Volume 62 - Number 3 - Fall 1996

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality .

62:30081 Avdeev, Alexandre; Blum, Alain; Zakharov, Serge. Did mortality in Russia really increase dramatically between 1991 and 1995? [La mortalité en Russie a-t-elle vraiment augmenté brutalement entre 1991 et 1995?] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 51, Mar 1996. 79, iii pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This is an analysis of mortality trends in Russia during the period 1991-1995. The focus is on the possible causes of the decline in life expectancy recorded over this period. The authors conclude that this sharp decline in life expectancy is not due to an increase in individuals' risk of dying, but that it is an aftershock from the declines in mortality that occurred in the mid-1980s. They develop a model that incorporates this phenomenon of mortality catch-up and takes into account the heterogeneity of the Russian population. They conclude that the most important problem to resolve is not the recent sharp increase in mortality, but the long-term increase in mortality that has occurred over the past 30 years.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30082 Carnes, Bruce A.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Grahn, Douglas. Continuing the search for a law of mortality. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jun 1996. 231-64, 409, 411 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Scientists have long attempted to explain why closely similar age patterns of death are characteristic of highly diverse human and non human populations....Early efforts [to develop a general law of mortality] were conducted using mortality curves based on all causes of death. The authors predict that if comparisons of mortality are based instead on `intrinsic' causes of death (i.e., deaths that reflect the basic biology of the organism), then age patterns of mortality consistent with the historical concept of a law might be revealed. Using data on laboratory animals and humans, they demonstrate that age patterns of intrinsic mortality overlap when graphed on a biologically comparable time scale. These results are consistent with the existence of a law of mortality following sexual maturity, as originally asserted by Benjamin Gompertz and Raymond Pearl. The societal, medical, and research implications of such a law are discussed."
Correspondence: B. A. Carnes, Argonne National Laboratory, Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30083 Carter, Lawrence R. Forecasting U.S. mortality: a comparison of Box-Jenkins ARIMA and structural time series models. Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 1, Winter 1996. 127-44 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"This article compares two methodologies for modeling and forecasting statistical time series models of demographic processes: Box-Jenkins ARIMA and structural time series analysis. The Lee-Carter method is used to construct nonlinear demographic models of U.S. mortality rates for the total population, gender, and race and gender combined. Single time varying parameters of k, the index of mortality, are derived from these [models] and fitted and forecasted using the two methodologies. Forecasts of life expectancy at birth, [eo], are generated from these indexes of k. Results show marginal differences in fit and forecasts between the two statistical approaches with a slight advantage to structural models. Stability across models for both methodologies offers support for the robustness of this approach to demographic forecasting."
Correspondence: L. R. Carter, University of Oregon, Department of Sociology, Eugene, OR 97403-1291. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30084 Caselli, Graziella. The key phases of the European health transition. Polish Population Review, No. 7, 1995. 73-102 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"This paper will attempt to analyse the health transition [in Europe] from 1910....The different steps in mortality trends, both in quantitative terms and with regard to structural changes by age and cause, will also be analysed and compared where possible to the far reaching changes which marked the history of mortality in Europe. An attempt at synthesis will be performed, using the data on life expectancy at birth in 1910 onwards until recent times. Particular focus will be placed on the more significant stages of the decline in mortality by age and the cause of death...."
Correspondence: G. Caselli, Università degli Studi di Roma la Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30085 Coale, Ansley J. Age patterns and time sequence of mortality in national populations with the highest expectation of life at birth. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 127-35, 202-3, 205 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This note characterizes the age estimators of mortality in life tables at very low mortality by a combination of a time pattern of rising expectations of life at birth and model life tables at very low mortality levels. The fit to well-recorded low-mortality tables is very tight. If these populations are approaching a lower limit of death rates, these rates are likely to match the new model with expectation of life at birth of about 85 years, rather than a rectangular survival schedule."
Correspondence: A. J. Coale, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30086 Gulliford, M. C. Epidemiological transition in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies 1953-1992. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1996. 357-65 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study aimed to describe trends in age-specific mortality from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and ischaemic heart disease in Trinidad and Tobago between 1953 and 1992 and to relate them to earlier changes in infant mortality rates....Average annual age-specific mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated for 5-year time periods from 1953-1957 to 1988-1992 and plotted by mid-year birth for cohorts born 1874-1882 to 1944-1952....Declining infant mortality was subsequently associated with declining mortality from cerebrovascular disease and hypertensive disease and increasing mortality from diabetes mellitus but there was no association with ischaemic heart disease mortality. These relationships were confounded by secular changes associated with year of death."
Correspondence: M. C. Gulliford, Guy's and St. Thomas' Medical and Dental Schools, Department of Public Health Medicine, London SE1 7EH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30087 Kaplan, George A.; Goldberg, Debbie E.; Everson, Susan A.; Cohen, Richard D.; Salonen, Riitta; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Salonen, Jukka. Perceived health status and morbidity and mortality: evidence from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1996. 259-65 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The associations between perceived health status and mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease, incidence of myocardial infarction, carotid atherosclerosis, forced expiratory volume, and maximal exercise capacity were studied in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, a population-based study of 2,682 men, aged 42-60, in eastern Finland....There were strong, statistically significant, age-adjusted associations between level of perceived health and mortality from all causes..., cardiovascular causes..., and incidence of myocardial infarction....Perceived health levels were strongly associated with risk factors and disease indicators. The associations with mortality and myocardial infarction outcomes were considerably weakened with progressive adjustment for eight risk factors and prevalent disease....Associations between level of perceived health and these indicators were considerably stronger in those with prevalent diseases than in those who were healthy....The overall pattern of results suggests that perceived health levels mainly reflect underlying disease burden."
Correspondence: G. A. Kaplan, California Department of Health Services, Human Population Laboratory, 2151 Berkeley Way, Annex 2, Suite 300, Berkeley, CA 94704-1011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30088 Kunitz, Stephen J. Disease and social diversity: the European impact on the health of non-Europeans. ISBN 0-19-508530-2. LC 93-35498. 1994. viii, 209 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study explores how diverse social institutions and cultures shape patterns of disease and death in populations. It examines the many ways in which different causes of morbidity and mortality in populations are affected by social processes. The discussion is limited in several ways. "First, I shall consider only the indigenous peoples of the United States, Canada, some large Polynesian islands, and Australia. Second, I shall consider the impact of European contact and social change on the mortality and morbidity of these populations. Third, I shall be selective in the topics I cover and the examples I choose. Fourth, in most chapters I shall use the comparative method to isolate important explanatory variables."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30089 Langhamrová, Jitka; Fiala, Tomás. 1950-1992 mortality rate in the Czech Republic and selected European countries. [Prehled úmrtnosti v CR a ve vybraných evropských zemích v letech 1950-1992.] Statistika, No. 5, 1996. 200-9 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality data for the Czech Republic are presented for the period 1950-1992, together with comparative data for other European countries. The authors note the growing differences in mortality between the former communist countries and the rest of Europe.
Correspondence: J. Langhamrová, Vysoká Skola Ekonomická, Nám. W. Churchilla 4, 130 67 Prague 3, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30090 Lee, W.-C.; Hsieh, R.-L. Estimating life expectancy using an age-cohort model in Taiwan. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 50, No. 2, Apr 1996. 214-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We present a new method of estimating the cohort life expectancy. The estimation (projection) is based on an age-cohort model. Because the data required for the model are the usual age and period cross classified mortality data in the format of vital statistics, follow up of a group of subjects for a long time is unnecessary. The mortality data for the male population in Taiwan from 1951-90 are used to illustrate the methodology." Results indicate that "the increment of life expectancy over time in Taiwan is actually steeper than was previously thought using the current life table technique....The method is easy to implement and the data required are the usual age and period cross classified mortality data. It warrants further investigation."
Correspondence: W.-C. Lee, National Taiwan University, College of Public Health, Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, 1 Jen-Ai Road, 1st Sec, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30091 Lu, Wang-Shu; Tsutakawa, Robert K. Analysis of mortality rates via marginal extended quasi-likelihood. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 13, Jul 15, 1996. 1,397-407 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"We use a mixed Poisson regression model with extra variation to analyse mortality data cross-classified by age and geographic region. We use estimates of dispersion parameter and fixed effects parameters, obtained by maximizing a marginal quasi-likelihood function, to estimate mortality rates in an empirical Bayes manner. This is a modification of an earlier method by Tsutakawa that used the likelihood function and is computationally impractical for routine use. In order to apply the extended quasi-likelihood function, a linear variance function (of the mean) is used in place of a quadratic one used previously. We illustrate the method with male lung cancer death in the state of Missouri."
Correspondence: W.-S. Lu, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics and Statistics, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30092 Martikainen, Pekka; Valkonen, Tapani. Economic depression and premature mortality. [Lama ja ennen aikainen kuolleisuus.] Väestö/Befolkning/Population, No. 1995:11, ISBN 951-727-089-5. 1995. 92 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Fin.
