Volume 62 - Number 2 - Summer 1996

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

62:20624 Clarke, Harry R.; Ng, Yew-Kwang. Population growth and the benefits from optimally priced externalities. Australian Economic Papers, Vol. 34, No. 64, Jun 1995. 113-9 pp. Adelaide, Australia. In Eng.
"In this article we show that, considering only economic effects, even if population growth, by natural increase or immigration, increases congestion, pollution, and other forms of external costs, that provided pre-existing citizens own the resources giving rise to the externalities, and provided they efficiently price usage of such, that existing citizens must, in net average terms, be better off with population growth than without it. In simple terms the increased revenues they gain from efficient pricing at increased demand levels will be strictly greater than the monetary value of the increased external costs together with the higher tax costs they incur as consumers of the resources."
Correspondence: H. R. Clarke, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3082, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20625 Kelley, Allen C.; Schmidt, Robert M. Aggregate population and economic growth correlations: the role of the components of demographic change. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 4, Nov 1995. 543-55 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The results of recent correlations showing a negative impact of population growth on economic development in cross-country data for the 1980s, versus `nonsignificant' correlations widely found for the 1960s and 1970s, are examined with contemporaneous and lagged components of demographic change, convergence-type economic modeling, and several statistical frameworks. The separate impacts of births and deaths are found to be notable but offsetting in the earlier periods. In contrast, the short-run costs (benefits) of births (mortality reduction) increase (decrease) significantly in the 1980s, and the favorable labor-force impacts of past births are not fully offsetting."
Correspondence: A. C. Kelley, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, Durham, NC 27708. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20626 Schultz, T. Paul. Investments in women's human capital. ISBN 0-226-74087-0. LC 94-40577. 1995. vi, 461 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies by various authors on aspects of the allocation of human capital investments between men and women in families and societies around the world. The papers were originally discussed at a meeting held in Bellagio, Italy, in May 1992. The 13 papers are organized under the following topics: overview and experience of high-income countries; labor markets, uncertainty, and family behavior; health; education; and household structure and labor markets in Brazil. "The objective of this book is to collect empirical analysis of who receives human capital--nutrition, health care, education, mobility, training--and what explains this allocation of intergenerational investment between males and females. The primary, but not exclusive, concern is with low-income countries where these gender inequalities tend to be relatively larger."
Correspondence: University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

62:20627 Kapuria-Foreman, Vibha. Population and growth causality in developing countries. Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 29, No. 4, Jul 1995. 531-40 pp. Macomb, Illinois. In Eng.
"My objective in this paper was to analyze the causal relationship between economic growth and population growth in 15 developing countries. I hypothesized that the absence of a significant relationship in previous studies arose from their employment of cross-sectional analysis (thus lumping together diverse country experiences), their neglect of the dynamic nature of the relationship, and their assumption that there was no feedback from economic growth to population growth. The results of this investigation reveal an absence of feedback between population growth and economic growth in the developing countries examined. They also reveal support for the positive impact of population growth on economic growth and further weaken the antinatalist case."
Correspondence: V. Kapuria-Foreman, Colorado College, Department of Economics and Business, Colorado Springs, CO 80903. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20628 Larivière, Jean-Pierre. North Korea: socioeconomic characteristics, demographic parallels with the South. [Corée du Nord: particularisme socio-économique, parallélisme démographique avec le Sud.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2, 1995. 203-7 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The two states of the Korean peninsula have similarities in their demographic evolution. The North, where the drop in fertility arrived later and was weaker, is today, like the South, well advanced in the second phase of its demographic transition. Indeed, North Korea, with some characteristics linked to its political and economic organization, has experienced a profound social change. Its development into a largely city-and-industry-based society has prompted the demographic transformation."
Correspondence: J.-P. Larivière, Université de Rennes 2, 6 avenue Gaston Berger, 35043 Rennes Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20629 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Population growth and rural development. [Croissance démographique et développement du monde rural.] Etudes Démographiques, ISBN 9981-20-031-X. 1995. 220 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Demographic and socioeconomic development trends in the rural regions of Morocco are analyzed using data from official sources, including the 1994 census. Part 1 has chapters on population dynamics, family characteristics, education and health, and the rural exodus. Part 2 looks at economic activity and the infrastructure in rural areas. Part 3 considers the impact of population growth, and Part 4 examines the impact of population growth on agricultural production and the rural exodus.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques, Rue Mohamed Belhassan el Ouazzani, Haut-Agdal, B.P. 178, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20630 Neupert, Ricardo F. Population and the pastoral economy in Mongolia. Working Papers in Demography, No. 58, 1995. 25 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The central hypothesis discussed in this study is that the main determinant of the subsistence of nomadic pastoralism in Mongolia has been the low population density existing in rural areas....The first purpose of this paper is to examine [this] hypothesis....A second objective is to discuss the possible impact on the pastoral economy of some of the economic transformation that Mongolia has been experiencing after the 1990 reform movement....A third objective of this paper is to analyse the policy implications of these events and to propose a framework for the discussion of possible interventions."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20631 Palloni, Alberto; Hill, Kenneth; Pinto Aguirre, Guido. Economic swings and demographic changes in the history of Latin America. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 1, Mar 1996. 105-32 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we study the effects of short-term fluctuations in indicators of economic well-being on selected demographic response such as births, marriages and deaths at age intervals in eleven Latin American countries between 1910 and 1990. We use conventional distributed lag models to assess the magnitude and direction of effects and test a variety of hypotheses some of which have been posed to hold in Western Europe and others that are more specific and tailored to the Latin American context. We also compare the magnitude and direction of effects obtained among these countries with those obtained for pre-industrial Europe and uncover the existence of broadly similar patterns."
