Volume 62 - Number 2 - Summer 1996

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

62:20387 Andersson, Gunnar. Divorce-risk trends in Sweden 1971-1993. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1995. 293-311 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to introduce an updated system of annual indexes of divorce risks and to use the system to display trends in divorce risks for Swedish women over the years since 1971. Divorce-risk trends turn out to have been quite different for women at different parities. Trends for women in their first marriage (the majority) are also somewhat different from trends in later marriages. After a spurt in divorces at parity 0 connected with a divorce reform in 1974, divorce risks have been quite stable for women at this parity, but they have increased steadily among married mothers, mostly as an effect of an increasing prevalence of premarital childbearing. Our indexes are produced by an indirect standardization of register data with respect to women's age at marriage, duration of marriage, and order of marriage. We also recommend standardization with respect to an indicator of premarital childbearing, which is particularly important in a population with extensive nonmarital cohabitation."
Correspondence: G. Andersson, Stockholm University, Demography Division, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20388 Andersson, Gunnar. Divorce trends in Sweden, 1971-1993. [Skilsmässoutvecklingen i Sverige 1971-1993.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 86, ISBN 91-7820-092-X. Sep 1994. 25 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Division: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
Analyzing official data on divorce trends among Swedish women, this report finds that there has been an increase in the number of divorces in Sweden in the 1970s and 1980s. The author concludes that the increased divorce rate is related to an increase in marriages with premarital births, a phenomenon resulting from a rise during the same period in premarital cohabitation. The report is part of a larger study of Swedish women's marriages, divorces, and births.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Division, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20389 Antoine, Philippe; Nanitelamio, Jeanne. Can polygamy be avoided in Dakar? [Peut-on échapper a la polygamie a Dakar?] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 32, ISBN 2-87762-077-8. Sep 1995. 31 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in marriage, and particularly in polygamy, in Senegal are analyzed using data from a 1989 survey involving 1,557 individuals, some of whom were subsequently reinterviewed. The results show that marriage is almost universal, and that early ages at marriage and rapid rates of remarriage combine to produce high levels of polygamy. In general, male attitudes toward polygamy are more positive than those of females. Urban residence is shown to have little effect on the prevalence of polygamy.
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20390 Barich, Rachel R.; Bielby, Denise D. Rethinking marriage: change and stability in expectations, 1967-1994. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 17, No. 2, Mar 1996. 139-69 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This study investigates the relationship between individuals' expectations for marriage and their beliefs about the social world. Drawing on the neoinstitutionalist perspective and employing a repeated cross-section design, this study analyzes survey data on young adults [in the United States] from 1967 and 1994 to examine the relationship between attitudes about social relationships and marriage expectations, stability and change over time in marital expectations, and changes in institutionalized notions of marriage. We find evidence of both stability and change in marriage expectations and [we find] that cultural notions of marriage differ for men and women. Overall, this study provides support for the contention that marriage expectations are formed within an institutional context that is influential in shaping individual strategies of action."
Correspondence: R. R. Barich, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20391 Brüderl, Josef; Diekmann, Andreas. Education, birth cohort, and marriage age: a comparative analysis of marriage age in West Germany, East Germany, and the United States. [Bildung, Geburtskohorte und Heiratsalter: eine vergleichende Untersuchung des Heiratsverhaltens in Westdeutschland, Ostdeutschland und den Vereinigten Staaten.] Zeitschrift für Soziologie, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1994. 56-73, 77 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper investigates how education influences marriage behavior in three countries: the United States, West Germany, and former East Germany. Following family economics we postulate that for women a longer education decreases marriage rates both during education (institutional effect) and after the degree has been obtained (human capital effect). For men family economics predicts the delaying institutional effect, too, but the human capital effect is expected to increase marriage rates. Further considerations lead to the additional hypothesis that for younger birth cohorts these sex differences should attenuate....For the United States and West Germany the observed marriage patterns confirm our hypotheses for the most part. For East Germany, however, we observe different marriage patterns. This was expected because the institutional context in this former socialist country was a very different one."
Correspondence: J. Brüderl, Universität München, Institut für Soziologie, Konradstrasse 6, 80801 Munich 22, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20392 Cameron, Sam. A review of economic research into determinants of divorce. British Review of Economic Issues, Vol. 17, No. 41, Feb 1995. 1-22 pp. Stoke-on-Trent, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews econometric work on the determinants of divorce. There is a fair degree of agreement over some of the key variables. It seems well-established that the effect of male wage rates is negative while the effect of female wage rates is positive. Nonetheless, controversy still rages over the effect of legal changes. Further work is needed on this. Viewed as a scientific research programme, the study of the determinants of divorce needs access to a wider range of populations. The databases at present are primarily U.S. sample surveys."
Correspondence: S. Cameron, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire BD7 1DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20393 Chojnacka, Helena. The role of nuptiality in the demographic transition. The case of Africa: a conceptual essay. Genus, Vol. 51, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1995. 117-50 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The focus of analysis is on the direction of change and causes of shifts in age at first marriage among women in the demographic transition in Africa. The principal goal of the analysis is to assess and verify the paramount, determining role of nuptiality in affecting demographic transformation, especially in fertility. The findings confirm that in societies with early/universal marital patterns, initial demographic change is confined to nuptiality while fertility may be rising for decades. Two sets of causes of the shift to a later nuptiality pattern are examined. One refers to the role of nuptiality in premodern societies. The other considers: the built-in mechanism in the rate of population growth; diminishing frequency of polygyny; expansion in education; and increasing employment of women in non-traditional occupations."
Correspondence: H. Chojnacka, 544-C Heritage Hills, Somers, NY 10589. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20394 Dittgen, Alfred. The form of marriage in Europe: civil ceremony, religious ceremony. Survey and trends. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 7, 1995. 95-123 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author examines trends in the distribution of civil and religious marriage ceremonies in Europe over time. Information is provided on marriages among different religious groups in Central, Southern, and Northern Europe. "In many countries the proportion of religious marriages is declining, in others it shows little change, while in others it is on the increase....In some countries their decline precedes that in the total number of marriages, in others it follows it, while in others the two movements coincide. Hypotheses have been advanced to explain these different developments, based on the socio-political and institutional contexts. These contexts can now usefully be reviewed, not in order to make forecasts, but to indicate the course of possible future developments."
