Volume 62 - Number 2 - Summer 1996

I. Historical Demography and Demographic History

Studies dealing with the demographic events of any given period from the early historical up to World War I.

I.1. General Historical Demography

Comprehensive surveys, notes of sources, and items on the state of research. Particularly concerned with the period before modern vital registration was introduced and censuses were taken. Historical items that primarily pertain to one specific demographic variable are classified first under the specific heading and then cross-referenced to this heading.

62:20564 Bailey, Mark. Demographic decline in late medieval England: some thoughts on recent research. Economic History Review, Vol. 49, No. 1, Feb 1996. 1-19 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The causes of prolonged demographic decline in late medieval England are the subject of vigorous debate among historians, mainly as a result of the lack of reliable data. Traditionally, historians have pointed to the persistence of epidemic and endemic disease, but recent explanations have tended to focus upon economic changes after the Black Death which enticed women into the workforce and thus depressed fertility. This article questions both the empirical and the theoretical basis of this revisionism, and explores an alternative hypothesis to explain the transition from a `late-medieval' demographic regime where mortality dominated to an `early modern' regime where fertility was paramount."
Correspondence: M. Bailey, University of Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge CB2 1TA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20565 Bideau, Alain; Brunet, Guy; Desjardins, Bertrand; Prost, Michel. The reproduction of the population in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. Some French and Quebecois examples. [La reproduction de la population aux XVIIe, XVIIIe et XIXe siècles. Exemples français et québécois.] Annales de Démographie Historique, 1995. 136-48 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article examines the descendants of four cohorts of couples formed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (two cohorts in two French mountain valleys and one on the Ile-d'Orléans in Quebec). The children are separated into four categories according to their fate (deceased while still unmarried, unknown fate, married but childless, `useful children'). `Useful children', a concept used in population genetics, are those who in turn bear children. In all three places, the useful children represent only from 26 to 31% of births." The results indicate that the contributions of couples to the next generation vary considerably: nearly half of the couples studied left no "useful children" behind them, whereas a small minority of couples made an ample contribution.
Correspondence: A. Bideau, Université Lumière Lyon 2, Centre Pierre Léon, URA CNRS 223, Maison Rhône-Alpes des Sciences de l'Homme, Lyon, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20566 Cartier, Michel. Family and population in China from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century in the light of a recent study by Liu Ts'ui-Jung. [Famille et population en Chine du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle à la lumière d'un ouvrage récent de Liu Ts'ui-Jung.] Annales de Démographie Historique, 1995. 149-59 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Using data from a recent study on lineage population and socioeconomic change in China, the author attempts to reconstruct some demographic trends from the sixteenth century onward. The data involve a large sample of 260,000 individuals born between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries. He concludes that there was a major deterioration in mortality from the middle of the eighteenth century, which was associated with an increase in widowhood and a decline in fertility.
Correspondence: M. Cartier, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 22 avenue du Président-Wilson, 75116 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20567 Houdaille, Jacques. Puritans and Virginians. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 7, 1995. 204-10 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author compares the development of populations that established colonies in Virginia and Massachusetts in the 1600s. Data are provided on age at first marriage, fertility, first birth interval, mortality, marriage cohort reproduction, and the never-married.
For the original French version, see 60:40530.
Correspondence: J. Houdaille, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20568 Janczak, Julian K. Development of Polish demography in the years 1918-1993. Polish Population Review, No. 6, 1995. 327 pp. Polish Demographic Society: Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference on the demography of Poland in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The conference was held in Warsaw, November 22, 1993. The 15 papers cover such topics as population trends in general, internal migration, mortality, urbanization, family planning, religious and ethnic groups, marriage age, natural increase, the use of ecclesiastical registers, and family reconstitution.
Correspondence: Polish Demographic Society, Al. Niepodleglosci 164, Room 3, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20569 Mayhew, N. J. Population, money supply, and the velocity of circulation in England, 1300-1700. Economic History Review, Vol. 48, No. 2, May 1995. 238-57 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The importance of monetary and demographic factors in the later medieval and early modern `price revolutions' has been much debated. This article analyses this long period in the terms of the Fisher Identity MV=PT, but also fully recognizes the importance of demographic change, and its impact on GDP. Tentative estimates of money supply and GDP are discussed, and from them velocity of circulation is deduced. Velocity has tended to fall over this period, but rising Tudor velocity is regarded as a symptom of economic distress."
Correspondence: N. J. Mayhew, University of Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, Beaumont Street, Oxford, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20570 Pfister, Christian. Population history and historical demography, 1500-1800. [Bevölkerungsgeschichte und historische Demographie, 1500-1800.] Enzyklopädie Deutscher Geschichte, Vol. 28, ISBN 3-486-55014-4. 1994. viii, 151 pp. R. Oldenbourg Verlag: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
This work provides a summary of research on the population and historical demography of Germany during the period 1500-1800. Theories, sources of data, and methods are first reviewed. Subsequent sections deal with population change, marriage patterns, illegitimacy, fertility, mortality, internal and international migration, and spatial variations in reproductive behavior. A bibliography is also included.
Correspondence: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Rosenheimer Strasse 145, 81671 Munich, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20571 Woods, Robert. The population history of Britain in the nineteenth century. New Studies in Economic and Social History, ISBN 0-521-55279-6. LC 95-18742. 1995. x, 71 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This is one monograph in a series designed to introduce students and their teachers to some key issues in British economic and social history. This study concerns the causes of demographic change in Britain over the course of the nineteenth century. "The author combines an examination of migration, marriage patterns, fertility and mortality with a guide to the sources of population data available to historians and demographers. Of the issues with which he deals, three are of particular significance. During this period emigration, and especially migration to the towns, radically altered the distribution and composition of the British population. This also affected the prospects of marriage and the chances of life or premature death. In the second half of Queen Victoria's reign there was a revolution of social attitudes which initiated the move towards family limitation, resulting in the rapid reduction in family sizes. This was also the period in which the benefits of substantial advances in public health began to improve the quality of life, especially in urban Britain."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