Correspondence: A. Palloni, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20632 Ray, Manashi. Economics of population and development. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 30, No. 36, Sep 9, 1995. 2,263-8 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author argues that rapid population growth in itself is not a serious development problem for developing countries. "Contrary to customary assumptions, population growth in conjunction with other determinants of development has on many instances promoted social change, and in the recent past has been a boom to economic growth in the newly industrialized countries. It is therefore an issue of management and optimum utilisation of present and future human resources."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20633 Simone, AbdouMaliqalim. From reproduction to reinvention: women's roles in African cities. Africa Insight, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1995. 4-14 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
"Should women constitute the primary locus through which African societies and the international community direct interventions to stem the tide of population growth within an overall context of economic deterioration? At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, many women tried to steer the issue toward an elaboration of women's rights, improved living conditions for all members of impoverished societies, and a reduction of consumption levels in the North." In this paper, the author "argues that population will not be `controlled' unless states find new ways to harness the multiplicity of social collaboration engineered--especially by urban women--to accomplish everyday survival and build institutions capable of mediating the intensification of household, gender, ethnic, generational and subregional conflicts exacerbated by increasing poverty."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

62:20634 Börsch-Supan, Axel. Aging in Germany and the United States: international comparisons. In: Studies in the economics of aging, edited by David A. Wise. NBER Project Report, 1994. 291-329 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a set of international comparisons of how the German and the U.S. economies are affected by population aging. The purpose of the paper is to employ cross-national comparisons to learn about the microeconomic mechanisms in labor, financial, and housing markets that are most important for an analysis of how population aging affects our economies and, from an understanding of these mechanisms, to discuss policy options that may moderate the implications of population aging. The paper concentrates on three microeconomic decisions: when to retire, how much to save, and where to live."
Correspondence: A. Börsch-Supan, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics, Postfach 10 34 62, 68131 Mannheim 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20635 Cheung, Edward. Baby-boomers, generation-X and social cycles. Rev. ed. ISBN 1-896330-03-7. 1995. 119 pp. Longwave Press: Toronto, Canada. In Eng.
The author examines population trends in Canada over time, and identifies a series of long-wave cycles of about 54 years in duration. The first chapter describes how these cycles affect the characteristics of the population. The second chapter is concerned with the impact of these population trends on social factors, such as prohibition, the women's movement, urban reform, popular music, and political events. The third chapter concerns the relationship between demographic and economic factors, such as consumption, savings, investment, and the labor force.
Correspondence: Longwave Press, P.O. Box 100, 368 Highfield Road, Toronto, Ontario M4L 2V6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20636 Fleischhacker, Jochen. The impact of deindustrialization and unemployment on family formation and fertility in East Germany. Geographia Polonica, Vol. 64, 1995. 117-35 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The paper analyses the demographic situation in East Germany which has changed fundamentally since 1989. Trends towards deindustrialization and a high level of unemployment especially among women are basic features of demographic development in East Germany. The dismantling of industrial capacities accompanying the economic transformation process in East Germany was not only the result of differences in productivity between East and West Germany, but also of regional strains on the environment. It has been proved that the one-sided economic policy in the GDR and the resulting environmental damages in East Germany have not led to major changes in birth and mortality rates."
Correspondence: J. Fleischhacker, Humboldt University of Berlin, Faculty of Philosophy III, Unter den Linden, 1086/10117 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20637 Frakulli-Dumani, Bukuri. Birthrates and socio-economic development in Albania. [Natalité et développement socio-economique en Albanie.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 28, ISBN 2-87209-387-7. Dec 1995. 90 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa; Dut; Ara.
"Albania stands apart in the demo-economic development of Europe; its socio-economic progress is low, its birthrates high. Is the economy weak because of strong birthrates or vice versa? Since 1960 the population has been attracted to reducing birthrates for individual, family and social motives based on socio-economic and cultural factors, but demographic phenomena are notoriously slow moving. The working population, for instance, is still growing annually, necessitating investments in the field of employment. But the weakness of these investments means unemployment is increasing, emigration is massive, family incomes are eaten up by food budgets, infantile malnutrition is widespread, minimal living standards are difficult to maintain."
