Volume 62 - Number 2 - Summer 1996

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

62:20575 de Jong-Gierveld, Jenny; van Solinge, Hanna. Ageing and its consequences for the socio-medical system. Population Studies, No. 29, ISBN 92-871-2685-2. 1995. 113 pp. Council of Europe Press: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
This study analyzes past and present demographic trends in Europe and their consequences for the provision of housing and care facilities for the elderly, access to medical services, the situation concerning personnel in the formal geriatrics sector, and the informal care of the aged provided by the family or others. "The analysis takes account of the situation in nine European countries and is based on different scenarios regarding developments in life expectancy and the state of health of the elderly."
Correspondence: Council of Europe Press, 67005 Strasbourg Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20576 Diczfalusy, Egon. The third age, the third world and the third millennium. Contraception, Vol. 53, No. 1, Jan 1996. 1-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses future trends in population worldwide, with a focus on aging. Aspects considered include the social problems caused by demographic aging; changes in mortality and morbidity; and the impact of poverty on the elderly.
Correspondence: E. Diczfalusy, Ronningevägen 21, 14461 Ronninge, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20577 Heikkilä, Elli. Development features of regional population aging in Finland. [Vaestön ikääntymisen alueelliset kehityspiirteet Suomessa.] Terra, Vol. 106, No. 4, 1994. 374-83 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng.
"Population ageing has emerged as one of the crucial problems facing developed countries. In Finland, the old population (aged 65 and over) has doubled in numbers over the past 30 years. The phenomena underlying this ageing trend include a decline in fertility, increase of the average life expectancy, and the effects of migration. Considerable regional differences in population ageing can be observed between Finland's provinces, municipalities and between their different parts. The number of the elderly is projected to increase in all provinces, the highest relative increase taking place in the provinces of Lapland, Uusimaa and Oulu between 1990-2020."
Correspondence: E. Heikkilä, University of Oulu, Research Institute of Northern Finland, Seminaarinkatu 2, 87100 Kajaani, Finland. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:20578 Henripin, Jacques; Loriaux, Michel. Demographic aging: a two-person debate. [Le vieillissement: discours à deux voix.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. 1,591-638 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
A debate concerning the consequences of demographic aging is presented. It centers on whether demographic aging is a negative phenomenon that developed countries need to struggle against, or whether it is a neutral phenomenon that societies can adapt to without deleterious effects. The debate consists of an opening statement by each individual author, and the authors' respective responses to each other's arguments.
Correspondence: J. Henripin, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20579 Lori, Agostino; Golini, Antonio; Cantalini, Bruno; Bruno, Paola; Citoni, Federica; Paganelli, Fernando. An atlas of demographic aging: 20 years of developments in the provinces and communes of Italy. [Atlante dell'invecchiamento della popolazione. Vent'anni di evoluzione nelle provincie e nei communi italiani.] 1995. vii, 415 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This report provides information on demographic aging in Italy from 1971 to 1991. The data are provided at both the provincial and the communal level. The data are taken from official sources. The first part of the report examines some general issues concerning aging, and the second part presents the relevant data.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20580 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). The rural woman in Morocco: her role, status, and prospects. [La femme rurale au Maroc: sa place, sa condition et ses potentialités.] Etudes Démographiques, ISBN 9981-20-025-5. 1995. 227 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This report describes the demographic characteristics, economic activities, and living conditions of women living in rural areas of Morocco. Data are from a number of official sources, including censuses and surveys. The demographic characteristics considered include nuptiality, fertility and family planning, mortality, migration, educational status, and projections.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques, Rue Mohamed Belhassan el Ouazzani, Haut-Agdal, B.P. 178, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20581 Rogerson, Peter A. Geographic perspectives on elderly population growth. Growth and Change, Vol. 27, No. 1, Winter 1996. 75-95 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The proportion of a region's population that is elderly may change over time for many different reasons. The proportion may grow because of the net in-migration of elderly individuals, or it may grow because of the net out-migration of nonelderly residents. Furthermore, the proportion may grow if the number of nonmovers in the `pre-elderly' cohort is relatively high. This paper discusses in detail the ways in which this proportion may change over time. This is complemented by a state-level empirical study of elderly population growth in the United States during the late 1980s. The spatial pattern of the rate of new entry into the elderly cohort among nonmovers is found to be particularly influential in determining changes in the proportion of a state's population that is elderly."
