Volume 62 - Number 2 - Summer 1996

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

62:20716 Hantrais, Linda. Comparing family policy in Britain, France and Germany. Journal of Social Policy, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1994. 135-60 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In a context where the employment model of welfare is dominant, family policy has remained an area of limited and indirect competence for the European Community. Comparative analysis of Britain, France and the Federal Republic of Germany as examples of EC member states with different socio-cultural traditions and policy styles shows the limitations of theories about universalism, convergence and harmonisation of family structures and policies. Compared with Britain and Germany, the family policy making style in France is more explicit, visible, coherent and legitimate. Its objectives are overtly pronatalist and it would seem to have had a stronger direct socio-economic impact."
Correspondence: L. Hantrais, Loughborough University, Department of European Studies, Loughborough, Leicester LE11 3TU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20717 Hoodfar, Homa. Population policy and gender equity in post-revolutionary Iran. In: Family, gender, and population in the Middle East: policies in context, edited by Carla M. Obermeyer. 1995. 105-35 pp. American University in Cairo Press: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"By analysing strategies the Islamic Republic has adopted in order to build public consensus on the necessity of birth control and family planning, this paper draws attention to the flexibility and adaptability of Islamic ideology to political and economic realities. Assuming that women's input in family planning decision-making is closely associated with women's socioeconomic status in society and their autonomy and security within conjugal bonds (higher status parallels smaller families), we examine the response of both middle- and low-income women to the call for birth control....The data presented in this paper are based on an ongoing comprehensive research project on women and law in Iran."
Correspondence: H. Hoodfar, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20718 Ibrahim, Saad E. State, women, and civil society: an evaluation of Egypt's population policy. In: Family, gender, and population in the Middle East: policies in context, edited by Carla M. Obermeyer. 1995. 57-79 pp. American University in Cairo Press: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"What contributes to the overall competence of the state in formulating and implementing public policies? Which groups in society reinforce policy objectives and which act as `saboteurs'? To address these questions, this paper examines Egypt's population policy over three decades to locate where, how, and why it may have succeeded or failed. We do so by assessing the different roles of a number of relevant actors operating in the public space bearing on human reproduction....The battle over the future of the country's population policy--indeed over Egypt's destiny--is contingent on a forceful commitment to educating and empowering women, achieving sustained commitment at the highest level of decision-making, and increasing the margin of freedom of Egypt's civil society organizations."
Correspondence: S. E. Ibrahim, American University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 2511, 113 Sharia Kasr El-Aini, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20719 Isaacs, Stephen L. Incentives, population policy, and reproductive rights: ethical issues. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. 363-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The focus of debate over population policy has turned to reproductive health and reproductive rights, raising ethical issues of great delicacy and complexity....Perhaps because of their very difficulty, the ethics of incentives and disincentives have been relatively neglected recently. However, they are far too important to be ignored and should be debated openly. To that end, the history of the use of incentives to reduce population growth is reviewed here, together with the issues it raises. Suggestions are made concerning standards for evaluating whether incentives and disincentives are ethical."
Correspondence: S. L. Isaacs, Columbia University, School of Public Health, Development Law and Policy Program, 60 Haven Avenue, B-3, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20720 Obermeyer, Carla M. Family, gender, and population in the Middle East: policies in context. ISBN 977-424-357-9. LC 95-960433. 1995. xv, 260 pp. American University in Cairo Press: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The essays in this book are revised versions of presentations made at a symposium held in Cairo, Egypt, in early 1994. "In the first section of the book, four essays analyze the political conditions under which population policies are formulated and implemented in the Middle East and in particular the legal, religious, and symbolic aspects of the relation between the state, the family, and the individual. The second section focuses on the cultural context in which existing population policies operate, specifically the ways in which resources and responsibilities are distributed within the family and the constraints that household/family structures represent for individual reproductive behavior. The third section of the book considers the extent to which health and family planning services are effective in improving the well-being of the populations they serve and at the same time are responsive to the needs of individual women."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: American University in Cairo Press, 113 Sharia Kasr El-Aini, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20721 Petchesky, Rosalind P. From population control to reproductive rights: feminist fault lines. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 6, Nov 1995. 152-61 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development 1994 enshrines an almost-feminist version of reproductive rights and gender equality in place of the old population control discourse but retains a mainstream model of development under which that vision cannot possibly be realised. This `fault line' is highly dangerous for feminists, because it configures a gap between the politics of the body, sexuality and reproduction and the politics of social development and global economic transformation. An analysis that makes explicit the concrete links between macro-economic policies and the materialisation of reproductive and sexual rights for all the world's women is needed."