Correspondence: Academia-Bruylant, 25 Grand Rue, Boite 115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20638 Gonnot, Jean-Pierre; Prinz, Christopher; Keilman, Nico. Adjustments of public pension schemes in twelve industrialized countries: possible answers to population ageing. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1995. 371-98 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article analyses the impact of population dynamics on future public pension expenditure in twelve industrialized countries. Whereas previous studies have mainly emphasized ageing effects, this study looks into the consequences of changing marital status structures as well. Old age pensions, disability, and survivor's pensions are investigated. Various sets of demographic and pension scenarios are formulated for the projections, dealing with changes in demographic, labour force and pension system variables in the future. The analyses show that there can be no adequate demographic response to rising pension costs caused by population ageing at the horizon 2030. Neither an increase in fertility nor an inflow of migrants can rejuvenate national populations, unless fertility and/or migration reach unrealistically high levels. Instead, substantial reductions of the public pension burden have to be sought in socioeconomic measures."
Correspondence: J.-P. Gonnot, UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais de Nations, Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20639 Livi Bacci, Massimo. Demographics and the pension system. Review of Economic Conditions in Italy, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1995. 9-29 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"Italian demographic evolution closely resembles that of the other leading European countries, although with some distinctive features, such as a lower birth rate, more rapid population aging and fewer immigrants. Projections for the next two or three decades point to accelerating expansion of the aged population, especially of the very old, and a contraction of the working age population after the turn of the century. However, there are also unknowns involved in the demographic evolution of the aged population, turning on the speed of the decline in senile mortality in the decades to come and the possible effects on the health of the elderly population, hence on the demand for social services, considering among other things changing family patterns. There is broad agreement that the birth rate is now too low, that this could have serious long-run repercussions on relations between generations and on intergenerational transfers, and that there is room for social policy action to influence the reproductive choices of couples. This article examines several possible reproductive models and discusses the foundations for action and the potential policy contradictions."
Correspondence: M. Livi Bacci, University of Florence, Department of Statistics, 50121 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20640 Noguchi, Yukio; Wise, David A. Aging in the United States and Japan: economic trends. NBER Conference Report, ISBN 0-226-59018-6. LC 94-14101. 1994. ix, 203 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The [seven] papers in this volume were presented at the first of a series of conferences sponsored jointly by the National Bureau of Economic Research and the Japan Center for Economic Research." The subject of this conference was demographic aging in the United States and Japan, particularly the economics of the aged and the economics of aging. "The volume contains papers on labor force participation and retirement, the economic status and housing of the elderly, the budget implications of population aging, and the utilization of health care."
Correspondence: University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20641 Pollard, John H. Long term care in selected countries: demographic and insurance perspectives. Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1995. 293-310 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"Governments of low fertility European nations have been aware for some time of the growing problem of providing pensions to their now rapidly ageing populations, a situation exacerbated by continuing substantial improvements in life expectancy....In this paper, we examine the likely needs for long term care in six selected countries and the implications in terms of cost. The difficulty of defining and measuring the need for such care is emphasised. Approaches which have been adopted to deal with the growing demand for long term care in certain countries are outlined, and alternative methods for financing the considerable costs involved are discussed."
Correspondence: J. H. Pollard, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20642 Shoven, John B.; Topper, Michael D.; Wise, David A. The impact of the demographic transition on government spending. In: Studies in the economics of aging, edited by David A. Wise. NBER Project Report, 1994. 13-37 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The goal of this research is to determine the impact on government budgets of predicted changes in demographic structure in the United States over the next 90 years....Our basic approach identifies those government programs for which beneficiaries can be distinguished....We calculate the cost to taxpayers of maintaining the 1986 level of age/family-structure-specific payments for each of 22 government programs for which we could identify beneficiaries. We estimate these costs for 1990, and at 20-year intervals from 2000 to 2080. These programs include Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, education, and a range of income support, welfare, and work-related government programs....In total, the programs we examine account for about 40 percent of all government expenditure. We find that maintaining the benefit levels for each age-specific family type would require quite dramatic increases in the total funds allocated to these programs."
Correspondence: J. B. Shoven, Stanford University, Department of Economics, Encina Hall, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20643 Wise, David A. Studies in the economics of aging. NBER Project Report, ISBN 0-226-90294-3. LC 94-16196. 1994. xi, 456 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This volume consists of papers presented at a conference held at Caneel Bay, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, May 7-9, 1992. It is part of the National Bureau of Economic Research's ongoing project on the economics of aging....The goal of the economics of aging project is to further our understanding of the consequences for older people and for the population at large of an aging population. The papers in this volume deal with death rates and life expectancy, saving for retirement, retirement behavior, demographic transition, international comparisons, and long-term care." The primary geographical focus is on the United States, with comparative studies concerning Germany and Taiwan.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

62:20644 Birg, H.; Fritsch, B.; Hösle, V. Population, environment and sustainable livelihood. IBS-Materialien, No. 37, ISBN 3-923340-31-1. 1995. 100 pp. Universität Bielefeld, Institut für Bevölkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik [IBS]: Bielefeld, Germany. In Eng.
This is a collection of three articles on population, environment, and sustainable development worldwide. Aspects considered include world population projections for the twenty-first century, and moral ends and means of world population policy.