Correspondence: P. A. Rogerson, State University of New York, Department of Geography, Buffalo, NY 14261. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20582 Russell, Cheryl. The baby boom turns 50. American Demographics, Vol. 17, No. 12, Dec 1995. 22-33 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the aging of members of the baby boom generation in the United States. The focus is on the impact this phenomenon will have on the marketplace. "Boomers' midlife crises are real, and they will create huge business opportunities. Freed from the responsibilities of their 40s, boomers will create an adventurous life stage called `midyouth' that will push traditional ideas of a `mature market' into oblivion."
Correspondence: C. Russell, American Demographics, 127 West State Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20583 Suh, Moon-Hee. Area differentials of sex imbalance in births. Health and Social Welfare Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, Winter 1995. 143-73 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
Along with a rapid decline in fertility to below-replacement levels in South Korea, a new demographic phenomenon has emerged: a distorted sex ratio at birth. In 1993, the sex ratio was 115.6, with significant differences in this ratio by region. "An analysis of national survey data showed that in the areas with the most distorted imbalance, people not only have a stronger preference for sons and more favoring attitude toward sex-selective induced abortion, but also actually have more sex-selective induced abortions after checking the sex of the fetus. This analysis proved that the sex imbalance is being caused by means of sex-selective induced abortions after checking the sex of the fetus."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20584 Yap, Mui Teng. Population ageing and policy response in Singapore. PDOD Paper, No. 33, Oct 1995. 15, [4] pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper begins with a review of Singapore's demographic history and projected future trends as background on the demographics of the ageing `problem'. This is followed by a discussion of the public discourse on the challenges of population ageing in Singapore, and in the final section, the policy responses to the perceived challenges."
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

62:20585 Kytir, J.; Prskawetz, A. Life expectancy at age 60--epidemiologic scenarios assuming delayed mortality for selected causes of death. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep 1995. 261-73 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The present analysis offers a projection of life expectancy at advanced ages in Austria for the year 2010. To estimate the gains in life expectancy the Simultaneous Multiple Cause-Delay (SIMCAD) method is used. This model takes into account the epidemiological concept of an additional delay in the onset of particular chronic-degenerative diseases. While the results of the SIMCAD method vary only slightly on the whole from the official projection of life expectancy at age 60, the similarity between the two projections decreases steadily with increasing age. The SIMCAD model predicts higher gains in life expectancy for the oldest age-groups of the population than do the official statistics."
Correspondence: J. Kytir, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Demography, Hintere Zollamtstrasse 2b, 1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20586 Miles, Toni P.; Himes, Christine. Biological and social determinants of body size across the life span: a model for the integration of population genetics and demography. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1995. 327-46 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This presentation focuses on the biology of adult body size, its behavior as a variable in statistical analyses, and strategies for the incorporation of this variable into demographic models of population aging in the United States. First, several examples of generally observed quantitative characteristics of biological variables are reviewed. To illustrate the nonlinear character of biological data, three general patterns of change with aging are presented. Next, issues concerning the measurement of body size are discussed. Scenarios describing body size over the adult life span are described. By the end of this process, recommendations for starting a dialogue between researchers interested in biological endpoints (individual weight change, disease risk) and those interested in demographic outcomes (population-level disease and disability issues) using body size will be presented."
Correspondence: T. P. Miles, Pennsylvania State University, Center for Special Populations and Health, 106 Henderson Building, University Park, PA 16802-6500. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20587 Millar, Wayne J. Life expectancy of Canadians. [L'espérance de vie des Canadiens.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1995. 23-6 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"The official 1990-92 detailed life tables show a continuation of the trend toward longer life expectancy for Canadians....Life expectancy at birth has reached an all-time high: 80.89 years for females and 74.55 years for males. Recent improvements in life expectancy are attributable to many factors, including declines in infant mortality, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease, and mortality from accidents and poisoning."