Correspondence: R. P. Petchesky, City University of New York, Hunter College, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20722 Ravindran, T. K. Sundari. Women's health policies: organising for change. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 6, Nov 1995. 178 pp. Reproductive Health Matters: London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The 1970s saw the emergence of organised efforts by the feminist movement to demand changes in legislation, policies, programmes and services in many areas affecting women's reproductive health....This issue of Reproductive Health Matters focuses on the policies that have emerged from these ongoing processes. They reflect on how policy formation occurs, the forces that have facilitated or hindered change, the myriad considerations that go into policymaking, and what needs to be done after policies are in place. These are stories of success, lack of success, and successes derailed. More than anything, they highlight how complex the achievement of an integrated women's health policy is."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Reproductive Health Matters, 29-35 Farringdon Road, London EC1M 3JB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20723 Spakes, Patricia. Women, work, and babies: family-labor market policies in three European countries. Affilia, Vol. 10, No. 4, Winter 1995. 369-97 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This analysis of the family-labor market policies of three European countries--Sweden, the former East Germany, and the former West Germany--contends that the major influences on such policies are the labor needs of the economic system; state-promoted notions of equality of opportunity versus equality of result; and public attitudes toward gender, motherhood, and equality. It demonstrates the contradiction inherent in policies that seek both to protect mothers and to promote equality in the workforce and the need to consider equality of result, as well as equality of opportunity, as a potential policy goal."
Correspondence: P. Spakes, Arizona State University, Office of Academic Affairs, 4701 Thunderbird Road, Phoenix, AZ 85069. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20724 Tian, Xueyuan. Population control in a market economy. Social Sciences in China, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring 1995. 74-83 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"It is of critical importance [for China] to establish a link between the new socialist market economy and control of population reproduction, especially the size of the population. This will determine the direction of reforms in population control in the future. Experiences gained from the coastal regions, which initiated reform and opening to the outside world, with their population of 200 million, and from some inland areas which took the lead in establishing a market economy, allow this problem to be examined in a new light."
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

62:20725 Udry, J. Richard. Policy and ethical implications of biosocial research. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1995. 347-57 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Social scientists are often concerned that research about the biological causes of behavior will encourage biologically-based public policy. Biosocial research models, jointly examining both social and biological causes of behavior, prevent simplistic biological thinking. Public policy is concerned with bringing about social change. Biological models of behavior primarily explain individual differences, and are not useful for guiding policies directed toward producing social change. When we allow our social ethics to prevent us from asking certain research questions, we will produce politically correct research results. We fall into such strategies because we imagine that ethics can be deduced from the nature of the world."
Correspondence: J. R. Udry, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB8120, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20726 United Nations. Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe [CEPAL] (Santiago, Chile); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Population, equality, and the transformation of production. [Población, equidad y transformación productiva.] CELADE Serie E, No. 37, Pub. Order No. S.93.II.G.8. ISBN 92-1-321390-5. Aug 1995. 158 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
This report is designed to assist the governments of Latin America and the Caribbean in developing population policies that can help them in two ways: (1) to achieve social and economic development through the transformation of the means of production, and (2) to move toward greater social and economic equality. The first chapter describes current demographic trends in the region. Subsequent chapters examine the population factor in a simultaneous transformation of production and movement toward greater equality, the role of women in development, natural resources and the environment, population policies and programs, and international aspects such as migration.