An analysis of mortality in Finland by age, sex, social group, educational level, and cause of death shows that the decline of mortality has been somewhat faster during the present economic downturn than before it. At the same time, mortality differentials among social groups have continued to widen. Individual follow-up studies of the unemployed according to occupation and area of residence show no effect of unemployment on mortality in the short run.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, P.O. Box 3B, 00022 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30093 Martikainen, Pekka; Valkonen, Tapani. Mortality after the death of a spouse: rates and causes of death in a large Finnish cohort. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 8, Pt. 1, Aug 1996. 1,087-93 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines excess mortality among Finnish persons after the death of a spouse, by sex, the subject's cause of death, duration of bereavement, and age....The subjects were 1,580,000 married Finnish persons aged 35 through 84 years who were followed up from 1986 through 1991....The results are consistent with the hypothesis that excess mortality after the death of a spouse is partly caused by stress. The loss of social support or the inability to cope with stress may explain why men suffer from bereavement more than do women."
Correspondence: P. Martikainen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Population Research Unit, P.O. Box 33, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30094 Meslé, France; Vallin, Jacques. Mortality in the world: trends and prospects. CEPED Series, No. 1, ISBN 2-87762-087-5. May 1996. 24 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors review world trends in mortality and health status. "Largely as a result of the general economic development process induced by the Industrial Revolution, health improvements spread...throughout the world, in spite of large time lags and different speeds among countries....If the trend [in life expectancy] forecasted by the United Nations as due to take place between 1990-1995 and 2020-2025 is plotted in the same way as for the preceding period...it seems more than likely that it will not be achieved by all countries."
Translated from the French by Isabelle Wallerstein.
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30095 Muñoz Pradas, Francisco; Nos, Roser N. Transitions in mortality and health: theory, comparison and historical evidence. Polish Population Review, No. 7, 1995. 53-71 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The central aim of the present article is to review the theoretical and historical bases of the comparative perspective, in which the theory of epidemiological transition is normally used in order to improve our understanding of peripheral transitions in the evolution of the European mortality rate between 1860 and 1960....We propose not so much a new theory speculating on the causes of the advances, which are irreversible after a certain point in the survival of western populations during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as a new way of looking at existing interpretations. Specifically, we have attempted to justify the need for a perspective which gets away from the usual approach, based on a sequential arrangement of the stages within a scale of evolution, and on a causal impulse behind those stages, deriving from a global socio-economic process."
Correspondence: F. Muñoz Pradas, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

62:30096 Curtis, Siân L.; Steele, Fiona. Variations in familial neonatal mortality risks in four countries. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 2, Apr 1996. 141-59 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates variations in the strength and structure of familial association in neonatal mortality risks in four populations: Bolivia, Kenya, Peru, and Tanzania. Exploratory analyses of the structure of the familial association are presented for each population. Random effects logistic models are then used to estimate the strength of familial association in neonatal mortality risks using a standard set of control variables. The results suggest that the strength of familial association in neonatal mortality risk is quite similar in these four populations which would be consistent with a biological explanation for the association. However, some differences were found, particularly in the form of the association in Peru, which may suggest at least a small role of other factors."
Correspondence: S. L. Curtis, Macro International, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

62:30097 Aaby, Peter; Samb, Badara; Andersen, Marc; Simondon, Francois. No long-term excess mortality after measles infection: a community study from Senegal. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 143, No. 10, May 15, 1996. 1,035-41 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The present study examines long-term survival after measles infection in a rural area of Senegal, Niakhar, where measles transmission and acute mortality was studied between 1983 and 1986...." In particular, the authors compare the post-measles mortality of unimmunized children with the mortality of unimmunized children who had not had measles. "The authors conclude that measles infection was not associated with increased mortality after the acute phase of infection and that index cases had lower mortality than uninfected, unvaccinated children. The reduction in mortality after measles immunization can therefore not be explained by the prevention of post-measles mortality."
Correspondence: P. Aaby, Statens Seruminstitut, Epidemiology Research Unit, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30098 Amin, Ruhul. Immunization coverage and child mortality in two rural districts of Sierra Leone. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 11, Jun 1996. 1,599-604 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The study, which is based on data from a household level health survey conducted in early 1993 in the rural areas of the districts of Western Area and Port Loko of Sierra Leone, examines the coverage of an Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), infant and child mortality, and disease symptoms among children [who] died under age five in the study area. The results of the study indicated that the infant and child mortality rate per thousand live births declined from about 162 in the mid 1980s to about 77 in 1993. This decline was associated with immunization coverage which considerably increased by 1993, reaching as high as above 60% of the eligible children." The results also indicate that a significant percentage of the child mortality that did occur may be associated with failure to take the full doses of immunization or incorrect use of domiciliary oral rehydration therapy.
Correspondence: R. Amin, Morgan State University, Institute for Urban Research, Hillen Road and Coldspring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21239-9972. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30099 Becker, Stan; Black, Robert E. A model of child morbidity, mortality and health interventions. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 96-06, [1996]. 29, [25] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"A macro model of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age is presented. Monthly disease-specific incidence and case fatality rates form the basis of the model and the efficacy and coverage of disease-specific interventions alter these values. In addition, frailty is modeled via relative risks of mortality based on five groups....A validation of the model was carried out using data from the comparison and treatment areas of the Demographic Surveillance System in Matlab, Bangladesh."
This paper was presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Departments of Population Dynamics and International Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30100 Bernhardt, Eva M. Crowding and survival in Stockholm 1895-1920. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 279-91 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents some tentative results from an ongoing research project about child survival in Stockholm [Sweden] 1878-1926, based on micro-level data, namely the longitudinal information about individual children and their families contained in the Stockholm Historical Data Base. Individual life histories (or segments of such histories) are analyzed by means of intensity regression, where the relative importance of different background factors (such as the degree of overcrowding) for the risk of dying at a specific age is established. Since information about the number of rooms that each household had at its disposal is available only from the housing censuses in 1895 and onwards, the analysis in this paper is limited to the period 1895-1920. In this first stage of the analysis, only overall mortality will be studied, that is regardless of cause of death."
Correspondence: E. M. Bernhardt, Stockholm University, Demography Division, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30101 Cutts, F. T.; dos Santos, C.; Novoa, A.; David, P.; Macassa, G.; Soares, A. C. Child and maternal mortality during a period of conflict in Beira City, Mozambique. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1996. 349-56 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We studied child and maternal mortality and risk factors for child mortality in Beira city in July 1993, after a decade of conflict in Mozambique....A community-based cluster sample survey of 4,609 women of childbearing age was conducted....Indirect estimates of the probability of dying from birth to age 5...decreased from 246 in 1977/8 to 212 in 1988/9....Lack of beds in the household..., absence of the father..., low paternal educational level..., young maternal age..., self-reported maternal illness..., and home delivery of the child...were associated with increased mortality, but the sensitivity of risk factors was low....Child mortality decreased slowly over the 1980s in Beira despite poor living conditions caused by the indirect effects of the war. Coverage of health services increased over this period. The appropriateness of a risk approach to maternal-child-health care needs further evaluation."
Correspondence: F. T. Cutts, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Communicable Disease Epidemiology Unit, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30102 Dreze, Jean; Guio, Anne-Catherine; Murthi, Mamta. Demographic outcomes, economic development and women's agency. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 31, No. 27, Jul 6, 1996. 1,739-42 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the determinants of fertility, child mortality and gender bias in child mortality in India using district-level data from the 1981 Census. The findings highlight the powerful effects of variables relating to women's agency (e.g., female literacy and female labour force participation) on mortality and fertility. Further, higher levels of female literacy and female labour force participation are associated with significantly lower levels of female disadvantage in child survival. In contrast, variables relating to the general level of development and modernisation have relatively weak effects on demographic outcomes."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30103 Frisbie, W. Parker; Forbes, Douglas; Pullum, Starling. Compromised birth outcomes and infant mortality among racial and ethnic groups. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 95-96-05, 1995-1996. 20, [4] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Employing the fetal growth ratio in a large [U.S.] sample [of Mexican Americans, anglos, and blacks], we have demonstrated, for the first time, the absolute and relative effects on the distribution of birth outcomes occasioned by application of the FGR and that race/ethnic differentials of considerable consequence exist both in the distributions of compromised birth outcomes and in the infant mortality risks associated with those outcomes."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30104 Garrett, Eilidh; Reid, Alice. Thinking of England and taking care: family building strategies and infant mortality in England and Wales, 1891-1911. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 1, No. 1, Sep 1995. 69-102 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Debates concerning the origins and development of the late nineteenth- to early twentieth-century declines in marital fertility and infant mortality in England and Wales have been centred largely on the material provided by answers to the `special' questions in the 1911 census. In their published form these figures have restricted researchers to an examination of large scale geographic and social class differences in the levels and rates of decline of the two phenomena. This paper outlines research conducted on a sample of individual census returns from the 1911 census. From this data it becomes clear that for Victorian and Edwardian England `where one lived' was rather more important than `who one was' in determining both family building strategies and the survival of those children born."
Correspondence: E. Garrett, ESRC Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30105 Gleason, Suzanne. The determinants of male/female survival in India: theory and evidence. Department of Economics Working Paper Series, No. 95-15, Dec 1995. 46 pp. University of Maryland, Department of Economics: College Park, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper examines policy options to address the excess mortality of females in India. The determinants of gender-specific child survival in India are investigated through the traditional household production model, which is extended to include public goods as fixed inputs in production decisions....Results indicate that increases in female literacy, female labor force participation and the supply of medical personnel increase female child survival in rural India. Furthermore, higher ratios of female to male medical technicians are associated with higher female child survival relative to males."
