycle and its determinants in the United States. In: American Statistical Association, 1993 Proceedings of the Government Statistics Section. [1993]. 254-9 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The author combines a number of previously developed models to obtain annual estimates of family life-cycle developments, childbearing patterns, and fertility-inhibiting indices in the United States. The purpose of the study is to provide a clearer picture of trends in fertility over the course of the twentieth century.
Correspondence: M. N. El-Khorazaty, 14000 Cove Lane, #103, Rockville, MD 20851-1236. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30202 Ermisch, John. The economic environment for family formation. In: Europe's population in the 1990s, edited by David Coleman. 1996. 144-62 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The primary thesis of this chapter is that [European] trends in fertility discussed by Coleman...can be better understood if they are considered as an integral part of the changes in family structure that have also been taking place in European and other industrialized countries....The chapter uses the economic analysis of the family to explore the interaction among marriage patterns, divorce, fertility, and women's employment, showing how changes in one of these induce changes in the others."
For the study by David Coleman, published in the same book, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: J. Ermisch, University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30203 Ezeh, Alex C.; Seroussi, Michka; Raggers, Hendrik. Men's fertility, contraceptive use, and reproductive preferences. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 18, Mar 1996. viii, 45 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This monograph analyzes men's fertility, contraceptive usage, and fertility preferences. The authors base their investigation on results from 17 DHS surveys which included data on men. Of these 17 surveys, 13 were carried out in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2 in North Africa, and 2 in Asia. "The data show distinct regional patterns in the level of men's achieved fertility, reproductive preferences and use of contraception. The West African countries are characterized by high fertility, high ideal family size and low contraceptive use. In East Africa, fertility is lower, family size preferences are smaller, and use of contraception is higher compared to West African countries....Fertility levels and preferences are lowest and contraceptive use is highest in the surveys in North Africa and Asia. Pakistan is, to some extent, an exception with a relatively low level of contraceptive use."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30204 Gu, Baochang. Fertility: from the 1970s to the 1990s. In: China: the many facets of demographic change, edited by Alice Goldstein and Wang Feng. 1996. 69-80 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter is an attempt to provide an overall assessment of the Chinese experience in fertility from the 1970s to the 1990s. The focus is not on the fertility changes in China per se, but rather on the explanation and understanding that can be drawn from them. The assessment is presented decade by decade, and for each period, questions will be raised about the underlying dynamics fostering fertility change. These analyses will focus on: (1) fertility trends in the 1970s: socioeconomic structure vs. family planning; (2) fertility trends in the 1980s: cohort vs. period effects; (3) fertility trends in the 1990s: population dynamics vs. take-off stage."
Correspondence: B. Gu, China Population and Information Research Center, P.O. Box 2444, Beijing 100081, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30205 Guo, Shenyang. Determinants of fertility decline in Shanghai: development or policy? In: China: the many facets of demographic change, edited by Alice Goldstein and Wang Feng. 1996. 81-96 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter addresses the relative importance of the family planning program in urban China's fertility decline, by examining the situation in Shanghai--the largest city, and socioeconomically the most developed area in the country....We begin with a brief review of the trends of fertility decline in Shanghai and a discussion of the theoretical issues. Two models are then posited to depict the relative importance of the government's family planning program in different periods. These findings are finally used to summarize the fundamental factors in the dramatic fertility decline in Shanghai and in urban China in general."
Correspondence: S. Guo, Case Western Reserve University, Center for Poverty and Social Change, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30206 Hansen, Hans O. Formation of families of Danish women born after 1931 with a review of some current fertility trends. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 45-63 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"The recent Scandinavian fertility increase may basically be seen as a delayed implementation of latent personal and familial preferences moulded by the process of complex social and societal change since the 1960s....By contrasting the cohort based time series of this paper with the same types of rate estimates for other countries for which modern fertility surveys exist, we hope to obtain a future basis for qualified discussion of the social mechanisms at work behind fertility and current family formation in Denmark and elsewhere. As a first beginning in this direction certain aspects of current Danish and Swedish fertility trends will be considered on a comparative basis in the present paper. A summary of the analytic results with emphasis on current developments is presented....Thereafter the empirical results are briefly discussed."
Correspondence: H. O. Hansen, University of Copenhagen, Institute of Statistics, Frue Plads/Nørregade 10, P.O. Box 2177, 1017 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30207 Hubbard, Ruth. The politics of fetal/maternal conflict. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 311-24 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author "proposes that the opportunity to view the fetus, made possible by ultrasound, has led to an altered social consciousness about fetal and maternal well-being. People can now bond with the `floating fetus,' as a distinct entity from the mother; from this, she hypothesizes, has come the myriad of new legislative battles and court cases over fetal rights. As such, the technologies are political instruments because they affect our perceptions of such basic values as biological life, individual integrity, and human welfare." The geographic focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: R. Hubbard, Harvard University, Department of Biology, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30208 Islam, S. M. Shafiqul; Khan, H. T. Abdullah; Khan, H. M. Rafiqullah. Factors affecting fertility in a rural area of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jun 1993. 21-6 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of selected socioeconomic and demographic factors on fertility in a rural area of Bangladesh. It has been revealed that age at first marriage and coital frequency have direct significant effects while ever use of contraception and duration of breast-feeding have direct positive significant effects on total parity. Total effects of wife's education and age at first marriage on fertility are found to be negative while those of religion and household income on fertility are found to be positive."
Correspondence: S. M. S. Islam, University of Chittagong, Department of Statistics, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30209 Jackson, Natalie. New Zealand's ethnic fertility data. When is a "rate" not a "rate", and when does it matter? New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 21, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1995. 86-106 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"A major issue which complicates all demographic data collection procedures and analyses in New Zealand is that of ethnic classification, and in the construction of ethnic fertility rates the problems compound." The author "details the extent of the disparities between...two indices (an empirical analysis which does not appear to have been undertaken before), and discusses their implications for the analysis of past fertility trends."
Correspondence: N. Jackson, Australian National University, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30210 Landry, Yves. Fertility in France and New France: the distinguishing characteristics of Canadian behavior in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Collection de Tirés à Part, No. 341, [1994?]. [16] pp. Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie: Montreal, Canada. In Eng.
The author compares the demographic behavior of French and Canadian women in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. "More specifically, how did reproductive behavior adapt to the living conditions prevalent in the St. Lawrence valley during the first century of European settlement?" Differences are examined through an analysis of birth timing and the progression of permanent sterility.
Correspondence: Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30211 Leete, Richard. Malaysia's demographic transition: rapid development, culture, and politics. ISBN 967-65-3109-X. LC 95-40952. 1996. xxi, 222 pp. Oxford University Press: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"This book is a study of the demographic changes that have occurred in Malaysia since...1957. The main focus is on changes and differentials in fertility behaviour, their causes and their consequences. A detailed analysis is made of the dimensions of the fertility changes that have occurred, at differing paces and to differing degrees, among the three major communities in the states of Peninsular Malaysia since independence in 1957. An analysis is also made of the demographic changes that have occurred among the main communities in the lesser developed states of Sabah and Sarawak since 1960. The book concludes with an outline of a likely demographic scenario that Malaysia will follow as it progresses towards becoming a fully developed nation targeted for the year 2020."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 4 Jalan U1/15, Seksyen U1, 40000 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30212 Lewis, Steven M.; Raftery, Adrian E. Comparing explanations of fertility decline using event history models with unobserved heterogeneity. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 96-3, Nov 1995. i, 25 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"We describe an interesting application of Markov chain Monte Carlo. MCMC was used to assess competing explanations of marital fertility decline. Data collected during the World Fertility [Survey] in Iran were analyzed using methods developed to perform discrete time event history analyses in which unobserved heterogeneity was explicitly accounted for....The [use of] new methods enabled us to conclude that Iran's fertility decline was primarily a period effect and not a cohort effect, that it started before the Family Planning Program was initiated, that the decline was the same for women at all educational levels, but did vary depending on husband's education, and that the decline was greatest in the largest cities, particularly in Tehran."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30213 Marleau, Jacques D.; Saucier, Jean-François. The influence of the gender of the first child on reproductive behavior: a Canadian study. [Influence du sexe des premiers enfants sur le comportement reproducteur: une étude canadienne.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 460-4 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors analyze data from a general social survey conducted in all the Canadian provinces by Statistics Canada from January to March of 1990. The population studied here includes 3,513 couples, married and unmarried, with two or more biological children. Among the couples studied, the woman was at least 45 years of age (and was presumed to have reached the end of her reproductive years), or one of the partners had undergone sterilization. Results suggest that couples with two children of the same gender, whether male or female, are statistically more likely to have another child than are couples with a child of each gender. Surveys corroborate that the majority of Canadians would prefer at least one child of each gender.
Correspondence: J. D. Marleau, Université de Montréal, Faculté de Médecine, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30214 Martine, George. Brazil's fertility decline, 1965-95: a fresh look at key factors. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 47-75, 201, 203-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Brazil's rapid fertility decline occurred during a period of extraordinarily intense social change, which encompassed times of both rapid economic growth and economic crisis. The widespread institutional changes introduced by the military regime in the mid 1960s as part of its effort to induce rapid modernization had several unintended impacts on the motivation to control fertility and on the ability to do so. Several characteristics of Brazil's fertility decline warrant highlighting. First, high rates of abortion and sterilization are the primary means by which the decline was achieved....The increased motivation to control fertility is traceable to the indirect effects of institutional changes in the areas of health and social security. The strong influence of the mass media on social behavior, including reproductive behavior, is also noteworthy."
Correspondence: G. Martine, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30215 McDaniel, Susan A. Toward a synthesis of feminist and demographic perspectives on fertility. Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 1, Winter 1996. 83-104 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"In explaining fertility and reproduction and emerging patterns of childbearing, both demographers and feminists have centered their thinking on women's status (economic and social), women's changing roles and life experiences (increased labor force participation, increased availability of reproductive options, declining marriage rates in many parts of the industrialized world, and the centrality of women to development), and women as agents in micro- and macrolevel changes in family, fertility, and economic change. Although demography has recently begun to integrate feminist perspectives into fertility explanations, there is not yet a synthesis of feminist theoretical insights with demographic questions. Drawing from recent thinking on global and national political and policy challenges in the less and more developed worlds, to the epistemological shifts in knowledge of reproduction/mothering, to changes in the technologies of reproduction, this article moves toward an integration of feminist and demographic perspectives on fertility."
Correspondence: S. A. McDaniel, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30216 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Governance of fertility transition: regularity and duress. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 85, 1996. 26 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The argument I shall develop is that [a] political-administrative dimension is...important for the course of fertility....My method is frankly heuristic: it is more to put the subject into play than to reach closure. I begin with an admittedly cursory discussion of governance issues in some recent fertility transitions. The two countries I draw on most are Indonesia and Thailand--exemplars of family planning program success, many would argue, but with apparently very different political histories and development styles. I also take a side look at some other experience, notably from South Asia."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30217 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Institutional analysis of fertility. In: Population, economic development, and the environment, edited by Kerstin Lindahl-Kiessling and Hans Landberg. 1994. 199-230 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In these pages I shall sketch in part of the missing institutional context of population trends and policies. My brief is to discuss fertility; the obvious focus dictated by present realities is on the processes of fertility transition from high to low levels that can be observed in the contemporary world and the strategies that may hasten that transition."
Correspondence: G. McNicoll, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30218 Meekers, Dominique. Immaculate conceptions in Sub-Saharan Africa: exploratory analysis of inconsistencies in the timing of first sexual intercourse and first birth. Social Biology, Vol. 42, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1995. 151-61 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Survey data from a number of developing countries show that a considerable proportion of parous women report that they had their first birth one or more years before they first had sexual intercourse. In this paper, I use data from eight African Demographic and Health Surveys to explore factors that contribute to cross-national differentials in the prevalence of these `immaculate conceptions.' The results suggest that this data problem results not only from recall errors, but also from the fact that some respondents misinterpret the question on first sexual intercourse and report their age at the onset of intercourse with either their first or current husband rather than their age at sexual initiation."
Correspondence: D. Meekers, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802-6202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30219 Meisaari-Polsa, Tuija; Söderström, Lars. Recent Swedish fertility changes in perspective. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 11-27 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to put recent fertility changes in Sweden into perspective. We start with an overview of Swedish fertility changes during the last century and then present some econometric evidence on the demand for children." The role of Swedish family policy is considered.
Correspondence: T. Meisaari-Polsa, Statistics Sweden, Population Research Office, Karlavägen 100, Stockholm 115 81, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30220 Mishra, Vinod K.; Palmore, James A.; Sinha, Sunil K. Indirect estimates of fertility and mortality at the district level, 1981. Census of India. Occasional Paper, No. 4 of 1994, 1995. viii, 83 pp. Office of the Registrar General: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present paper provides...estimates of the 1981 fertility and mortality levels at the district level [in India]. Three...estimation techniques were applied to estimate total fertility rates (TFRs) and one new method was used to provide estimates of the infant mortality rate (IMR) and life expectancy at birth....These new estimates were calculated because relying on any one set of estimation techniques is probably unwise when dealing with small administrative units. Further, the Brass P/F ratio method is known to overestimate fertility levels under certain conditions, as documented later in this report."
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Ministry of Home Affairs, 2/A Mansingh Road, New Delhi 110 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30221 Moring, Beatrice. Geographic and social differences in age at marriage and fertility in Finland during the 18th and 19th centuries. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 249-59 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between social change and changes in fertility and marriage age in Finland in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. "While the economic structure of the different parts of the country varied and the process of proletarianization reached the eastern parts of the country later than the western ones, there is a clear indication that the interaction between social change and marriage was similar....Whatever the situation was for the country as a whole, it is possible to find regions in Finland with a system resembling the European marriage pattern during the second part of the 18th century. These were the areas where the exploitation of arable land and control over economic resources were expropriated by the landowners at the end of the 18th century or earlier. The parts of the country where an agrarian expansion continued until the 1830s and longer show a marriage pattern similar to the `frontier' areas in the United States."