For the original French version of this article, see 60:40381.
Correspondence: A. Dittgen, Université de Paris I, Institut de Démographie de Paris, 22 Rue Vauguelin, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20395 Eun, Ki-Soo. Understanding educational sequences and their consequences on the timing of marriage. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jul 1995. 71-94 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This study examines educational sequences and their consequences on the timing of marriage using the life history data from the 1983 Korean National Migration Survey....I find that the educational process in Korea becomes stabilized and institutionalized during middle and high schooling as middle and high school education becomes a mass experience. However, both men and women are likely to undergo a disorderly sequence during the transition period from high school to college due to the very fierce college entrance examination. Men are also likely to experience a disorderly sequence before or after military service. Both men and women who experience an interruption in their schooling after graduation from high school have lesser odds of getting married than those who keep their educational process orderly."
Correspondence: K.-S. Eun, Seoul National University, Center for Area Studies, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20396 Forste, Renata; Tanfer, Koray. Sexual exclusivity among dating, cohabiting, and married women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 1, Feb 1996. 33-47 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using sexual exclusivity as an indication of commitment to a partner, we examine commitment within dating, cohabitation, and marriage. Employing data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Women (1991), we find that cohabitation, in terms of sexual commitment, is more similar to dating than marriage, and that cohabitation, relative to marriage is selective of less committed individuals. In addition, limiting our analyses to currently married women, we find that the characteristics emphasized in partner selection by those who cohabit before marriage differ from the characteristics emphasized by those who do not cohabit before marriage, and that these characteristics influence sexual exclusivity among prior cohabitors."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. Forste, Brigham Young University, Department of Sociology, 852 Spencer W. Kimball Tower, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20397 Houèdokoho, Thomas. An event history approach to the study of nuptiality among women in Benin. [Approche biographique de la nuptialité des femmes béninoises.] Institut de Démographie, Serie Démographie, Monographie, No. 7, ISBN 2-87209-426-1. 1995. xii, 215 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the Université Catholique de Louvain, examines the determinants of marriage formation and dissolution in Benin. Analyzing entry into first marital union, divorce, and remarriage, as well as the practice of polygamy, the dissertation indicates the coexistence of several marriage systems, which are based in turn on cultural differences among ethnic groups. Data are primarily from a demographic survey involving some 20,000 households. The survey was carried out in the early 1980s.
Correspondence: Academia-Bruylant, Grand Rue 25, Boite 115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20398 Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche C. Bridewealth, marriage and fertility in the east-central states of Nigeria. Genus, Vol. 51, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1995. 151-78 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The paper examines the determinants of high bridewealth in the east-central states of Nigeria, inhabited by the Igbo, and relates high bridewealth to rising age at marriage among both men and women. High and rising bridewealth in Igboland is associated with the prevailing economic situation, socio-economic status of bride's parents, raising incidence of self-selection of marital partners in place of arranged marriages, and particularly increasing female education....Rising age at marriage in Igboland cannot be understood only on the basis of increasing urbanization, female education and employment opportunities, but also on the basis of rising bridewealth which reduces the tempo of marriage....The study ends with an investigation of the determinants of marital fertility through the use of a causal model that includes bridewealth, age at marriage and other socio-economic variables."
Correspondence: U. C. Isiugo-Abanihe, University of Ibadan, Department of Sociology, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20399 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Cohabitation before marriage, 1990. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 46, No. 2, Suppl., Feb 1995. 55-78 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
"In this publication, an attempt was made to gauge the extent to which cohabitation prior to marriage occurs, and to identify demographic characteristics which characterize this phenomenon. This study only relates to the Jewish population with the most updated figures relating to couples who married in Israel in 1990. Additionally, a comparison is made with previous years, starting in 1985."
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20400 Jiang, Hong Li; Lavely, William. Rural economy and male marriage in China: Jurong, Jiangsu 1933. Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1995. 289-306 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This study considers male marriage patterns among villages in Jurong county, Jiangsu province [China], using data from an unusual county-wide census conducted in 1934. We build our analysis in a framework which incorporates both economic and demographic theories pertaining to marriage. We examine how land ownership, land availability, male literacy, presence of rural industries, land price, and local marriage market conditions jointly affect the prevalence of male marriage in a village. Our analysis proceeds as follows. After introducing the theoretical context, we discuss Chinese marriage patterns, taking particular note of major regional patterns. We then describe the source of our data, variable definitions, and data quality. We then provide descriptive statistics and a multivariate model."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: H. L. Jiang, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Sociology, Zurich, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20401 Jones, F. L. Convergence and divergence in ethnic divorce patterns: a research note. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 1, Feb 1996. 213-8 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Studies of divorce among ethnically heterogeneous couples are rare. However, a recent longitudinal study of marriages in Hawaii showed that the divorce rate was higher among ethnically mixed marriages compared with ethnically homogeneous ones. On the other hand, the same study found no easily discernible pattern of group differences in the relationship of intermarriage to the risk of divorce. Jones (1994) uses Australian data from the 1970s to show that such risks are consistent with a modified model of behavioral convergence in which divorce rates for mixed marriages are largely a function of revealed group preferences for divorce and convergence between them. This note shows that an equivalent model also accounts for the Hawaiian data. A convergence model may offer a useful point of departure for understanding similar behaviors in other sociocultural settings."
Correspondence: F. L. Jones, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, Demography Programme, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20402 Joung, I. M. A.; van Poppel, F. W. A.; Glerum, J. J.; Kardaun, J. W. P. F.; de Bruin, A. Marital status and cause of death: trends in the Netherlands, 1950-1990. [Burgerlijke staat en doodsoorzaak: ontwikkelingen in Nederland, 1950-1990.] ISBN 90-3571-672-8. 1995. 144 pp. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Sector Gezondheid en Maatschappelijk Welzijn: Voorburg, Netherlands; Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between marital status and mortality differentials in the Netherlands is analyzed using data from a variety of official sources. In particular, the authors focus on which causes of death contribute to mortality differentials by marital status, and how these causes of death changed in significance between 1950 and 1960. The results indicate that "clear differences in total mortality by marital status can be observed for both men and women during the whole period 1950-1990. Married persons have the lowest total mortality rates and divorced persons the highest. Mortality differences by marital status are also found for almost all specific causes of death. They are relatively large in the case of external causes of death (9.6). Striking is the fact that, contrary to what was shown by data from the United States and the United Kingdom, mortality from cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung is lower for never married men than for married men."