Correspondence: Universität Bielefeld, Institut für Bevölkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik, Universitätsstrasse, Postfach 8640, 4800 Bielefeld 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20645 Brown, Lester. Who will feed China? Wake-up call for a small planet. Worldwatch Environmental Alert Series, ISBN 1-85383-316-9. 1995. 160 pp. Earthscan Publications: London, England. In Eng.
The author describes the rapid industrialization that is occurring in China, which, along with continuing population growth, has led not only to an increasing demand for a variety of foods, but also to a decrease in available cropland and in local grain production. "The result has been to turn China, within the course of 12 months, from being an exporter of grain and other foodstuffs, to a net importer. And the speed and scale of this turnaround mean that China is facing a grain deficit so large it could overwhelm the export capacities of major producers such as the [United States]. The resulting fierce competition could send grain prices rocketing--with disastrous effects for the world's poor. The bottom line is that China's shortage of cropland and water will become the world's shortage, and her rising food prices will become the world's rising food prices. This is a wake-up call for a planet reaching the limits of its capacity."
Correspondence: Earthscan Publications, 120 Pentonville Road, London N1 9JN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20646 Coward, Harold. Population, consumption, and the environment: religious and secular responses. ISBN 0-7914-2671-8. LC 95-81019. 1995. vii, 319 pp. State University of New York Press: Albany, New York. In Eng.
"This book concentrates on the different ways in which the major world religions view the problems of overpopulation and excess resource consumption and how they approach possible solutions. After examining the natural background and the human context, the book moves on to consider both religious and secular approaches. It analyzes how a particular religion's scriptures comment on the nature of people, the environment, people's place in the environment, and their roles and responsibilities. The historical dimension is derived from reviewing a particular religion's record in teaching about these issues, often demonstrating how broader issues are addressed. Practical lessons are learned from religious guidelines that deal with current problems and offer solutions. The author considers Aboriginal spirituality, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Chinese religions. The secular approaches include secular ethics, North-South relations, market forces, the status of women, and international law."
Correspondence: State University of New York Press, State University Plaza, Albany, NY 12246. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20647 Gulati, S. C.; Chopra, Kanchan. Population redistribution, environmental degradation and landuse patterns: a district level study of linkages in arid and semiarid zones of India. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 1-14 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper aims at examining the relationship between environmental degradation and the different kinds of migration that might coexist in a certain empirical situation from a more macro or district level perspective. It examines the nature and strength of linkages between population growth and its redistribution, changing land use patterns and environmental degradation process over the 1980s in arid and semiarid zones of India. The study accounts for the interactions by formulating a simultaneous structural system, with distress rural outmigration, environmental degradation, and landuse pattern variables being endogenous in the system, and some relevant demographic and developmental predictors being treated as exogenous to the system....[The study] pertains to 89 districts over arid and semiarid tracts over the Central and the Western parts of India."
Correspondence: S. C. Gulati, Delhi University, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20648 Homer-Dixon, Thomas. The ingenuity gap: can poor countries adapt to resource scarcity? Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, Sep 1995. 587-612, 706, 708 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"My focus here...is on the generation of ideas, or what I call `ingenuity,' in response to resource scarcity. In its simplest form, the central question I ask is: Can humans be smart enough at the right times and places--can they generate and disseminate enough ingenuity--to keep scarcity from negatively affecting their wellbeing? In answer, I first discuss what I mean by ingenuity. I then identify some factors that affect the requirement for and the supply of ingenuity. In some societies, I argue, resource scarcity can simultaneously increase the requirement and impede supply, producing an `ingenuity gap' that may have critical consequences for adaptation and, in turn, social stability."
Correspondence: T. Homer-Dixon, University of Toronto, Peace and Conflict Studies Program, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20649 Jiggins, Janice. Changing the boundaries: women-centered perspectives on population and the environment. ISBN 1-55963-259-3. LC 94-21949. 1994. xx, 291 pp. Island Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study emphasizes the crucial role that women must play if global problems of population growth and environmental degradation are to be solved. The author describes the increasing success that women are having in getting involved in the development of humane population policies that advocate gender equality and the rights of women to control their own bodies, to regulate their own fertility, and to make decisions on their livelihood. The book contains chapters on women and sustainable development, the availability of accurate data on environmental and population issues, women's education, reproductive health, and women, agriculture, and natural resources.
Correspondence: Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20650 Joekes, Susan; Heyzer, Noeleen; Oniang'o, Ruth; Salles, Vania. Gender, environment and population. Development and Change, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan 1994. 137-65 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Based on field research from three regions with distinct variations in environment, population density, livelihood bases and levels of resource dependency, this study investigates the gender aspects of environmental change. It seeks to illustrate the relevance of gender factors for the patterns of adaptation to change, for the welfare impact of changes on the population, and for the ramifications for resource management and livelihood generation at the community level. It employs a gender analysis to examine the impact of such changes on population variables, particularly on health and nutrition, and to explore the more general question of whether women's socio-economic status is being threatened by the pressures of environmental change."