Correspondence: University of Maryland, Department of Economics, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30106 Lalou, Richard; LeGrand, Thomas K. Child mortality in towns and villages in the Sahel. [La mortalité des enfants du Sahel en ville et au village.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 329-51 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this paper, [the authors] begin by defining a conceptual framework to study the health of children by place of residence. [They] then use data from Child Mortality Surveys in the Sahel (EMIS), conducted in the towns of Bamako [in Mali] and Bobo-Dioulasso [in Burkina Faso] and in a rural area in Senegal, to ascertain whether cities remain advantaged in terms of health. Mortality is found to be higher among young rural children, especially during the second year of life, even when compared to that in underprivileged urban neighborhoods. However, on the whole, the estimated effects of individual and household characteristics on children's survival are very similar in cities and in rural areas."
Correspondence: R. Lalou, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, B.P. 1386, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30107 Lovell, Peggy A. Frontier settlement and child survival in the Brazilian Amazon. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 5, May 1996. 409-26 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study uses sample data from the 1960, 1970 and 1980 demographic censuses to estimate child survival rates among children born to native and migrant women in the Brazilian Amazon. Estimates show that by 1980 the probability of death among children was quite similar when comparing native and migrant populations in the aggregate. However, after controlling for household economic activity and income, death rates were higher among migrant children. The findings suggest that nonmigrants are better able than recent colonists to mobilize physical and social environments to safeguard the health of their children."
Correspondence: P. A. Lovell, University of Pittsburgh, Department of Sociology, 2G03 Forbes Quadrangle, Pittsburgh, PA 15260. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30108 Maharatna, Arup. Infant and child mortality during famines in late 19th and early 20th century India. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 31, No. 27, Jul 6, 1996. 1,774-83 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to infer regional variations of the extent of relative social protection and familial treatment to infants and children during subsistence crises that accompanied several famines in the late 19th and early 20th century in India."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30109 Mina Valdés, Alejandro. Infant and child mortality in Mexico, estimated using the 1980 and 1990 censuses and projections to 2000. [La mortalidad infantil y en los primeros años de vida en México, estimada en los censos de 1980 y 1990 y su proyección al 2000.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1994. 765-82 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
Using indirect methods based on information about live births and surviving children, the author reviews estimates of infant and child mortality in Mexico. Data are from the 1980 and 1990 censuses.
Correspondence: A. Mina Valdés, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30110 Nelson, Marie C.; Rogers, John. Stockholm and Gothenburg and the urban mortality puzzle. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 292-309 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"The goal of establishing the relationship between the effects of public health measures and the decline in mortality which took place during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is an elusive one....The purpose of this paper is not to establish a direct cause and effect relationship between demographic change and other factors, but rather to examine the validity of oft-presented relationships of mortality, and in particular urban infant mortality, with other elements, such as weather conditions. Stockholm and Gothenburg, the two largest Swedish cities, have been studied at the aggregate level with concentration on the period after the adoption of public health legislation in 1874. Only indirect comparisons can be made as the source material used varied."
Correspondence: M. C. Nelson, Mid Sweden University, Department of Humanities, Härnösand, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30111 Poston, Dudley L. Patterns of infant mortality. In: China: the many facets of demographic change, edited by Alice Goldstein and Wang Feng. 1996. 47-65 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We endeavor in this chapter to describe the variation in infant mortality among China's cities and counties...and then to examine the relations between infant mortality and its related socioeconomic and health-related determinants. An important part of the chapter is to attempt to develop and evaluate three different sets of infant mortality data, in addition to the `official' set....We [suggest] that the officially reported infant mortality data for many counties from the 1982 Census of China do not appear to be of high enough quality to permit an accurate assessment of the phenomenon's levels and variation throughout the counties and urban districts of China [and believe]...that these data reflect in quite a few instances the tendency in many places to underenumerate infant deaths."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Texas A and M University, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30112 Rahman, M. M.; Kabir, M.; Amin, R. Relationship between survival status of first child and subsequent child death. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 2, Apr 1996. 185-91 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the association between infant mortality of the first born and subsequent children using data from rural Bangladesh collected during the period 1971-82. It shows that birth spacing and age of mother at the time of the second birth are important predictors of the survival status of the first child. The findings are discussed in terms of policy implications."
Correspondence: M. Kabir, Jahangirnagar University, Department of Statistics, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30113 Sastry, Narayan. Community characteristics, individual and household attributes, and child survival in Brazil. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 2, May 1996. 211-29 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper presents an analysis of the relationship between community characteristics, household attributes, and child survival in Brazil. The principal objectives are to investigate how the social and environmental context in which a child is raised affects his or her survival chances, and to analyze how household variables modify the effects of community characteristics. The interaction effects we examine help to explain the effects of community characteristics on child survival chances by illuminating the most likely pathways through which these covariates operate. This information is also useful for predicting who is most likely to benefit from public policies to improve community infrastructure, education, and health care."
Correspondence: N. Sastry, RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30114 Singh, Gopal K.; Yu, Stella M. U.S. childhood mortality, 1950 through 1993: trends and socioeconomic differentials. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 4, Apr 1996. 505-12 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examined trends and differentials in U.S. childhood mortality from 1950 through 1993 according to sex, race/ethnicity, education, family income, and cause of death....Log-linear, multiple regression, and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to the data from the National Vital Statistics System, the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, and the Area Resource File....Substantial declines in U.S. childhood mortality have occurred in the past 4 decades, primarily due to decreases in mortality from unintentional injuries, cancer, pneumonia and influenza, and congenital anomalies. The overall declining trend, however, has been dampened by a twofold to threefold increase in the suicide and homicide rates among children since 1968. Male, Black, American Indian, Hawaiian, and Puerto Rican children and those in the lower socioeconomic strata were at increased risk of death."
Correspondence: G. K. Singh, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics, Room 840, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30115 Sundin, Jan. Culture, class, and infant mortality during the Swedish mortality transition, 1750-1850. Social Science History, Vol. 19, No. 1, Spring 1995. 117-45 pp. Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
"The subject examined here is previous and current research on Swedish infant mortality before and during the first phase of its decline with special reference to social and cultural influences. No claim is made for the quantitative weight of any explanation. Rather, it is argued that there is strong `circumstantial' evidence that cultural factors played an important, though not solitary, role in determining the transition during the nineteenth century. This paper attempts to bring the Swedish empirical observations together and seeks the most feasible hypothesis."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30116 Turmel, André; Hamelin, Louise. The leading killer of children: infant mortality since the turn of the century. [La grande faucheuse d'enfants: la mortalité infantile depuis le tournant du siècle.] Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie, Vol. 32, No. 4, Nov 1995. 439-63 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article aims to distinguish periods and stages in the fight against infant mortality (i.m.) [in Canada]. How and when have adults' social practices toward the death of children changed? The authors investigate how the social regulation of these practices was implemented, singling out two periods in the study of this phenomenon. The first is characterized by the fight against exogenous causes of i.m. while the second is distinguished by the struggle against indigenous causes. How does this transition operate from a sociological standpoint? Within these two periods, two stages in the decline of i.m. are distinguished. The first concerns the improvement of populations' sanitary conditions; the second relates to the regulation of social practices by public awareness campaigns."
Correspondence: A. Turmel, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30117 Yimamu, Enemanachew; Chaudhury, Rafiqul H. Socio-demographic correlates of infant mortality in rural Ethiopia. Population and Development Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1994. 1-10 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine sociodemographic factors affecting infant deaths in rural Ethiopia....We specifically examine the nature of the relation between maternal age, education, religion and ethnicity on the one hand and infant mortality on the other, and the implications these relations may have for future infant mortality reduction in a developing country like Ethiopia."
Correspondence: R. H. Chaudhury, Central Statistical Authority, Population Analysis and Studies, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30118 Yoon, Paula W.; Black, Robert E.; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Becker, Stan. Effect of not breastfeeding on the risk of diarrheal and respiratory mortality in children under 2 years of age in Metro Cebu, The Philippines. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 143, No. 11, Jun 1, 1996. 1,142-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The effects of not breastfeeding on mortality due to diarrhea and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children under 2 years of age were examined using data from a 1988-1991 longitudinal study of 9,942 children in Metro Cebu, The Philippines....Not breastfeeding had a greater effect on diarrheal mortality than on ALRI mortality. In the first 6 months of life, failing to initiate breastfeeding or ceasing to breastfeed resulted in an 8- to 10-fold increase in the rate of diarrheal mortality. The rate of mortality associated with both ALRI and diarrhea was increased nearly six times by not breastfeeding, but the rate of ALRI mortality alone was not increased. The data also suggested that the risk of mortality associated with not breastfeeding was greater for low birth weight infants and infants whose mothers had little formal education. After age 6 months, the protective effects of breastfeeding dropped dramatically."
Correspondence: R. E. Black, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of International Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30119 Zaba, Basia; David, Patricia H. Fertility and the distribution of child mortality risk among women: an illustrative analysis. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jul 1996. 263-78 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A new method that does not rely on standard social class categorizations is proposed for measuring and comparing the concentration of [child] mortality risk among families in different populations. The new measures can be obtained directly from aggregated data. These measures are used to explore the extent of death-clustering in families, and to show that inter-woman variability in risk is more important than inter-birth variability. Parity is a potential confounder of measures of death-clustering, since it contributes to an observable increase in risk; classification by parity provides a convenient way of measuring the over-dispersion of the distribution of deaths between women." The geographical focus is on Kenya.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: B. Zaba, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, London WC1N 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

62:30120 Bhat, P. N. Mari. Age misreporting and its impact on adult mortality estimates in South Asia. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1995. 59-80 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper we will focus on patterns of age misstatements in South Asia, where age errors are particularly pronounced, and their effect on estimates of adult mortality derived from intercensal analyses. In contrast to earlier studies on this issue, which relied upon model life tables or on assumed age-patterns of mortality, we attempt to use demographic identities to infer patterns of age misreporting and demonstrate through simulation typical biases in mortality estimates these may give rise to. Discussion...makes extensive use of Indian data, but conclusions of the study could easily be generalized to [the] whole of South Asia."