Correspondence: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Prinses Beatrixlaan 428, Postbus 4000, 2270 JM Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20403 Kaneko, Ryuichi. On determinants of marriage delay in Japanese female cohorts: decomposition of increase in mean age at first marriage by segment of the process. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 51, No. 2, Jul 1995. 20-33 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Changes in age at marriage in Japan are analyzed over the period 1942-1959.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20404 Kidd, Michael P. The impact of legislation on divorce: a hazard function approach. Applied Economics, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1995. 125-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The paper examines the impact of the introduction of no-fault divorce legislation in Australia. The approach used is rather novel, a hazard model of the divorce rate is estimated with the role of legislation captured via a time-varying covariate. The paper concludes that contrary to U.S. empirical evidence, no-fault divorce legislation appears to have had a positive impact upon the divorce rate in Australia."
Correspondence: M. P. Kidd, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20405 Klissou, Pierre. Polygamy in Benin: a regional approach to trends and determinants. [La polygamie au Bénin: une approche régionale des tendances et des déterminants.] Institut de Démographie Monographie, No. 8, ISBN 2-87209-433-4. 1995. xiii, 257 pp. Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This doctoral dissertation on polygamy in Benin is based primarily on data from the 1979 census. After a general description of polygamy and of the regional and sociocultural factors behind it, the study concentrates on the similarities and differences in the practice of polygamy among the various regions of the country. The author views the following factors as affecting levels of polygamy: urbanization, educational status, and economic activity.
Correspondence: Academia-Bruylant, 25 Grand Rue, Boite 115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20406 Kralova, Luba. Reflections on cohabitation based on Francophone sociology and demography. [Reflexia o kohabitacii na pozadi frankofonnej sociologie a demografie.] Demografie, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1995. 193-9 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines trends in cohabitation in Western Europe. Aspects considered include family and social issues, female social mobility, and household characteristics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20407 Kramarow, Ellen A. A note on remarriage reporting in the 1910 U.S. census. Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1995. 347-64 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The quality of remarriage reporting among native-born whites in the 1910 United States Census is assessed using indirect demographic estimation techniques and vital statistics on divorce. Specifically, I compare the reports of remarriage in the census with estimates based on the extent of widowhood and divorce. After adjusting for possible levels of underreporting of divorce in the census, I estimate that the reports of remarriage among native-born whites in the 1910 census are underreported by less than 5 percent through age 49. At older ages, however, the underreporting rises to 9 percent among women and up to 21 percent among men. In the process of validating the remarriage reports in the census, I calculate the proportion of the divorced and widowed population who remarry, information that is not available directly from the census. These estimates can be used as a baseline for studies of remarriage in the U.S. in the twentieth century."
Correspondence: E. A. Kramarow, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20408 Lehrer, Evelyn L. The determinants of marital stability: a comparative analysis of first and higher-order marriages. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 8, 1996. 91-121 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This study examines similarities and differences in the determinants of stability for first marriages and remarriages. Focusing primarily on the role of investments in marriage-specific human capital, the paper develops several hypotheses about the effects of children from the current marriage, children from previous unions, and home-production skills. The empirical results, based on white and black respondents from the 1982 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth, are generally consistent with the hypotheses and underscore the importance of marriage-specific human capital as a determinant of union stability."
Correspondence: E. L. Lehrer, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, Box 4348 University Hall, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20409 Lloyd, Kim M.; South, Scott J. Contextual influences on young men's transition to first marriage. Social Forces, Vol. 74, No. 3, Mar 1996. 1,097-119 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Competing theories of marriage formation are evaluated by merging several contextual variables, primarily marriage market characteristics from the 1980 [U.S.] census, with men's marital histories observed between 1979 and 1984 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Discrete-time event history models reveal that, net of conventional individual-level predictors, a shortage of prospective partners in the local marriage market impedes white men's transition to first marriage. Women's aggregate economic independence, measured in terms of the proportion of females in the local marriage market who are employed and in terms of the size of average AFDC payments, also diminishes men's marriage propensities. Although earnings and home ownership facilitate men's marital transitions, racial differences in socioeconomic and marriage market characteristics account for relatively little of the substantial racial differences in marriage rates."
Correspondence: K. M. Lloyd, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20410 Manning, Wendy D.; Smock, Pamela J. Why marry? Race and the transition to marriage among cohabitors. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 4, Nov 1995. 509-20 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Our study investigates the transition to first marriage among cohabiting black and white men and women, drawing on data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households. Our results underscore the importance of economic factors on the transition to marriage for both black and white cohabitors. We also find that for black cohabitors, but not for whites, socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood reduces the odds of marriage. The presence of children in cohabiting unions tends to increase the chances of marrying a cohabiting partner for both blacks and whites. Our results demonstrate the importance of including cohabitation in research on the marriage process."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: W. D. Manning, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20411 McDonald, Peter. Numerical equality between males and females and the marriage market: an update. [L'équilibre numérique entre hommes et femmes et le marché matrimonial: le point sur la question.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. 1,579-90 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author presents a general review of the current status of demographic research on nuptiality. He notes the important contributions of Louis Henry to the study of nuptiality which were published in the review "Population". He also notes how the growing popularity of consensual unions has limited the value of nuptiality research which is based on the assumption that the desire to marry is universal.
Correspondence: P. McDonald, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20412 Myers, Scott M.; Hastings, Donald W. Convergence in rural-urban patterns of nuptiality and mortality: a life table update. Sociological Spectrum, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jul 1995. 227-56 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Based on 1979-1981 and 1989-1991 [U.S.] vital registration and 1980 and 1990 census data, we construct increment-decrement life tables for rural and urban males and females. The analysis is centered on 1980 and 1990 and describes urban-rural differences in patterns of mortality and nuptiality by age and sex. Our research updates an earlier study that described urban-rural mortality and marital transition patterns for Tennessee, 1970. The 1980 and 1990 findings parallel the 1970 results. Rural women and men have shorter life expectancies; higher infant mortality rates; younger median ages of entry into first marriage, divorce, and widowhood; a greater proportion of their cohorts ever marrying; lower probabilities of divorce; and higher probabilities of widowhood than urban women and men. However, there was a decline in urban-rural differences from 1970-1990. These changes suggest that urbanization, technological advances in communication and transportation, and the diffusion of urban lifestyles and values may have blurred the urban-rural distinction."