Correspondence: B. Moring, University of Helsinki, Renvall Institute of Historical Research, P.O. Box 33, Hallituskatu 8, 000 14 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30222 Paydarfar, Ali A. Effects of multi-family housing on marital fertility in Iran: population policy implications. Social Biology, Vol. 42, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1995. 214-25 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The hypothesis of the relationship between housing types and fertility...is reexamined using Iranian data [for] urban married women of reproductive age. The findings of the study clearly and consistently show that women living in single-family housing units have significantly higher actual and desired fertility than women living in multi-family housing units, regardless of their major social, economic and demographic differences. Furthermore, the analysis of the relative effects of socioeconomic and demographic variables on fertility indicates that housing types have greater effects on fertility than wife and husband's level of education, when the effects of other variables are controlled. This study implies that crowding and density, which generally are the outcome of high fertility, do have feedback effects causing fertility to decline."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. A. Paydarfar, University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30223 Pollard, John H.; Valkovics, E. J. On the use of the truncated Gompertz distribution and other models to represent the parity progression functions of high fertility populations. Actuarial Studies and Demography Research Paper, No. 006/95, ISBN 1-86408-094-9. Sep 1995. 18, [11] pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"In this paper we apply mathematical modelling methods to the study of parity progression rates [of high fertility populations]....These [methods] are demonstrated in the case of Norwegian women, married in 1888-1890 at the age of 20-21 years....We also use parity progression data for Kenya from the World Fertility Survey in our modelling...."
Correspondence: Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30224 Poston, Dudley L.; Dan, Hong. Fertility trends in the United States. In: Demographic and structural change: the effects of the 1980s on American society, edited by Dennis L. Peck and J. Selwyn Hollingsworth. 1996. 85-100 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This chapter focuses on the changing patterns of fertility in the United States in recent decades....After discussing the course of the demographic transition in the United States, we will then review some of the primary factors responsible for the transition. Prominent in our review will be considerations of urbanization, technology, and the changing roles of women. We will then consider the various bases upon which fertility currently varies in the United States. The analysis of `differential fertility' will focus primarily on such characteristics as residence, religion, race/ethnicity, and socio-economic status."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Texas A and M University, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30225 Pyne, Hnin H. Reproductive experiences and needs of Thai women: where has development taken us? In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 19-41 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper will focus on the many rural Thai women who migrate to urban areas to work in the manufacturing and service industries....The first section of this paper will analyze gender relations that permeate all levels of Thai society--the household, the workplace, the community, and the state--and will describe the implications for reproduction and sexuality. The second section will explore how Thailand's export-led growth process has relied upon traditional gender relations and power structures, and has, in turn, reshaped women's reproductive experiences and women's sexuality. This section will also examine reproductive needs that have emerged from the women's realities in the new political economy. The final portion of the paper will assess how some state policies and programs designed to promote health and family planning are addressing these needs."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30226 Qiao, Xiaochun. A comparative study of the population development in China and Japan: fertility decline, consequences and solutions. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1995. 307-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author investigates fertility decline in China and Japan, with a focus on consequences and possible solutions. The causes of fertility decline in the two countries are analyzed and its demographic impact is considered.
Correspondence: X. Qiao, Chinese People's University, Institute of Demography, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30227 Ramasundaram, S. Causes for the rapid fertility decline in Tamil Nadu: a policy planner's perspective. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1995. 13-21 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the factors for fertility decline that are specific to Tamil Nadu from the perspective of a policy-planner in the Tamil Nadu government health sector....While the major focus of this paper is on the causes for the rapid fertility decline in Tamil Nadu, the unduly high priority accorded by Indian policymakers for fertility reduction through the contraceptive target based family planning programme and related issues are discussed separately at the end of this paper."
Correspondence: S. Ramasundaram, Government of Tamil Nadu, Health and Family Welfare Department, Madras 600 009, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30228 Rao, N. Rama; Retherford, Robert D.; Joshi, P. D.; Luther, Norman Y. Census-based estimates of fertility by rural-urban residence and religion for Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh. Census of India. Occasional Paper, No. 3 of 1993, 1993. xi, 59 pp. Office of the Registrar General: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This report presents fertility estimates by rural-urban residence and religion for the five states of Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttar Pradesh. The fertility estimates are derived by applying the own-children method of fertility estimation to household data from the 1981 Census of India. The application provides estimates of total fertility rates and age-specific birth rates for the period 1970-80 by residence and religion for each state, and total marital fertility rates and age-specific marital birth rates by residence for each state."
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Ministry of Home Affairs, 2/A Mansingh Road, New Delhi 110 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30229 Richard, J.; Rao, P. S. S. Sundar. Influence of age at marriage and family planning on fertility. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1995. 81-6 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors investigate the impact of marriage age and family planning on fertility in Tamil Nadu, India. The data concern 7,683 rural and 6,521 urban women and were collected in a survey conducted in 1985-1986. The results suggest that "raising age at marriage can be considered on par with family planning for reduction of fertility."
Correspondence: J. Richard, Christian Medical College, Department of Biostatistics, Vellore 632 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30230 Salman, Abdul-Jalil; Al-Jaber, Khalifa; Farid, Samir. Reproductive patterns and child survival in Qatar. 1995. xvi, 177 pp. Ministry of Health: Doha, Qatar; Council of Health Ministers of GCC States, Executive Board: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In Eng.
The results of further data analysis from the 1987 Qatar National Child Health Survey are presented. There are chapters on cohort nuptiality patterns, determinants of age at marriage, determinants of fertility, intermediate determinants of fertility, determinants of contraceptive use, determinants of diarrheal morbidity, and determinants of child mortality.
Correspondence: Council of Health Ministers of GCC States, Executive Board, P.O. Box 7431, Riyadh 11462, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30231 Schoen, Robert; Kim, Young J. Beyond simple exponential models of population growth. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 96-03, [1996]. 15, [5] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The constant exponential growth of the classical stable population describes just one of an infinite number of possible birth trajectories....The present paper goes beyond simple exponential growth by allowing the growth rate of births to change over time. It examines a broader set of birth functions, and explores how those sub-, super-, and inverse exponential models relate to stable populations with the same vital rates. A major objective is to go beyond fixed vital rates and broaden the range of plausible models capable of reflecting the dynamics of population change."
This paper was presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30232 Schoen, Robert; Kim, Young J. Exploring cyclic net reproduction. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 96-04, [1996]. 20, [4] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper advances a new approach for finding the birth trajectory that results when net reproduction follows a known functional form. It then focuses on relationships between births and levels of reproduction when Net Reproduction Rates (NRRs) follow an exponentiated sine function. Some implications regarding possible feedbacks from cohort size and parallels with models of interacting populations are also examined."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30233 Schultz, T. Paul. Demand for children in low income countries. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 737, Jan 1994. 116 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper surveys a variety of approaches to the economic determinants of fertility [in low-income countries] and then summarizes the empirical literature that seeks to explain mostly cross-sectional differences in individual/family data. Differences between countries at one point in time, and changes within countries over time in fertility and child mortality during the last several decades are also shown to be consistent with these microeconomic approaches to fertility."
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, P.O. Box 208269, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520-8269. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30234 Schultz, T. Paul; Benefo, Kofi. Fertility and child mortality in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 738, Aug 1995. 50 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper examines individual, household, and community characteristics that may affect fertility in contemporary Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. It also considers the relationship between child mortality and fertility, both under the assumption that child mortality is exogenous to the determination of fertility and alternatively that child mortality is endogenous and can be identified by community variation in health infrastructure, disease conditions, and food prices."
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, P.O. Box 208269, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520-8269. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30235 Sen, Gita; Snow, Rachel C. Power and decision: the social control of reproduction. Harvard Series on Population and International Health, ISBN 0-674-69533-X. LC 93-075000. Mar 1994. ii, 348 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. Distributed by Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. In Eng.
"This book is a collective effort to provide, in one publication, an overview of the disparate social forces that circumscribe reproduction within specific social parameters, with a complementary examination of how biomedical research and the new reproductive technologies reflect and sustain those parameters. Including case studies from a range of countries, this book offers a collection of Southern and Northern feminist perspectives on which social controls offer protective support for parenting, and suggestions on how to redress those which do not. The chapters in this volume illustrate both the commonalities and disparities between first and third world settings."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30236 Srinivasan, K. Lessons from Goa, Kerala and Tamil Nadu: the three successful fertility transition states in India. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1995. 163-94 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"I propose to identify and elaborate on the nature and extent of...influences [on fertility and family planning] as they operated in three states in India that have recently achieved successful fertility transition--Goa, Kerala and Tamil Nadu....The objective is to draw lessons for policy and programme implementation for the other areas of the country which have not been so successful in fertility transition in spite of long standing official programmes of family planning."
Correspondence: K. Srinivasan, Population Foundation of India, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30237 Swamy, V. S. Age pattern and current fertility from National Family Health Survey vis-a-vis Sample Registration System. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1995. 195-209 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"A variety of data on fertility and mortality has been [collected] by the Sample Registration System (SRS)...[in] India. In this paper an attempt has been made to compare the pattern of age distribution and to assess the quality of current fertility data collected in NFHS [National Family Health Survey] with regard to SRS data."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30238 Toga, Teshome; Chaudhury, Rafiqul H. Child survival and fertility performance in rural Ethiopia: is there any relationship? Population and Development Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1994. 11-26 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
"The subject matter of the present investigations is to explore the relationship, if any, between child survival status and fertility behaviour in the high fertility and mortality settings of rural Ethiopia. In other words, the purpose of this research is to examine whether the fertility performance varies between women with and without child loss experience, holding other factors such as age, parity and literacy status constant."
Correspondence: R. H. Chaudhury, Central Statistical Authority, Population Analysis and Studies, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30239 Viet Nam. General Statistical Office (Hanoi, Viet Nam). Estimating the fertility and mortality of provinces and ethnic groups: Viet Nam, 1989. [Uoc luong muc do sinh va chet choc cac tinh va nhom dan toc Viet Nam, 1989.] Vietnam Population Census, 1989: Monograph, No. 1, 1994. viii, 150 pp. Hanoi, Viet Nam. In Eng; Vie.
"The book analyses in detail the fertility and mortality by province and major ethnic groups in Viet Nam using the 1989 census results."
Correspondence: General Statistical Office, 2 Hoang Van Thu, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Location: East-West Center Library, Honolulu, HI.

62:30240 Visaria, Pravin. Demographic transition and policy responses in India. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1995. 1-12 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"I propose to review briefly the ongoing process of fertility transition in India and the appropriate policy initiatives to accelerate it further. Such an acceleration is essential because of the momentum of growth built into the young age distribution of our population....Before discussing the prospects ahead, let us assess the current status of our demographic data base and our understanding of the ongoing process of demographic transition or the changes in both mortality and fertility during the recent past, particularly the last quarter century."
Correspondence: P. Visaria, Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Near Gota Char Rasta, Gota, Ahmedabad 382 481, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30241 Wang, Feng; Yang, Quanhe. Age at marriage and the first birth interval: the emerging change in sexual behavior among young couples in China. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jun 1996. 299-320, 410, 412 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Rising age at first marriage and shortening of the interval between marriage and first birth are two prominent features of China's demographic transition during the past two decades. The increasing incidence of premarital sex and the rapid reduction in the first birth interval indicate a significant change in the sexual behavior of young Chinese couples. This change is an outcome of broad social transformations, including a move away from arranged marriages; increased formal education and nonfamilial employment; recent changes in sexual mores; and a strong government family planning program promoting birth control and later marriage. In contrast to other Asian societies that have also experienced a change in the pattern of sexual behavior among the young, in China such a change was the unintended consequence of actions of a forceful socialist state."
Correspondence: F. Wang, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Sociology, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30242 Wang, Jichuan; Chen, Jiajian. The impact of official family planning programs on transition to motherhood: a case study of Shifang County. In: China: the many facets of demographic change, edited by Alice Goldstein and Wang Feng. 1996. 151-64 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"While the important relation between timing of childbearing and period fertility has often been addressed at the aggregate level, few studies have provided insight on this issue at an individual level for China. This chapter illustrates the importance of the relation by studying the dynamic process of transition to motherhood among Chinese women at the individual level, distinguishing different population policy periods. Our hypotheses are: when the `Later, Longer, and Fewer' policy (1974-1978) was in effect, the process of transition to motherhood...was efficiently influenced by the family planning programs....When the `One Child Family' policy (1979-1984) replaced this comprehensive population control strategy by disregarding late marriage and late childbearing as crucial components for family planning, the influence of program intervention on transitions to marriage and childbearing diminished."
Correspondence: J. Wang, Wright State University, Department of Economics, Dayton, OH 45435. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30243 Willis, Robert J. Economic analysis of fertility: micro foundations and aggregate implications. In: Population, economic development, and the environment, edited by Kerstin Lindahl-Kiessling and Hans Landberg. 1994. 139-71 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The broad thesis of the chapter is that, in order to advance our understanding of the causes and consequences of demographic change and their implications for policy, we need to integrate theories of aggregate demographic-economic interaction, such as Malthusian theory and its modern successors, and micro-level theories of family decisions about fertility, investment in human capital, and allocation of time that have been developed during the past three decades. In this chapter I discuss both the implications of aggregate-level models and issues of micro-foundations. On the basis of these theories I advance a broad hypothesis to explain why the association between economic growth and demographic transition is such a strong empirical regularity....I also discuss why the organization of the family is critical...and provide some examples of situations in which negative interactions between social and economic change and demographic behaviour may occur."
Correspondence: R. J. Willis, University of Chicago, Department of Education and Public Policy, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30244 Yadava, K. N. S.; Yadava, G. S. Estimation of fecundability of migrated couples in the process of rural out-migration in India. Janasamkhya, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jun 1993. 41-9 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Based on a simple procedure developed by Menken (1979), the estimate of fecundability of migrated couples in the process of rural out-migration [in India] has been obtained in this paper. It is found that the estimates of fecundabilities for females of different age-groups are significantly larger than the level of fecundability estimated for non-migrated couples. Some possible explanations for observing such a large gap [are] given."
Correspondence: K. N. S. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30245 Yadava, R. C.; Srivastava, Meenakshi. Estimation of parity progression ratios from the distribution of births by order and age of the mother. Janasamkhya, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jun 1993. 57-61 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This paper presents a methodology for estimating parity progression ratios (the probability that a woman after delivering...any particular birth will ever proceed to the next birth), utilizing data on births tabulated by birth order and age of the mother in a particular year. This approach...does not need estimates of [gross reproductive rate] as well as the infant mortality rate but it requires knowledge of the growth rate of the population." The technique is illustrated with data from the 1984-1987 Pakistan Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: R. C. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30246 Yang, Chingli. The effects of fertility compression on birth sequence and age composition in Taiwan: a simulation. Journal of Population Studies, No. 17, Apr 1996. 135-52 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"Based on the cohort component projection, this paper simulates the effects of fertility compression on birth sequence and age composition in Taiwan, and explores the implications for social welfare. As a first step, we fix the fertility schedule on the age pattern of 1956 while leaving the TFR to shift as it was, [and] simulate the single year of age population groups from 1956 to 1992....We subsequently assumed a fixed age pattern of fertility, a compressed pattern and an expanded pattern in a projection of five year...age groups from 1997 to 2097."