Correspondence: UN Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe, Casilla 179 D, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20727 United Nations. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean [ECLAC] (Santiago, Chile). Latin American and Caribbean Regional Plan of Action on Population and Development. Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.159. Feb 1996. 60 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng. with sum. in Spa.
"The Latin American and Caribbean Regional Plan of Action on Population and Development refines and supplements the Draft Plan of Action adopted by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean in its resolution 536 (XXV). The Plan of Action was prepared on the basis of the results of the International Conference on Population and Development, and in consultation and collaboration with the countries [who are] members of ECLAC. Its main sections deal with the current Latin American and Caribbean situation in the area of population; objectives, goals and recommendations for action; and regional actions." This publication is also available in Spanish.
Correspondence: UN Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe, Casilla 179 D, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20728 VanderPost, Cornelis. Preconditions for a population policy in Botswana. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jun 1995. 70-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Botswana is generally regarded as a model of economic growth and democracy in Africa, but like other countries in the region, is faced with rapid population increase: An annual growth rate of 3% threatens to undermine rising living standards. Nevertheless, a population policy is not a high priority within the government. In spite of Botswana's well-developed health infrastructure, low infant mortality and high literacy rate, other conditions are needed for implementation of an effective population policy. Favorable attitudes among the people toward smaller family sizes and a commitment among political leaders to long-term policies may not presently be strong enough, and socioeconomic problems related to rapid population growth may not be extreme enough, to prompt the government to take definite action."
Correspondence: C. VanderPost, University of Botswana, Department of Environmental Science, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

62:20729 Arora, Dolly. The victimising discourse: sex determination technologies and policy. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 31, No. 7, Feb 1996. 420-4 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"How do potentially dangerous technologies acquire people's approval? Does this involve an element of choice? Or does it indicate the growing hold of structures and technologies of control in defining the very meaning of choice? And if this is so, what can be done to alter the situation? These issues are addressed through a study of one particular development, the spread of sex determination technologies and the evolution of state policy towards it. The focus is on the essentially victimising content of these technologies as well as state policy [in India.]"
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20730 Dorbritz, Jürgen; Fleischhacker, Jochen. The transition from population to family policy in the new Lander--a contribution to the discussion on family policy in Germany. [Der Übergang von der Bevölkerungs zur Familienpolitik in den neuen Bundesländern--ein Beitrag zum familienpolitischen Diskurs in Deutschland.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1995. 159-85 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The present contribution is a critical discourse on the concept of family promotion in Germany based on the experience made with the GDR model of population policy and starting from the thesis of pluralization and individualization of the various ways of life. In the former GDR in the 70s the pronatalistic features of population policy became more and more visible. However, their influence on marriage and fertility has been rather restricted....The experience that measures promoting reproduction and marriage which counteract the general trend will not be successful leads to the finding that the classical demographic method of cause and effect analysis is to be rejected....The demographic changes in today's Federal Republic affecting family policy may be described by the term of polarization of behavioural patterns....Mainly the demographic change together with a growing childlessness leads to the modification of the concept of family policy."
Correspondence: J. Dorbritz, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20731 Greenhalgh, Susan; Li, Jiali. Engendering reproductive policy and practice in peasant China: for a feminist demography of reproduction. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, Vol. 20, No. 3, Spring 1995. 601-41 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this article we have sought to develop a feminist understanding of transformations in the demography of gender among the youngest Chinese....We have argued that this trend is part of a larger social phenomenon in China--the engendering of population policy and practice--that is rooted in a complex interweaving of traditional culture with contemporary politics. Drawing on local-level ethnographic and demographic data, we have shown how the engenderment of reproductive practice in the study villages arose out of a complex, historically situated politics involving peasant couples and state officials at multiple levels of the administrative hierarchy. Male bias in reproductive behavior evolved over time, changing character and intensity as resistance gave way to negotiation, negotiation to accommodation, and accommodation to submission."