Correspondence: S. M. Myers, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20413 Neyrand, Gérard; M'Sili, Marine. French people acquiring citizenship by marriage and their spouses: a diverse and changing situation. [Les Français par mariage et leurs conjoints: une situation diversifiée et évolutive.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1995. 123-43 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"After a brief presentation on the history of the law concerning acquisition of French nationality by marriage, the authors analyse the new bill passed in 1993. They go on to describe the social characteristics of people who acquire French nationality by marriage and their spouses....The social and cultural characteristics of the spouse explain the recent changes among those who have acquired French nationality by marriage. For instance, the number of couples that consist of a French husband and a foreign wife, as compared to those where the situation is reversed, depends on the nationality of the foreign spouse. The increasing age-gap between spouses can be attributed to their increasing socio-professional level and to changes in the distribution by nationality among the foreign population."
Correspondence: G. Neyrand, CIMERSS, Rue Fernand Canobio, 13320 Bouc Bel Air, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20414 Oropesa, R. S. Normative beliefs about marriage and cohabitation: a comparison of non-Latino whites, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 1, Feb 1996. 49-62 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using the 1987-88 [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households, this research examines normative beliefs about marriage and cohabitation among non-Latino Whites, Mexican Americans, and mainland Puerto Ricans. The results indicate that Mexican Americans tend to be more pronuptial than non-Latino Whites. They evaluate marriage more positively relative to singlehood, and marriage intentions significantly boost their approval of cohabitation. The former is particularly evident among the foreign born. Such differences cannot be explained fully by socioeconomic background or beliefs about nonmarital sex and childbearing. Puerto Ricans are least disapproving of cohabitation in the absence of plans to marry, primarily because of their beliefs about nonmarital sex and childbearing."
Correspondence: R. S. Oropesa, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20415 Richard, J.; Rao, P. S. S. Sundar. Changes in consanguinity and age at marriage. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 15-28 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The changes in the practice of consanguinity, its relationship with age at marriage, especially of females, the contexts of conformity and departure from tradition were investigated through field studies in Tamil Nadu and the findings are discussed in this paper....The data...were collected from a population of 41,000 from Vellore town (urban area) and a population of 52,000 from the rural area of K.V. Kuppam Block of the North Arcot district, Tamil Nadu, India, from 1986 to 1988." Aspects considered include changes in the prevalence of consanguinity; consanguinity and age at marriage; early marriage and marital distance; early marriage and education; advantages of consanguineous marriage; and departure from consanguinity.
Correspondence: J. Richard, Christian Medical College, Department of Biostatistics, Vellore 632 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20416 Rychtaríková, Jitka. Family formation in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1993. 31-52 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng. with sum. in Cze.
The author analyzes family formation trends in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Information is included on first marriage rates, divorce, remarriage, and fertility. "Procreative behaviour in each of the birth-cohorts in the Czech Republic (starting with the birth-cohort 1930) is at the level of simple reproduction. In Slovakia, the completed fertility rate continued declining so that today the two parts of the former federation show very similar levels of reproduction. Marriage is a very wide-spread institution in Czechoslovakia and it is situated in the younger age groups....The popularity of legal unions in the Czech and Slovak Republics and the relatively higher fertility rate in the European context can be ascribed to the young age at which those events occur."
Correspondence: J. Rychtaríková, Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Demography and Geodemography, Albertov 6, 12 843 Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20417 Rychtaríková, Jitka. Nuptiality of single persons in the Czech Republic, past and present. [Snatecnost svobodnych v Ceske Republice drive a dnes.] Demografie, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1995. 157-72 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"Nuptiality...of single persons in the Czech Republic can be distributed into 3 stages. During the first one specified by the period since World War II until the beginning of the sixties nuptiality...developed in accordance with the European trends....The second stage started in the sixties and was completed in 1989....In this stage...the Czech Republic's population started its differentiation of nuptial behaviour as compared to a series of developed countries, where at the turn of the seventies the intensity of single persons' nuptiality has declined while the average age at the first marriage has been increasing. Since 1992 the third stage has appeared in the Czech Republic characterized by declining intensity and growth of marriage age."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20418 Saluter, Arlene F. Marital status and living arrangements: March 1994. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 484, Feb 1996. xv, 76, [35] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents detailed information on the marital status and living arrangements of the noninstitutional population of the United States, based on the results of the March 1994 Current Population Survey (CPS). The text of the report compares current survey data with data collected from earlier surveys. In some instances, data from decennial censuses are used when survey data are not available....Data contained in this report reflect the impact of various factors on the behavior of men and women regarding marriage, divorce, and living arrangements, and the corresponding effect upon the living arrangements of children."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20419 Smith, Peter W. F.; McDonald, John W.; Forster, Jonathan J.; Berrington, Ann M. Monte Carlo exact methods used for analysing interethnic unions in Great Britain. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C: Applied Statistics, Vol. 45, No. 2, 1996. 191-202 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The value of using exact rather than asymptotic tests to measure intermarriage in the United Kingdom is examined. "We develop Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for estimating the exact conditional p-value and the exact distribution of the residuals, for quasi-independence and quasi-symmetry. These methods are used to analyse a sparse 10 x 10 symmetric table of interethnic unions, extracted from the 1% household sample of anonymized records from the 1991 U.K. census. With the exception of Pakistani/White and Other Asian/White unions, there is no evidence against quasi-symmetry. We conclude that, with these exceptions, there are no gender differences in the affinities between ethnic groups."
Correspondence: P. W. F. Smith, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20420 Southall, Humphrey; Gilbert, David. A good time to wed?: marriage and economic distress in England and Wales, 1839-1914. Economic History Review, Vol. 49, No. 1, Feb 1996. 35-57 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The close relationship between the marriage rate and the state of the economy [in England and Wales] was studied extensively in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries but has since been neglected. This article presents new findings concerning counties and towns drawn from the Registrar General's reports, and particular occupations using parish register evidence. Marriage series are systematically compared with statistics of trade union unemployment and small debt, and shown to behave similarly to the former. The article thus supports the authors' earlier finding that cyclical economic distress in Britain before 1914 was concentrated in northern industrial regions."