Correspondence: W. J. Millar, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20588 Parant, Alain. Longevity and retirement. [Longévité et retraite.] Population et Sociétés, No. 310, Feb 1996. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author notes that life expectancy in France has increased by about one year every three years over the course of the twentieth century. This means that it has improved from 41 to 74 years for men and from 44 to 82 years for women. He describes aspects of the current debate in France about the changes that need to be made in order to provide the retired with pensions.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20589 Schott, Jürgen; Bergmann, Karl E.; Wiesner, Gerd. The process of prolonging the life span--an East-West comparison in Germany. [Der Lebensverlängerungsprozess--ein Vergleich zwischen Ost- und Westdeutschland.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1995. 187-206 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"For the periods 1950-1960, 1960-1970, 1970-1980 and 1980-1987, the contributions to the mean and...further life expectancy resulting from the variation of the age-specific survival probabilities over these periods were calculated for the male and female population of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany)....It can be seen that the life prolongation process has been increasingly determined by the advanced-age and old-age population, and...in age ranges where chronic degenerative diseases prevail. This development was quite systematic in West Germany whereas in East Germany, it broke down during the period from 1970 to 1980, to become prominent again later....System-inherent differences of the mortality from individual causes of death are discussed."
Correspondence: J. Schott, Technische Universität Dresden Carl Gustav Carus, Abteilung Sozialmedizin, Fetscher Strasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20590 Vallin, Jacques. Life expectancy: how much for what quality of life? [Espérance de vie: quelle quantité pour quelle qualité de vie?] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 49, Oct 1995. 23 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines various aspects of the current trend toward increasing life expectancy around the world. He considers separately how much more it may increase, whom this increase will primarily concern, and the quality of the extra years of life that are gained.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20591 Vaupel, James W.; Lundström, Hans. Longer life expectancy? Evidence from Sweden of reductions in mortality rates at advanced ages. In: Studies in the economics of aging, edited by David A. Wise. NBER Project Report, 1994. 79-94 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Using highly reliable data, we [present] four perspectives on mortality changes in Sweden since 1990 among the elderly....[The authors note that] the force of mortality at ages 85, 90, and 95 has substantially declined, especially since 1945 or so, and more for females than for males....Rates of progress in reducing mortality rates among the elderly have accelerated over the course of the century and from the 1960s to the 1980s ran at an average annual rate of 1-2 percent for females and half a percent for males....[These results] indicate that the belief that oldest-old mortality rates cannot be significantly reduced is incorrect."
Correspondence: J. W. Vaupel, University of Odense Medical School, Winsløwparken 17,1, 5000 Odense C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

62:20592 Borjas, George J. Assimilation and changes in cohort quality revisited: what happened to immigrant earnings in the 1980s? Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 13, No. 2, Apr 1995. 201-45 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article uses the 1970, 1980, and 1990 Public Use Samples of the U.S. census to document what happened to immigrant earnings in the 1980s and to determine if pre-1980 immigrant flows reached earnings parity with natives. The relative entry wage of successive immigrant cohorts declined by 9% in the 1970s and by an additional 6% in the 1980s. Although the relative wage of immigrants grows by 10% during the first 2 decades after arrival, recent immigrants will earn 15%-20% less than natives throughout much of their working lives."
Correspondence: G. J. Borjas, University of California, San Diego, CA 92130. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

62:20593 Chakravorty, Sanjoy. Patterns of urbanization, urban concentration, and income distribution: implications for development. Urban Geography, Vol. 16, No. 7, 1995. 622-42 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"The effect of geographic concentration of population on income distribution is investigated in this paper. The Kuznets simulation model, used to demonstrate the rising-falling income inequality effect resulting from increasing urbanization, is modified so that the urban sector is assumed to be differentiated into five city-size classes, with the larger city sizes assumed to be associated with higher average incomes. Numerical examples are used to illustrate a wide range of population and income distribution alternatives; the results of the more likely scenarios are presented. Also discussed are the implications of the findings for (1) inequality trends under dynamic conditions of population and income parameters, (2) the turning points of the concentration and inequality curves, and (3) spatial policy."
Correspondence: S. Chakravorty, Temple University, Department of Geography and Urban Studies, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20594 Deaton, Angus S.; Paxson, Christina H. Saving, growth, and aging in Taiwan. In: Studies in the economics of aging, edited by David A. Wise. NBER Project Report, 1994. 331-61 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper examines issues of life-cycle saving, growth, and aging in Taiwan. We are mainly concerned with standard issues of life-cycle saving and their implications for the living standards of the elderly. We investigate whether saving appears to be motivated by life-cycle factors, how income growth has affected the profiles of income, consumption, and saving, and how changes in the demographic structure of Taiwan have influenced saving behavior. We use data from 15 consecutive household income and expenditure surveys, from 1976 through 1990."