Correspondence: S. Joekes, University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton BN1 9RE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20651 Kalipeni, Ezekiel. Demographic response to environmental pressure in Malawi. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 4, Mar 1996. 285-308 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper uses Malawi as a case study to shed some light on the interrelationships between population growth and demographic responses to environmental pressure. It is noted that certain parts of the country that are experiencing extreme environmental stress have [begun] to go through a rapid phase of demographic and social change and transformation. For example, the Southern Region of the country, which has some of the highest densities, is experiencing a fertility transition. There is a spontaneous internal migration pattern from densely populated rural areas to other sparsely populated rural areas. Other non-demographic responses to population pressures are also briefly discussed in this paper."
Correspondence: E. Kalipeni, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, 220 Davenport Hall, 607 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20652 Krengel, Rolf. World population from the beginnings of modern humans to the problems of their capacity for survival in the twenty-first century. [Die Weltbevölkerung von den Anfängen des anatomisch modernen Menschen bis zu den Problemen seiner Überlebensfähigkeit im 21. Jahrhundert.] Beiträge zur Strukturforschung, No. 148, 1994. 123 pp. Duncker und Humblot: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The first part of this work presents data on world population growth from the Paleolithic era up to the year 2100. In the second part, projections of world population and natural resources in the twenty-first century are examined. Factors discussed include land, water, food supply, nonrenewable raw materials, environmental protection, and AIDS. The third part focuses on the sources of data used. A bibliography and a statistical appendix are also included.
Correspondence: Duncker und Humblot, Carl-Heinrich Becker-Weg 9, 12165 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20653 MacKellar, F. Landis; Lutz, Wolfgang; Prinz, Christopher; Goujon, Anne. Population, households, and carbon dioxide emissions. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 4, Dec 1995. 849-65, 922-3, 925 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The model linking environmental impact to population, affluence, and technology, or I = PAT, is reformulated in terms of households (i.e., I = HAT) as opposed to persons....Taking growth of global energy consumption as an example, the authors find that I = PAT attributes 18 percent of the annual increase (in absolute terms) over the period 1970-90 to demographic increase in more developed regions, whereas I = HAT attributes 41 percent because the number of households grew faster than the number of persons. The I = PAT and I = HAT models also give rise to substantially different projections of [carbon dioxide] emissions in the year 2100. The authors conclude that decomposition and projection exercises are sensitive to the unit of demographic account chosen. Until more is known about the nature of the many activities that give rise to environmental impacts, it would be unwise to draw far-reaching conclusions from one choice of model without a substantive justification of that choice."
Correspondence: F. L. MacKellar, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Population Project, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20654 McLaren, Digby J. Population growth--should we be worried? Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 3, Jan 1996. 243-59 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Because of continuing acceleration in number of births, in resource use and in many aspects of environmental rundown, including growing destruction of the eco-system, and encouraged by an exploitive economic system and misuse of technology, the planet's carrying capacity has long been exceeded and any immediate prospect of sustainability has faded. Nearly half the population of the world is below breeding age and, although growth rates are falling in some regions, they are constant in others. Family planning has only been effective in limited areas of the world. Any prospect of demographic transition to lower fertility is uncertain and [has] yet to be realized. The momentum of population growth will continue at present rates for at least another twenty years."
Correspondence: D. J. McLaren, 248 Marilyn Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario K1V 7E5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20655 Rees, William E. Revisiting carrying capacity: area-based indicators of sustainability. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 3, Jan 1996. 195-215 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article argues that ecological carrying capacity remains the fundamental basis for demographic accounting. A fundamental question for ecological economics is whether remaining stocks of natural capital are adequate to sustain the anticipated load of the human economy into the next century....The present article therefore assesses the capital stock, physical flows, and corresponding eco-systems areas required to support the economy using `ecological footprint' analysis. This approach shows that most so-called `advanced' countries are running massive unaccounted ecological deficits with the rest of the planet. Since not all countries can be net importers of carrying capacity, the material standards of the wealthy cannot be extended sustainably to even the present world population using prevailing technology."
Correspondence: W. E. Rees, University of British Columbia, School of Community and Regional Planning, 6333 Memorial Road, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20656 Simon, Julian L. The state of humanity. ISBN 1-55786-119-6. 1995. x, 694 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This book provides a comprehensive and balanced assessment of the state of the Earth and its inhabitants at the close of the twentieth century. More than fifty scholars from all over the world present new, concise, and accessible accounts of the present state of humanity and the prospects for its social and natural environment. The subjects range from deforestation, water pollution, and ozone layer depletion to poverty, homelessness, mortality, and murder. Each contributor considers the present situation, historical trends, likely future prospects, and the efficacy or otherwise of current activity and policy. The coverage is worldwide, with a particular emphasis on North America. Fifty-eight chapters are divided into six parts, concerned with health, standards of living, natural resources, the production of food, the natural environment, and a concluding section on the formation, power, and uses of public opinion and the news media. The collective ambition of editor and contributors has been to provide the widest possible range of readers with the necessary information and clear analysis to know what has been done to improve the prospects for the world, what is being done to damage them, and what most urgently should be done now to provide for the twenty-first century."