Correspondence: H. Southall, University of London, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20421 Speizer, Ilene S. A marriage trichotomy and its applications. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 4, Nov 1995. 533-42 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper promotes research methods specific to men, the new focus of fertility and family planning studies (especially in sub-Saharan Africa). I propose a novel marriage categorization based on married men's intentions to take another wife. The three marriage groups are currently monogamous men who intend to remain so, currently monogamous men who intend to become polygynous, and currently polygynous men. The first analysis demonstrates that typical marriage analyses may misclassify men who intend to become polygynous. Applications of the marriage trichotomy illustrate that men with varying marital intentions have differing desires regarding fertility and family planning....The data for these analyses are taken from the 1991 Cameroon Demographic and Health Surveys (CDHS)."
Correspondence: I. S. Speizer, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB8120, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20422 Toulemon, Laurent. The place of children in the history of couples. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 7, 1995. 163-86 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"Does the multiplication of families outside wedlock increase poverty and aggravate the `social problems' that emerge during adolescence, or does it normalize the position of children brought up in nontraditional families?...[The author] observes the place of children in the history of couples [in France]....The increase in the risk of breakdown of unions corresponds to a logic that is independent of fertility behaviour. Children are increasingly conceived by parents who already live [together], and the time of their birth is more and more often planned, but the presence of children thereafter has only a weak influence on the solidity of the union, except when the children are very young; children are no stronger a guarantee of the solidity of a union now than [they were] in the past."
For the original French version of this article, see 61:20396.
Correspondence: L. Toulemon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20423 van Poppel, Frans. Seasonality of work, religion and popular customs: the seasonality of marriage in the nineteenth- and twentieth-century Netherlands. Continuity and Change, Vol. 10, No. 2, Aug 1995. 215-56 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"In this paper, the regional and social variation in seasonal patterns of marriage in the Netherlands is analyzed using data from the marriage certificates of approximately 20 municipalities during the period 1812-1912. After a presentation of published statistical data relating to the Netherlands as a whole and to the different provinces, more detailed data are presented by socio-economic group and region. Two fundamental factors affected the differences in seasonality of marriage between regions and socio-economic groups: ecclesiastical constraints and differences in the seasonality of work."
Correspondence: F. van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20424 Waite, Linda J. Does marriage matter? Demography, Vol. 32, No. 4, Nov 1995. 483-507 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"When politicians point to the high social costs and taxpayer burden imposed by disintegrating `family values', they overlook the fact that individuals do not simply make the decisions that lead to unwed parenthood, marriage, or divorce on the basis of what is good for society. They weigh the costs and benefits of each of these choices to themselves--and sometimes their children. But how much do individuals know about these costs and benefits? I think that we as demographers have something to contribute here. As individual researchers we investigate the relationship between marriage and longevity, wealth, earnings, or children's achievements, but we rarely try to pull all this evidence together. I would like to argue that we have an opportunity and an obligation to do that, and to tell people what their decisions about marriage and family potentially mean for them as individuals. That is my objective here."
Correspondence: L. J. Waite, University of Chicago, Department of Sociology, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20425 Wu, Zheng; Balakrishnan, T. R. Dissolution of premarital cohabitation in Canada. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 4, Nov 1995. 521-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The rapid increase in the number of unmarried cohabiting couples, indicated by recent evidence, is crucial to our understanding of changing marriage patterns. The levels and patterns of entry into cohabitation have been well documented over the last two decades, but little is known about the outcomes of nonmarital cohabitation. In this study we examine two competing outcomes of cohabitation relationships [in Canada]: union separation and legalization of the union through marriage. Our results show that the hazard rate of union dissolution is affected particularly by gender, fertility status, partner's marital status, religion, age at start of cohabitation, year cohabitation commenced, and region."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Z. Wu, University of Victoria, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 3050 MS 7572, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20426 Yamamoto, Chizuko; Kojima, Katsuhisa. Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1993. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 51, No. 2, Jul 1995. 41-56 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This is a review of marriage and divorce patterns in Japan in 1993. It includes data on marriages by nationality of bride and groom, 1965 to 1993; marriages by marriage order of bride and groom, 1988-1993; and marriage and marriage rates by age, 1993.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20427 Zhang, Junsen. Do men with higher wages marry earlier or later? Economics Letters, Vol. 49, No. 2, Aug 1995. 193-6 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using data from Taiwan, this paper shows that marriage age is negatively (positively) related to the wage rate in the sample with nonworking (working) wives. The results reconcile the two contrasting hypotheses on the relation between wages and marriage age for men."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics, Shatin, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

62:20428 Ainsworth, Martha. Economic aspects of child fostering in Côte d'Ivoire. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 8, 1996. 25-62 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the economic determinants of child fostering decisions in Côte d'Ivoire [Ivory Coast], where in 1985 one-fifth of non-orphaned children age 7-14 were living away from both natural parents. The economic determinants of both sending and receiving decisions are examined separately and evaluated with respect to their support for child labor and human capital explanations. The determinants for both sides of the fostering market are then estimated simultaneously, using a model of friction developed by Rosett (1959), so that the symmetry of fostering determinants can be formally tested."
Correspondence: M. Ainsworth, World Bank, Policy Research Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20429 Axinn, William G.; Thornton, Arland. The influence of parents' marital dissolutions on children's attitudes toward family formation. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 1, Feb 1996. 66-81 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors "investigate the influence of parents' marital dissolutions on their children's attitudes toward several dimensions of family formation. Hypotheses focus on the role of parents' attitudes as a mechanism linking parents' behavior to their children's attitude. We test these hypotheses using intergenerational panel data that include measures of parents' attitudes taken directly from parents and measures of children's attitudes taken directly from children. Results demonstrate strong effects of parental divorce, remarriage, and widowhood on children's attitudes toward premarital sex, cohabitation, marriage, childbearing, and divorce. The results also show that parents' own attitudes link their behavior to their children's attitudes, although substantial effects of parental behavior remain after controlling for parents' attitudes." Data are from an 18-year intergenerational panel study. The original survey was conducted in 1962 and a follow-up was done in 1980.
