Volume 62 - Number 3 - Fall 1996

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

62:30040 Dupont, Véronique; Mitra, Arup. Population distribution, growth and socio-economic spatial patterns in Delhi: findings from the 1991 census data. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1995. 101-32 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is threefold: to provide an original set of reference maps describing the differential spatial pattern of population distribution and growth in Delhi, on the basis of the 1991 census data...; to identify the variables which seem to generate the highest degree of residential segregation, and also to reveal forms of privileged associations between population groups identified by their socio-economic characteristics and certain areas; to analyse the residential pattern of the different categories of workers in relation to the location of the main economic activities, in order to detect patterns of close association between work place and residence, or, on the contrary, patterns of separation."
Correspondence: V. Dupont, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, 213 rue Lafayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

62:30041 Crook, Nigel. India's industrial cities: essays in economy and demography. SOAS Studies on South Asia, 1993. [vi], 181 pp. Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This book consists of seven essays in which the author examines some of the positive aspects of urbanization in India. He points out that "the industrial city is one of India's major resources. It is a creation of the process of industrialization, which is itself fundamental to economic growth, critical though one may be of the character that the growth process has assumed. The demand for industrial labour has been the prime mover behind the formation of these cities, and a significant factor in the sustained progress of urbanization itself. The demographic outcomes of industrialization are diverse, as diverse as are the industrial processes themselves. Their social implications are problematic: but these need addressing on their own terms, and not by stifling the very process itself."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road, Delhi 110 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30042 Drakakis-Smith, David. Third world cities: sustainable urban development II--population, labour and poverty. Urban Studies, Vol. 33, No. 4-5, May 1996. 673-701 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This is one in a series of overview articles examining aspects of urbanization in developing countries. This article is concerned with the relationship between demographic issues, employment, and poverty in third-world cities. It begins with a description of some of the main dimensions of the urbanization process, including both natural increase and migration. Sections are included on employment and urban labor markets and on poverty and urbanization.
Correspondence: D. Drakakis-Smith, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Roxby Building, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:30043 Frey, William H.; Fielding, Elaine L. New dynamics of urban-suburban change: immigration, restructuring, and racial separation. In: Demographic and structural change: the effects of the 1980s on American society, edited by Dennis L. Peck and J. Selwyn Hollingsworth. 1996. 18-62 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This chapter provides a backdrop for understanding the changing population profiles of urban America by focusing on the forces that shape key demographic trends across broad regions and within metropolitan areas. It then goes on to show how these trends have led to disparities in area growth and decline and in socio-demographic change. The new changes in the nation's urban landscape are strongly influenced by three elements....Each of these three broad trends--the increased growth of minorities, the new disparities in urban growth and decline, and the suburban dominance of metropolitan activities--are signature characteristics of contemporary urban America. These trends serve to shape evolving patterns of growth, decline, and minority concentration across broad regions, as well as within selected metropolitan areas....Because minority concentration is occurring both across regions and within metropolitan areas, the roles of immigration and national minority growth, and their selective impact on the internal redistribution of minorities is...discussed."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30044 Greenfield, Gerald M. Latin American urbanization: historical profiles of major cities. ISBN 0-313-25937-2. LC 93-13015. 1994. xvii, 536 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This book contains 21 chapters by various authors describing urbanization in a specific country in Latin America or the Caribbean. "Chapters begin with an essay that provides significant geographic information and an overview of the nation's urban development. Profiles of selected cities, again with a historical orientation, follow. Hence, this handbook presents both national-level and city-specific perspectives on the urban experience of the region."
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881-5007. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:30045 Jain, M. K.; Ghosh, Minati; Kim, Won Bae. Emerging trends of urbanisation in India: an analysis of 1991 census results. Census of India. Occasional Paper, No. 1 of 1993, 1993. xv, 79 pp. Office of the Registrar General: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"An attempt is made in this study to explore...the dynamics of urban population growth at the all India level and also in the major States during the last 2 to 3 decades after providing back drop of the urban development in India. Accordingly the scope of the present enquiry covers the following aspects:...urban development in India--a historical perspective...levels and trends of urbanisation--contemporary scene...dynamics of urban population growth...[and] salient features of urbanisation." Data are from the 1991 census.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Ministry of Home Affairs, 2/A Mansingh Road, New Delhi 110 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30046 MacKellar, F. Landis; Vining, Daniel R. Population concentration in less developed countries: new evidence. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 74, No. 3, Jul 1995. 259-93 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"Economic theory associates the increase in population concentration, i.e., the proportion of national population residing in the core economic region, with scale and agglomeration economies. Wheaton and Shishido (1981) estimated that these persist until real per capita national income reaches 5,000 1985 U.S. dollars....After this point in a country's economic development, they predicted, population redistribution towards the core region will cease and the proportion of national population residing in the core region will commence to decline....This paper updates previously reported trends in population redistribution in LDCs and reports on many new countries. Taken as a whole, post-war data reinforce the need for caution....While there is a weak negative correlation between the rate of net migration into the core region and per capita income, the share of population residing in the core region may continue to rise even when per capita income has grown to well beyond $5,000."
Correspondence: F. L. MacKellar, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:30047 Micheli, Giuseppe A.; Clerici, Renata. Urban structure and mobility. [Morfologia e mobilità urbana.] Equivalenze, No. 1, ISBN 88-204-9662-3. 1996. 185 pp. FrancoAngeli: Milan, Italy. In Ita.
This work contains three separate studies by different authors on urbanization in contemporary Italy. The first, by Renata Clerici, examines aspects of residential choice in Padua by families in 1982; the second, by Oliviero Casacchia and Luisa Natale, analyzes residential and social mobility in Rome; and the third, by G. A. Micheli and M. C. Debernardi, examines urban mobility and suburbanization in Palermo.
Correspondence: FrancoAngeli, Viale Monza 106, 20127 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30048 Moriconi-Ebrard, François. The agglomerated population. [L'humanité agglomérée.] Bulletin de l'Association de Géographes Français, 1994-1995. 529-42 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article gives a general view on the evolution of urban populations in the world from 1950 to 1990 (populations living in agglomerations of more than 10,000 inhabitants), through the data base Geopolis that the author has [developed]."
Correspondence: F. Moriconi-Ebrard, Observatoire Urbain du Caire Contemporain, 14 rue Gamayet el Nisr, P.O. Box 494, Doqqi Mdandessin, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