Correspondence: P. N. M. Bhat, JSS Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30121 Chackiel, Juan; Plaut, Renate. Demographic trends with emphasis on mortality. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 14-41 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to outline the demographic context in which adult mortality is developing in Latin America. The objective is to understand better the factors that influence health and disease and the implementation of preventive policies. In Section 2, general demographic trends and the most important changes that have occurred in the last few decades are described....An analysis of the current age distribution of the population in Latin America and future prospects is carried out in Section 3. Section 4 is dedicated to analysing the strong tendency towards urbanization that has occurred in the region....Social inequalities are expressed in demographic trends that differ between population sectors, as discussed in Section 5....Excess mortality at different levels of life expectancy at birth in the countries of the region [is analyzed], according to a model composed of the lowest observed mortality rates."
Correspondence: J. Chackiel, UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30122 Faijer, Dirk J.; Orellana, Hernán. Evaluation of vital statistics for the study of causes of death. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 45-68 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter takes a deeper look at the problems presented by the data on adult mortality (defining the adult population as those aged 15 years or more) and causes of death among adults in Latin America. First, vital statistics coverage by age and sex is reviewed for those Latin American countries for which the necessary information is available. Then, the problem of ill-defined causes of death is addressed and an estimate of total unavailable information on causes of death, compared with total estimated deaths, is presented."
Correspondence: D. J. Faijer, UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30123 Lopez, Alan D.; Caselli, Graziella; Valkonen, Tapani. Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-823329-9. LC 94-40464. 1995. xvi, 361 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This book contains a selection of 14 papers by various authors on aspects of adult mortality in developed countries. The papers are divided into sections on analytical approaches and frameworks, patterns of mortality change, differential mortality, and policy and program implications.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30124 Oyejide, C. O.; Shalabi, A. G.; Benjawi, M.; Al-Hosani, H. Causes of adult female mortality in Al Ain district, United Arab Emirates. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 50, No. 2, Apr 1996. 224 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This one-page article aims at "documenting trends in the levels and causes of adult female mortality in Al Ain district of the United Arab Emirates over a 10 year period 1984-93....Information from the vital registration system was used....Non-communicable diseases have emerged as the most common causes of adult female mortality in Al Ain; diseases of the circulatory system are the most common. There is a low level of pregnancy related mortality. Breast cancer was the most common malignancy causing mortality."
Correspondence: C. O. Oyejide, United Arab Emirates University, Department of Community Medicine, P.O. Box 17666, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30125 Preston, Samuel H.; Elo, Irma T.; Rosenwaike, Ira; Hill, Mark. African-American mortality at older ages: results of a matching study. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 2, May 1996. 193-209 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper we investigate the quality of age reporting on death certificates of elderly African-Americans. We link a sample of death certificates of persons age 65+ in 1985 to records for the same individuals in U.S. censuses of 1900, 1910, and 1920 and to records of the Social Security Administration. The ages at death reported on death certificates are too young on average. Errors are greater for women than for men. Despite systematic underreporting of age at death, too many deaths are registered at ages 95+. This excess reflects an age distribution of deaths that declines steeply with age, so that the base for upward transfers into an age category is much larger than the base for transfers downward and out. When corrected ages at death are used to estimate age-specific death rates, African American mortality rates increase substantially above age 85 and the racial `crossover' in mortality disappears. Uncertainty about white rates at ages 95+, however, prevents a decisive racial comparison at the very oldest ages."
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30126 Rosero-Bixby, Luis. Adult mortality decline in Costa Rica. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 166-95 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter...[aims] to describe the mortality transition at adult ages [in Costa Rica], to identify its key components, and to make inferences about its likely determinants. The chapter has five sections: socio-economic and public-health background of Costa Rica; the data and methods used; decline in risks of dying in two age intervals (20-49 and 50-79); analysis of risks of dying by cause of death; and areal analysis of adult mortality and its correlate across 100 small geographical units."
Correspondence: L. Rosero-Bixby, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30127 Sells, C. Wayne; Blum, Robert W. Morbidity and mortality among U.S. adolescents: an overview of data and trends. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 4, Apr 1996. 513-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article reviews the health status of adolescents in the United States 1979 through 1994....An extensive array of data from federal agencies, private organizations, and published literature was reviewed, analyzed, and cross-validated....Significant shifts in mortality and morbidity among America's youth have occurred over the past decade. Adolescents have recorded significant reductions in motor vehicle deaths; alcohol, cigarette, and illicit substance use; and gonorrhea and syphilis. Overall, mortality in the second decade of life has declined by 13%. However, reductions in unintentional injuries have been largely offset by increases in teenage homicide, while worsening poverty as well as risk-taking behaviors continue to influence the morbidities of teenagers adversely. Violence, suicide, and teenage pregnancy continue to be overwhelming problems for young people."
Correspondence: R. W. Blum, University of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30128 Singh, Gopal K.; Yu, Stella M. Trends and differentials in adolescent and young adult mortality in the United States, 1950 through 1993. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 4, Apr 1996. 560-72 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, this study examined mortality trends and differentials from 1950 through 1993 among U.S. adolescents and young adults according to sex, race/ethnicity, education, family income, marital status, and cause of death. No appreciable reduction in youth mortality has occurred, especially among men. Declines in youth mortality from accidents have been nearly offset by increases in death rates from homicide, suicide, and firearm injuries. American Indians, Blacks, males, and those with least education and income were at increased risk of both overall and injury-specific youth mortality."
Correspondence: G. K. Singh, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 840, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30129 Timæus, Ian M.; Chackiel, Juan; Ruzicka, Lado. Adult mortality in Latin America. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-828994-4. LC 95-48977. 1996. viii, 367 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The structure of this book reflects the major issues of concern for an interdisciplinary analysis of adult mortality in a group of developing countries at different stages of mortality transition. The first section of the book provides an overview of demographic trends and differentials in the Latin American region from a public health perspective; that sets the stage for the subsequent detailed analyses. The second section of the book is concerned with data collection and methods....The third section of the book comprises studies of mortality transition and the accompanying epidemiologic transition....[The fourth section] is concerned with disease-specific and injury-specific analyses."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30130 Timæus, Ian M. New estimates of the decline in adult mortality since 1950. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 87-107 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter focuses on a second technique for obtaining more up-to-date mortality estimates than those yielded by the basic orphanhood method. The approach also avoids some of the biases that can affect the basic method. It is based on a supplementary question about whether orphanhood occurred before or after marriage....Rather than having to recall the date when their parent died, respondents have only to indicate the relative timing of two major events in their lives. After a brief explanation of the techniques proposed for the analysis of such data, the chapter uses them to investigate the decline in adult mortality since 1950 in four Latin American countries."
Correspondence: I. M. Timæus, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

62:30131 Blum, Alain; Troitskaja, Irina. Mortality in Russia during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: local assessments based on the Revizii. [La mortalité en Russie aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles: estimations locales à partir des Revizii.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 303-28 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Little is known about the historical demography of the Tsarist empire, as the study of historical demography never really developed in Russia. But there exist valuable sources, richer than in most European states, during the eighteenth century which can be used by researchers. In this paper [the authors] briefly describe the revizii--census-type nominal data...which cover the period from the early eighteenth to the mid-nineteenth century and use them to construct [life tables] for the Moscow region between 1750 and 1850. [The authors] compare [their] estimates with other [life tables] for the period, and with attempts to construct tables in Russia during the later half of the nineteenth century. [They] show that in the middle eighteenth century, mortality in Russia was comparable to that in France, but that a century later, Russian mortality remained unchanged, whereas French mortality had declined markedly." The population studied consists of about 10,000 males.
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30132 Kannisto, Väinö; Nieminen, Mauri. Revised life tables for Finland, 1881-1990. Väestö/Befolkning/Population, No. 1996:2, ISBN 951-727-160-3. 1996. 67 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This publication contains the revised life tables by estimating the old age populations by the method of extinct cohorts and offers to users the resulting life tables which cover a period of 110 years." In comparison with previous life tables for Finland, significant upward corrections were made to old-age death rates for the earlier part of the twentieth century. After 1945, however, any differences were negligible.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, P.O. Box 3B, 00022 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30133 Mitra, S.; Levin, Martin L. Principal components analysis of the logits of the survivorship function. Janasamkhya, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jun 1993. 1-17 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"We have demonstrated the adequacy of two factors to reproduce the life table survivorship function through its logit transformation. Therefore, by choosing appropriate values for the factor scores within their permissible ranges of variation, sets of model life tables can be constructed which may provide [an] alternative to published model tables....The method of principal components used in this study provides a way of determining the extent to which an observed life table can be reproduced."