Correspondence: S. Greenhalgh, University of California, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:20732 Gyula, Jordan. Control of population growth in China. [A nepessegnovekedes ellenorzese Kinaban.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 73, No. 8-9, Aug-Sep 1995. 726-34 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"By way of introduction the study outlines the serious problems caused by the huge mass of population, and the problems associated with the strict birth control introduced by [the] Chinese government. The prevailing administrative methods, previously applied under the conditions of centralised planned economy, have lost much of their effectiveness in the developing market economy. The author analyses what other methods might be applied, in addition to (sometimes instead of) those referred [to] above, being in line with the market and based on the interests of families and communities."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20733 Hartmann, Betsy. Reproductive rights and wrongs: the global politics of population control. Rev. ed. ISBN 0-89608-492-2. LC 94-3626. 1995. xxi, 388 pp. South End Press: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This is a revised and updated edition of a study on population policies around the world and their effect on women's lives. The author suggests that population control policies are based on the premise that improvements in people's lives must be achieved through reductions in the rate of population growth, particularly in developing countries, and through measures designed to reduce women's fertility. She questions this basic assumption, and argues instead that rapid population growth is a symptom, not a cause, of flawed social and economic development. She notes that improvements in the status of women lead to decreases in family size, and that effective birth control services can only thrive within a comprehensive system of health-care delivery that is responsive to people's needs. In Part 1, the causes and consequences of rapid population growth are reviewed. Part 2 describes the population control movement and its development into a powerful international lobby. Part 3 examines the forces behind the development of today's major contraceptive technologies. Part 4 explores the demographic transition: it analyzes societies that have achieved this goal through more equitable paths of social and economic development, and discusses the impact on the demographic transition of the international women's health movement.
For the first edition, published in 1987, see 54:10002.
Correspondence: South End Press, 116 St. Botolph Street, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20734 Lee, Kelley; Walt, Gill. Linking national and global population agendas: case studies from eight developing countries. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1995. 257-72 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The authors report on a study of family planning policies and programs "in four pairs of developing countries--Zambia/Zimbabwe, Algeria/Tunisia, Pakistan/Bangladesh, and the Philippines/Thailand....The study itself consisted of two parts: a policy analysis of the historical determinants of FP policies in terms of policy actors, processes and contexts; and a demographic analysis of the consequences of FP policies in terms of fertility rates and other indicators. Drawing on the policy analysis from the study, one of the key questions addressed was whether a link could be made between policy making at the global and national levels....Overall it was found that, in the four pairs of case study countries, national FP policies and programmes have been shaped to a varying degree by global developments. The extent of this influence has depended on the compatibility between national and global policy contexts."
Correspondence: K. Lee, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Health Policy Unit, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20735 Li, Jiali. China's one-child policy: how and how well has it worked? A case study of Hebei Province, 1979-88. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, Sep 1995. 563-85, 706, 708 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Using data from the 1988 Two-per-Thousand National Fertility Survey in Hebei Province, this study addresses the question of how, and how well, the one-child policy in China worked during its first decade, 1979-88. Even though the Chinese government developed such strong policy measures as the birth-quota system, one-child certificate incentives, and penalties to promote the policy, they were implemented unevenly over time and among the two groups of people with different types of household registration--peasants and workers. China's one-child policy was highly effective only among women with a worker registration, who were under greater government control....The one-child policy was not as effective as expected for the majority of Chinese women, who were members of households registered as peasants and lived under less government control....Multivariate analysis of the fertility behavior of these women reveals that son preference strongly affected the probability of having a second and third child, even more so than the level of education, the degree of urbanization, and population policy measures."
Correspondence: J. Li, Columbia University, National Center for Children in Poverty, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20736 Quine, Maria S. Population politics in twentieth-century Europe: fascist dictatorships and liberal democracies. Historical Connections, ISBN 0-415-08069-X. LC 95-8636. 1996. [viii], 152 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This study examines the context in which pronatalist population policies were developed in the countries of Europe. The author particularly focuses on countries that had totalitarian regimes during the period between the two world wars. She shows how these policies evolved in reaction to the profound social and economic changes that occurred as a consequence of industrialization. "The modern state, in both its democratic and fascist forms, employed eminently authoritarian policies to extend rule over the domain of domestic life by regulating the family, sexuality, reproduction and parenting. Personal choices and freedoms became political issues of critical importance to politicians seeking to safeguard the national interest by altering fertility. This book aims to give an account of the origins and impact of the profound shift in attitudes which accompanied birthrate decline in different nations." There are chapters on Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and the French Third Republic. A final chapter examines the politics of race and population in the twentieth century as a whole.