62:30049 Obudho, R. A. Small urban centres in Africa: a bibliographical survey. ISBN 9966-9885-4-8. Jan 1995. x, 134 pp. UN Centre for Regional Development: Nagoya, Japan; Centre for Urban Research [CUR]: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
This unannotated bibliography on small and intermediate urban centers in Africa contains 1,581 citations and is organized by country. An author index is provided.
Correspondence: UN Centre for Regional Development, Africa Office, P.O. Box 30218, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30050 Ren, Jun; White, Roger. The simulation of urban system dynamics in Atlantic Canada, 1951-1991. Canadian Geographer/Géographe Canadien, Vol. 39, No. 3, Fall 1995. 252-62 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A dynamic urban model is used to study the post-war evolution of the Atlantic Canada urban system. The computer-based simulation model is calibrated for the period 1951-86 and then employed to predict the 1991 population of each CMA and CA within the system. The simulation results show that, to a large extent, the evolution of the system can be understood in terms of endogenous system dynamics rather than exogenous events. Specifically, competition among the cities of the region is a significant factor in the urban system evolution. The high degree of abstraction of the model means that data requirements for application are minimal, and the calibration procedure is relatively simple. The successful predictions show that the model can yield useful results in spite of its simplicity."
Correspondence: R. White, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department of Geography, St. John's, Newfoundland A1B 3X9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30051 Rivera Guzmán, Salvador. Development and regional urbanization in Mexico, 1970-1990. [Desarrollo y urbanización regional en México, 1970-1990.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1994. 657-99, 785 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Here regional urbanization in Mexico is studied as a function of income level and production structures. This general model allows us to identify four characteristics that are inherent to urban development for the 1970-1990 period."
Correspondence: S. Rivera Guzmán, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30052 Roy, B. K. Urban growth in India and its contemporary relevance. Geographical Review of India, Vol. 55, No. 1, Mar 1993. 12-21 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
"The paper deals with...urban growth in India in general with relevance to urban agglomerations of major significance on the basis of [the] Census of 1991. In addition the urban growth during 1981-91 is viewed in accordance with the projected population and the actual count as undertaken in the 1991 Census operations. Some of the questions arising out of the contemporary trends in these areas...may be of concern for academic and planning processes. More elaborate synthesis is obviously required when the detailed tables on socio-economic parameters are given by the Census in due course to cross-classify and examine more aspects of population at various levels."
Correspondence: B. K. Roy, National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation, Government of India, Calcutta 700 091, India. Location: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, NH.

62:30053 Wilson, Frank H. Urban redevelopment and the post-industrial city: the persistence of gentrification in central cities, 1980-1990. In: Demographic and structural change: the effects of the 1980s on American society, edited by Dennis L. Peck and J. Selwyn Hollingsworth. 1996. 142-68 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
The author evaluates "the population and housing changes that occurred in the largest U.S. cities between 1980 and 1990 and [uses] these sociological facts as a context for examining gentrification. Data from the U.S. Census of Population and Housing will inform this discussion. The organization of this chapter is threefold: First, changes in the population and housing of U.S. cities experiencing revitalization are documented and described. Second, these population and housing changes are analyzed and evaluated in the context of economic restructuring, regional development, and post-industrial urbanization. Third, the implications of these changes for theory, research, and policy are discussed."
Correspondence: F. H. Wilson, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, Milwaukee, WI 53201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

62:30054 Higueras-Arnal, Antonio. The rural population of Spain. [La population rurale espagnole.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1996. 103-9 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The Spanish rural population has fallen considerably in the last thirty years. In 1900, the rural population (living in villages of 3,000 inhabitants, or less) was 6.87 million (37 per cent of the total population). In 1993 the same population had dropped to 7 per cent (2.81 million) and at the beginning of the next century it will be 2.1 million. The rural depopulation has been due to the large scale emigration to the cities between 1950 and 1975. This has produced a demographic vacuum in most of inner Spain, where the provincial capitals stand out like demographic oases. In spite of this, since 1985 there has been a revitalization of the rural areas near the cities or away from them but with good access."
Correspondence: A. Higueras-Arnal, Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Geografía y Ordenación del Territorio, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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