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

62:30134 Bennett, Stan. Socioeconomic inequalities in coronary heart disease and stroke mortality among Australian men, 1979-1993. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1996. 266-75 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"During the 1970s in Australia, mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke was higher among lower socioeconomic groups and inequalities were widening. This analysis examines subsequent trends in socioeconomic inequalities, with reference to socioeconomic patterns in major cardiovascular risk factors....Socioeconomic status was defined by occupation. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for men aged 25-64, using death registration data and labour force estimates for 1979-1993....Men in manual occupations were at least 35% more likely to die from CHD than men in professional occupations, and 60% more likely to die from stroke. Their 5-year population risk of a coronary event was 30% higher. Since 1979, both groups experienced reductions in coronary risk and mortality."
Correspondence: S. Bennett, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, G.P.O. Box 570, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30135 Bethune, Ann. Economic activity and mortality of the 1981 census cohort in the OPCS Longitudinal Study. Population Trends, No. 83, Spring 1996. 37-42 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article presents mortality from 1981 to 1989 for men and women in England and Wales of working ages by their economic activity at the 1981 Census. Both men and women in employment had lower overall mortality compared with that of all men, while those seeking work had higher mortality. The social class distribution of the unemployed did not explain all their excess deaths. The overall mortality of both employed and unemployed men relative to all men in the 1980s was lower than that of employed and unemployed men in the 1970s (1971-79) relative to all men in the 1970s."
Correspondence: A. Bethune, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Longitudinal Study Unit, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30136 Blair, Steven N.; Kampert, James B.; Kohl, Harold W.; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Macera, Caroline A.; Paffenbarger, Ralph S.; Gibbons, Larry W. Influences of cardiorespiratory fitness and other precursors on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in men and women. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 276, No. 3, Jul 17, 1996. 205-10 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The purpose of this article is to quantify the relation of fitness to risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality within strata of other predictors of early mortality. The data, which concern 25,341 U.S. men and 7,080 women, were collected between 1970 and 1989 in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The results indicate that the protective effect of fitness holds for both smokers and nonsmokers, for those with or without elevated cholesterol levels or elevated blood pressure, and for both healthy and unhealthy persons.
Correspondence: S. N. Blair, Cooper Insitute for Aerobics Research, 12330 Preston Road, Dallas, TX 75230. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30137 Charlton, John. Which areas are healthiest? Population Trends, No. 83, Spring 1996. 17-24 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article compares mortality rates by geography and over time. This is done by analysing, for England and Wales, mortality data from 1981 to 1992 by cause, local authority, and ward, using the new OPCS area classifications, and the urban/rural categorization of 1991 Census enumeration districts based on land use. The proportion of babies who in 1990-92 were lightweight at birth was also examined. Urban areas (particularly purpose-built inner city estates and deprived industrial areas) tend to be the least healthy. Rural and prosperous areas are the most healthy, and the biggest health gains have been made in these."
Correspondence: J. Charlton, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Health Statistics, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30138 Guest, Avery M.; Almgren, Gunnar; Hussey, Jon M. The ecology of race and socio-economic distress: working age mortality in Chicago. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 96-8, Mar 1996. 41, [10] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper explores variation during the 1989-91 period in age-specific mortality patterns across racially-defined community areas in the city of Chicago. Special attention is devoted to high mortality in the prime working age which is particularly characteristic of black populations in Chicago, especially men. Racial differences in infant mortality are also quite evident but somewhat less pronounced than those in the working ages. Black and nonblack populations have relatively small differences in child and old age mortality."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30139 Hao, Hongsheng. A study on the sex difference in mortality in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1995. 285-98 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Based on the mortality data obtained through the 1990 census in China and by comparing data from the rest of the world, this study analyzes the sex difference in mortality among the Chinese population....[Results show] a lower female mortality rate than male mortality rate both across the country and in individual regions....Female life expectancy at birth in China is approximately 3.2 years higher than male life expectancy, while sex difference in mortality varies considerably from region to region....[The analysis] reveals lower female mortality than male mortality at most ages except among infants, and the difference more in favor of women in elderly age brackets."
Correspondence: H. Hao, People's University of China, Institute of Population Studies, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30140 Harding, S.; Balarajan, R. Patterns of mortality in second generation Irish living in England and Wales: longitudinal study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 312, No. 7043, Jun 1, 1996. 1,389-92 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The mortality of second-generation Irish living in England and Wales is analyzed. The data concern 3,075 men and 3,233 women aged 15 and over in 1971. The cohort was followed up until 1989 using data from a longitudinal study developed from official data. The results indicate that "mortality of second generation Irish men and women was higher than that of all men and all women and for most major causes of death. While socioeconomic factors remain important, cultural and lifestyle factors are likely to contribute to this adverse mortality."
Correspondence: S. Harding, Office for National Statistics, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30141 Hemström, Örjan. Is marriage dissolution linked to differences in mortality risks for men and women? Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 2, May 1996. 366-78 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Is marriage dissolution linked to differences in mortality risks for men and women? This study, based on 44,000 deaths in Sweden, analyzes the impact of the event of marriage dissolution on subsequent mortality using sex-specific intensity regression models. The results show an excess mortality among people who are remarried and cohabiting, especially among women, and provide evidence for a long-term, causal relationship between marriage dissolution and mortality. The results also show that there is a narrower gender mortality difference than expected when work status and number of children are taken into consideration and that women who are not employed, as well as unskilled male workers, are in particularly vulnerable situations at divorce. Aspects of the divorce process, selection, protection, and stress factors may be responsible for the outcome."
Correspondence: Ö. Hemström, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30142 Hummer, Robert A. Black-white differences in health and mortality: a review and conceptual model. Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 1, Winter 1996. 105-25 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"An important segment of social science research focuses on differences in health and mortality between the African American and non-Hispanic white populations in the United States. This article begins by documenting some of the current health and mortality differences. I then review and critique the three major theoretical approaches that are most often used to explain such differences: racial genetic, cultural/behavioral, and socioeconomic. Finally, I present an alternative conceptual framework for the study of black-white differences in health and mortality. This reorientation of the importance of race for health and mortality moves beyond narrow genetic, cultural/behavioral, or socioeconomic representations to include, most importantly, multiple forms of racism as crucial sociological determinants of health and mortality differentials. Key sets of intervening, or proximate, variables are also identified to specify the process by which the health and mortality differentials are created."
Correspondence: R. A. Hummer, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, 126 Stubbs Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5411. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30143 Korenman, Sanders; Goldman, Noreen; Fu, Haishan. Refining estimates of marital status differences in mortality at older ages. NBER Working Paper, No. 182, Jul 1995. 27, [8] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The main objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that some of the limitations that have characterized recent studies of the relationship between marital status and health outcomes may result in biased estimates of marital status differences in mortality among the elderly. A secondary goal is to evaluate the strength of evidence in support of the excess risks of mortality associated with widowhood, once we are able to eliminate or mitigate many of the limitations experienced by other studies. Our results [are] based on the 1984-1990 [U.S.] Longitudinal Study of Aging...."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30144 Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E. Socio-economic and cultural determinants of regional mortality patterns in the Netherlands. In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 286-303 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The analysis presented in this chapter is an attempt to assess the contribution of socio-economic and cultural factors to the explanation of regional mortality patterns in the Netherlands based on a multivariate analysis of the association between district mortality and socio-economic and cultural characteristics in 1980-4, as well as an analysis of the evolution over time of these associations since 1950-4. The latter part of this chapter includes a more detailed analysis of changes over time in the association between socio-economic factors and mortality from two specific causes of death, ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer."
Correspondence: J. P. Mackenbach, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Burgemeester Oudlaan 50, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30145 Marmot, Michael. Social differentials in mortality: the Whitehall studies. In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 243-60 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"National data are crucial in describing differences across the whole of society, and in charting trends. Investigations of reasons for social inequalities in mortality must also include specially conducted studies. This chapter starts with national data in England and Wales and then uses data from the two Whitehall studies of British Civil Servants to investigate possible explanations of social class differences in mortality and morbidity."
Correspondence: M. Marmot, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30146 Meslé, France. Mortality in Eastern and Western Europe: a widening gap. In: Europe's population in the 1990s, edited by David Coleman. 1996. 127-43 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter describes the main features of mortality trends by age and by cause in Eastern European countries, focusing on the period 1970-90. After giving an overview of the changes in life expectancy at birth, we shall describe more precisely mortality trends in two eastern countries, Bulgaria and Hungary, and compare them with those of two western countries: England and Wales, and France."
Correspondence: F. Meslé, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30147 Morelos, José B.; Ehrenfeld, Noemi. Differential mortality in women of reproductive age. [La mortalidad diferencial de las mujeres en edades reproductivas.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1994. 521-42, 783 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper begins by reviewing some conceptual frameworks for the study of female mortality and indicates some of its application problems. Next it presents results of mortality of women in reproductive-age classified by age, causes of death, and socio-demographic traits (marital status, schooling, and occupation) for ten states [in Mexico] differentiated according to level of development and well-being. The data suggests differences according to age, marital status, and schooling. Finally, testing of the mutual independence and partial independence hypotheses indicates that age, marital status, and schooling correlate to the degree of development of each state."
Correspondence: J. B. Morelos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30148 Nathanson, Constance A. Mortality and the position of women in developed countries. In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 135-57 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The late twentieth-century movement of women in many developed countries away from an exclusive involvement in the domestic sphere of home and family into the public world of paid employment and political action has led many observers to speculate on the consequences of this movement for women's mortality, and to anticipate that women will acquire men's mortality risks along with other characteristics conventionally attributed to the masculine role....The arguments we have presented link women's movement toward equal status with men to women's smoking and women's smoking to higher female mortality rates. The first step in this analysis will be briefly to review current evidence for the existence of these links. This review is divided into two parts. In the first part, we examine evidence for a direct association between women's position and their mortality. The second part is focused on the intermediate links that tie smoking, first to women's position and, secondly to their mortality."