Correspondence: W. G. Axinn, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20430 Bradbury, Bruce. Measuring the cost of children. Australian Economic Papers, Vol. 33, No. 62, Jun 1994. 120-38 pp. Adelaide, Australia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to present a survey and synthesis of those economic models that have been used to derive estimates of marginal child costs from cross-sectional data on household expenditure patterns [in Australia]....In the next section the argument that the `costs of children' should not be a concern of social policy is considered (and rejected). Section III then summarises the models....In Section IV an Engel curve system estimated from the 1988-89 Household Expenditure Survey is used to compare [the models]....In the concluding section some directions for further research and data collection strategies are discussed."
Correspondence: B. Bradbury, University of New South Wales, P.O. Box 1, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20431 Cartier, Michel. Nuclear versus quasi-stem families: the new Chinese family model. Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1995. 307-27 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Recent evolution of the Chinese family as revealed through the returns of the last censuses shows a diminution in size coupled with a stability of the structures, with approximately one-quarter of the population living in the frame[work] of three-generation households. Fluctuations in size have been mainly induced by variations in the age distribution following the process of the demographic transition. The article discusses the impact of various demographic parameters and attempts to demonstrate that family structures correspond to a life course characterized, first, by the integration of many young couples, even after child-bearing, within the home of the groom's family; and, second, by the necessity to care for the elderly. In conclusion, this evolution is evaluated in the light of the current demographic as well as anthropological literature. Does it correspond to the revival of old customs, especially in the countryside, or are we confronted by the emergence of a new model, the so-called `feed-back' model?"
Correspondence: M. Cartier, Revue Bibliographique de Sinologie, Editions de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 131 boulevard St-Michel, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20432 Clarkberg, Marin; Stolzenberg, Ross M.; Waite, Linda J. Attitudes, values, and entrance into cohabitational versus marital unions. Social Forces, Vol. 74, No. 2, Dec 1995. 609-32 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This article argues that marriage and cohabitation [in the United States] are associated with important differences in work patterns, earnings, treatment of money, use of leisure time, social relations with the extended family, the division of household labor, and fertility. [The authors] hypothesize that these differences lead those considering the formation of a household to consider their attitudes toward these aspects of life, which appear to be so different in marriage from those in cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, [they] test and find support for the hypothesis that the choice between cohabitation and marriage is affected by attitudes and values toward work, family, use of leisure time, money, and sex roles, as well as values and attitudes toward marriage itself."
Correspondence: M. Clarkberg, University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 E. 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20433 Evenson, Robert E.; Mwabu, Germano. Household composition and expenditures on human capital formation in Kenya. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 8, 1996. 205-32 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Expenditures on human capital determinants in Kenya are analyzed using microdata. Specific expenditures on food, schooling, and medical care provide evidence of human capital formation activities of households. The analysis is focused on expenditure and distributional effects of household composition dimensions. To determine empirical magnitudes of the effects, a flexible form of a household expenditure function is estimated. The results of the analysis show that gender and age composition are important determinants of the level and distribution of human capital investments in a household. In addition, household budget allocation favors boys over girls for secondary school education. The policies implied by the findings are discussed."
Correspondence: R. E. Evenson, Yale University, Department of Economics, Box 208269, Yale Station, 277 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20434 Garfinkel, Irwin; McLanahan, Sara S. Children in single-mother families: economic insecurity and policy dilemmas. [Les enfants des mères seules: précarité économique et politiques sociales.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 23, No. 2, Autumn 1994. 179-206 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In the absence of government assistance, most mother-only families would be poor and economically insecure....Government can reduce economic insecurity, but doing so will increase dependence on government....This creates a major dilemma for policy makers: whether to give priority to reducing economic insecurity or whether to give priority to reducing dependence and prevalence. In this paper we address key questions relevant to the dilemma: the extent of insecurity, dependence, and prevalence; the role of government in producing and maintaining all three; and the experience of single mothers and their children in the United States as compared to those in other advanced industrial nations....Evidence from both international comparisons and American experience during the past 20 years indicates that a further reduction in welfare benefits will increase poverty and insecurity. Furthermore, the beneficial effects on dependence and prevalence are not likely to be great."
Correspondence: I. Garfinkel, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20435 Gertler, Paul J.; Lillard, Lee A. The family and intergenerational relations: introduction. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 29, No. 4, Fall 1994. 941-9 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
This is an introduction to a special issue on the family and intergenerational relations. The issue consists of papers presented at an earlier conference on this topic. The focus is on four topics: "(1) parental investments in children's human capital, (2) intergenerational transfers, (3) effect of public policy on resource allocation, and (4) specification of empirical models of family decision making."
Selected papers have been cited previously in Population Index.
Correspondence: P. J. Gertler, RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

62:20436 Hullen, Gert. Leaving the parental home in western and eastern Germany: results of the 1992 Family and Fertility Survey (FFS). [Der Auszug aus dem Elternhaus im Vergleich von West- und Ostdeutschland: Ergebnisse des Family and Fertility Surveys (FFS) 1992.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1995. 141-58 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"An evaluation of the Family and Fertility Surveys (FFS) in the course of which in 1992 about 10,000 men and women aged 20 to 39 years were interviewed in eastern and western Germany contains an analysis of the respondents' age when leaving their parental home....The average age upon leaving the parental home from 1976 to 1991 rose from approximately 21 years for men and about 20 years for women to about 23 years for men and 21 to 22 years for women....It became obvious that there was an increase in the age upon leaving if the latter was related to the birth of children or marriage....The different ages upon leaving in eastern and western Germany, especially with regard to the alternatives of leaving the parental home and having a child or leaving the parental home and getting married, were affected by the government's dwelling policy. And it could be seen that the age upon leaving to a large extent also depends on the housing market."