Correspondence: C. Yang, National Chung-cheng University, Institute of Social Welfare, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30247 Zachariah, K. C. Transitions in the determinants of fertility decline in India. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1995. 147-61 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is the Presidential Address delivered at the 19th Annual Conference of the Indian Association for the Study of Population held in Baroda in 1996. "The main theme of my talk will be: transitions in the determinants of fertility decline in India, their implications for fertility decline in the North Indian states, and the long-term population growth prospects in India....I also intend to take this opportunity to talk a little about the developments in demography in India as I have seen them over the past 40 years."
Correspondence: K. C. Zachariah, 11/250 Kanakar Nagar, Trivandrum, Kerala 695 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

62:30248 Anson, Jon; Meir, Avinoam. Religiosity, nationalism and fertility in Israel. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1996. 1-25 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The present paper seeks to re-evaluate explanations for the apparently high level of Jewish fertility in Israel. We suggest that previous explanations, based on ethnic origin or religiosity, are sociologically incomplete, and substitute well established empirical correlational associations for theoretically grounded explanations. We argue that Israel's high fertility stems, directly, from the form and salience of nationalist sentiments in the Israeli conscience collective, which in turn derives from Israel's special position in the Middle East and in the world-economy. Using voting returns from Israel's proportional vote elections, we classify census statistical areas by religiosity and their support for radical nationalist parties. We show that area-level fertility is a function of nationalist support and the area standard of living, and that once these are controlled the effect of religiosity is insignificant. We therefore conclude that the statistical association between fertility and religiosity in Israel is spurious, and that much of the religiosity recorded in fertility surveys is an expression, in consciousness and the mode of daily living, of a strongly felt nationalist sentiment."
Correspondence: J. Anson, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Social Work, 84105 Beersheba, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30249 Burr, Jeffrey A.; Hartman, John. Racial opportunity structures and black fertility. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Feb 1996. 75-94 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper develops and tests hypotheses about the impact of opportunity structures on black fertility across local labor markets. U.S. Vital Statistics and Census of Population data are combined and then examined with regression techniques to estimate the effect of both race-specific and relative measures of opportunity structure on black fertility in the United States. The results show that relative female opportunity structure has a negative relationship with black total fertility rates as well as with birth rates for specific points along the reproductive age structure. However, the hypothesized relationship between relative male opportunity structures and black fertility is not supported. We discuss these results as they relate to minority fertility theory and as they relate to public policy concerns."
Correspondence: J. A. Burr, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 430 Park Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30250 Heim, Mary; Austin, Nancy. Fertility of immigrant women in California. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 5, May 1996. 391-407 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper has explored the question of differential fertility between immigrants and native-born Californians. We know from the decennial censuses that the proportion of immigrants to total Californians has increased significantly over the past 20 years. In addition, the characteristics of the immigrants have changed over time. The CEB [children ever born] ratios developed from the census enumeration and compared to other measures of fertility do show that immigrant women have higher fertility than native-born. A more detailed look shows that the country of birth composition, as measured by race/ethnicity, explains most of this difference."
Correspondence: M. Heim, Demographic Research Unit, Department of Finance, 915 L Street, 8th Floor, Sacramento, CA 95814. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30251 Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas. Teen motherhood and abortion access. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 111, No. 2, May 1996. 467-506 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We investigate the effect of abortion access on teen birthrates using [U.S.] county-level panel data. Past research suggested that prohibiting abortion led to higher teen birthrates. Perhaps surprisingly, we find that more recent restrictions in abortion access, including the closing of abortion clinics and restrictions on Medicaid funding, had the opposite effect. Small declines in access were related to small declines among in-wedlock births; out-of-wedlock births were relatively unaffected. Both results are consistent with a simple model in which pregnancy is endogenous and women gain new information about the attractiveness of parenthood only after becoming pregnant."
Correspondence: T. J. Kane, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30252 Khan, H. T. Abdullah; Billah, M. B.; Rahman, M. A.; Khan, H. M. Rafiqullah. A study on socio-economic and intermediate variables on fertility. Medicine Today, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan 1993. 11-4 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt has been made to examine fertility differentials of currently married rural women [in Bangladesh] by their socioeconomic (viz, education of women, land ownership and family type) and demographic (viz, age at the first marriage, duration of breast feeding and duration of post partum amenorrhoea for the child) characterisation. This study is based on data collected from 995 currently married women of childbearing age. It has been found that women's (i) level of education (ii) age at first marriage (iii) duration of breastfeeding and (iv) duration of post-partum amenorrhoea, are inversely related with fertility. Joint family shows higher fertility than that of nuclear family and land ownership reveals [a] U-shaped relationship with fertility."
Correspondence: H. T. A. Khan, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30253 Khan, H. T. Abdullah; Islam, S. M. Shafiqul; Khan, H. M. Rafiqullah; Bari, Rehana. Fertility differentials in rural Bangladesh. Dhaka University Studies, B, Vol. 41, No. 1, Jan 1993. 83-9 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"Data from two sources in rural Bangladesh have been used in this study to examine the differentials in fertility by selected socio-economic and demographic factors. Results [indicate] that age at first marriage, education of spouses and availability of electricity in the household...have [an] inverse relationship with fertility. Higher fertility is observed for Muslim women than for non-Muslims. It has been found that fertility is the lowest to those women whose husbands are service holders and the highest for agriculture."
Correspondence: H. T. A. Khan, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30254 Kirchengast, Sylvia; Winkler, Eike-Meinrad. Differential fertility and body build in !Kung San and Kavango females from northern Namibia. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 2, Apr 1996. 193-210 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The study examines the impact of body build on differential fertility patterns in 93 !Kung San and 85 Kavango females from northern Namibia. In both groups shorter females had more offspring, but also more dead offspring, than taller females. The interaction between body weight and fertility was different in both groups and may be due to different nursing behaviour. There was a positive relationship between the typical pedomorphy and fertility in the !Kung San, and directional selection processes may be important."
Correspondence: S. Kirchengast, University of Vienna, Institute for Human Biology, Althanstraße 14, 1091 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30255 Latten, J. J.; Schün, J. P.; Siegers, J. J. Decreasing effect of partner's education on number of children. [Effect opleiding partner op kindertal neemt af.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 44, No. 5, May 1996. 18-26 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"A decade ago, Willis' micro-economic model of fertility was tested by making use of data obtained from the 1982 Netherlands Fertility Survey of Statistics Netherlands....The effect of the woman's education on the expected ultimate number of children was negative, but became positive again with the partner's increasing level of education. A similar test on the basis of 1993 Fertility and Family Survey data indicates that the effect of the partner's education and the combined effect of the levels of education have disappeared. As regards education, only the woman's level has effect on childbearing."
Correspondence: J. J. Latten, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Prinses Beatrixlaan 428, Postbus 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30256 Lehrer, Evelyn L. Religion as a determinant of marital fertility. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 1996. 173-96 pp. New York, New, York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper develops hypotheses about the effects of husbands' and wives' religious affiliations on fertility. The hypotheses are based on two central ideas. First, religions differ in their fertility norms and corresponding tradeoffs between the quality and quantity of children; differences in religious beliefs between husband and wife may thus lead to conflict regarding fertility decisions and possible resolution through bargaining. Second, a low level of religious compatibility between the spouses may raise the expected probability of marital dissolution and thereby decrease the optimal amount of investments in spouse-specific human capital. Analyses of data from the 1987-1988 National Survey of Families and Households conducted in the United States suggest that both of these effects play important roles in explaining the observed linkages between the religious composition of unions and fertility behavior."
Correspondence: E. L. Lehrer, University of Illinois, Department of Economics (m/c 144), 601 South Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607-7121. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30257 Li, Yongping. High fertility norms of Kejia peasants in Guangdong Province. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1995. 341-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Through centuries of growth, Kejia (also known as Hakka) people have not only developed a unique language (Kejia dialect), but also a special mentality regarding human reproduction. The article attempts to explain the high fertility rate among Kejia people [in Guangdong Province, China] from three perspectives: historical inheritance of migration and high fertility, proliferation of language and reproduction, and phallicism. It also offers a brief discussion of how the traditional reproductive culture fits in the modern society."
Correspondence: Y. Li, Beijing University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30258 McDevitt, Thomas M.; Adlakha, Arjun; Fowler, Timothy B.; Harris-Bourne, Vera. Trends in adolescent fertility and contraceptive use in the developing world. U.S. Bureau of the Census Report, No. IPC/95-1, Mar 1996. viii, 54, [27] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report collects and summarizes information on the reproductive behavior of adolescent women in the major regions of the developing world." The data are from the U.S. Census Bureau's International Data Base and from recent demographic surveys. There are chapters on adolescent fertility and its four key determinants: residence, female educational attainment, age at marriage, and contraceptive usage.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30259 Okun, Barbara S. Sex preferences, family planning, and fertility: an Israeli subpopulation in transition. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 2, May 1996. 469-75 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Jewish immigrants who came to Israel from Muslim countries of North Africa and the Middle East were transplanted to a radically different, modern society. Their high fertility levels were put critically at odds with changed socioeconomic and mortality conditions. In their countries of origin, high fertility had been consistent with many socioeconomic, cultural, and religious goals, including the survival of male offspring. In Israel, an immediate conflict developed between the desire for male children and high fertility and economic conditions that necessitated a drastic decrease in family size. Previous research has shown that the conflict resulted in a rapid reduction in fertility levels across marriage cohorts of Jewish women of Asian and African origin. We show here that, at the same time, the conflict also led to rapid abandonment of fertility behavior related to the preference for sons."
Correspondence: B. S. Okun, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30260 Penev, Goran. Cohort fertility of Serb and ethnic Albanian women in FR Yugoslavia. Stanovnistvo, Vol. 33, No. 1-4, Jan-Dec 1995. 5-19 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng. with sum. in Scr.
"The author analyzes fertility of Serb and ethnic Albanian women in FR [Federal Republic of] Yugoslavia using censal data obtained from 1953 to 1991. The levels of fertility of these two most numerous ethnic groups in FR Yugoslavia differ strongly. Serb women have adopted low reproductive norms and the fertility of every cohort of women born since the beginning of the First World War was below the replacement level. Decline in the completed fertility level of Serb women continued throughout the period under review. The author points to a slight turnaround in fertility manifested as an increase in the number of births by women aged 30 to 44 years."
Correspondence: G. Penev, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30261 Randall, Sara. Whose reality? Local perceptions of fertility versus demographic analysis. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jul 1996. 221-34 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Single-round demographic surveys of three Malian populations showed substantial fertility differentials, with much lower fertility in the two nomadic pastoral Kel Tamasheq populations than among the sedentary cultivating Bambara. Demographic analysis explained these fertility differentials by different marriage patterns, dominated by the structural effects of Kel Tamasheq monogamy which maintains a large group of currently unmarried women. This contrasts with the Kel Tamasheq's own preoccupations with their low fertility which they ascribe to pathologically induced subfecundity and sterility. Parity progression ratios and birth-interval distributions are used to examine the degree to which the Tamasheq perceptions of their own fertility behaviour can be demonstrated by using the demographic data. The importance of the different perspectives and outcomes is discussed, with the need for taking into account local concerns both in analysis and ultimate policy interventions."
Correspondence: S. Randall, University College London, Department of Anthropology, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30262 Ribar, David C. The effects of teenage fertility on young adult childbearing. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 1996. 197-218 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Numerous studies of fertility behavior find that an early age at first birth increases the rate of subsequent childbearing. Typically, however, these studies do not account for the possibility of serial correlation in the unobserved determinants of fertility. Using 1979-1992 individual-level data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper employs the Method of Simulated Moments to estimate panel probit models of annual birth outcomes. The panel probit models account for several alternative sources of serial correlation. Estimation reveals that once serial correlation is taken into account, the subsequent fertility effects of early childbearing are either statistically eliminated or reversed."
Correspondence: D. C. Ribar, George Washington University, Department of Economics, 2201 G Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20052. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30263 Suffian, Abu J. M. The role of large families in fertility: the case of the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. [Le rôle des familles nombreuses dans la fécondité: le cas de la province orientale de l'Arabie Saoudite.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 487-92 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Data collected in 1990 from the city of Al-Khobar in eastern Saudi Arabia on the number of children born to 974 Saudi and 403 non-Saudi women assumed to have completed their reproductive careers are used to calculate the percentage of women responsible for most of the children born and to compare the fertility of the two populations. Thirty-three percent of Saudi women are responsible for 50% of the Saudi children, while 28% of non-Saudi women bear 50% of the non-Saudi children. By several measures, fertility is higher among Saudi women. In the context of Saudi Arabia's pronatalist policy, the author calls for measures to identify and target the 20% of Saudi women who contribute only 8% of the children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30264 VanLandingham, Mark; Hirschman, Charles. Adaptations to resource constraints during the pretransitional era: fertility differentials arising from the peopling of the Thai Frontier. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 96-2, 1995. 26, [11] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"Taking a human ecology perspective, we investigate the effects of population pressure on provincial variations in fertility during the 1950s in Thailand....We hypothesize that during the period prior to Thailand's remarkable economic expansion and fertility decline, both in-migration and rural fertility should vary positively with the availability of arable land. Also, we anticipate that the major proximate determinant of these rural fertility differentials will be exposure to intercourse, i.e., marriage patterns."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30265 Wasao, Samson W.; Donnermeyer, Joseph F. An analysis of factors related to parity among the Amish in Northeast Ohio. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jul 1996. 235-46 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines fertility in terms of parity or number of children in a family among three Amish church affiliations in the Greater Holmes County Amish settlement in Northeast Ohio, USA. The church affiliations essentially constitute three religious groups with common cultural characteristics, as well as some different values and beliefs which set each one apart from the others. Moreover, family size among the three Amish affiliations (Andy Weaver, Old Order and New Order) can be placed and analyzed along a conservative-liberal continuum respectively, by whether or not husbands are engaged primarily in farm or non-farm occupations, and according to the status of husbands as church leaders....The results are discussed in terms of general social and cultural changes within Amish society and the adoption of modern family planning methods within Amish affiliations and church districts."