Correspondence: A. S. Deaton, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School, 221 Bendheim Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-1021. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20595 Denton, Frank T.; Mountain, Dean C.; Spencer, Byron G. The response of aggregate production to fertility-induced changes in population age distribution. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 62, No. 3, Jan 1996. 606-19 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Our purpose in this paper is to explore one important aspect of changes in age distribution, namely the way in which they alter input availability and output capacity, and hence average real income levels [in the long run]....We specify a multilevel aggregate production process, assign plausible values to its parameters, and obtain steady-state solutions under a range of alternative fertility assumptions. The central issue can be put as follows: Abstracting from all other considerations, does an economy with an `old' or a `young' population have a markedly different capacity for generating output and income per capita than one with a less extreme age distribution?" Data from the 1986 Canadian census are used to illustrate the concepts discussed. The authors conclude that "the short final answers to these questions are: (a) extreme differences in age distribution are required in order for there to be major effects on per capita output and income; and (b) the effects are rather insensitive to changes in the parameters of the economy except when the elasticity of substitution between age-sex groups is allowed to fall to a very low level."
Correspondence: F. T. Denton, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20596 Enchautegui, Maria E. Effects of immigrants on the 1980-1990 U.S. wage experience. Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 13, No. 3, Jul 1995. 20-39 pp. Huntington Beach, California. In Eng.
"This paper questions the claim that U.S. immigration should be reduced because the economy can no longer absorb immigrants as it has in the past. Analysis of male hourly wages shows that the effect of immigration on wages did not change between 1980 and 1990. Further, immigration has no negative effects on wages in 1980 or 1990. These results suggest that the capacity of the labor market to absorb immigrants has not been reduced. Additional analysis shows that, controlling for personal characteristics, the hourly wages of the average native and immigrant worker in areas of high and medium immigration relative to areas of low immigration increased between 1980 and 1990. However, Latino immigrants are affected negatively by immigration."
Correspondence: M. E. Enchautegui, Urban Institute, Population Studies Center, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20597 Garrett, Daniel M. The effects of differential mortality rates on the progressivity of social security. Economic Inquiry, Vol. 33, No. 3, Jul 1995. 457-75 pp. Huntington Beach, California. In Eng.
"Does the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance portion of Social Security become regressive once we allow for the shorter lifespan of poor people? This paper compares the net returns of poor households to the net returns of other households after taking into account differential longevity. Earnings and Social Security tax and benefit histories are simulated for [U.S.] families of various income levels in the 1925 birth cohort. These tax and benefit profiles are then weighted by the agents' probabilities of survival. For some plausible values of key mortality parameters, differences in mortality eliminate the progressive spread in returns across income categories."
Correspondence: D. M. Garrett, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20598 Green, Anne. Changing local concentrations of "poverty" and "affluence" in Britain, 1981-91. Geography, Vol. 81, No. 350, Jan 1996. 15-25 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
"There is increasing concern about growing inequalities between the rich and poor in Britain. Some areas have become `marginalised' as they have failed to take an equal share in some of the benefits of socioeconomic restructuring. In this article `proxy' indicators from the Census of Population are used to explore continuities and changes in local concentrations of `poverty' and `affluence' between 1981 and 1991. The main findings are that `concentrated poverty' districts and neighbourhoods are over-represented in the inner parts of the largest cities and metropolitan areas, while `concentrated affluence' areas are found disproportionately in those parts of Britain with a mixed urban-rural character."
Correspondence: A. Green, University of Warwick, Institute for Employment Research, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20599 Kesteloot, Christian; White, Paul. Urban marginality. [Les marginalités urbaines.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 3, 1995. 269-424 pp. Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, U.F.R. de Géographie: Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng; Fre.
This special issue contains a selection of papers, in either French or English, on aspects of marginalization and poverty in the major cities of Europe. The emphasis is on the socio-spatial aspects of this phenomenon, and the papers examine the situation in selected cities in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom. In particular, they analyze how spatial polarization, the housing market, migration, and urban renewal projects in the context of economic competition among cities can affect the spatial concentration of poverty.