Correspondence: C. A. Nathanson, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30149 Pollard, John H. On the changing shape of the Australian mortality curve. Actuarial Studies and Demography Research Paper, No. 008/95, ISBN 1-86408-102-3. Sep 1995. 18, [18] pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"Over the course of the twentieth century, mortality rates in Australia have shown substantial improvements at all ages....The most noticeable change for males has been the development of an `accident hump' in the late teens and early twenties mid century, the growth of this `hump' in the 1960s and 1970s, and its sudden disappearance (or transformation into a bulge) in the late 1980s. In this paper, we examine the reasons for the disappearance of the male `accident hump'. We also study the changes in mortality by cause which have occurred over the decade to 1992 and influenced the level and shape of the whole mortality curve both for males and for females."
Correspondence: Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30150 Rogers, Richard G.; Hummer, Robert A.; Nam, Charles B.; Peters, Kimberley. Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors affecting ethnic mortality by cause. Social Forces, Vol. 74, No. 4, Jun 1996. 1,419-38 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This article examines ethnic differences in total and cause-specific mortality. We employ the linked [U.S.] National Health Interview Survey-National Death Index (NHIS-NDI) to examine ethnic differences in mortality from a combination of demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics perspectives. We find that Asian American mortality is low in part because of healthy behaviors and socioeconomic advantages; that Caucasian American mortality is higher partly because of high prevalence and quantity of cigarette smoking; and that Mexican, Native, and African American mortality is higher partly from socioeconomic disadvantages. These results give us added insight into the demographic, social, and health mechanisms that lead us to persevere or to perish."
Correspondence: R. G. Rogers, University of Colorado, Population Program, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30151 Salhi, Mohamed; Caselli, Graziella; Duchêne, Josianne; Egidi, Viviana; Santini, Antonio; Thiltgès, Evelyne; Wunsch, Guillaume. Assessing mortality differentials using life histories: a method and applications. In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 57-79 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The approach we have developed here, based on life history data [for Norway], presents a new way of analysing mortality differentials by taking account of the individual's past life experience in order to explain this duration of life. Each life will thus be composed of a succession of states through which the individual passes, these states being determined on the basis of modifiable or unmodifiable factors having either a positive or a negative impact on one's health capital. Concerning the causal mechanism we propose here, an individual's risk of dying would depend only on his health capital which varies over time according to his life history. Other assumptions could, however, be made...."
Correspondence: M. Salhi, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30152 Smith, George D.; Neaton, James D.; Wentworth, Deborah; Stamler, Rose; Stamler, Jeremiah. Socioeconomic differentials in mortality risk among men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial: I. White men. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 4, Apr 1996. 486-96 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examined socioeconomic differentials in risk of death from a number of specific causes in a large cohort of White men in the United States....For 300,685 White men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial between 1973 and 1975, data were collected on median income of White households in the zip code of residence, age, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, previous myocardial infarction, and drug treatment for diabetes....There was an inverse association between age-adjusted all-cause mortality and median family income. There was no attenuation of this association over the follow-up period, and the association was similar for the 22 clinical centers carrying out the screening. The gradient was seen for many--but not all--of the specific causes of death. Other risk factors accounted for some of the association between income and coronary heart disease and smoking related cancers."
Correspondence: G. D. Smith, University of Bristol, Department of Social Medicine, Canynge Hall, Whiteladies Road, Bristol BS8 2PR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30153 Smith, George D.; Wentworth, Deborah; Neaton, James D.; Stamler, Rose; Stamler, Jeremiah. Socioeconomic differentials in mortality risk among men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial: II. Black men. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 4, Apr 1996. 497-504 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examined socioeconomic differentials in risk of death from a number of causes in a large cohort of Black men in the United States....For 20,224 Black men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial between 1973 and 1975, data were collected on median family income of Black households in zip code of residence, age, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, previous heart attack and drug treatment for diabetes....There was an inverse association between age-adjusted all-cause mortality and median family income. There was no attenuation of this association over the follow-up period, and the association was similar for the 22 clinical centers carrying out the screening. The gradient was seen for most of the specific causes of death, although the strength of the association varied. Median income was markedly lower for the Black men screened than for the White men, but the relationship between income and all-cause mortality was similar."
Correspondence: G. D. Smith, University of Bristol, Department of Social Medicine, Canynge Hall, Whiteladies Road, Bristol BS8 2PR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30154 Thiltgès, Evelyne; Duchêne, Josianne; Wunsch, Guillaume. Causal theories and models in the study of mortality. In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 21-36 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Mortality analyses intended to help explain differences in survival between groups or individuals must be based on some sort of theoretical framework which defines possible causal pathways. Issues of importance in the development of such frameworks are presented in [this] study...based on a review of several studies. At the same time, the authors have provided a comprehensive review of the status of mortality and, more generally, epidemiological transition theories, focusing on explanations of differential mortality among social classes and conceptual frameworks for cardio-vascular diseases. This is complemented by a discussion of some of the actuarial and demographic models commonly used in mortality analysis." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: E. Thiltgès, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30155 Thiltgès, Evelyne. Mortality differences in Norway. Two biographical data analyses and one question about female mortality differentials. Polish Population Review, No. 7, 1995. 103-15 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is, first, to give an overview of the local history approach developed in adult mortality differentials; secondly, to present its potentiality compared with a more usual approach....Our methodology was applied to Norwegian data."
Correspondence: E. Thiltgès, Université Catholique de Louvain, Place de l'Université 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30156 Thumerelle, Pierre-Jean. Geographical changes in mortality in France. [Les changements géographiques de la mortalité en France.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1996. 65-78 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"It seems that gains in life expectancy [in France] have had no result on the geographical repartition of general mortality indicators during the last thirty years, the maintenance of regional demographic oppositions reproducing in a way that of socio-cultural structures. Inertia is not entire, but changes can only [take] effect during several generations. They are especially discernible at the young ages but we don't know if they are likely to continue later."
Correspondence: P.-J. Thumerelle, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, UFR de Géographie, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30157 Vågerö, Denny; Lundberg, Olle. Socio-economic mortality differentials among adults in Sweden. In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 223-42 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this chapter we will show the extent to which social classes differed with respect to adult mortality in Sweden in the 1980s. Further, we will address the issue of whether or not mortality differences are actually changing in size by comparing socio-economic differences in mortality for two periods, 1961-5 and 1981-6. In the final section, possible causal factors associated with observed socio-economic differences will be discussed as well as reasons for changes in these differences. In this discussion we will draw on earlier analyses of morbidity. We will discuss whether factors such as work, childhood conditions, and individual behaviour could account for trends in morbidity and mortality differences. The chapter will also discuss the more general problem of explanation, as it applies to socio-economic mortality differences."
Correspondence: D. Vågerö, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30158 Valkonen, Tapani; Martikainen, Pekka. The association between unemployment and mortality: causation or selection? In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 201-22 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter attempts to evaluate the importance of the causal effect of unemployment on mortality and is divided into three parts. The first part briefly discusses earlier research. The discussion is not limited to studies on mortality, but selected studies on morbidity are also included. The second part presents the main results of a study on unemployment and mortality among Finnish men carried out by one of the authors....The third part is an attempt to study the effect of unemployment on mortality by utilizing opportunities for `natural experiments' connected with the rapid increase of unemployment in Finland after the oil crisis of the mid-1970s."
Correspondence: T. Valkonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Hameentie 68B, 00550 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30159 Vallin, Jacques. Can sex differentials in mortality be explained by socio-economic mortality differentials? In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 179-200 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Can sex mortality differentials be largely explained by socio-economic differentials in mortality? This is a difficult question which can be considered from many different angles. In this chapter, I will attempt to define one possible approach. Social inequality in mortality is known to be much greater among men than among women. Could that explain, all other things being equal, men's higher mortality?...[The study is based on French data from] the Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (INSEE) second longitudinal mortality survey."
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30160 Wilkins, Russell. Policy-relevant health information: the Canadian experience in assessing socio-economic differentials in mortality. In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 307-26 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author provides "a detailed overview of how non-routine data sources [in Canada] can be fully exploited to yield valuable policy-relevant information about the nature and extent of health inequalities among adults, stressing the need to take both risk factors and risk conditions into account. That is, health information systems must monitor not only the prevalence, distribution, and trends of risk factors for disease and injury, but equally be concerned with differentials in community-level conditions including the workplace, education, poverty, the environment, housing, and the like." The focus is on how such data can be used to analyze socioeconomic differences in mortality.
Correspondence: R. Wilkins, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

62:30161 Anzola-Pérez, Elías; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I. The changing structure of deaths from injuries and violence. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 306-36 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter focuses on trends in mortality due to traffic accidents and acts of violence in the twenty-year period from 1968 to 1987 in selected countries of Latin America and the Caribbean." Sections are included on categories of violent deaths; studies that have been conducted in Latin America; and analysis of data for 38 countries.