Correspondence: S. W. Wasao, Population Council, Population Policy Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

62:30266 Stephen, Elizabeth H. Projections of impaired fecundity among women in the United States: 1995-2020. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 66, No. 2, Aug 1996. 205-9 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
Data from the National Survey of Family Growth are used to estimate the number of women in the United States who will experience impaired fecundity from 1995 to 2020. The author concludes that the age structure of the population will cause the absolute number of such women to increase slowly, if at all, over the next 25 years. "The number of women with impaired fecundity may drop from 5.1 million in 1995 to 4.7 million in 2015 and then rise to [between] 4.8 to 5.9 million in 2020."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: E. H. Stephen, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, Box 571214, Washington, D.C. 20057-1214. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

62:30267 Amin, Sajeda; Diamond, Ian; Steele, Fiona. Contraception and religious practice in Bangladesh. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 83, 1996. 35 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper explores the nature of religious influences on contraceptive behavior by examining the high degree of regional variability that exists both in contraceptive use and in religious practice [in Bangladesh]....The timing and the analytical approach makes this an analysis of the influence of community cultural characteristics on the diffusion process of a new behavior--use of modern contraceptives."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30268 Bitto, Adenike; Gray, Ronald; Simpson, Joe L.; Queenan, John T.; Kambic, Robert T.; Perez, Alfredo; Mena, Patricio; Barbato, Michele; Li, Chauanjun; Jennings, Victoria. A prospective study of adverse pregnancy outcomes among planned and unplanned pregnancies in natural family planning users. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 96-01, [1996]. 21 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors aim "to prospectively determine whether unplanned pregnancies are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among users of natural family planning (NFP)....Women who became pregnant while using NFP were identified in five centers worldwide: there were 373 unplanned and 367 planned pregnancies....No increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed among women who experienced an unplanned pregnancy during NFP use."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30269 Cartmill, R. S. V.; Bromham, D. R. The impact of an unplanned pregnancy and termination on intended future contraception: implications for reproductive health promotion. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 1, Apr 1996. 2-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This present study [investigates] intended contraception after pregnancy termination [in England. It] is based on 769 out of 808 (95 per cent) consecutive patients, attending the Fertility Control Unit of St. James's University Hospital [Leeds] between April 1991 and January 1992 inclusive....In this study intended [combined oral contraceptive] use increased following termination in all age groups up to the age of 40....Although the intention to use an IUD following pregnancy termination was uncommon it was found in all age groups....The high proportion of women in this present study intending to seek sterilisation must...be viewed with concern."
Correspondence: R. S. V. Cartmill, Jessop Hospital for Women, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Leavygreave Road, Sheffield, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30270 Casterline, John B.; Perez, Aurora E.; Biddlecom, Ann E. Factors underlying unmet need for family planning in the Philippines. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 84, 1996. 44 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper, we propose a framework for understanding the unmet need for family planning and present an in-depth analysis of data collected in the Philippines in 1993." Results indicate that "the most important factors accounting for unmet need are the strength of women's reproductive preferences, the fertility preferences of the husband, and the perceived detrimental health side effects of contracepting."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30271 Dharmalingam, A.; Morgan, S. Philip. Women's work, autonomy, and birth control: evidence from two South Indian villages. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jul 1996. 187-201 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this study we contrast two South Indian villages which offer women very different employment opportunities. Many women in Village I roll beedis, which are crude hand-rolled cigarettes. The structure of beedi work was designed to meet the needs of the beedi contractor, but inadvertently it has provided women with substantial autonomy. In Village II very few women work for pay. We argue that these different employment opportunities affect women's autonomy, which in turn influences important demographic outcomes. More precisely, we argue that greater autonomy will increase contraceptive use among women who want no more children. We find strong support for this hypothesis. But, because there are few competing employment opportunities in Village II, women in that Village have received substantially more education than those in Village I. This higher level of education is also associated with greater contraceptive use. Thus, overall, the level of contraceptive use does not vary greatly between villages. More generally, this study shows that fertility decline occurs, and that low fertility can exist, in very different settings."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. Dharmalingam, University of Waikato, Population Studies Centre, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30272 Dixon-Mueller, Ruth; Germain, Adrienne. Four essays on birth control needs and risks. Reproductive Tracts: Issues and Innovations in Reproductive Health, 1993. 20 pp. International Women's Health Coalition [IWHC]: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The four essays included here are bound together by a common theme....Each essay challenges some point of `received wisdom' that affects women's reproductive health and rights. Addressing the process of contraceptive development, the first describes how the priorities of women's health advocates and the perceived needs of individual women may differ from those of scientists and other researchers. The second challenges some common demographic, medical, and public health assumptions underlying the calculation of the `relative risks' of contraception and pregnancy. Based on an understanding of the realities of women's lives, the third proposes an expanded definition of the `unmet need for family planning', a definition that poses substantial challenges to policy makers and program managers. The fourth argues that abortion has been and always will be used by some women as a method of family planning."
Correspondence: International Women's Health Coalition, 24 East 21st Street, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30273 Farmer, Richard D. T.; Lawrenson, Ross. Utilization patterns of oral contraceptives in U.K. general practice. Contraception, Vol. 53, No. 4, Apr 1996. 211-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The aim of this article was to analyze and compare recent oral contraceptive [OC] utilization patterns in U.K. general practice. The database comprised at least 12 months of medical records during 1990-1991 from 693,705 women aged 14-45 years registered with 398 practices. The database was searched for OC utilization patterns with emphasis on differences between combined OCs containing levonorgestrel (LNG), desogestrel (DSG), or gestodene (GSD). Women using OCs with LNG were older, more likely to be long-term users, and less likely to be starters or switchers than women using OCs with DSG or GSD. Use patterns of triphasic LNG did not differ markedly from that of monophasic LNG-containing OCs. Use of Schering PC4 a postcoital preparation peaked among women <20 years, whereas progestogen-only pills were prescribed mainly to women >30 years."
Correspondence: R. D. T. Farmer, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30274 Frost, Jennifer J. Family planning clinic services in the United States, 1994. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 3, May-Jun 1996. 92-100 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides an updated enumeration of all subsidized family planning clinics [in the United States] and of the numbers of women and teenagers who obtained contraceptive services from these clinics in 1994. In addition to clinics that receive federal funds to provide family planning services through the Title X program, we have counted clinics that receive other public and private subsidies, such as hospital outpatient clinics, community and migrant health centers and independent clinics." Results indicate that "in 1994, almost 6.6 million women received contraceptive services from more than 7,000 subsidized family planning clinics; these providers were located in 85% of U.S. counties. Health department clinics and Planned Parenthood sites served the largest proportions of these women (32% and 30% respectively), followed by hospital outpatient sites (16%), independent clinics (13%) and community or migrant health centers (9%). The mix of agency types varied considerably by region and state....Nearly two-thirds of all women served (4.2 million) obtained care at one of the 4,200 clinics receiving funds from the federal Title X family planning program."
Correspondence: J. J. Frost, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30275 Glasier, Anna; Ketting, Evert; Palan, V. T.; Browne, Lesley; Kaur, Susheel; Xiao, Bilian; Garza-Flores, Josue; Vasquez Estrada, L.; Delano, Grace; Faoye, Grace; Ellertson, Charlotte; Armstrong, Elizabeth. Case studies in emergency contraception from six countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jun 1996. 57-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In countries where emergency contraception is offered, its availability and use vary widely, according to such factors as regulations and policies regarding the method, providers' and women's understanding of and attitudes toward it, and cost. The experiences with the method in six countries--the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Malaysia, China, Mexico and Nigeria--illustrate a range of issues involved in introducing and encouraging the acceptability of emergency contraception....In the case studies that follow, we summarize information on experiences with emergency contraception in each of these countries. We then draw on these experiences to suggest lessons for other countries seeking to introduce or expand the use of this method."
Correspondence: A. Glasier, Family Planning and Well Women Services, Edinburgh, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30276 Glasier, Anna; Ketting, Evert; Ellertson, Charlotte; Armstrong, Elizabeth. Emergency contraception in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 49-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In countries where emergency contraception is offered, its availability and use vary widely, according to such factors as regulations and policies regarding the method, providers' and women's understanding of and attitudes toward it, and cost. The experiences with the method in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands illustrate some of the issues involved in introducing and encouraging the acceptability of emergency contraception....We summarize here information on experiences with emergency contraception in these two countries. We then draw on these experiences to suggest lessons for other countries seeking to introduce or expand the use of this method."
Correspondence: A. Glasier, Family Planning and Well Women Services, Dean Terrace Center, Edinburgh, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30277 Guo, Jie. Do psychological perceptions mediate the effects of socioeconomic characteristics on condom use? The Health Belief Model (HBM) and beyond. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 96-6, Oct 1995. 11, [7] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"This study uses data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. heterosexual men aged 20-39 to assess the role of socioeconomic characteristics, psychological perceptions and sexual behavior in condom use. Contrary to the predictions of the widely-used Health Belief Model, socioeconomic characteristics have strong direct effects on condom use. The effects of socioeconomic characteristics do not appear to be mediated by either the psychological perceptions of the HBM or sexual behavior. Further, socioeconomic characteristics explain far more of the variation in condom use than psychological perceptions or sexual behavior."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. Guo, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195-3340. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30278 Gurak, Douglas T.; Kritz, Mary M. Family planning and women's lives: the Malaysian case. Journal of Population, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1995. 131-56 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to untangle the complex relationships between the use of contraception and subsequent behavioral outcomes in women's lives in countries that are in the midst of demographic transitions. Utilizing retrospective life history data on Malaysian women who were between the ages of 15 and 53 in 1976 (MFLS-1), and were reinterviewed in the 1988 MFLS-2 (Panel sample), the authors utilize discrete-time hazard models to estimate the impact of the use of contraception on three outcomes: 1. disruption of the first marriage; 2. entry into the labor market following first marriage; and 3. first exit from an occupation subsequent to the start of the first marriage. Comparing users of contraception to non-users, it was found that users are significantly less likely to experience a marital disruption. Effectiveness of method proves less important than simply whether or not any method was being used."
This paper was presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. T. Gurak, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30279 Hoque, M. Nazrul; Murdock, Steve H. Socioeconomic development, status of women, family planning and fertility in rural and urban Bangladesh. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1995. 225-44 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of socio-economic development, status of women and family planning on contraceptive use and the extent to which these effects vary among rural and urban areas in Bangladesh. By comparing the contraceptive practice levels of the rural [residents] to those of urban women, we are able to discern whether these differences can be explained by differing compositional characteristics with respect to socio-economic development and the status of women in rural and urban populations. We are also able to establish whether the differences in contraceptive use of rural and urban women are diverging, converging or remaining the same."
Correspondence: M. N. Hoque, Texas A and M University, Department of Rural Sociology, College Station, TX 77843-2125. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30280 Hossain, Mian B.; Phillips, James F. The impact of outreach on the continuity of contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 98-106 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In 1978, the Bangladesh family planning program launched a national program of outreach services that continues to the present. Young married women were hired and trained to visit women in their homes, offer contraceptive services, provide information, and support sustained use over time. This report uses data from two rural districts to assess the effect of the household visitation program on the continuity of contraceptive use. Results of a multivariate analysis show that household outreach has had a pronounced net effect on the continuity of contraceptive use throughout the study period and that the magnitude of this effect has increased with time. This finding suggests that sustained contraceptive use continues to benefit from home-based outreach even after a decade of service encounters. Policy implications of this finding are discussed."
Correspondence: M. B. Hossain, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning Extension Project, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30281 Irudaya Rajan, S.; Mishra, U. S.; Vimala, T. K. Choosing a permanent contraceptive. Does son preference matter? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 31, No. 29, Jul 20, 1996. 1,980-4 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"It has been observed that sex preference of children influences a family's fertility decisions. This article examines data [for India] derived from a number of surveys to examine whether the acceptance of a permanent method of contraception is associated with the sex composition of living children." The authors conclude that Indian couples are likely to have at least one son before they decide to stop childbearing or to adopt a permanent method of contraception, such as sterilization.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30282 Jensen, An-Magritt. Is there a link between fertility decline and family planning in Kenya? In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 351-65 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"Within the next decades, by year 2025, the global population is estimated to increase by 60 per cent, from 5 to 8.5 billion. A great part of this increase will take place in Africa. Kenya will more than double its population in this period....After a steady fertility increase up to the middle of the 1980s, there are now indications of a fertility decline in Kenya. This development has attracted considerable attention in the scientific community and there seems to be a concerted agreement that Kenya has entered a demographic transition and that the use of modern contraceptives [plays] a vital part. This article discusses the fertility decline in Kenya and its link to modern contraceptive methods."
Correspondence: A.-M. Jensen, Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, P.O. Box 44, Blindern, 0313 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30283 Jensen, Eric R. The fertility impact of alternative family planning distribution channels in Indonesia. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 2, May 1996. 153-65 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Clinic-based distribution of contraceptive commodities is expensive per unit distributed. This situation has fueled the search for alternative means of delivery. Comparing the performance of alternatives is straightforward if the output measure is a count of commodities distributed, but comparing actual fertility impacts is another matter. I use data from the 1991 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey to assess the extent of difference among the eventual fertility outcomes of users supplied with similar commodities through varying sources. When the `modern' methods of pill, IUD, and injection are grouped together, the fertility of users supplied with these commodities differs markedly according to their source of supply. I find little evidence for self-selecting of users into supply channels. This result implies that fertility differentials by source are likely due to characteristics of the distribution channels."
Correspondence: E. R. Jensen, College of William and Mary, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 8795, Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30284 Kaeser, Lisa; Gold, Rachel B.; Richards, Cory L. Title X at 25: balancing national family planning needs with state flexibility. ISBN 0-939253-40-2. 1996. 28 pp. Alan Guttmacher Institute: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors outline the history of and possible future changes in Title X, "which supports family planning and closely related reproductive health services for more than four million American women." Aspects considered include the role of Title X in family planning service provision; the states' role in administering the program; and possible impacts of restructuring Title X in the future.
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30285 Leridon, Henri; Toulemon, Laurent. Birth control spreads worldwide. [La régulation des naissances se généralise.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 41, ISBN 2-87762-091-3. Jun 1996. 19 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors provide an overview of family planning and contraception worldwide. "With an average total fertility rate of just above 3 children per woman, the world population has entered a new phase which implies a strict fertility regulation. This situation is irreversible, and it [is necessary] to make available contraceptive methods which are as efficacious, acceptable, and without side effects as possible. In this respect it is worth noting the slowness of research [progress] in this field."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30286 Measham, Anthony R.; Heaver, Richard A. India's Family Welfare Program: moving to a reproductive and child health approach. Directions in Development, ISBN 0-8213-3448-4. LC 95-52404. 1996. ix, 61 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report focuses on one important aspect of the broad range of population policy issues that India faces: how the Family Welfare Program can carry out the commitment given at the Cairo population conference to implement a client-centered approach that responds more effectively to the reproductive health and family planning needs of women and men in India. This report makes preliminary estimates of the cost of implementing this approach."