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20737 Yap, Mui Teng. Singapore's "three or more" policy: the first five years. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 10, No. 4, Dec 1995. 39-52 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Although this article does not attempt a full evaluation of the `selectively pro-natalist' national population policy of Singapore, it does bring out some indicative findings useful for assessing the effects of the policy on fertility. It finds that, while the new policy has succeeded in increasing the annual number of births, the total fertility rate still remains under two children per woman."
Correspondence: M. T. Yap, Institute of Policy Studies, Singapore. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

62:20738 Abernethy, Virginia. Environmental and ethical aspects of international migration. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 1, Spring 1996. 132-50 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"U.S. immigration policy has a beneficent intent. However, recent work suggests that the signal it sends internationally--that emigration can be relied upon to relieve local (Third World) population pressure--tends to maintain high fertility rates in the sending country. This effect is counterproductive because high fertility is the primary driver of rapid population growth. In addition, it appears that the relatively open U.S. immigration policy has resulted in a rate of domestic population growth that threatens both the well-being of American labor and cherished environmental values."
Correspondence: V. Abernethy, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37240. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20739 Black, Richard. Immigration and social justice: towards a progressive European immigration policy? Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996. 64-75 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Stepping back from current debates over immigration in the new `Fortress Europe', this paper examines moral and philosophical arguments for an alternative and more `progressive' immigration policy. Despite recent interest within geography in principles of social justice, the extent to which such principles reach beyond particular societies or nations has rarely been considered explicitly. The notion of social justice may be extended to the question of immigration, without taking the position that migration should itself be seen as a `human right'. Even within relatively conservative contractarian and communitarian conceptions of social justice, a number of suggestions can be made for `progressive' policy options, in particular by focusing on the communal rights and duties of societies rather than the human rights of individual migrants."
Correspondence: R. Black, University of Sussex, School of African and Asian Studies, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20740 Bucci, Gabriella A.; Tenorio, Rafael. On financing the internal enforcement of illegal immigration policies. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 1, Feb 1996. 65-81 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"We introduce a government budget constraint into an illegal immigration model, and show that the effect of increasing internal enforcement of immigration laws on the host country's disposable national income depends on the mix of employer fines and income taxation used to finance the added enforcement. These issues are addressed under alternative assumptions about (a) the ability of host country employers to discern between legal and illegal workers, and (b) host country labor market conditions. Empirical evidence for the United States indicates that the employer sanctions program may have had a negative impact on disposable national income."
Correspondence: G. A. Bucci, DePaul University, Department of Economics, 1 East Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20741 Convey, Andrew; Kupiszewski, Marek. Keeping up with Schengen: migration and policy in the European Union. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, Winter 1995. 939-63 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"There is an inescapable relationship between the existence of migration movements and the resulting policies which are adopted by the authorities of the area concerned towards encouraging these movements, or more commonly towards attempting to control or to reduce them....This paper aims to bring together some of the wide variety of policy issues and responses which may be observed in Europe at the present time and in the recent past, and in particular to make an assessment of the approaches being taken by the European Union member states as a whole, and also by the so-called Schengen group of member states. This article also attempts to look at the perceptions of these policies and their effects from the point of view of both the `western' and the `eastern' European countries, as migration policy issues are rarely onesided. In conclusion, it considers some of the research issues and problems which are raised by geographers and others working in this area...."