Correspondence: E. Anzola-Pérez, Pan American Health Organization, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30162 Bah, Sulaiman M. Indirect estimation of cause of death structure in Africa and contemporary theories of mortality. Social Biology, Vol. 42, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1995. 247-55 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper is a critical assessment of techniques used for the estimation of cause of death structure in Africa in the light of contemporary theories of mortality. The technique mostly used for the indirect estimation of cause of death structure is based on the mortality experience in Western countries. With the marked differences in the epidemiologic transition experienced in Western countries and those being experienced in African countries, it is not very likely that an estimation of cause of death structure based on data from the former can accurately estimate cause of death structure in the latter. This argument is supported in the paper through a comparison of observed estimates of cause of death structure for some African populations with indirect estimates. It is proposed that a better approach is to use a residual method whereby one proceeds from nearly true estimates of cause of death rates to obtain estimates for unknown causes via the known general mortality."
Correspondence: S. M. Bah, University of Zimbabwe, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Programme, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30163 Beaglehole, Robert. Conceptual frameworks for the investigation of mortality from major cardio-vascular diseases. In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 37-56 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter reviews the aetiology of the two major cardio-vascular diseases in developed countries (coronary heart disease and stroke), presents selected population-based data on the prevalence and determinants of the major cardio-vascular disease risk factors, and examines the social and medical responses to the cardio-vascular disease epidemics....It is quite clear that epidemiological research and its application with regard to vascular diseases have been hampered by inadequate attention to a conceptual framework. A framework is required which integrates approaches which individually have been used with only limited success. Since the clinical expression of cardio-vascular disease represents the final common pathway for a wide range of influences, the conceptual framework should incorporate the powerful social and economic determinants of cardio-vascular disease."
Correspondence: R. Beaglehole, University of Auckland, School of Medicine, Department of Community Health and General Practice, Private Bag, Auckland, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30164 Bhattacharya, Jay; Garber, Alan M.; MaCurdy, Thomas. Cause-specific mortality among Medicare enrollees. NBER Working Paper, No. 5409, Jan 1996. 16, [6] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Life tables with specific causes of death, particularly when adjusted for demographic and other personal characteristics, can be important components of cost-effectiveness and other economic studies. However, there are few sources of nationally representative information that can be used to develop life tables that incorporate cause-specific mortality. To produce such estimates, we relate annual [U.S.] mortality rates to a set of individual characteristics, applying a statistical model with a flexible functional form to data obtained from a random sample of Medicare eligibility and hospital insurance files, covering the years 1986-1990....The survival figures are comparable to the life table figures supplied as part of the series of vital statistics of the United States."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30165 Bongaarts, John. Global trends in AIDS mortality. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 21-45, 201, 203 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Since the late 1970s, the AIDS epidemic has spread rapidly worldwide, and by mid-1995 a cumulative total of approximately 18.5 million adults had been infected with HIV, the epidemic's etiological agent. A set of projections of the annual number of AIDS cases and AIDS deaths from 1995 to 2005 for each of the world's major regions is presented. The epidemic is expected to continue to grow rapidly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. By contrast, in North America and Europe the annual number of new AIDS cases is projected to level off in the next few years. The effect of the epidemic on the death rate will be highest in sub-Saharan Africa, but population growth in this region will remain high."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30166 Brunborg, Helge. Demographic consequences of AIDS, with special reference to Zambia. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 396-415 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"This paper will look at some of the demographic consequences of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, with a special emphasis on Zambia. Considerable attention is given to data problems....Our results are similar to the results of other projections, including the intermediate scenarios of the projections presented by UN and WHO (1991). AIDS reduces population growth but not by as much as often believed. The age structure is hardly affected at all. The most dramatic demographic effect is the increase in the number of deaths and the crude death rate, which may lead to a reduction in the life expectancy at birth of about 10 years."
Correspondence: H. Brunborg, Statistisk Sentralbyrå, Research Department, Post Box 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30167 Dominican Republic. Oficina Nacional de Estadística [ONE] (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic). Causes of death, 1980-1989. [Defunciones según la causa, 1980-1989.] División Demografía Boletin, No. 1, Jun 1993. 64 pp. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
Data are presented on causes of death in the Dominican Republic for the period 1980-1989. The data provided are by age, sex, and province.
Correspondence: Oficina Nacional de Estadística, Apartado de Correos No. 1342, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30168 Figa'-Talamanca, Irene. Maternal mortality and the problem of accessibility to obstetric care; the strategy of maternity waiting homes. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 10, May 1996. 1,381-90 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"One of the major causes of maternal mortality is the distance and consequent delay in treatment of childbirth complications. Some developing countries are attempting to reduce delays in treatment by moving women at risk into maternity waiting homes (MWHs), located near a hospital, a few days prior to the date of confinement. This paper illustrates some typical examples of MWHs in different countries. The approach of MWHs is appropriate in some settings but it requires a high degree of coordination between peripheral prenatal care services and second and third level health care facilities. This study discusses some of the issues related to the successful functioning of MWHs, and provides an analytical framework for the planning, management and evaluation of these facilities."
Correspondence: I. Figa'-Talamanca, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Biologia Dell'Uomo, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 00185 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30169 Hummer, Robert A.; Nam, Charles B.; Rogers, Richard G. Premature adult mortality risks associated with cigarette smoking in the United States. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. 96-132, [1996]. 25, [4] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"Cigarette smoking is a critical variable that affects health and survival. In earlier works, the authors used nationally-representative [U.S.] data to show that cause-of-death patterns varied by smoking status and that multiple causes of death were more frequently associated with smokers than non-smokers. In addition, smoking patterns vary by age and sex. The present work extends previous analysis by estimating the mortality risks of different smoking statuses by underlying and multiple causes of death within categories of age and sex. Data from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey are related to data from the 1985 and 1987 National Health Interview Survey supplements to assess the mortality risks. We find that smoking is associated with higher mortality risks for all population categories studied, that the risks differ by smoking category and demographic group, and that the risks also vary according to whether underlying-cause or multiple-cause patterns of death are examined."
Correspondence: Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 659-C Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30170 Koskinen, Seppo. Regional differences in mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Finland. In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 261-85 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to assess the role of the possible causal factors...in the geographic variation of IHD [ischemic heart disease] mortality using a large individual based data set [for Finland]. The role of the main socio-demographic factors can be examined directly as these are included in the data set. Biological, behavioural, and genetic characteristics of individuals, on the other hand, are not included in the data and neither are features of the natural environment. Inferences concerning these factors will therefore be based on indirect judgement, making use of results concerning the stability of regional differences in IHD, their similarity with regard to socio-demographic subgroups of the population, their connection with region of birth versus region of residence, and finally, their specificity to IHD."
Correspondence: S. Koskinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Hameentie 68B, 00550 Helsinki, Finland.

62:30171 Lopez, Alan D. The lung cancer epidemic in developed countries. In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 111-34 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The epidemic of lung cancer has...emerged as one of the principal public health issues of the latter part of the twentieth century and, with few exceptions, there is no indication that the epidemic is abating, especially among women. This chapter will first review the course of the epidemic in developed countries since 1950 and then attempt to quantify the impact of major risk factors which have determined the trends in lung cancer mortality. The data used in this study are national mortality statistics reported to the World Health Organization covering the period 1950 to 1990." The importance of smoking as a cause of lung cancer is stressed.
Correspondence: A. D. Lopez, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30172 Marconi, Elida. Use of vital statistics on maternal deaths in Argentina. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 69-86 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter presents both a description of the quality of mortality data in the Argentine System of Vital Statistics and research on maternal mortality undertaken within the area of the Federal Capital, based on direct measurement using data from death statistics reports cross-checked with corresponding medical histories (corroboration). After an evaluation of the initial results and an adjustment of the methodology, the research has been extended to three other provinces in the country: Tucumán, Córdoba, and Corrientes."
Correspondence: E. Marconi, Ministerio de Salud y Acción Social, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30173 McDaniel, Antonio; London, Andrew S. HIV mortality and the African American population. National Journal of Sociology, Vol. 9, No. 1, Summer 1995. 85-111 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"We assess racial differences in the impact of the HIV epidemic by comparing estimates of HIV mortality [in the United States] among African Americans and whites separately by sex. Total HIV death rates increased from 1987 to 1991 primarily as a result of increases in age-specific HIV death rates among 20 to 55 year-olds. For both males and females, total and age-specific HIV death rates and probabilities of dying from HIV are substantially higher among African Americans than among whites. Most HIV deaths have occurred among non-Hispanic white males; however, HIV death rates have consistently been higher in the African American population. As the demography of the HIV epidemic changes, the impact of HIV mortality on African Americans is likely to increase."
Correspondence: A. McDaniel, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30174 Pozo Rivera, Enrique; Garcia Ballesteros, Aurora. Geographical disparities of mortality by causes of death in Madrid. [Les inégalités géographiques de la mortalité en fonction des causes de décès à Madrid.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1996. 121-30 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In Madrid the spatial distribution analysis of general death rates and of main death causes shows the presence of similar spatial configurations in opposition. There is a north-east, east and south-east periphery plus several southern quarters in the historical centre that have an unfavourable situation, on one hand; and on the other hand, most northern areas in the historical centre and the suburbs have a most favourable situation. This opposition broadly reproduces socioeconomic and socio-cultural inequalities found in Madrid, a population with a high socio-spatial segregation. Therefore, social, economic and cultural variables are very important and explain the spatial distribution of death rates, since those variables are closely related to most risk factors (consumption of tobacco and alcoholic beverages, environmental pollution, food diet...etc)."