Correspondence: World Bank, Publications Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30287 Mensch, Barbara; Arends-Kuenning, Mary; Jain, Anrudh. The impact of the quality of family planning services on contraceptive use in Peru. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 59-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Through linkage of a Demographic and Health Survey to a situation analysis, this article explores whether current contraceptive use in Peru is affected by the service environment in which a woman resides. The investigation focuses explicitly on the impact of the quality of family planning services and finds that, net of personal and household characteristics, a significant, albeit small, effect exists for one specification of quality in the total sample and for the other specification a nearly significant (p=.053) effect exists. The analysis reveals that contraceptive prevalence would be 16 to 23 percent greater if all women lived in a cluster with the highest quality of care compared with the lowest. Methodological problems that arise in measuring quality of care at the cluster level and in linking quality to individual contraceptive use are also addressed."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: B. Mensch, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30288 Murty, Judy; Firth, Sue. Use of contraception by women seeking termination of pregnancy. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 1, Apr 1996. 6-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The objective was to assess usage and methods of contraception of women seeking termination of pregnancy, by survey of all clients seeking termination of pregnancy over a five year period at the Marie Stopes Centre, Leeds [England], a pregnancy advisory bureau....In this study the percentage of women not using contraception fell over time in direct relation to a rise in condom use....Condom use was evenly distributed across all age groups. Use of other methods remained constant over time. A significant number of women seeking termination of pregnancy had experienced condom failure. An increased awareness of correct condom use, the use of condoms with a supplementary method of contraception, and an awareness of the availability of emergency contraception following a potential contraceptive failure, need to be undertaken as a matter of urgency."
Correspondence: J. Murty, Marie Stopes Centre, 10 Queen Square, Leeds LS2 8AJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30289 Nelson, Kenrad E.; Celentano, David D.; Eiumtrakol, Sakol; Hoover, Donald R.; Beyrer, Chris; Suprasert, Somboon; Kuntolbutra, Surinda; Khamboonruang, Chirasak. Changes in sexual behavior and a decline in HIV infection among young men in Thailand. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 335, No. 5, Aug 1, 1996. 297-303 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This article assesses the impact that a government program in Thailand has had on the reduction of the spread of HIV infections through promotion of the use of condoms during commercial sex. The data concern 4,311 recruits conscripted into the army between 1991 and 1995. The results indicate that condom use increased from 61% to 92.5%, and that the incidence of HIV infection declined from around 10-12% to 6.7%. Moreover, the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases declined from 42.2% to 15.2% over this time period. The numbers indicate that public health programs of this type can lead to significant changes in sexual behavior.
Correspondence: K. E. Nelson, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, 624 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30290 Netherlands. Development Cooperation Information (The Hague, Netherlands). Family planning and reproductive health in development cooperation. Sectoral Policy Document of Development Cooperation, No. 6, ISBN 90-5328-062-6. [1994]. 84 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
This policy document was developed in order to provide staff at the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs with information and guidance in their assessments of financial proposals for family planning and reproductive health care programs as well as projects in developing countries. "Chapter 1 provides a brief description of the demographic context, specific attention being paid to the relationship between population, sustainable development and migration. Chapter 2 contains a review of developments, perspectives on population issues, a brief exposition of demographic developments in the regions and an overview of the organisations with which the Netherlands has contacts. Chapter 3 is devoted to the background to reproductive health care and family planning, while Chapter 4 deals with Dutch development policy in this regard. Finally, Chapter 5 contains guidelines and points for attention in the identification, formulation, implementation and monitoring of relevant programmes."
Correspondence: Development Cooperation Information, Department of the Netherlands, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Postbus 20061, 2500 EB The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30291 Okun, Barbara S.; Trussell, James; Vaughan, Barbara. Using fertility surveys to evaluate an indirect method for detecting fertility control: a study of Cohort Parity Analysis. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jul 1996. 161-71 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper is the latest report from a research project whose overall goal is to evaluate the performance of two indirect methods--Coale and Trussell's model (M&m) and Cohort Parity Analysis (CPA)--used in the study of fertility control in populations for which direct information on the use of birth control is lacking. In this paper we evaluate CPA, using data from 32 countries that participated in the World Fertility Survey. We show that in actual application CPA is so sensitive to mis-specification of the model population, and there is so much heterogeneity among target populations in terms of non-volitional proximate determinants, that it is not possible to find a model population that can correctly estimate the extent of control in the target populations, or even in a sub-set of target populations defined by region. In many instances CPA is unreliable. This work confirms the central findings of our earlier simulation study."
Correspondence: B. S. Okun, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus, 91905 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30292 Perez, Aurora E.; Tabije, Tita L. Contraceptive discontinuation, failure, and switching behavior in the Philippines. DHS Working Paper, No. 18, Apr 1996. 25 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"This analysis is intended to fill in the gaps of the relatively few studies on contraceptive discontinuation and use-failure rates by using life table methodologies with the five-year calendar data derived from the 1993 Philippine National Demographic Survey (1993 NDS)....The results and discussion portion present findings on three major topics, namely contraceptive discontinuation, failure, and switching behavior."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30293 Pillai, Vijayan K.; Kelly, Ann C. Men and family planning: toward a policy of male involvement. Janasamkhya, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, Jun 1992. 21-30 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the male role in family planning in developing countries. The first section focuses on the extent of use of male methods of contraception such as the condom and vasectomy in developing countries. The second section presents case studies of successful strategies for increasing male involvement in family planning. The final section examines the feasibility of developing a policy for male involvement in family planning in developing countries."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-3826. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30294 Rajaretnam, T. Family size desire, sex preference, socio-economic condition and contraceptive use in rural Karnataka, India. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1995. 275-90 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the importance of family size desires, sex preference, insurance for child loss and socio-economic factors on contraceptive use among couples [in four districts of Karnataka State, India] by applying another multivariate technique called logistic regression (often called logit regression) which is considered to be more appropriate than the multiple regression technique for the analysis of determinants of contraceptive use."
Correspondence: T. Rajaretnam, JSS Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30295 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Guilkey, David K.; Entwisle, Barbara; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Sawangdee, Yothin. The family building life course and contraceptive use: Nang Rong, Thailand. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, Aug 1996. 341-68 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper incorporates the insights of the life course perspective in an examination of the determinants of contraceptive use. It views decision-making about contraceptive methods in the context of personal history and the broader social setting. Three stages in the reproductive life course of married women are considered....We examine choice among nonpermanent methods, as well as sterilization, in the context of a theoretical model that explicitly recognizes the permanence of the sterilization decision....The data are from Nang Rong district, Thailand, a relatively poor area near the Cambodian border undergoing substantial socioeconomic change during the 1980s. Our results clearly show variation in method choice over the reproductive life course, and variation in the effects of specific determinants including age of husband and wife, living arrangements, and village location. They also demonstrate gains in the understanding of any particular stage in the life course that accrue from an integrated examination of all of them."
Correspondence: R. R. Rindfuss, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB# 8120, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30296 Ringheim, Karin. Whither methods for men? Emerging gender issues in contraception. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 7, May 1996. 79-89 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Few would deny that the knowledge and use of the means to control fertility have contributed to women's empowerment. Yet, in addition to being a right for women, contraception can also be a burden, and dissatisfaction with female-dependent methods is common. Men wanting to share responsibility for birth spacing have few reversible options at present, but new reversible methods for men are under development. Acceptability was studied during a recent contraceptive trial of a prototype injectable hormonal method for men. Of the British men who participated in the trial and their women partners, many were dissatisfied with the pill and other female-dependent methods they had tried. This paper examines why the development of an effective, reversible, non-barrier contraceptive method for men is an important gender issue, and why prospects for its success could hinge on how it is perceived by women as well as by men."
Correspondence: K. Ringheim, U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Population, Washington, D.C. 20523. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30297 Robinson, Elizabeth T.; Metcalf-Whittaker, Marilyn; Rivera, Roberto. Introducing emergency contraceptive services: communications strategies and the role of women's health advocates. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jun 1996. 71-5, 80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to suggest ways in which emergency contraception can be responsibly and safely introduced into established health services and to discuss the role of women's health advocacy groups and communications efforts in this process....Given the widespread lack of knowledge and availability of emergency contraception, how does one go about crafting strategies to introduce it into public or private health service delivery programs? What assessments, introductory research consensus-building steps, and communication and training programs must be undertaken? Who are likely to be the actors in this introduction effort, and what roles should they play? Which audiences are the most important, and what messages should they be given?"
Correspondence: E. T. Robinson, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30298 Roudi, Farzaneh; Ashford, Lori. Men and family planning in Africa. Jun 1996. 24 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This chartbook illustrates findings from the Demographic and Health Surveys undertaken in Africa concerning men's attitude toward and practice of family planning.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30299 Santelli, John S.; Kouzis, Anthony C.; Hoover, Donald R.; Polacsek, Michele; Burwell, LaWanda G.; Celentano, David D. Stage of behavior change for condom use: the influence of partner type, relationship and pregnancy factors. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 3, May-Jun 1996. 101-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A theoretical model was used to examine the influence of relationship factors, pregnancy intentions, contraceptive behavior and other psychosocial characteristics on stages of behavior change in condom use among heterosexual black women of reproductive age. Data from an inner-city street survey compared women who were not contemplating condom use, women who were attempting to use condoms or had used them consistently for short periods of time, and those who had achieved long-term consistent use. Women's relationship with their main partner appears to be an important factor in understanding their use of condoms both with main partners and with other partners. For condom use with the main partner, factors such as emotional closeness and partner support were significant predictors of the likelihood that women would be attempting to use condoms rather than not contemplating use. Cohabitation and the belief that condom use builds trust were significant predictors of long-term consistent condom use."
Correspondence: J. S. Santelli, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30300 Schneider, Jane C.; Schneider, Peter T. Festival of the poor: fertility decline and the ideology of class in Sicily, 1860-1980. Hegemony and Experience: Critical Studies in Anthropology and History, ISBN 0-8165-1544-1. LC 95-41768. 1996. x, 322 pp. University of Arizona Press: Tucson, Arizona. In Eng.
Demographic change in three Sicilian villages, called Villamaura for the purpose of this study, is analyzed over the course of 80 years (1860-1980) from a primarily anthropological perspective. The book is in two parts. "The first considers the political economy and demography of rapid population growth in Europe, in Sicily, and in Villamaura, while the second looks at fertility decline, also at these levels. Part 2 is introduced by a chapter on the significance of coitus interruptus, followed by another outlining three European or Euro-American intellectual traditions that, we suggest, might have been influenced by the particular contours of western Europe's sexually disciplined fertility decline....More evidence is assembled to make the case that in Villamaura, and by implication in countless other locales, the historical experience of limiting family size through sexual discipline--and in a context of social hierarchy--left behind a cultural residue that makes it easy to attribute any number of social ills such as backwardness, underdevelopment, overpopulation, and poverty to reproductive practices that elude consciousness or `rational control'."
Correspondence: University of Arizona Press, 1230 North Park Avenue, No. 102, Tucson, AZ 85719. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30301 Skretowicz, Biruta. Birth control in rural areas. [Regulacja urodzen w srodowisku wiejskim.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 39, No. 8, Aug 1994. 1-8 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Contraception in the rural areas of Poland is analyzed using data from a 1990 survey of 3,171 women. Information is provided on the choice of method, the age of contraceptive users, and the number of children women have before they begin to use contraception. The study also examines attitudes toward abortion.
Correspondence: B. Skretowicz, Instytut Medycyny Wsi im. Witolda Chodzki, ul. Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30302 Snow, Rachel C. Each to her own: investigating women's response to contraception. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 233-53 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper discusses a variety of unmet needs in contraceptive research, focusing on the need for greater attention to the variable social and biological circumstances of women's lives, and the need for data that would allow better matching of available methods to individual women." Sections are included on women's contraceptive needs; biological variability and contraceptive side effects; and the opportunity to use clinical trials to collect data on reproductive health and contraceptive acceptability.
Correspondence: R. C. Snow, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30303 Tadiar, Florence M.; Robinson, Elizabeth T. Legal, ethical and regulatory aspects of introducing emergency contraception in the Philippines. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jun 1996. 76-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article describes the complex influences of regulatory laws, religion, politics and ethics on the provision of emergency contraception in one large developing nation--the Philippines, which has no law specifically governing the use of emergency contraception. Although emergency methods are little-known in the country, several factors suggest that they may be well suited to the Philippines."
Correspondence: F. M. Tadiar, University of the Philippines, College of Public Health, Manila, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30304 Vieira, Elisabeth M.; Ford, Nicholas J. The provision of female sterilization in São Paulo, Brazil: a study among low income women. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 10, May 1996. 1,427-32 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines some problems involved in the provision of female sterilization procedures in Brazil, mainly those concerned with the ways in which this operation is offered. Female sterilization provision is analysed by reference to the broader institutional context and from the client's perspectives....A survey was carried out between March and July, 1992 in two selected poor areas of São Paulo Metropolitan Region. 3,149 women were asked about contraceptive use including 407 sterilized women under 40 years old who were also interviewed about their adaptation to sterilization. Further information was also obtained through in-depth interviews with 15 sterilized women who regretted the operation. The findings highlight a complex network of interests and misunderstandings which shape the nature of choice of female sterilization by Brazilian low income women."
Correspondence: E. M. Vieira, University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies, Hoopern House, 101 Pennsylvania Road, Exeter EX4 6DT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30305 Wajcman, Judy. Delivered into men's hands? The social construction of reproductive technology. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 153-75 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This study examines the key role of technology in gender relations, particularly in the area of reproduction. "While it may appear as though technologies are being produced to meet our needs, I argue that women are selecting from a very restricted range of reproductive technologies. These technologies have historical and social relations built into them in such a way that women's choices are in reality highly constrained. Indeed, I would argue that the emphasis placed on women's right to use these technologies for their own ends tends to obscure the way that technologies themselves are shaped by particular political interests."