Correspondence: A. Convey, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20742 Espenshade, Thomas J. Can immigration slow U.S. population aging? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 13, No. 4, Fall 1994. 759-68 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"While much attention is properly directed to ways of coping with population aging, it is also reasonable to ask whether U.S. immigration policy can reverse or at least slow anticipated aging trends. This article suggests that realistic prospects are tightly circumscribed. It argues that further aging of the U.S. population is a long-run inevitability whenever the public places a high value on long life....We suggest that policy interventions to raise levels of U.S. immigration should not be counted on as a means of slowing population aging. It seems more appropriate to plan for an older population and to explore ways to cope with an even larger proportion of elderly."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20743 Fontaine, Louise. Immigration and cultural policies: a bone of contention between the Province of Quebec and the Canadian federal government. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, Winter 1995. 1,041-8 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article addresses the way in which the Province of Quebec has obtained increasing power in the area of immigration....Data from interviews with key members of [the Ministry of Immigration] and from selected documents are drawn on to illustrate Quebec's cultural politics. The Quebec position on the question of immigration as it has evolved in the context of immigration policies defined by the federal government in Ottawa is examined....In particular, the present article considers how attempts to construct a cultural identity and a nation-state in Quebec have had important consequences for immigration policy and for attitudes and policies concerning Quebec's cultural minorities. The emergence of the notion of `cultural communities' as a result of the constitutional rivalry and the on-going struggle for legitimacy between Quebec and Ottawa is also explored."
Correspondence: L. Fontaine, Universite Sainte-Anne, Pointe-de-l'Eglise, Nova Scotia B0W 1M0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20744 Freeman, Gary P. Modes of immigration politics in liberal democratic states. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, Winter 1995. 881-913 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The politics of immigration in liberal democracies exhibits strong similarities that are, contrary to the scholarly consensus, broadly expansionist and inclusive. Nevertheless, three groups of states display distinct modes of immigration politics. Divergent immigration histories mold popular attitudes toward migration and ethnic heterogeneity and affect the institutionalization of migration policy and politics....I begin by discussing those characteristics of immigration politics found in all liberal democracies. I then investigate the distinctive modes of immigration politics in the three subsets of Western democratic states with distinctive immigration histories. I conclude by considering whether these three patterns will persist or how they might change as a result of future migration pressures and the further institutionalization of immigration politics and policies in Europe." Comments by Rogers Brubaker (pp. 903-8) and a rejoinder by the author (pp. 909-13) are included.
Correspondence: G. P. Freeman, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20745 Kratochwil, K. Hermann. Cross-border population movements and regional economic integration in Latin America. [Movilidad transfronteriza de personas y procesos de integración regional en América Latina.] Revista de la OIM sobre Migraciones en América Latina/IOM Latin American Migration Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1995. 3-11 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
This article, which is concerned with international migration, examines some of the problems associated with the trend toward greater integration of the economies of Latin American countries. The geographic focus is on the member countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) or the Andean Group. The author proposes a program of measures to control migration. The proposal attempts to incorporate the social dimension of migration as well as its economic aspects.
Correspondence: K. H. Kratochwil, International Organization for Migration, Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20746 Leitner, Helga. International migration and the politics of admission and exclusion in postwar Europe. Political Geography, Vol. 14, No. 3, Apr 1995. 259-78 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Although nation-states assume territorial, political and cultural boundedness, their boundaries are not uniform barriers, but rather are characterized by varying degrees of openness and closure to international migrants. The manipulation of the permeability of these boundaries constitutes the politics of admission and exclusion....This paper provides a discussion of the complex economic, political and social forces impinging on the politics of admission and exclusion and an analysis of how these forces have been operating in a particular historical and geographical context to determine the admission of international migrants into national territory and community....There are signs that the integration of nation-states into regional blocs such as the EC is shifting the politics of admission and exclusion practised by the dominant member countries to the supra-national scale."
Correspondence: H. Leitner, University of Minnesota, Department of Geography, 100 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:20747 Lowell, B. Lindsay; Teachman, Jay; Jing, Zhongren. Unintended consequences of immigration reform: discrimination and Hispanic employment. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 4, Nov 1995. 617-28 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The record-keeping requirements of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), and fines for illegal employment, may induce employers to discriminate against foreign-appearing workers. The [U.S.] General Accounting Office (GAO) reported widespread IRCA-related discrimination but did not link reported discriminatory practices to discriminatory employment behavior. We analyze the GAO's random survey and, controlling for selectivity effects, demonstrate that employers who report discriminatory practices actually employ fewer Hispanics. Although the measured reduction of Hispanic employment due to IRCA is fairly small, this finding parallels research alerting us to adverse consequences of a law that so far has achieved few of its intended effects."