Correspondence: G. Hullen, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20437 Hullen, Gert. Women's life histories: results of the retrospective survey of family and employment histories of women aged 36 to 60. [Frauenbiographien: Ergebnisse der retrospektiven Befragung zu Familien- und Erwerbsbiographien 35- bis 60 jähriger Frauen.] Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, No. 83, 1995. 176 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Results are presented from a retrospective survey carried out in West Germany in 1987 to examine the life histories of women aged 35-60 with an emphasis on their socio-demographic behavior. The survey covered a sample of 2,991 German women who were grouped into five birth cohorts. Information is included on actual and desired number of children, educational level, employment history, marriage, nonmarital cohabitation, births, and divorce.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20438 Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian. Family structure and the timing of transitions from 70 to 103 years of age. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 1, Feb 1996. 178-87 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 White [U.S.] individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, first, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of those with no descendants. Second, widowhood and relocation are occurring among those in their seventies, some years before the onset of disability. Third, in the aggregate, family size does not increase in older age groups because of the high proportion of elderly childless. In fact, a bimodal pattern exists, with two thirds having three or more generational families and one third at the end of their lineage and having an attenuated family form."
Correspondence: C. L. Johnson, University of California, Medical Anthropology Program, 1350 Seventh Avenue, #317, San Francisco, CA 94143. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20439 Kartovaara, Leena. Families 1994. [Perheet 1994/Familjer 1994.] Väestö/Befolkning/Population, No. 1995:14, ISBN 951-727-141-7. 1995. 96 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Fin; Swe. with sum. in Eng.
"This publication contains demographic data on families [in Finland in] the year 1994. The families have been classified according to variables such as the age, language, nationality and country of birth of the reference persons, for example. The data on types of families and families with children as well as the average number of children have been tabulated by municipality. There is a review of recent family trends at the beginning of the publication. This publication will from now on appear annually."
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, Sales Services, P.O. Box 3B, 00022 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20440 Kinoshita, Futoshi. Household size, household structure, and developmental cycle of a Japanese village: eighteenth to nineteenth centuries. Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1995. 239-60 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This article examines the changes in household structure of Yambe, a small village in northeastern Japan, during the latter half of the Tokugawa period (1760-1870) by using the population registers called the shumon aratame-cho....[It] not only discusses the changes in household size and the distribution of household types but also examines how the structure of households changed over time." Results indicate that "the number of households...increased 1.5-fold in the 110 years from 1760 to 1870. The mean household size also rose from about five to six persons during the same period. These developments were closely related to the socio-economic conditions of the village. The changes, however, did not occur in a homogeneous fashion across different socio-economic classes....There [also] existed some notable differences between different socio-economic classes in terms of the types of household transition and also of the likelihood of the transition."
Correspondence: F. Kinoshita, Konan Women's College, Department of Liberal Arts, Aichi, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20441 Kojima, Hiroshi. Sibling configuration and coresidence of married couples with an older mother in Japan. Institute of Population Problems Reprint Series, No. 19, Mar 1994. 16 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This study aims to clarify the effects of sibling configuration on both current and prospective coresidence of married male household heads with their older mother or mother-in-law. Multinomial logit analysis is applied to the data from the 1985 national household survey conducted by the Institute of Population Problems in Tokyo. The analysis is restricted to those heads whose mother and mother-in-law are both aged 60 or older and who do not live or plan to live with both mothers. The results of multinomial logit analysis of current living arrangements show a positive effect of the head's eldest-son status on coresidence with his mother and a positive effect of the wife's eldest-daughter status (in the absence of brothers) on coresidence with her mother, which supports the Heir Priority Hypothesis....The reversed effect of the head having younger sisters on planned coresidence with his mother seems to be consistent with the Gender Role Crowding Hypothesis."
Correspondence: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20442 Krivo, Lauren J. Immigrant characteristics and Hispanic-Anglo housing inequality. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 4, Nov 1995. 599-615 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to explain why Hispanic households in the United States live in housing markedly inferior to Anglos. I argue that immigrant characteristics of Hispanic households and the metropolitan areas in which Hispanics live play important roles in determining such inequality in the housing market. Empirical analyses of homeownership, household crowding, and housing costs demonstrate that immigration plays a role in explaining relatively low homeownership and high household crowding for each of four large Hispanic populations (Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and other Hispanics). The role of immigrant characteristics in determining housing costs is much weaker."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: L. J. Krivo, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20443 Kurosu, Satomi; Ochiai, Emiko. Adoption as an heirship strategy under demographic constraints: a case from nineteenth-century Japan. Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1995. 261-88 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This article examines the adoption practices of South-Tama peasants in late nineteenth-century Japan on the basis of an 1870 household register (2,057 households)....The article starts with the discussion of the data in the South-Tama household register. It will then, first, examine the nature of the practices of adoption in Japan, and second, explore adoption as an heirship strategy at both the individual household level and at the level of the larger social unit. We hope to delineate the mechanism of adoption practices and its social background and consequences, especially in relation to economic status and social mobility. We also hope to show adoption can be an important strategy for coping with the discrepancies that arise between ideals for succession and inheritance and demographic reality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20444 Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne; Le Bourdais, Celine; Lehrhaupt, Karen. Home-leaving among young Canadians born between 1921 and 1960. [Le départ du foyer parental des jeunes Canadiens nés entre 1921 et 1960.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1995. 1,111-35 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Using retrospective data taken from the General Social Survey carried out by [Statistics Canada] in 1990, the authors study leaving-home patterns of young Canadians born between 1921 and 1960. Age [at] leaving home is lower among those who became adults after the Second World War. We then show that the same demographic and socio-cultural factors may often affect the pattern of leaving home differently for men and women. For women, cohort, relations with the family of origin, and education are important. By contrast, economic factors seem to be more important in the case of men. The differences are less marked when leaving home is linked to the formation of a union."
Correspondence: E. Lapierre-Adamcyk, Université de Montreal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20445 Lefebvre, Pierre; Merrigan, Philip. Economic welfare of Canadian children: changes and implications for social policy. [Le bien-être économique des enfants au Canada: changements et conséquences pour les politiques sociales.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 23, No. 2, Autumn 1994. 207-42 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This study recommends courses of action within the scope of social policy revision in Canada, aiming to increase funding for children. These recommendations stem from a critical review of guaranteed income programmes and an analysis of the actual economic welfare of children. The authors describe the evolution of the nature of the family in Canada over the past twenty years and of the economic status of children. Their assessments are based on an analysis of cross-sectional micro-level data on income and socio-economic characteristics drawn from a very large sample of Canadian families."