Correspondence: Blackwell Publishers, 238 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20657 Westing, Arthur H. Population, desertification, and migration. Environmental Conservation, Vol. 21, No. 2, Summer 1994. 110-4 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author examines the problem of desertification and associated migration trends that have led to high population growth and density. "In order to attain and sustain environmental security--sustainable utilization of resources, sustainable discard of wastes, and adequate protection of biodiversity--it does not suffice to deal with attempts at agricultural and rangeland improvement. Environmental security can only be attained and sustained within the framework of comprehensive human security....Population growth must be curtailed--and, in many instances, even reversed--so that the long-term carrying capacity of the land is not exceeded. Equitable and otherwise non-corrupt participatory governance must be achieved at both local and national level."
Correspondence: A. H. Westing, Westing Associates in Environment, Security, and Education, RFD 1, P.O. Box 919, Putney, VT 05346. Location: Princeton University Library (ST).

62:20658 Wils, Anna; Prinz, Christopher. Living in a small, crowded room: scenarios for the future of Mauritius. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 3, Jan 1996. 217-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, future scenarios for Mauritius are described with a special focus on the interaction of different factors which can limit or hinder growth. Mauritius is a small, densely populated island where natural and human resource limits are obvious. The scenarios describe current trends on Mauritius well. They give a fine-tuned feeling for the differential impacts of labor, land, water, and pollution absorption capacity. They show that at various points in the course of development different limiting factors function, and thus it is necessary to give attention to all major factors of production and limitation in one holistic setting."
Correspondence: A. Wils, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for International Studies, 292 Main Street, E38-6th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20659 Zuckerman, Ben; Jefferson, David. Human population and the environmental crisis. ISBN 0-86720-966-6. LC 95-21148. 1995. xiii, 120 pp. Jones and Bartlett Publishers: Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
This volume includes seven papers presented at a symposium on the relationship between human population and the environmental crisis. The symposium was held at the University of California's Los Angeles campus on October 29, 1993. The topics addressed were the challenge population poses to the biosphere and human behavior, global warming, population and the sustainability of resources, biodiversity and species extinction, the political challenges of confronting population growth, and global environmental engineering.
Correspondence: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, One Exeter Plaza, Boston, MA 02116. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

62:20660 Amin, Sajeda. The poverty-purdah trap in rural Bangladesh: implications for women's roles in the family. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 75, 1995. 26 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines women's work patterns in two rural villages in northern Bangladesh and finds little evidence of increasing workforce participation, despite high contraceptive use rates. Observation of women's work patterns suggests that purdah, the practice of female seclusion, influences and conditions women's decisions regarding roles they assume, and remains a dominant influence in women's lives, showing little evidence of responsiveness to poverty."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20661 Briggs, Vernon M. Mass immigration, free trade, and the forgotten American worker. Challenge, May-Jun 1995. 37-44 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the impact on the workforce of changes in U.S. economic and immigration policy. "If continued mass immigration and the pursuit of free trade result in undermining the nation's trade union movement and its labor-protection laws, then the price is too high. It must also be considered exorbitant if these policies continue to help reduce American workers' living standards and widen income inequality within the nation."
Correspondence: V. M. Briggs, Cornell University, New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20662 Burr, Jeffrey A.; Massagli, Michael P.; Mutchler, Jan E.; Pienta, Amy M. Labor force transitions among older African American and white men. Social Forces, Vol. 74, No. 3, Mar 1996. 963-82 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Using a life-course/opportunity-cost framework, we study racial differences in labor force behavior among African American and white men aged 55 to 69 [in the United States]. A multifaceted measure of labor force behavior is examined within a longitudinal framework. We perform the analyses with a merged sample of the 1984 and 1985 Survey of Income and Program Participation, and we find that the most stable status is not working, followed by full-time, part-time, and unemployed statuses. Results from multivariate logistic regression change models show race-specific effects of age, health, and not-working status on several labor force status and attrition contrasts. Researchers have much to gain by continuing to consider racial differences in late-life labor force behavior and by focusing on contemporaneous and lagged measures of life-course variables."
Correspondence: J. A. Burr, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 430 Park Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20663 Charles, Maria. 1990 federal population census. Professional equality--a myth? Sexual segregation in the professions in Switzerland. [Eidgenössische Volkszählung 1990. Berufliche Gleichstellung--ein Mythos? Geschlechter-Segregation in der schweizerischen Berufswelt.] Statistik der Schweiz, ISBN 3-303-03056-1. 1995. 73 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Ger.