I.2. Methods of Historical Demography

Applications of demographic methodology to the records of the past. Relevant items are coded here and, if of more general interest than to historical demography alone, are cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models .

62:20572 Galley, Chris; Williams, Naomi; Woods, Robert. Detection without correction: problems in assessing the quality of English ecclesiastical and civil registration. Annales de Démographie Historique, 1995. 161-83 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Reliable, good quality source material is required for any demographic study. By selecting specific examples from York during the parish register period and Sheffield during the civil registration period deficiencies in both ecclesiastical and civil registration [in England] are discussed with reference to how they affect infant and adult mortality calculations. In particular, the extent to which the deaths of very young infants were registered is considered in detail. Bourgeois-Pichat's biometric test, Farr's early life tables and Coale and Demeny's model life tables have all been used to correct inaccuracies within original sources. We consider the limitations of each of these methods and suggest that a reassessment of the quality of vital registration data and the methods used to make corrections is needed in order to make further advances in historical demography possible."
Correspondence: C. Galley, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20573 Kasakoff, Alice B.; Adams, John W. The effect of migration on ages at vital events: a critique of family reconstitution in historical demography. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep 1995. 199-242 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Demographic rates of historical populations have usually been calculated using only data from stayers alone. Can they be extrapolated to the population as a whole? Ruggles has recently pointed out, using both logic and a computer simulation, that stayers experience vital events earlier in life than movers due to migration censorship: those who experience them later in life have often migrated away from the community being studied. We show that stayers do indeed marry and die at younger ages than do movers, using a genealogical database on the [U.S.] North (1620-1880). These differences are caused, however, both by migration censorship and by genuine differences between the two groups and the places they lived. Therefore changes over time among stayers are not good indicators of changes in the population as a whole because they are affected by changing migration rates. Thus no simple `correction factor' can be extrapolated to estimate the general population; neither stayers (nor movers) constitute a `baseline' or `normal' process: both must be considered together in order to gain an accurate picture of the population as a whole."
Correspondence: A. B. Kasakoff, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20574 Zoltan, David. Decay of villages--population censuses at the end of the seventeenth century. [Falupusztulas--a XVII. szazad vegi osszeirasok.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 73, No. 7, Jul 1995. 591-9 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The study raises an interesting methodological problem of population history research: the authenticity of bygone population censuses (in this case at the end of the 17th century [in Hungary]), their scientific applicability, and the interpretation of data...in these documents. The final conclusion of the study is that checking the data of population censuses from several aspects and accurate critics of the sources are extremely important...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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