Correspondence: Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, U.F.R. de Géographie, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20600 Rocha, Sonia. Metropolitan poverty in Brazil: economic cycles, labour market and demographic trends. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 19, No. 3, Sep 1995. 383-94 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Time and locally specific poverty lines for Brazilian metropolitan areas, which concentrate a third of the country's population, are used here to examine the proportion of poor along the short-term cycles typical of economic evolution in the 1980s. Although the sensibility of poverty to the cycle is high, its long-term effect was neutral in terms of incidence of poverty from the income point of view, but clearly adverse when labour market indicators were considered. National Household Sampling Survey data combined with poverty lines allowed for the construction of labour indicators both for poor and non-poor subpopulations, which provide clues to understanding income-earning strategies under changing economic and demographic conditions."
Correspondence: S. Rocha, Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:20601 Schellekens, Jona. Poverty and family size in two eighteenth-century Dutch villages. Continuity and Change, Vol. 10, No. 2, Aug 1995. 199-214 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"The major objective of this study is to examine the extent to which and how family size affected poverty levels in an eighteenth-century agricultural community in the western part of what is now the Dutch province of North Brabant. We have used poll-tax records from the two villages of Gilze and Rijen during the period 1724-1808....After a section which describes the data, we present estimates of poverty levels by duration of marriage. This section is followed by one which describes trends over time in the percentage of households which were exempt from paying the poll tax and compares trends over time in Gilze and Rijen with those for other villages. This section is followed in turn by a time-series analysis of the proportion of lower-class households which were exempt from paying the poll tax."
Correspondence: J. Schellekens, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20602 Treiman, Donald J.; McKeever, Matthew; Fodor, Eva. Racial differences in occupational status and income in South Africa, 1980 and 1991. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 1, Feb 1996. 111-32 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using data on employed men from the 1980 and 1991 South African Censuses, we analyze the determinants of occupational status and income. Whites are found to have much higher occupational status, and especially income, than members of other racial groups. Most of the racial differentials in occupational status can be explained by racial differences in the personal assets that determine occupational attainment (especially education), but only a much smaller fraction of the White/non-White income differential can be so explained. Despite a modest reduction between 1980 and 1991 in the role of race in socioeconomic attainment, the overall picture shows more stability than change."
Correspondence: D. J. Treiman, University of California, Department of Sociology, Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20603 Whittington, Leslie A.; Peters, H. Elizabeth. Economic incentives for financial and residential independence. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 1, Feb 1996. 82-97 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) for the period 1968-1988, we estimate discrete-hazard models of the probability of achieving residential and financial independence [in the United States]. We find that the child's wage opportunities and the parents' income are important determinants of establishing independence. The effect of parental income changes with the child's age. We also find some evidence that federal tax policy influences the decision to become independent, although the magnitude of this effect is quite small."
Correspondence: L. A. Whittington, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20604 Zarca, Bernard. Inheritance and social mobility among sibships. II. Professional activity and social activity differentials of sisters. [L'heritage et la mobilité sociale au sien de la fratrie. II. L'activité professionnelle et la mobilité sociale differentielles des soeurs.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1995. 1,137-54 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In the first part of this article, [the author provides] evidence that there was a link between inheritance received and social mobility of brothers [in France], in spite of the hierarchy principle which favours the eldest son, as well as a link between celibacy and homogamy....In the second part the author focuses attention on the occupational, social, and matrimonial life histories of sisters. Whilst sons tended to inherit their father's occupational position, the mother's occupation influences that of her daughters. A daughter is more likely to be professionally active when her brothers are upwardly mobile. As this applies in all social groups [it] shows the importance of the family in the reproduction of different social groups."
For part I of this article by Zarca, published in 1995, see 61:30613.
Correspondence: B. Zarca, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

62:20605 Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Mukhopadhyay, A. N. A social mobility study on the basis of national industrial classification for the state of West Bengal. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 203-17 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The most appropriate way of quantifying the characteristics of a human population is by classifying their members on the basis of some personal attribute. Thus while studying the dynamics of social processes, it is natural to start by looking at the movement of the people across social, economic or occupational categories....The present study has been done on the basis of the data collected through the Family Budget Enquiry, 1981-82....Values of...different measures of social mobility...have been compared for the different districts of West Bengal [India]."