Using data from recent censuses, the level of segregation between the sexes in the professions in Switzerland is analyzed for the period 1970-1990. The focus is on changes over time in the labor force participation of women and on the country's changing economic structure. The author notes that the percentage of women in the better-paid professions is still very small, and that the level of women's employment in the traditionally female-dominated service sector of the economy is increasing.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20664 Chin, Soo Hee. The determinants and patterns of married women's labor force participation in Korea. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jul 1995. 95-129 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"The present study investigates the determinants and patterns of married women's labor force participation in [South] Korea. Married women's employment...is largely determined by age, urban residence,...husband's socioeconomic status, family income, fertility, and the lagged effect of work. Older age, rural residence, inferior household economic condition, and recent work experience are the major positive causes of married women's participation in [the labor force]....On the other hand, younger women with preschool children, who currently reside in urban areas, enjoying better household economic conditions (due to higher socioeconomic status of husbands and/or higher family income) are the groups of women with the smallest probability of working...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20665 Clark, David E.; Murphy, Christopher A. County wide employment and population growth: an analysis of the 1980s. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 36, No. 2, May 1996. 235-56 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Regional scientists remain interested in studying interregional differences in the growth rates of population and employment. Following the earlier work of Carlino and Mills, this paper examines growth trends at the county level in the U.S. during the period 1981-1989. Five major sectors of employment are examined. A partial adjustment model is developed that captures intercounty differences in amenities, business and fiscal conditions, demography, employment structure, and relative location. Some evidence is given that population and employment growth was simultaneous, although feedback effects apparently were not strong."
Correspondence: D. E. Clark, Marquette University, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:20666 Flückiger, Yves; Boymond, Martine; Silber, Jacques. 1990 federal population census. Segregation between men and women in the labor market: an analysis based on the Gini index. [Recensement fédéral de la population 1990. Ségrégation entre hommes et femmes sur le marché du travail: une analyse sur la base de l'indice de Gini.] Statistique de la Suisse, ISBN 3-303-03055-3. 1995. 74 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Ger.
This is an analysis of the segregation of men and women in the labor market in Switzerland based on data from the 1990 census. Using the Gini index, the authors examine trends in this aspect of segregation since 1970 as well as the situation in 1990. They consider differences between the sexes in the professions, in the various sectors of the economy, and in socio-professional categories.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20667 Harrison, Michael J.; Walsh, Patrick P. A flow analysis of the Irish Live Register. Economic and Social Review, Vol. 26, No. 1, Oct 1994. 45-58 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"This paper makes use for the first time of data on the flows into and out of the Irish Live Register. It describes the construction of consistent quarterly flow series for the period 1967 to 1993. The analysis suggests that the build-up of the unemployment stock is mainly due to the inflows to the Live Register. The results also suggest that in the 1970s the inflows seem to have been largely determined by market and demographic adjustments in Ireland induced by developments in Britain. In the 1980s, by contrast, the inflows seem to have been driven substantially by demographic developments in Ireland."
Correspondence: M. J. Harrison, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20668 Heigl, Andreas. Educational situation and labor force potential. [Ausbildungssituation und Erwerbspotential.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1995. 311-29 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Against the background of the emerging demographic development entailing a reduction of the overall population and of the potential labour force [in Germany], consideration is given to readjustment measures in order to maintain the economic power and the welfare-state fabric by means of human capital formation (higher rate of gainful occupation of women; higher pensionable age; shortened periods of education/training). In view of overcrowded universities, long duration of study and the shortage of trainees for many recognized trades/occupations...the argument is put forward that streamlined and shortened courses of education could release a significant amount of labour force potential....The present study...simulated the quantitative effects [for 1995] of [four] measures on the numbers of students and the economically active population."
Correspondence: A. Heigl, Universität Bamberg, Lehrstuhl für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Hornthalstrasse 2, 96045 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20669 Kinsella, Kevin; Gist, Yvonne J. Older workers, retirement, and pensions: a comparative international chartbook. No. IPC/95-2, Dec 1995. 76, [12] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C.; U.S. National Institutes of Health [NIH], National Institute on Aging: Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report provides: 1. an overview of underlying demographic and socioeconomic trends that affect old-age security around the world; and 2. graphic presentations of available, reasonably comparable international statistics on the status of older workers, retirement trends, and pension systems."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, International Programs Center, Washington, D.C. 20233-8860. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20670 Patrickson, Margaret; Hartmann, Linley. Australia's ageing population: implications for human resource management. International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 16, No. 5-6, 1995. 34-46 pp. Bradford, England. In Eng.
The authors consider "the implications of Australia's ageing population for future human resource management practice. [They acknowledge] that downsizing practices which initially targeted older workers may have contributed to raising the profile of their vulnerability and [suggest that] reforms will be needed in all key human resource functions to reduce bias, improve equity, and focus on the potential benefits older staff can contribute. Differences in health and safety records indicate that age alone does not differentiate between staff....Stereotypes which militate against hiring older staff need to be addressed and training practices will need restructuring to accommodate alternative training methods which encourage older staff to reskill."
Correspondence: M. Patrickson, University of South Australia, International Graduate School of Management, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20671 Pattaravanich, Umaporn. The influence of family and employment on career planning of married female workers in a society without sex preference. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, Sep 1995. 63-74 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present note is to investigate some of the factors related to career planning, with reference to family and employment, among married women workers [in Thailand]....The study revealed that career planning is associated significantly with age and education, i.e. the younger...the woman, the more likely it is that she will seek mobility in her career. Also, other factors related significantly to career planning are occupation and duration in the current job....The study suggests that the attitude of husbands is [also] an important factor regarding women's participation in the labour force."