Correspondence: J. Wajcman, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

62:30306 Cooney, Kristin A.; Nyirabukeye, Thérèse; Labbok, Miriam H.; Hoser, P. Henryk; Ballard, Elisa. An assessment of the nine-month lactational amenorrhea method (MAMA-9) in Rwanda. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 3, May-Jun 1996. 162-71 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents a secondary data analysis based on prospectively collected records gathered during a field assessment that was carried out in Rwanda in August 1993. The assessment used service statistics and follow-up interviews to evaluate the efficacy of a modified lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) as a nine-month introductory postpartum natural family planning method. The program, carried out by Action Familiale Rwandaise (AFR), reflects high efficacy of the method in a compliant sample that sought this method followed by another form of family planning. These results are promising and provide guidance for the extended use of LAM past six months. Programmatic findings suggest that studies be conducted of the contribution of extended LAM to improved weaning practices, the high efficacy of continued reliance on substantial lactation and amenorrhea beyond nine months, and male involvement in LAM and breastfeeding."
Correspondence: K. A. Cooney, Georgetown University Medical Center, Institute for Reproductive Health, Breastfeeding and MCH Division, Department of OB/GYN, 2115 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30307 Correa, Sônia. Norplant in the nineties: realities, dilemmas, missing pieces. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 287-309 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Through a review of literature, I will explore the feminist concerns and dilemmas within the present `Norplant realities.' I assess the validity of feminist concerns regarding the gap between written protocols and field operations, the efficacy and safety of the method and its potential for abuse. I also examine the limits of prevailing analytical and political frameworks as they inform the positions taken in the debate. As such, I point out the importance of context-specific mechanisms that mediate women's experiences of contraceptive technology." The geographic focus is worldwide, with special attention paid to the Indonesian and U.S. contexts.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30308 Ellertson, Charlotte. History and efficacy of emergency contraception: beyond Coca-Cola. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 44-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"More than 30 years of experience with emergency contraceptives has established that the methods can substantially reduce the chances of pregnancy, that their side effects are acceptable to women and that service provision requirements are not generally onerous to clinicians. While there is a need for additional research, the available literature sustains a compelling case for expanding emergency contraception at once, if efficacy and safety considerations are the sole criteria."
Correspondence: C. Ellertson, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30309 Petta, Carlos A.; McPheeters, Melissa; Chi, I-Cheng. Intrauterine devices: learning from the past and looking to the future. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 2, Apr 1996. 241-52 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the historical development of the IUD, describing the challenges and successes, and attempts to offer a balanced perspective for family planning service workers today. Modern IUDs are an important component of family planning services and an excellent contraceptive choice for properly screened women, providing contraception that is safe, effective, long lasting and cost effective. Potential research strategies for the future are also discussed."
Correspondence: C. A. Petta, State University of Campinas, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, C.P. 1170, 13081-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30310 Richter, Judith. Beyond control: about antifertility "vaccines," pregnancy epidemics, and abuse. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 205-31 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author examines research on immunological contraceptives. "After a brief review of the action and types of immunological contraceptives, I shall examine the framework underlying their development and forecast some of the implications for users and society. My hope is to stimulate debate and prompt action to prevent immunological contraceptives from becoming a reality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30311 Schrater, Angeline F. Immunization to regulate fertility: biological concerns and questions. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 255-66 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The biological targets of antifertility vaccines, their distinct mode of action from traditional vaccines, and the biomedical bases of public health concerns about these new unique contraceptives are the focus of this chapter....I am optimistic that the biological problems can be solved to nearly everyone's satisfaction....The question posed by me and many other women's health advocates is not whether science can solve the problems, but whether the expenditures will yield the optimum results for women and for human welfare in general. Science and its resultant technologies must be examined within the cultural frameworks of both design and destination. Only then can this new contraceptive technology fulfill its great promise."
Correspondence: A. F. Schrater, Smith College, Project on Women and Social Change, Northampton, MA 01063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30312 Treiman, Katherine; Liskin, Laurie; Kols, Adrienne; Rinehart, Ward. IUDs--an update. Population Reports, Series B: Intrauterine Devices, No. 6, Dec 1995. 35 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors report on the use and effectiveness of IUDs. Information is provided on IUD performance, including types, side effects, and continuation; insertion techniques; removal; infection risks; worldwide use; and IUDs in family planning programs.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Street, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30313 Trussell, James; Ellertson, Charlotte; Stewart, Felicia. The effectiveness of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 58-64, 87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to examine rigorously the efficacy of one method of emergency contraception: the Yuzpe method....Investigators have often evaluated the efficacy of the Yuzpe method by calculating its failure rate (pregnancies divided by the number of women treated), which we consider an inappropriate measure. In this article, we discuss why the failure rate is a poor measure of ECP [emergency contraceptive pills] efficacy and present estimates of a better measure, the effectiveness rate (the proportionate reduction, due to treatment, in the risk of pregnancy). We then discuss four methodological issues involved in measuring effectiveness--the appropriateness of pooling data across studies, the effects of loss to follow-up and protocol violations, and the accuracy of the expected number of pregnancies reported in the clinical trials we review."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30314 von Hertzen, Helena; Van Look, Paul F. A. Research on new methods of emergency contraception. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 52-7, 88 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we first explore what the ideal emergency contraception method would be. We then review those new methods that are now being tested and, finally, we conclude by outlining the prospects for improving emergency contraception in the future....This review of prospects for new approaches to emergency contraception suggests that basic research is unlikely to yield any new methods in the near future. Currently, the most pressing need is to develop antiprogestogens to serve as emergency postcoital methods....Antiprogestogens might also broaden the window of efficacy if they can extend the deadline for administration of the method."
Correspondence: H. von Hertzen, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

62:30315 Bankole, A.; Rodríguez, G.; Westoff, C. F. Mass media messages and reproductive behaviour in Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 2, Apr 1996. 227-39 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of exposure to mass media messages promoting family planning on the reproductive behaviour of married women in Nigeria using cross-sectional data. Longitudinal data are also used to ensure that exposure to media messages pre-dates the indicators of reproductive behaviour. Cross-sectional analysis suggests that: (1) contraceptive use and intention are positively associated with exposure to mass media messages, and (2) women who are exposed to media messages are more likely to desire fewer children than those who are not exposed to such messages. Similarly, analysis of the longitudinal data shows that exposure to mass media messages is a significant predictor of contraceptive use. Thus, exposure to mass media messages about family planning may be a powerful tool for influencing reproductive behaviour in Nigeria."
Correspondence: A. Bankole, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30316 Chattopadhayay-Dutt, Purnima. Loops and roots: the conflict between official and traditional family planning in India. ISBN 81-7024-659-8. 1995. xxxv, 655 pp. Ashish Publishing House: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study concerns India's family planning program. It particularly focuses on the reasons for the program's relative lack of popular acceptance and approval. The first chapter describes the development of the official national program and some of the reasons for nonacceptance of the family planning methods offered through the program. The second chapter discusses the traditional and natural methods of family planning that represent an alternative to the methods offered in the official program. The third chapter examines the extent to which these two approaches to family planning are in conflict and describes how they could be integrated more effectively in the future. Data are primarily from interviews that the author undertook with individuals in various parts of the country.
Correspondence: Ashish Publishing House, 8/81 Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi 110 026, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30317 Haaga, John G.; Maru, Rushikesh M. The effect of operations research on program changes in Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 76-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article is based on the ten-year experience of an operations research project in Bangladesh. It assesses how, and under what circumstances, research-based advice and results of pilot projects contribute to change in large-scale public programs. It discusses project research on issues facing the national family planning program: recruitment and training of field-workers; delivery of injectable contraceptives; management information; field-workers' use of service registers; field supervision; satellite clinics; and contraceptive user fees. These issues are used to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of a long-term institutionalized project, and to describe the diversity of means for communication with policymakers. The analysis shows that research, policy decision, and implementation can occur in any sequence. Policy advice that disrupts long-standing power relationships and organizational culture takes a great deal of effort to implement. Operations research can produce useful changes in organizational behavior, even when large-scale problems remain."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. G. Haaga, National Research Council, Committee on Population, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30318 Hermalin, Albert I.; Entwisle, Barbara; Khadr, Zeinab. Reweighting DHS data to serve multiple perspectives. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 88-97 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Information about health and family planning infrastructures is collected through the service availability module (SAM), an important feature of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in many developing countries. The DHS samples were designed to provide a representative sample of households and women of reproductive age. Using the weights routinely provided with DHS data sets, service accessibility can be described straightforwardly at the individual and household levels. However, without further adjustment, SAM data do not provide a representative picture of service delivery at the community, or primary sampling unit, level, where the data are collected. This report proposes a methodology for reweighting the SAM data, using rural data from the Egypt DHS as an illustration, so that available family planning facilities at this level may be usefully characterized at little additional cost."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. I. Hermalin, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30319 Noble, Jeanne; Potts, Malcolm. The fertility transition in Cuba and the Federal Republic of Korea: the impact of organised family planning. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 2, Apr 1996. 211-25 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"South Korea and Cuba are dissimilar in religion, economy, culture and attitudes toward premarital sexual relations. In 1960, Korea instituted a national family planning programme to combat rapid population growth. Cuba explicitly rejected Malthusian policies, but made family planning universally available in 1974 in response to health needs. Both countries have undergone rapid fertility declines and today have less than replacement level fertility. Both countries have also used a similar mixture of methods, including a high prevalence of female sterilisation. Abortion has played a major role in the fertility decline of both countries, rising in the first half of the fertility transition and then falling, although remaining a significant variable in the second half. It is concluded that access to contraception, voluntary sterilisation, and safe abortion have a direct impact on fertility and have been associated with a rapid fall in family size in two very different countries."
Correspondence: J. Noble, Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30320 Robey, Bryant; Stauffer, Paula. Helping the news media cover family planning. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 42, Nov 1995. 27 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"How can family planning organizations develop good working relationships with journalists in radio, television, and print? By building a news media relations program, staffed by professionals with support from senior management, that becomes an integral part of the organization's outreach. An effective program links the family planning organization with journalists, and it represents the interests of each to the other....A good strategy seeks opportunities to match the goals and objectives of the organization with the interests of journalists. As in other communication strategies, assessing the needs of the audience--journalists--is important to reaching them effectively. The most important task of media relations is to find newsworthy information and to present it to journalists accurately and in ways that they can use."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Street, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30321 Rosen, James E.; Conly, Shanti R. Pakistan's population program: the challenge ahead. Country Study Series, No. 3, 1996. vi, 50 pp. Population Action International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine the population situation in Pakistan and the goals and accomplishments of the country's population program. Chapters are included on the consequences of rapid population growth; the evolution of the national population policy and program; a reproductive health and fertility profile; the social and cultural context of reproductive behavior; strengths and weaknesses of the population program; and challenges for the future.
Correspondence: Population Action International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30322 Ross, John A.; Mauldin, W. Parker. Family planning programs: efforts and results, 1972-94. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 3, May-Jun 1996. 137-47 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, time trends and differentials for family planning program effort are presented for most developing countries for 1972, 1982, 1989, and 1994. Overall program effort for the developing world increased sharply from 1972 to 1982, and again from 1982 to 1989, but only modestly thereafter. Some countries had already reached ceiling levels. A few with very low fertility rates deliberately weakened their programs, and other programs deteriorated for reasons that are unclear. On the other hand, within the small overall rise, numerous countries with weak programs improved their scores substantially. Regions with the lowest 1989 ratings improved the most, mainly on policy positions, and they improved least on availability of contraceptive methods. The relationship of program strength to socioeconomic setting has steadily weakened across the 22-year period studied. The stronger programs overall are stronger on essentially all 30 features of effort. Programs that have improved over the years have changed to resemble the profiles of the stronger programs."
Correspondence: J. A. Ross, Futures Group, 80 Glastonbury Boulevard, Glastonbury, CT 06033-4409. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30323 Thomas, Duncan; Maluccio, John. Fertility, contraceptive choice, and public policy in Zimbabwe. World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1996. 189-222 pp. Washington, D. C. In Eng.
"Zimbabwe has invested massively in public infrastructure since independence in 1980. The impact of these investments on demographic outcomes is examined using household survey data matched with two community level surveys. A woman's education is a powerful predictor of both fertility and contraceptive use. These relationships are far from linear and have changed shape in recent years. After controlling for household resources, both the availability and quality of health and family planning services have an important impact on the adoption of modern contraceptives. In particular, outreach programs such as mobile family planning clinics and community-based distributors (CBDs) have been especially successful."
Correspondence: D. Thomas, RAND Corporation, Labor and Population Program, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30324 Tollman, Stephen; Herbst, Kobus; Garenne, Michel. The Agincourt Demographic and Health Study: Phase 1. ISBN 1-86838-173-0. [1992]. 62 pp. University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Community Health, Health Systems Development Unit: Johannesburg, South Africa. In Eng.
"To inform primary health care-centred health reform in South Africa there is a critical need for research and evaluation of local health service development. To maximise project relevance, and accelerate applications to district health systems, such efforts should be closely linked to the public health sector and operate subject to many of its constraints. This is the basis for the Agincourt Community Practice Project (CPP)....The project provides a local field site and conceptual framework within which to pilot district-level health and development interventions. The Demographic and Health Study, the foundation for CPP activities, provides the essential information base on which to formulate programmes, evaluate their impact and conduct more advanced community based studies. This monograph is the definitive write-up of Phase 1 of the study."
Correspondence: University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Community Health, Health Systems Development Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30325 Tsui, Amy O. Family planning programs in Asia: approaching a half-century of effort. Asia-Pacific Population Research Reports, No. 8, Apr 1996. 24 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"In reviewing the emergence, establishment, and maturation of family planning programs in Asia, this report concentrates on the countries of East, South, and Southeast Asia that had developing status in 1970....To understand why some programs have been more successful than others, I examine the characteristics of family planning organizations: their policy environment, financial and human resources, service infrastructure, and levels of service production and consumption. In the final section I postulate how the Asian family planning programs may evolve over the next half century in response to environmentally induced change."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30326 Valente, Thomas W.; Saba, Walter P.; Merritt, Alice P.; Fryer, Michelle L.; Forbes, Tessa; Pérez, Ariel; Beltrán, Luis R. Reproductive health is in your hands: impact of the Bolivia National Reproductive Health Program campaign. [La salud reproductiva está en tus manos: impacto de la campaña del Programa Nacional de Salud Reproductiva de Bolivia.] IEC Field Report, No. 4, Feb 1996. ix, 38, 38 pp. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng; Spa.