Correspondence: A. K. Chattopadhyay, University of Calcutta, Department of Statistics, 35 B. C. Road, Calcutta 19, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20606 Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W. Ethnic networks and language proficiency among immigrants. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 1, Feb 1996. 19-35 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper uses a unique data set for Australia (1988) that includes a variety of ethnic network variables to analyze the role of the language concentration measure [in immigrants' acquisition of the language of the destination country]. These ethnic variables, in particular, ethnic press, relatives in Australia, and spouse's origin language, are highly statistically significant. Their inclusion in the equation eliminates the effect of the minority-language concentration variable. The model for analyzing the determinants of English reading and English writing skills in Australia is also shown to be very similar to the model for speaking fluency, including the effect of the ethnic network variables."
Correspondence: B. R. Chiswick, University of Illinois, Department of Economics (M/C 144), 601 South Morgan Street, Room 2103, Chicago, IL 60607-7121. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20607 Dustmann, Christian. The social assimilation of immigrants. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 1, Feb 1996. 37-54 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper provides an empirical analysis of the determinants of migrants' [social] integration, using data for Germany. Ordered probit models are estimated, where the dependent variable is an ordered response on the feeling of national identity. The results show that personal characteristics, the nationality and the family context affect the migrant's integration, while labor market variables appear to be quite unimportant."
Correspondence: C. Dustmann, University College London, Department of Economics, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20608 Frey, William H.; Farley, Reynolds. Latino, Asian, and black segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas: are multiethnic metros different? Demography, Vol. 33, No. 1, Feb 1996. 35-50 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study examines 1990 residential segregation levels and 1980-1990 changes in segregation for Latinos, Asians, and blacks in U.S. metropolitan areas. It also evaluates the effect of emerging multiethnic metropolitan area contexts for these segregation patterns. While black segregation levels are still well above those for Latinos and Asians, there is some trend toward convergence over the decade. More than half of the areas increased their Latino segregation levels over the 1980s, and almost three-fourths increased their Asian segregation levels. In contrast, black segregation levels decreased in 88% of metropolitan areas. Multiethnic metropolitan area context is shown to be important for internal segregation dynamics. Black segregation levels are lower, and were more likely to decline in multiethnic metropolitan areas and when other minority groups grew faster than blacks. Latino segregation was also more likely to decline in such areas, and declines in both Latino and Asian segregation were greater when other minority groups were growing."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20609 Joye, Dominique; Schuler, Martin; Meier, Urs. 1990 federal population census. The social structure of Switzerland: socio-professional status. [Recensement fédéral de la population 1990. La structure sociale de la Suisse: catégories socio-professionnelles.] Statistique de la Suisse, Pub. Order No. 001-9015. ISBN 3-303-00123-5. 1995. 193 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Fre.
This study analyzes the social structure of Switzerland, using data from the 1990 census. The authors describe the methodology and concepts used to develop the new socio-professional categories that have recently been adopted. They then examine some regional differences in the distribution of such categories.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20610 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Blanc, Ann K. Children's schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa: the role of fathers, mothers, and others. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 78, 1995. 52 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the determinants of children's enrollment and grade four completion--one of UNICEF's key indicators of social progress--in seven countries of sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on the role of parents and other household members in providing children with residential and educational support....The findings reveal that the resources of a child's residential household--in particular the education of the household head and the household standard of living--are determining factors in explaining variations among children in these aspects of schooling. By contrast, a child's biological parents appear to play a less critical role....The results of this investigation further reveal that family support systems do not operate systematically across countries to the benefit of boys relative to girls."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20611 McFadden, Daniel. Demographics, the housing market, and the welfare of the elderly. In: Studies in the economics of aging, edited by David A. Wise. NBER Project Report, 1994. 225-88 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper [develops] a framework for projecting housing market prices and stocks [in the United States] in response to demographics and income and, from these projections, [calculates] the welfare effects of housing market volatility. The results suggest that cohorts born in the last baby boom and after, from 1950 on, are all in roughly the same boat, without major cohort inequities arising from housing opportunities. However, these cohorts are slightly worse off than cohorts born in 1920-40. The only cohorts that were substantially better off than the post-1950 cohorts in terms of housing were those born before 1920."