Correspondence: U. Pattaravanich, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamontol, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20672 Presser, Harriet B. Job, family, and gender: determinants of nonstandard work schedules among employed Americans in 1991. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 4, Nov 1995. 577-98 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study provides the most recent national [U.S.] estimates of the prevalence of employment during nonstandard hours (evenings, nights, or rotating hours) and on weekends. It also examines in a multivariate context the relevance of job and family characteristics as determinants of such employment, separately for men and for women. The findings support the contention that the demand for employment during nonstandard hours and weekends is pervasive throughout the occupational hierarchy, but particularly in service occupations and in personal service industries and for both men and women. Gender differences exist, however, in the relevance of family factors. Being married reduces women's but not men's likelihood of employment during nonstandard hours, and the presence of children affects women's but not men's hours and days of employment. (The direction of the effect for women depends on the children's age.) Implications of these findings are discussed."
Correspondence: H. B. Presser, University of Maryland, Department of Sociology, Center on Population, Gender, and Social Inequality, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20673 Roberson, James E. Becoming shakaijin: working-class reproduction in Japan. Ethnology, Vol. 34, No. 4, Fall 1995. 293-313 pp. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"In Japan, the transition from school into the working world marks one's transformation from student (gakusei) to social person (shakaijin). This transition is particularly important for men, for whom work remains a more permanent source of social identification than it typically does for Japanese women, for whom eventual roles as wives and mothers generally provide more central sources of social and self-definition. This article discusses the passage from educational institution to employment enterprise among two groups of male employees at a small manufacturing company in Tokyo. One group comprises mostly older men with junior high school education, while the other group consists of younger men who graduated from industrial high schools."
Correspondence: J. E. Roberson, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20674 Shah, Nasra M. Structural changes in the receiving country and future labor migration--the case of Kuwait. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, Winter 1995. 1,000-22 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Structural changes in the labor force of the receiving country can provide some important clues to the speed and nature of replacement of migrant workers by indigenous ones. This article analyzes changes in the national labor force [of Kuwait] with regard to volume, age and sex composition, retention in the labor force, productivity, type of occupation, and sector of activity. Changes in the above features during the last two decades indicate that the median age of the national male labor force remains low, its concentration in the public sector has increased, and its participation in production and manual work has declined further. The labor force participation of females has increased substantially, and they comprised 31 percent of the national labor force in 1993....Structural changes suggest that the national labor force is growing in a manner that implies a continued long-term dependence on foreign workers. Dependence on expatriates is likely to be greatest for occupations involving maintenance of infrastructures and personal services."
Correspondence: N. M. Shah, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20675 Sheldon, George. 1990 federal population census. Job flexibility as reflected over time. [Eidgenössische Volkszählung 1990. Die berufliche Flexibilität im Spiegel der Zeit.] Statistik der Schweiz, ISBN 3-303-15129-6. 1995. 72 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Ger.
This report analyzes the changes that have occurred in the training of the economically active part of the population in Switzerland since 1970. It also examines changes in the professional characteristics of the positions that they fill. The study is based on census data. In particular, it examines the impact of professional qualifications on occupational mobility, and the relation between the training received and the kind of work actually performed.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20676 Strozza, Salvatore. Non-EC workers in Italy: an overview of the literature and an attempt to test various hypotheses. [I lavoratori extracomunitari in Italia: esame della letteratura ed tentativo di verifica di alcune ipotesi.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 32, No. 119, Sep 1995. 457-90 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The essay presents an overview of the interpretations offered in scientific literature about causes and effects of non-EC [European Community] immigrants' integration into the Italian labor market....The essay uses the aggregate data of [the] Labor Ministry integrated by local surveys to answer some questions...[concerning] the link between sex, Italian region, place of origin and sector of activity...and the complementarity or competition with [the] Italian labor force."
Correspondence: S. Strozza, Università degli Studi di Roma la Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20677 United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Latin America: economically active population, 1980-2025. [América Latina: población económicamente activa, 1980-2025.] Boletin Demografico/Demographic Bulletin, Vol. 29, No. 57, Jan 1996. 285 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
"This current Bulletin presents the estimates and projections of the economically active population, by urban and rural areas, sex and quinquennial age groups for the 20 Latin American countries, during the period 1980-2025."
Correspondence: UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20678 van Imhoff, Evert; Henkens, Kene. Alternatives for the future: a scenario analysis. [Alternatieven voor de VUT: een scenario-analyse.] NIDI Rapport, No. 42, ISBN 90-70990-56-3. 1995. xxii, 108 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The consequences of alternative labor policies concerning the employment of elderly workers in the Netherlands are examined in this report. "Using a multi-state demographic projection model, alternative policy scenarios are formulated and projected into the future. Special attention is paid to: the ongoing process of population aging; the interaction between the participation in senior-worker schemes, the use of disability and unemployment schemes, and labour productivity; the effect of labour participation of older workers on employment opportunities for younger workers (redistribution of labour)." The report's main conclusions are that the aging of the labor force will lead to higher costs, and that policies aimed at increasing the participation of older workers will not lead to any substantial savings.
Correspondence: Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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