This publication "presents impact evaluation results of a major mass-media campaign promoting family planning that was run over a 7-month span in 1994 in the four main cities of Bolivia. The report also discusses conclusions and implications for future health communication activities in Bolivia." Sections are included on the campaign background, descriptions of the program, and campaign results.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Street, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

62:30327 Adioetomo, Sri M. The role of religion in the construction of the small family norm in Java, Indonesia. Journal of Population, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1995. 107-29 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"The Indonesian family planning programme has been praised for its success in achieving a dramatic decline in population growth. However, little is known about the contribution of Islam in the process of legitimating the idea of fertility control. This article describes the initially negative perception of two big religious organizations about fertility control and how they finally accepted the idea. They gradually [supported] the government programme in changing the belief of the people from `family size was not a matter of choice' to an acceptance of a small family size of two or three children through the use of modern contraceptives. It concludes that the role of religion is to build an `infrastructure' to make the idea of small family norm socially accepted."
This paper was presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: S. M. Adioetomo, University of Indonesia, Faculty of Economics, Demographic Institute, Research Division, Jalan Salemba Raya 4, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30328 Ampofo, Akosua A. Women and AIDS in Ghana: "I control my body (or do I)?", Ghanaian sex workers and susceptibility to STDs, especially AIDS. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 233-51 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper examines particular `types' of sexual relationships in order to analyse women's desires and options in negotiating for `safer sex' (in terms of protection against STDs, especially AIDS) within those relationships....The reason guiding the decision to be sexually active, the choice of and frequency with which women change partners, and the reasons why they change partners all influence a woman's ability to `control' the sexual act in terms of oral and anal sex, use of condoms, sexual intercourse during menstruation, frequency of sex etc. We look at the particular situations of one particular group of Ghanaian women, namely `sex workers'."
Correspondence: A. A. Ampofo, University of Ghana, P.O. Box 96, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30329 Axinn, William G.; Fricke, Tom. Community context, women's natal kin ties, and demand for children: macro-micro linkages in social demography. Rural Sociology, Vol. 61, No. 2, Summer 1996. 249-71 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"Recent research in many areas of social demography has begun to address the implications of cultural, social, and economic context for individual-level preferences and behavior. We expand on this theme by arguing that multiple levels of context may simultaneously direct individual-level strategies. We focus on the relationship between [Nepali] women's natal kin ties and their demand for children, a substantive area in which context is thought to be particularly important. We use a combination of ethnographic and survey data to measure contextual characteristics, women's ties to their natal families, and couples' fertility preferences and behavior. Our results demonstrate that particularly supportive relationships with natal kin have more influence on fertility preferences and behavior than contact with natal kin, although both dimensions are important. The results also show that even within the same cultural context, radically different community environments can produce opposite consequences of ties to natal kin."
Correspondence: W. G. Axinn, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30330 Bankole, Akinrinola; Olaeye, David O. Do marital partners have different reproductive preferences in Sub-Saharan Africa? In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 147-67 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper examines the issue of husband-wife reproductive preference agreement among couples in Kenya and Ghana. Using the DHS I data, we attempt to achieve two objectives. First, we try to examine the nature and the degree of association, if any, between the desires of husband and wife for more children. The aim here is to find out the extent of agreement between the stated desires of the spouses and the nature of the relationship between the desires of those who disagreed. The second objective is to identify the socio-economic and demographic correlates of spousal agreement. In this case attempt is made to find out whether variables that are usually associated with women's status are also related to spousal agreement."
Correspondence: A. Bankole, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30331 Goodkind, Daniel. On substituting sex preference strategies in East Asia: does prenatal sex selection reduce postnatal discrimination? Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 111-25, 202, 204 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Recent evidence from East Asia suggests that parents use prenatal sex testing to selectively abort female fetuses, a practice manifested in rising sex ratios (males per females) at birth. Many observers have condemned prenatal sex testing, arguing that it results in discriminatory abortion against females. However, observers have neglected the dynamics between this new prenatal discrimination and traditional postnatal discrimination against young daughters. If the option of sex-selective abortion implies that daughters carried to term are more likely to be wanted, postnatal discrimination might decline. Evidence from East Asia is used to investigate this `substitution' hypothesis. In societies where excess daughter mortality existed in the 1970s, rises in the sex ratio at birth in the 1980s tended to be associated with the declines in excess daughter mortality."
Correspondence: D. Goodkind, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30332 Hull, Terence H. The value of children at the advent of fertility decline in Java. Journal of Population, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1995. 175-202 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"During the 1970s Java commenced a major, sustained decline in fertility, from average family sizes of over 5 children, to under 3 children. At that time a series of studies of `The Value of Children' were undertaken in rural areas to measure the costs and benefits of childbearing in peasant societies. This paper looks back at the empirical data to analyze the structure of the prices, costs and benefits associated with raising children, and to compare the situations faced by people of different income groups. It is found that the socioeconomic situation of the parents of the 1970s, and the impact of government-led developments in the subsequent two decades, combined to create conditions favorable for fertility decline. Poor and well-to-do alike revised their evaluations of childbearing, preferring to have smaller families, with each child enjoying a wider and better range of social and personal benefits."
Correspondence: T. H. Hull, University of Indonesia, Faculty of Public Health, Depok Campus, West Java, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30333 Hulton, Louise; Falkingham, Jane. Male contraceptive knowledge and practice: what do we know? Reproductive Health Matters, No. 7, May 1996. 90-100 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The post-Cairo period has seen a dramatic increase in interest in `men' but there is little known about male knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to contraceptive use. This paper examines current knowledge about male behaviour, and extends that knowledge using data from Demographic and Health Survey Male Surveys. Findings cast doubt on the conventional wisdom that male knowledge is low. Married men's use of any method is relatively high compared to that reported by their female counterparts, and is predominantly made up of two methods, the condom and withdrawal. Use of these methods by married women is considerably lower. This is due to differential use inside and, more importantly, outside marriage. These findings suggest that it is less the lack of knowledge amongst men concerning the means to prevent conception than the lack of male motivation that explains the low use of contraception within marriage."
Correspondence: L. Hulton, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Geography, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30334 Jin, Hehui. A study of rural women's decision-making power on reproduction and fertility. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1995. 241-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes data from a sample survey covering 330 rural households in 11 poor counties in the provinces and autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Gansu, and Ningxia [China]....The survey...contained detailed questions about women's education, health, employment, socio-economic status, and reproductive activities....The first section describes, summarizes, and compares the reproductive desires of wife, husband, and family within the households surveyed; the second section examines the distribution of the decision making power in reproduction and contrasts different family members' reproductive desires and actual reproductive activities; the third section analyzes important factors affecting the actual number of children born...; the fourth section examines determinants of women's decision-making power in reproduction...."
Correspondence: H. Jin, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Rural Development, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30335 Miller, Warren B.; Pasta, David J. How does childbearing affect fertility motivations and desires? Social Biology, Vol. 42, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1995. 185-98 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"In this study we assume that fertility decisions are made one birth at a time and use longitudinal data collected from 401 married [U.S.] couples over a two-year period to explore how having a child affects two types of fertility motivation and three types of fertility desires. Using a series of five constrained multiple regression analyses, we tested the effects of two childbearing variables on these five types of motivation and desires....The results demonstrate that the childbearing variables have a substantial effect in all five regression models. Specific findings indicate that childbearing stimulates greater positive motivation for childbearing and an increase in the number of children desired. Although this situation would appear to create a positive feedback loop in which each child born further increases the motivation and desire for children, the findings also suggest three different mechanisms whereby childbearing causes a counterbalancing regulation of that loop."
Correspondence: W. B. Miller, Transnational Family Research Institute, 669 Georgia Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30336 Molnár, Edit S.; Pongrácz, Tiborné. Public opinion survey on population topics--1995. [Közvélemény-kutatás népesedési kérdésekrol--1995.] Demografía, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1996. 7-19 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
This is an analysis of changes in attitudes toward population topics in Hungary, such as ideal family size. The analysis uses data from five surveys undertaken over the period 1983-1995.
Correspondence: T. Pongrácz, Mezo Imre u. 68, Budapest 1089, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30337 Niraula, Bhanu B.; Morgan, S. Philip. Son and daughter preferences in Benighat, Nepal: implications for fertility transition. Social Biology, Vol. 42, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1995. 256-73 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Married women in Benighat, Nepal stressed old age security and continuity of lineage as prominent reasons for wanting sons. In addition, women clearly desired daughters too--an important finding that is less often stressed. Religious reasons and help with household chores were the most common reasons reported for wanting a daughter. Strong desires for sons could increase fertility in settings where fertility is controlled. Additional desires for daughters could have an additional pronatalist influence. For Benighat we document a pervasive desire for at least two sons and at least one daughter. If realized, these sex composition preferences would increase fertility by 50 per cent. Actual effects are no doubt smaller, but the effects of sex preference on the desire for more children and on contraceptive use are clearly visible."
Correspondence: B. B. Niraula, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30338 Raju, K. N. M.; Bhat, T. N. Sex composition of living children against socio-economic variables while accepting family planning methods. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1995. 87-99 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors discuss the impact of gender preferences on fertility and the use of family planning methods in India. The relative importance of gender preferences and socioeconomic factors in the acceptance of family planning is considered.
Correspondence: K. N. M. Raju, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Population Research Centre, Bangalore 560 072, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30339 Rasul, M. Aminur. Factors affecting fertility preference in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis. Janasamkhya, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, Jun 1992. 13-20 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This study attempts to identify the correlated factors and their relative importance in explaining the total variation at individual level of family size desires [among] Bangladeshi women. Multiple linear regression is used to assess the direction and magnitude of association and the relative contribution to the variation by a set of variables. The analysis discloses the fact that number of living children seems to be the principal determinant among the variables considered in this study...."
Correspondence: M. A. Rasul, University of Chittagong, Department of Statistics, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30340 Robins, Philip K.; Fronstin, Paul. Welfare benefits and birth decisions of never-married women. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Feb 1996. 21-43 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The authors investigate whether AFDC benefit levels are systematically related to the family-size decisions of never-married [U.S.] women. Using a bivariate probit model with state and time fixed effects, applied to Current Population Survey data for the years 1980-1988, it is found that the basic benefit level for a family of two (one adult and one child) and the incremental benefit for a second child positively affects the family size decisions of black and Hispanic women, but not of white women. The effects are concentrated among high school dropouts (no effects are found for high school graduates). The authors conclude that rather than to uniformly deny benefits to all AFDC women that bear children, a better targeted policy might be to alter the AFDC benefit structure in such a way as to encourage single mothers to complete high school."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: P. K. Robins, University of Miami, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 248126, Coral Gables, FL 33124-6550. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30341 Speizer, Ilene. Men's desire for additional wives and children. Social Biology, Vol. 42, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1995. 199-213 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This study uses male data from Cameroon to examine how currently monogamous men make fertility and nuptial decisions. Three analyses are discussed. First, an analysis of monogamous men's desire for additional wives is presented. Second, an analysis of monogamous men's desire for additional children is presented. Finally, the two desires are examined simultaneously to disentangle the relationship between these two family desires. Three possible interrelationships between monogamous men's two family desires (desire for wives and desire for children) are examined and discussed. The results indicate that men's desire for more children drives their desire for additional wives and not the contrary. The implications of this finding for high fertility in areas where polygyny is common are discussed."
Correspondence: I. Speizer, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB8120, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30342 Stash, Sharon. Ideal-family-size and sex-composition preferences among wives and husbands in Nepal. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 107-18 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study tests the hypothesis that, in Nepal, measures of ideal family size mask an underlying preference for sons, making some people willing to have families larger than their ideal....This research uses empirical evidence to examine the hypothesis that husbands are more willing than their wives to pursue the birth of sons at the cost of an increasingly large completed family size. A Multiple-response Fertility Preference Scale was developed to test these propositions among a sample of couples. The methodology was successful in demonstrating differential patterns of decisionmaking between husbands and wives that were otherwise obscured by more simplistic, single-response measures (for example, ideal family size). The results indicate that husbands are consistently more willing than their wives to pursue the birth of sons at the expense of larger family sizes, and that the birth of daughters is not pursued to a similar degree by wives or husbands."
Correspondence: S. Stash, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48105-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

62:30343 Balakrishnan, Radhika. The social context of sex selection and the politics of abortion in India. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 267-86 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper I will focus on the practice of sex-selective abortion within the cultural and material context of India....In order to combat the practice of using technology to abort female fetuses, one needs to look at the wider social and historical context of gender bias on the population. I examine legal activism against amniocentesis by placing the issue of sex-selective abortion against the larger backdrop of socioeconomic, cultural and ideological factors that contribute to the neglect and murder of females beyond the fetal stage. I call for a radical rethinking of our focus on technology, and question the underlying concepts of `normality' that lie uninterrogated."
Correspondence: R. Balakrishnan, Ford Foundation, Asia Regional Program, 320 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30344 Blank, Rebecca M.; George, Christine C.; London, Rebecca A. State abortion rates: the impact of policies, providers, politics, demographics, and economic environment. NBER Working Paper, No. 4853, Sep 1994. 45, [23] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper used data on [U.S.] abortion rates, by state and year from 1974-88, to estimate two-wage least squares models with fixed state and year effects. The results indicate that implementing restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion results in lower aggregate abortion rates in-state and higher abortion rates among nearby states, suggesting one of the main effects of these policies is to induce cross-state migration for abortion services. The effect of these restrictions on actual abortions among state residents is much smaller, a maximal estimate suggests that 22 percent of the abortions among low-income women that are publicly funded do not take place after funding is eliminated."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30345 Brodie, Janine. Health versus rights: comparative perspectives on abortion policy in Canada and the United States. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 123-46 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The story of abortion politics has many strands which weave through social hierarchies as well as across different cultural representations. This paper will focus on the legislative and judicial strand, in which recent events increasingly threaten women's access to abortion services in North America. These `official' moments, however, rest on and are imbued with broader struggles over representation which challenge women's autonomy and moral agency, attempt to reconstruct the private sphere and the patriarchal family, and intensify the classism and racism of the new world (dis)order. They co-exist with `unofficial' abortion politics, the terrorist attacks on abortion clinics and providers, and the incessant harassment of women struggling to exert some control in their lives."
Correspondence: J. Brodie, York University, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30346 Cope, June. A matter of choice: abortion law reform in apartheid South Africa. ISBN 0-86980-887-7. 1993. [ix], 180 pp. Hadeda Books: Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. In Eng.