Correspondence: D. McFadden, University of California, Department of Economics, 655 Evans Hall, Berkeley, CA 94707. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20612 Myers, Dowell; Lee, Seong Woo. Immigration cohorts and residential overcrowding in southern California. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 1, Feb 1996. 51-65 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
Using data taken from the 1980 and 1990 censuses, the authors ask "to what degree...immigrants reduce their high rates of residential overcrowding with increasing length of residence in the United States? This question is addressed through the application of a `double cohort' method that nests birth cohorts within immigration cohorts. This method enables duration of immigration effects to be separated from aging effects as cohorts pass through life course phases, when family sizes may be growing or shrinking. The analysis finds that cohort trends differ sharply from the cross-sectional pattern observed at a single point in time. Cohorts' growth in income is found to contribute substantially to the decline in overcrowding over time. Cohort trends among Hispanic immigrants, however, diverge from those among others, indicating much less decrease in overcrowding and even increases over certain age spans."
Correspondence: D. Myers, University of Southern California, School of Urban and Regional Planning, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0042. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20613 Niraula, Bhanu B.; Morgan, S. Philip. Marriage formation, post-marital contact with natal kin and autonomy of women: evidence from two Nepali settings. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 1, Mar 1996. 35-50 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We have conducted surveys specifically designed to study the autonomy/power of women in two Nepali settings. Setting I is in the hills, 75 kilometers southwest of Kathmandu; Setting II is in the tarai (plains) a few kilometers from the border with India....In this paper we focus on aspects of marriage formation and post-marital kin contact and their possible effects on women's autonomy/power. Specifically, we measure women's autonomy/power with indicators of women's freedom of movement and power in making household decisions. We assess whether these indicators are influenced by aspects of mate selection and kinship, including patrilocal post-marital residence, arranged marriages, emphasis on the virginity of brides, village exogamy, dowry, and contact with natal kin. We show that marriage regimes differ substantially in the two settings....[The] findings do not imply that kin relations and marriage formation are irrelevant for women's autonomy/power. But they do challenge the version of these arguments that isolates marriage/kinship effects at the individual level. Autonomy, while measurable at the individual level, is determined primarily by broad-based institutional arrangements and associated community social control."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: B. B. Niraula, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk/CR, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20614 Paivandi, Saeed. Demographic analysis of illiteracy in Iran. [L'analyse démographique de l'analphabétisme en Iran.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1995. 1,155-84 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Since 1985, the growth of adult literacy in Iran has been impressive....In this article we analyze recent trends, and stress the reduction in inequality of literacy rates between the centre and the peripheral regions, between town and country and between the two sexes. Quantitative methods and diagrams are used to show the relationship between the size of the literate population and a number of social and economic indicators. This analysis raises a number of sociological problems relating to the population of Iran in general. Finally, the paper deals with the impact of education on the demographic behaviour of the population, and especially of women."
Correspondence: S. Paivandi, Université de Paris VIII, Vincennes a St. Denis, 2 rue de la Liberté, 93526 St. Denis Cedex 02, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

62:20615 Allen, James P.; Turner, Eugene. Ethnic differentiation by blocks within census tracts. Urban Geography, Vol. 16, No. 4, May-Jun 1995. 344-64 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"How common is ethnic differentiation within census tracts and what types of tracts are most likely to exhibit this tendency? This research attempts to answer these questions with block data from the 1990 U.S. census for Los Angeles County. We measured non-random unevenness in ethnic percentage within tracts for twelve ethnic populations by means of an adjusted index of dissimilarity. Of the total of 300 sampled tracts, 48% showed statistically significant differentiation at the block level. Census tracts frequently mask details of ethnic patterning, especially in transition zones between larger ethnic settlement regions. Ethnic differentiation was most clearly related to block variations in housing type and cost, and tracts with fairly uniform housing were much less likely to show significant internal differentiation. Block-level differentiation was no greater for blacks than for some Asian groups and was average or low for non-Hispanic whites and people of Mexican origin."