Correspondence: E. Pozo Rivera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Geografía Humana, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30175 Rajs, Danuta. Maternal mortality. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 276-94 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author analyzes trends in maternal mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean. Sections are included on maternal mortality and fertility; data quality; causes of maternal death; and the quality of health care. "This chapter analyses data compiled for the Technical Information System of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) together with population estimates compiled by the Latin American Demographic Centre (CELADE). These data have been supplemented with information on vital statistics published by various countries."
Correspondence: D. Rajs, Instituto Médico Legal, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30176 Ram, F.; Dhar, Murali. A modified procedure for calculating person years of life lost. Janasamkhya, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, Jun 1992. 1-12 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This study has proposed a modified procedure for the calculation of PYLL [person years of life lost] which takes competing risk of death into consideration. An application of the modified and old procedures to the data on ten leading causes of death in Bombay shows that the old procedure underestimates the actual PYLL in...all the causes of death under study except dysentery, pneumonia and prematurity. This study suggests tuberculosis, pneumonia, prematurity, heart disease and dysentery in males and pneumonia, prematurity, dysentery, tuberculosis and heart disease in females in that order, as the first five leading causes of death in Bombay in 1984."
Correspondence: F. Ram, International Institute for Population Sciences, Department of Fertility Studies, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30177 Ruiz, Magda; Rincón, Manuel. Mortality from accidents and violence in Colombia. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 337-58 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"By considering death as the central focus, we propose to study the impact that various forms of violence and accidents have had on some demographic indicators and on the dynamics of populations [in Colombia]. Measurement of the effect is considered, separating causes of accidents of all kinds, homicide, injuries inflicted intentionally by another person, and suicide. Those injuries for which it is not reported whether they were accidentally or intentionally inflicted, legal interventions, and war operations are included in some measures of homicide. The evolution of the problem over time, gender, and the age of the affected groups are considered."
Correspondence: M. Ruiz, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Avenida el Dorado Currera 50, Apartado Aéreo 80334, Bogota, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30178 Ruzicka, Lado T. Suicide mortality in developed countries. In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 83-110 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author examines suicide mortality in developed countries. The focus is on levels and trends, age patterns, and correlates, including gender, marital status, geography, social class, and economic conditions.
Correspondence: L. T. Ruzicka, The Old School, George Street, Major's Creek, nr. Braidwood, NSW 2622, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30179 Saunderson, Thomas R.; Langford, Ian H. A study of the geographical distribution of suicide rates in England and Wales 1989-92 using empirical Bayes estimates. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 4, Aug 1996. 489-502 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
This study compares two alternative methods for analyzing the geographical variations in suicide mortality in England and Wales from 1989 to 1992. The authors suggest that the empirical Bayes estimates method is superior to the traditional method of mapping standardized mortality ratios, as the relative risk of suicide is highly dependent on the population size of the area under study. "Discernible trends of high risk are shown in high population density, urban areas for both sexes, and in economically depressed agricultural, rural areas for men. The effects of economic hardship, unemployment and social disintegration are suggested as contributing to this distribution in an initiatory or exacerbatory capacity, for those suffering from psychiatric vulnerability or existing mental illness. Suggestions are made for more detailed analyses of high risk areas."
Correspondence: T. R. Saunderson, University of East Anglia, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich NR4 7TJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30180 Sawyer, Diana O. Malaria mortality in Brazil. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 217-29 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter focuses on some aspects of high internal migration to the Brazilian Amazon which have led to an increase in the number of cases of [malaria] and on the estimation of the malaria mortality, which is believed to be low compared with the African and Asian situations."
Correspondence: D. O. Sawyer, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEDEPLAR, Rua Curtiba 832, Belo Horizonte 30170, MG, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30181 Simons, Harmen; Wong, Laura; Graham, Wendy; Schkolnik, Susana. Experience with the sisterhood method for estimating maternal mortality. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 108-20 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In response to growing interest and concern about maternal mortality, W. Brass and W. Graham...developed in late 1987 a new and relatively simple procedure for providing a community-based estimate of the level of maternal mortality in societies with limited alternative sources. The main objective of this chapter is to describe and discuss the results of three applications of the method in Latin America....The results from [Bolivia, Chile, and Peru] vary substantially...but the sisterhood method consistently produces higher figures than other data sources....This chapter has stressed the importance of wording questions about sisters carefully in order to arrive at a denominator which adequately reflects women at risk."
Correspondence: H. Simons, Universidad Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30182 Tan, Khye Chong; Pollard, John. Mortality changes and life expectancy by cause of death in Singapore, 1980-1990. Actuarial Studies and Demography Research Paper, No. 0011/95, ISBN 1-86408-111-2. Sep 1995. 10, [11] pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"In this paper we investigate the changes which have occurred to Singaporean life expectancy by sex and cause of death from 1980 to 1990. Projected life tables for Singaporean males and females in the year 2000 are obtained by extrapolating the mortality trends observed for the various cause-specific rates."
Correspondence: Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30183 Taucher, Erica; Albala, Cecilia; Icaza, Gloria. Adult mortality from chronic diseases in Chile, 1968-90. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 253-75 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The present study updates the information on time trends and regional differentials presented in earlier investigations of Chilean adult mortality [due to chronic disease]....In addition, rural and urban differentials are analysed in an attempt to relate some causes of environmental and lifestyle determinants. The influence of individual socio-economic factors is sought by examining the structure of deaths by educational level. Finally, comparison with other countries of the Americas and some detailed comparison with USA mortality are used to evaluate the Chilean situation."
Correspondence: E. Taucher, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Bernardo O'Higgins 1058, Casilla 10-D, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30184 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Trends in rates of homicide--United States, 1985-1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 45, No. 22, Jun 7, 1996. 460-4 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"To...assess the relative contributions of firearm- and nonfirearm-related homicide to...recent changes [in the United States], CDC analyzed national vital statistics data for 1985-1994. This report summarizes this analysis, which indicates that overall rates of homicide increased from 1985 to 1991 and decreased from 1992 to 1994, and that during these two periods, rates for total firearm-related homicides and homicide among persons aged 15-24 years increased then stabilized but remained at record-high levels."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30185 Vallin, Jacques. Causes of adult death in low-mortality developing and developed countries. In: Adult mortality in Latin America, edited by Ian M. Timæus, Juan Chackiel, and Lado Ruzicka. 1996. 140-65 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author compares causes of adult death in low-mortality developing and developed countries worldwide as well as in Latin America. "This short analysis suggests two conclusions. Firstly, infectious diseases and diseases of the respiratory system (acute or otherwise) do not contribute to the difference observed between those developing countries where adult mortality is declining....and those in which it is stagnant....The difference is not due to those diseases whose decline marks the first stage of the epidemiological transition (infection), but to causes which underlie the headway made recently in the developed world (neoplasms, cirrhosis of liver, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, injury and poisoning)....Secondly, forecasting the future course of mortality among these forerunners calls for caution."
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30186 Vandersmissen, Marie-Hélène; Thomas, Isabelle; Morin, Denis. Mortality and morbidity due to road accidents: a comparison of Belgium and Quebec. [Mortalité et morbidité dues aux accidents de la route: essai de comparaison Belgique-Québec.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 196-206 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Rates of mortality and morbidity associated with road accidents in Quebec and Belgium are compared. The authors attempt to show that the demographic characteristics of the victims of such accidents are independent of the country in which the accident occurs.
Correspondence: M.-H. Vandersmissen, Université de Sherbrooke, Département de Géographie et de Télédétection, 2500 Boulevard de l'Université, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30187 Waldron, Ingrid. Contributions of biological and behavioural factors to changing sex differences in ischaemic heart disease mortality. In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 161-78 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The evidence reviewed in this chapter indicates that sex differences in ischaemic heart disease mortality are due to the interacting effects of multiple biological and behavioural factors. Men's higher rates of smoking and greater tendency to accumulate abdominal body fat appear to be major contributors to their greater risk of ischaemic heart disease. Women's sex hormones appear to reduce their risk of ischaemic heart disease, probably in part by beneficial effects on serum lipids. Other biological and behavioural factors which may contribute to sex differences in ischaemic heart disease risk include sex differences in iron levels, diet, and cynical hostility." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: I. Waldron, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30188 Yuan, Jian-Min; Ross, Ronald K.; Wang, Xue-Li; Gao, Yu-Tang; Henderson, Brian E.; Yu, Mimi C. Morbidity and mortality in relation to cigarette smoking in Shanghai, China: a prospective male cohort study. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 275, No. 21, Jun 5, 1996. 1,646-50 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Health risks associated with cigarette smoking are analyzed using data on 18,244 male residents of Shanghai, China. The cohort enrolled in a study between 1986 and 1989 and was followed up annually up to 1993. "By September 30, 1993, 852 deaths and 554 incident cancer cases were identified....Compared with lifelong nonsmokers, the relative risks in heavy smokers (20 or more cigarettes per day) after adjustment for alcohol consumption were 2.2 for any incident cancer, 9.4 for incident lung cancer, 6.7 for head and neck cancer, and 1.8 for liver cancer. In terms of mortality, heavy smokers were at a 60% greater risk of death relative to lifelong nonsmokers; there was a 2.3-fold excess risk of death from cancer and a 2-fold to 3-fold excess risk of death from heart disease. [The authors conclude that] cigarette smoking is an important predictor of risk of cancer and mortality in men in Shanghai. Among the study subjects, 36% of all cases of cancer and 21% of all deaths could be attributed to cigarette smoking."
Correspondence: J.-M. Yuan, University of Southern California, USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90033-0800. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).


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