Correspondence: B. L. Lowell, U.S. Department of Labor, Division of Immigration Policy and Research ILAB S5325, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20748 Simmons, Alan B. Canadian immigration policy in the early 1990s: a commentary on Veugelers and Klassen's analysis of the breakdown in the unemployment-immigration linkage. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie, Vol. 19, No. 4, Fall 1994. 525-34 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
The author comments on an article by J. W. P. Veugelers and T. R. Klassen. "Veugelers and Klassen's (1994) paper makes an important contribution by confirming in detail three findings on Canadian immigration policy that have been noted only more casually and less clearly in previous studies. In this commentary on their paper, I seek to clarify the significance of their findings and to set forth some important issues and hypotheses which are not covered in their interpretation."
For the article by Veugelers and Klassen, also published in 1994, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20749 Sullivan, Kathleen M.; Muñoz, Cecilia. Racing toward "Big Brother": computer verification, national ID cards, and immigration control. State of Hispanic America, 1995. Jul 1995. ix, 122 pp. National Council of La Raza [NCLR]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report examines the implications of setting up a national verification system as part of efforts to control illegal immigration to the United States. The authors make the case that the integrity of any verification system would hinge on the security of the documents that underlie it, and that documents used in this system, such as Social Security cards or driver's licenses, are not secure; therefore, proposals to create a secure document on which the system could be based would be complex, time-consuming, and costly. They conclude that making inroads against undocumented immigration does not require the development of such a verification system and that the creation of it would place enormous burdens on employers and working Americans. They suggest alternatives to employer sanctions that would reduce levels of such immigration, as well as safeguards that should be adopted if a verification system were to be developed.
Correspondence: National Council of La Raza, 1111 19th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20750 Ugur, Mehmet. Freedom of movement vs. exclusion: a reinterpretation of the "insider"-"outsider" divide in the European Union. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, Winter 1995. 964-99 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article argues that the question of free movement vs. exclusion within the European Union (EU) can be addressed satisfactorily only if we move away from the narrow state-centrism inherent in the current debate. What is required is to `open' the state concept and examine the implications of state-society relations for EU policy making. Once this is done, it can be seen that the exclusionist stance of the immigration policy and the essentially intergovernmental nature of the policy making are due to an implicit contract between states and constituents implied by the concepts of nationality and citizenship. According to this perspective, the focus on the state or the political elite alone is too one-sided and misses the more complex factors bearing upon EU policy making in this area."
Correspondence: M. Ugur, University of Greenwich, Wellington Street, Woolwich, London SE18 6PF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20751 Veugelers, John W. P.; Klassen, Thomas R. Canadian immigration policy: a reply to Foot and Simmons. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie, Vol. 19, No. 4, Fall 1994. 535-40 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
This article is a response to comments on a recent article on the links between immigration and unemployment in Canada. "In their commentaries, Foot (1994) and Simmons (1994) focus on our interpretations, and advance alternative or supplementary interpretations. In this response, we critically examine the role of demographic objectives; the economic demand theory; globalization; and the state-centered immigration model."
For the articles by Foot and Simmons, also published in 1994, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: J. W. P. Veugelers, University of Toronto, Department of Sociology, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20752 Weiner, Myron. Ethics, national sovereignty and the control of immigration. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 1, Spring 1996. 171-97 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the debate as to whether migration is a basic human right or if the claims of outsiders are superseded by the principle of national sovereignty--the moral obligation of states to do the best for their own citizens. In evaluating migration and refugees it focuses on issues of open borders, migration selectivity, the capacity of sovereign states to control entry, the claims of refugees, the relationship between sovereignty and justifiable intervention, and the role of public opinion and morals throughout migration policies."
Correspondence: M. Weiner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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