Correspondence: J. P. Allen, California State University, Department of Geography, Northridge, CA 91330-8249. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:20616 Bourhis, Richard Y. French-English language issues in Canada. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, No. 105-106, 1994. iv, 271 pp. Mouton de Gruyter: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This special issue is devoted to the language question in Canada. It particularly focuses on the two official language groups in the country, English and French. The geographical focus is on Quebec, the only province with a French-speaking majority, and on New Brunswick and Ontario, the provinces with the largest French-speaking minorities. The eight papers in the issue examine demolinguistic trends in the various provinces, the impact of policies designed to influence language trends, and future demographic prospects for the two communities.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Mouton de Gruyter, Genthiner Strasse 13, 10785 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20617 de Vries, John. Canada's official language communities: an overview of the current demolinguistic situation. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, No. 105-106, 1994. 37-68 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The demolinguistic trends affecting the two major official language communities in Canada are reviewed for the period 1971-1991 using census data. "I will begin by discussing some of the basic concepts used in demolinguistic analyses....The quantitative parts of this paper...will first describe the patterns of change in Canada's official language communities between 1971 and 1991, for the country as a whole, for the provinces and for the major linguistic regions. Further analysis will deal with the processes that affect the size and composition of language communities: fertility, mortality, migration, and language shift."
Correspondence: J. de Vries, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20618 Goldstein, Sidney; Goldstein, Alice. Jews on the move: implications for Jewish identity. SUNY Series in American Jewish Society in the 1990s, ISBN 0-7914-2747-1. LC 95-5830. 1996. xxvii, 398 pp. State University of New York Press: Albany, New York. In Eng.
"Based on data from the 1990 National Jewish Population Survey, the authors examine the high level of mobility among American Jews and their increasing dispersion throughout the United States, and how this presents new challenges to the national Jewish community."
Correspondence: State University of New York Press, State University Plaza, Albany, NY 12246. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20619 Poujol, Catherine. Exogenous minorities or indigenous Russians in Central Asia. [Minorités exogènes ou Russes de l'intérieur en Asie Centrale.] Revue d'Etudes Comparatives Est-Ouest, Vol. 26, No. 4, Dec 1995. 125-42, 199 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The colonial and post-colonial `Russian diaspora' which is still living in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia, to the number of several millions, represents a painful inheritance for these new Soviet-created states, whose identity is affirmed by underscoring Russia's historical responsibility for them. However, the problem of these `near abroad'...Russophones has become a political stake, as much for the `former homeland', whose external policy must take into account the setting-up of new frontiers, as for the new republics who are trying to establish [themselves] firmly and endeavouring to contain inter-ethnic pressures."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20620 Shumway, J. Matthew; Jackson, Richard H. Native American population patterns. Geographical Review, Vol. 85, No. 2, Apr 1995. 185-201 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Regional concentration characterizes the distribution of Native Americans. They have been concentrated in the rural American West through three centuries of governmental intervention to create `Indian States'. The last four decades have witnessed important changes in the geography of Native Americans. The majority of them are now urban residents, and migration and more precise census enumeration have resulted in significant population growth in non-Indian States. In spite of these changes, the current patterns of Native American population are only marginally different from the geography consequent to three centuries of governmental intervention in locational decisions."
Correspondence: J. M. Shumway, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20621 Sinha, Sunil K. The demography of Indians in the United States. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 219-27 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author provides a profile of Asian Indians (defined as persons from present-day India) living in the United States. The analysis is based on data from the 1990 U.S. census. Characteristics described include spatial distribution, urban population, age and sex, marital status, and family or household type.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20622 Taylor, John. Australia's indigenous population: policy implications of demographic change. People and Place, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1995. 4-10 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"The demography of Australia's indigenous population is quite distinct from that of the mainstream....Given the pressing policy significance of demographic analysis in indigenous affairs, three questions, in particular, appear of immediate relevance: How fast is the population growing and how is it likely to grow over the coming years? What is the age structure of the population and how is this likely to change? What is the spatial distribution of the population and how is this changing? This paper outlines the basic facts regarding each of these questions and considers the broad policy implications of indigenous population change into the new millennium."
Correspondence: J. Taylor, Australian National University, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20623 Verquin, Béatrice. The French abroad: a population that is difficult to define. [Les Français à l'étranger: une population difficile à délimiter.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1995. 193-203 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre.
The author presents estimates concerning the population of French origin living outside of metropolitan France. Problems concerning sources of data on this population are first reviewed. The author also analyzes the French departments in which the overseas French settle when they return to their original country.
Correspondence: B. Verquin, Université de Poitiers, MIGRINTER, 95 avenue Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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