This is a history of the campaign for reform of the abortion law in South Africa. In particular, the author describes the events that led up to the restrictive Abortion and Sterilization Act of 1975. She argues that this law did not represent public opinion at that time, as its sponsors claimed, but that it was the result of a hidden government agenda designed to increase the size of the white population. The study describes the effects of the 1975 legislation on doctors, hospitals, and the women who suffered its restrictions on abortion. The author investigates the law's consequences in the country as a whole, in the "homelands" set up within South Africa by the apartheid government, and in neighboring countries.
Correspondence: Hadeda Books, University of Natal Press, Box 375, Pietermaritzburg, 3200 South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30347 Frejka, Tomas; Atkin, Lucille C. Induced abortion as a cause of maternal mortality. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 295-305 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Knowledge about the incidence of induced abortions, as well as about the magnitude of maternal mortality due to such abortions, in Latin America is unreliable and approximate. The main reason for this is that, for the most part, induced abortion legislation in Latin American countries is restrictive...and therefore no official statistics exist. Nevertheless, it is important to try to calculate reasonable estimates of the frequency of induced abortion and its contribution to maternal mortality in order to provide stronger arguments for its prevention. This chapter generates an estimate of the actual number of abortion-related deaths in Latin America, and discusses the contribution of induced abortion to maternal morbidity."
Correspondence: T. Frejka, UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30348 Gissler, Mika; Ulander, Veli-Matti; Hemminki, Elina; Rasimus, Anja. Declining induced abortion rate in Finland: data quality of the Finnish abortion register. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1996. 376-80 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"To assess the completeness of the Register, we compared the information from a consecutive sample of hospital records (N=482) to the Finnish Abortion Register in 18 hospitals in three counties. A smaller consecutive sample (N=345) was collected from the same hospitals to assess the validity of the Register information....Only five abortions (1%) found in the hospitals were not reported in the Abortion Register....There were quality problems in reporting some variables: the length of pregnancy (definition problems), the classification of the abortion procedure, and social class (out-of-date classifications). Furthermore, early complications were poorly reported."
Correspondence: M. Gissler, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Statistics, Registers and Information Systems Unit, P.O. Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30349 Huntington, Dale; Mensch, Barbara; Miller, Vincent C. Survey questions for the measurement of induced abortion. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 3, May-Jun 1996. 155-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Underreporting of induced abortion in survey research is a ubiquitous problem. The use of an indirect interview technique in which questions were asked about abortion in the context of unwanted pregnancy was described earlier as holding promise for increasing the response rate. This report reviews the mixed results from multicountry studies that used the indirect technique. Exploratory qualitative studies are needed to identify a setting-specific context for discussing abortion. Because the subject of induced abortion is inherently sensitive, survey measurement of this practice is less precise than that of other, less controversial maternal health-care practices. This lack of precision should not deter the pursuit of the study of this critically important public-health-care concern."
Correspondence: D. Huntington, Population Council, Asia and Near East Operations, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30350 Joyce, Theodore; Kaestner, Robert. State reproductive policies and adolescent pregnancy resolution: the case of parental involvement laws. NBER Working Paper, No. 5354, Nov 1995. 32, [23] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We test whether one form of [U.S.] abortion regulation, parental involvement laws, affects how pregnancies are resolved. Specifically, we examine whether laws that require minors to notify or obtain consent from a parent before receiving an abortion affect the likelihood that a pregnancy will be terminated. We use individual data on births and abortions from three southern states, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia....We detect no significant effects of parental involvement laws on the probability of abortion for minors as a single treatment group, a finding contrary to several recent studies."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30351 Joyce, Theodore; Kaestner, Robert. The effect of expansions in Medicaid income eligibility on abortion. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 2, May 1996. 181-92 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine the effect of expansions in Medicaid income eligibility on abortion, using individual-level data from South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. The results suggest that for unmarried nonblack women with less than a high school degree, expansions of income eligibility lowered the probability of abortion by two to five percentage points. Most of the impact of the Medicaid expansions on abortion occurred in the first round of expansions from approximately 45% of the federal poverty level to 100%. For black unmarried women with less than a high school degree, we generally find no effect of expansions in Medicaid income eligibility on abortion."
Correspondence: T. Joyce, Baruch College, 50 East 42nd Street, 17th Floor, New York, NY 10017-5405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30352 Koonin, Lisa M.; Smith, Jack C.; Ramick, Merrell; Green, Clarice A. Abortion surveillance--United States, 1992. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 45, No. SS-3, May 3, 1996. iii, 36 pp. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report summarizes and reviews information reported to CDC regarding legal induced abortions obtained in the United States during 1992. This report also includes recently reported abortion-related deaths for 1988-1990 and an update on abortion-related deaths for 1985-1987....Since 1980, the number and rate of abortions have remained relatively stable, with only small year-to-year fluctuations of [5% or less]. However, since 1987, the abortion-to-live-birth ratio has declined; in 1992, the abortion ratio was the lowest recorded since 1977. More pregnant women have been opting to carry their pregnancies to term rather than choosing to have an abortion. As in previous years, deaths associated with legal induced abortions occurred rarely (i.e., one or fewer deaths per 100,000 legal induced abortions)."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402-9325. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

62:30353 Islam, M. Mazharul; Khan, H. T. Abdullah. Pattern of coital frequency in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 39, No. 2, Jun 1993. 38-43 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the pattern of coital frequency in rural Bangladesh and relate it to selected socio-economic characteristics. An attempt has also been made to compare the findings with those of other studies."
Correspondence: M. M. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30354 Joffe, Michael. Decreased fertility in Britain compared with Finland. Lancet, Vol. 347, No. 9014, Jun 1, 1996. 1,519-22 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"To test the hypothesis that Finnish men are more fertile than British men, TTP [time to pregnancy] distributions from published Finnish studies and data from Britain were compared. Two comparisons were made: a pair of antenatal studies, and a pair of cross-sectional studies. In both comparisons, fertility was statistically significantly greater in Finland than in Britain. The findings did not seem to be due to methodological problems; in particular, the results could not be attributed to differences in frequency of intercourse....The previously reported difference in sperm counts between Finland and elsewhere in northwest Europe (including Britain) is probably not artefactual, suggesting that the reported world-wide decline in semen quality is also real. Reasons for the `Finnish exception' may include maternal smoking, which used to be lower in Finnish women than elsewhere, and which might affect developing male offspring."
Correspondence: M. Joffe, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London W2 1PG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30355 Panter-Brick, Catherine. Proximate determinants of birth seasonality and conception failure in Nepal. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jul 1996. 203-20 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Birth seasonality was examined for a non-contracepting population with low fertility and seasonally heavy workloads in rural Nepal. Reproductive histories were collected from 1983 to 1993, totalling 1,829 live births...to 521 women....The seasonal pattern of conceptions was examined in light of previously collected data on marriage patterns, climatic seasonality, subsistence workloads, energy balance, nursing patterns, lactational amenorrhoea, and endocrinological measures of prolactin and ovarian function. Both the frequency distribution of live births and a life-table analysis of women's exposure to the risk of conception show significant seasonality....This small-scale but intensive case study of a seasonal limitation to rates of conception illustrates how endocrinological data can be used to distinguish between the biological and behavioural determinants of fertility in human populations."
Correspondence: C. Panter-Brick, University of Durham, Department of Anthropology, Durham DH1 3HN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30356 Tracer, David P. Lactation, nutrition, and postpartum amenorrhea in lowland Papua New Guinea. Human Biology, Vol. 68, No. 2, Apr 1996. 277-92 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Here, I examine the effects of maternal nutritional status on the duration of postpartum amenorrhea in two socioeconomic groups of Au forager-horticulturalists of lowland Papua New Guinea....Probit analyses are used to demonstrate that, even after controlling for time since delivery, maternal age, parity, and supplementation of infants' diets, the duration of postpartum amenorrhea is significantly (p <0.05) negatively associated with indexes of maternal fat mass. No association between indexes of maternal lean body mass and the duration of postpartum amenorrhea was found. The results of this study suggest that components of maternal nutritional status, in particular, adiposity, play an important role in influencing fecundity in human populations."
Correspondence: D. P. Tracer, University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30357 Zohoori, Namvar; Popkin, Barry M. Longitudinal analysis of the effects of infant-feeding practices on postpartum amenorrhea. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 2, May 1996. 167-80 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"The Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey [carried out in the Philippines] is used to examine the effect of various components of infant-feeding patterns on return of menses postpartum. The results show that factors such as active suckling, the use of two breasts versus one, breast-feeding on demand versus on a fixed schedule, and the feeding of other milks and of nonnutritive or low-caloric other liquids can be important under selected circumstances. Discrete-time logistic hazards modeling is used to estimate the weekly probability of return to menses."
Correspondence: N. Zohoori, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square East, CB# 8120, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

62:30358 Akerlof, George A.; Yellen, Janet L.; Katz, Michael L. An analysis of out-of-wedlock childbearing in the United States. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 111, No. 2, May 1996. 277-317 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper relates the erosion of the custom of shotgun marriage to the legalization of abortion and the increased availability of contraception to unmarried women in the United States. The decline in shotgun marriage accounts for a significant fraction of the increase in out-of-wedlock first births. Several models illustrate the analogy between women who do not adopt either birth control or abortion and the hand-loom weavers, both victims of changing technology. Mechanisms causing female immiseration are modeled and historically described. This technology-shock hypothesis is an alternative to welfare and job-shortage theories of the feminization of poverty."
Correspondence: G. A. Akerlof, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30359 Angrist, Joshua D.; Evans, William N. Schooling and labor market consequences of the 1970 state abortion reforms. NBER Working Paper, No. 5406, Jan 1996. 36, [15] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This study uses the 1970 state abortion reforms to estimate the effect of teen and out-of-wedlock childbearing on the schooling and labor market outcomes of mothers observed in 1980 and 1990 [U.S.] Census microdata. Reduced-form estimates suggest that state abortion reforms had a negative impact on teen marriage, teen fertility, and teen out-of-wedlock childbearing. The teen marriage effects are largest and most precisely estimated for white women while the teen fertility and out-of-wedlock childbearing effects are largest and most precisely estimated for black women."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30360 Foster, E. Michael; Hoffman, Saul D. Nonmarital childbearing in the 1980s: assessing the importance of women 25 and older. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 3, May-Jun 1996. 117-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Nonmarital births to [U.S.] women in their late 20s and 30s have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Marital and birth history data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics confirm that births to unmarried women aged 25 and older accounted for a larger proportion of all nonmarital births in the 1980s than in the 1970s (36% vs. 22%). Most of these births were to women who had been previously married or who had other children: Births to never-married, first-time mothers aged 25 and older accounted for only 9% of all nonmarital births to older women in the 1980s. The majority of nonmarital births to older women in the 1980s--58%--involved women who began having children as teenagers."
Correspondence: E. M. Foster, Vanderbilt University, Vanderbilt Institute for Public Policy Studies, Nashville, TN 37235. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30361 Smith, Herbert L.; Morgan, S. Philip; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya. A decomposition of trends in the nonmarital fertility ratios of blacks and whites in the United States, 1960-1992. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 2, May 1996. 141-51 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We use a method of standardization and decomposition developed by Das Gupta to update Smith and Cutright's analysis of demographic factors responsible for increases in the nonmarital fertility ratio (illegitimacy ratio) among blacks and whites in the United States....Nonmarital fertility ratios are much higher among blacks than among whites, but both increased monotonically from 1960 to 1992. During the last 10 years, each increased by nearly 10 percentage points. Increases in the proportion of women not married, at all ages, account for the preponderance of the increase in black nonmarital fertility ratios. Increasing rates of unmarried childbearing, however, have played a role during the most recent decade (1983-1992). For whites, from 1960 until 1975, declines in marital fertility were most important in producing increases in the proportion of children born out of wedlock. Since then, these proportions have increased primarily because of increases in unmarried women's birth rates, and secondarily because of declines in the proportion of women who are married. These trends are consistent with arguments that emphasize declining economic incentives to marry and reduced access to, and acceptability of, abortion."
Correspondence: H. L. Smith, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30362 Udry, J. Richard; Kovenock, Judith; Morris, Naomi M. Early predictors of nonmarital first pregnancy and abortion. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 3, May-Jun 1996. 113-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study uses longitudinal data on 351 California white women aged 27-30 in 1990-1991 to identify characteristics in childhood and adolescence that predict who will have a nonmarital first pregnancy and, of those who do, which women will seek an abortion. Bivariate analyses reveal that psychosocial characteristics indicating a strong sense of autonomy, such as feeling it is important not to be tied down and engaging in socially undesirable behavior, are significantly associated with the likelihood of having a nonmarital first pregnancy (odds ratios of 1.7 and 1.5, respectively), but family characteristics are not. However, among women who have a first pregnancy out of wedlock, the odds of having an abortion are mostly influenced by family rather than psychological characteristics, particularly having been a good student and having a well-educated mother (2.0 and 1.7)."
Correspondence: J. R. Udry, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB# 8120, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30363 Wu, Lawrence L. Effects of family instability, income, and income instability on the risk of a premarital birth. American Sociological Review, Vol. 61, No. 3, Jun 1996. 386-406 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this study, I contrast hypotheses about the effects of family structure on premarital birth risks with three income hypotheses: (1) a low income hypothesis--that the risk of a premarital birth is higher for women from disadvantaged economic backgrounds because they possess fewer or less attractive economic opportunities; (2) a permanent income and transitory income hypothesis--that uncertainties generated by unexpected fluctuations in family income increase premarital birth risks net of absolute income levels; and (3) an income level and income change hypothesis--that downward trends in family income reflect worsening socioeconomic opportunities that increase premarital birth risks net of absolute income levels. I use prospective income and retrospective parental histories in the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to determine if the effect of family instability...is an artifact of low, unstable, or declining income in the family of origin."
Correspondence: L. L. Wu, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30364 Wu, Zheng. Childbearing in cohabitational relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 2, May 1996. 281-92 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Evidence suggests that the presence of children has a positive impact on the stability of both marital and nonmarital relationships. It is, therefore, important to understand the determinants of childbearing decisions made by couples in both types of relationships....Using data from the 1990 [Canadian] Friends and Family Survey and employing an uncertainty reduction model, this article attempts to shed light on the childbearing experiences of cohabiting women after their entry into a cohabitational relationship. We find that the hazard rate of a cohabiting woman bearing a child within the union is associated with her age at the start of cohabitation, her educational status, nativity, number of siblings, heterogamy in cohabiting unions, the year of the start of cohabitation, and geographic region."
Correspondence: Z. Wu, University of Victoria, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 3050, MS 7572, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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