Correspondence: P. Lefebvre, Université du Québec, Département de Sciences Economiques, CERPE, C.P. 8888 Succursale, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20446 Lichter, Daniel T. Living arrangements and economic well-being of American children. [Environnement familial et bien-être économique des enfants américains.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 23, No. 2, Autumn 1994. 151-77 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The objective of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which racial variation in children's economic well-being resides in divergent parental work patterns and/or family living arrangements. This is accomplished using recently-released data from the 1 percent sample of the Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 [U.S.] decennial census. The results indicate that racial differences in family structure undermine efforts to eliminate racial inequality among American children. Among blacks, for example, the high proportions of children living in female-headed families account for 60 percent of the difference from white children in poverty rates. Similarly, racial differences in parental work patterns contribute to (but cannot explain completely) racial variation in child poverty. Among black children in married-couple families, poverty rates are roughly twice those of their white counterparts, even though black children are more likely to have both parents working."
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802-6202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20447 Oheneba-Sakyi, Yaw; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Gbortsu, Edna; Aryee, Andrew F. Female autonomy, decision making, and demographic behavior among couples in Ghana. Dec 1995. xviii, 347 pp. State University of New York [SUNY] Potsdam: Potsdam, New York; University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
"The present study, code-named Ghana Female Autonomy Micro Study (GFAMS), was an attempt to obtain current data for detailed analysis of family relations in contemporary Ghana....The study aimed at finding out the relationship, if any, between the autonomy of a woman and her interaction with her partner within the context of societal norms, perceptions, and gender roles that shape decisions on family-related issues such as the practice of contraception and ultimate fertility behavior." The fieldwork for the study was carried out in southern Ghana in 1992.
Correspondence: State University of New York, College at Potsdam, Department of Sociology, 44 Pierrepont Avenue, Potsdam, NY 13676-2294. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20448 Petrovic, Mina. A research in parenthood: value and empirical aspects. [Istrazivanje roditeljstva: vrednosni i iskustveni aspekti.] Demografske Sveske, No. 24, 1995. 1-14 pp. Belgrade, Yugloslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
Using data from a survey of 101 women in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, the author analyzes women's attitudes toward parenthood. The sample, which was divided evenly among women from three social classes, involved manual workers, office workers, and intellectuals. The focus was on the value of children and on reasons given for not having more children.
Correspondence: M. Petrovic, Univerziteta u Beogradu, Instituta Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20449 Reay, Barry. Kinship and the neighborhood in nineteenth-century rural England: the myth of the autonomous nuclear family. Journal of Family History, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1996. 87-104 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"There is an influential strand in the history of the English family, casting its shadow over interpretations of the nineteenth century and rapidly becoming sociological orthodoxy, which stresses the centrality of what has been termed the autonomous nuclear family. In this interpretation, the nuclear family dominates household structures, kinship is weak, and the community rather than family or kin is the main source of support for the needy sections of society. This article, which employs the technique of total reconstitution, examines the role of kinship in three adjoining rural communities in nineteenth-century Kent to question some of these orthodoxies. It shows that as many households in the area went through an extended phase as experienced only the simple family structure, and that kinship links in the immediate area were strong."
Correspondence: B. Reay, University of Auckland, Department of History, Auckland 1, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20450 Sassler, Sharon. Trade-offs in the family: sibling effects on daughters' activities in 1910. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 4, Nov 1995. 557-75 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper uses the 1910 [U.S.] Census Public Use Sample to examine how the presence and activities of key family members shaped the labor force activity, domestic work, and schooling of working-age daughters. There is no evidence that daughters worked to send their brothers to school; parents practiced a more egalitarian distribution of resources than the literature suggests. Having brothers and sisters in school increased a daughter's odds of attending school herself. Similarly, daughters with employed siblings were more likely to be gainfully employed. Nonetheless, parents allocated activities to sons and daughters in ways that reinforced traditional gender roles. Working brothers increase daughters' likelihood of working in the home, while reducing their odds of attending school."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: S. Sassler, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population Dynamics, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20451 Schulz, Reiner. Social networks of middle-aged women: a study of the Federal Institute for Population Research. [Soziale Netzwerke von Frauen im mittleren Alter: eine Untersuchung des Bundesinstituts für Bevölkerungsforschung.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1995. 247-70 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This paper describes the design and implementation of the Network Study carried out by the BIB [Germany's Federal Institute for Population Research] and provides an insight into the assistance and support relationships in which women of the middle-aged generation are involved....This study is particularly concerned with obtaining data regarding the question as to the effects which life in a `modern'-type union (singles; divorced persons; individuals in consensual union) has on the family network of assistance and support....It clearly emerges that the closest relatives, foremost the partner and then the parents and children, are irreplaceable network persons--especially when long-term and devoted help is concerned. When only simple and short-term help is required, lateral relatives, e.g. brothers/sisters, or friends and neighbours will in most cases be prepared to render assistance."
Correspondence: R. Schulz, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20452 Schwarz, Karl. In what kind of families do children and adolescents grow up in Germany? [In welchen Familien wachsen die Kinder und Jugendlichen in Deutschland auf?] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1995. 271-92 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Of those adolescents who nowadays come of age, about 73%, in West Germany, and about 64%, in East Germany, have spent all their lives with their two natural parents. Increasingly (at present, 12% in the West, and 40% in the East) children are born out of wedlock, but a third of them are legitimized by the subsequent marriage of their parents. Another third [of them] obtain stepfathers. If family formation is defined as the birth of the first child, the percentages of first births which are illegitimate are 20% for West Germany and 60% for East Germany....In the age range 15 to 17, the percentages for adolescents living with a single parent are 14% in the old Federal states, and 18% in the new states. Including the children of married, but separated parents, the majority by far--8% in West Germany and 11.5% in East Germany--live with their divorced mothers."
Correspondence: K. Schwarz, Klopstockstrasse 14, 65187 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20453 Shah, A. M. Is the joint household disintegrating? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 31, No. 9, Mar 2, 1996. 537-42 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Census and other data since about 1820 indicate that there has been no unilinear change in household organisation in India. While the joint household seems to have weakened in the urban, educated, professional class, there has been an increase in joint households in the majority of the population. This suggests that the general belief that the joint household is disintegrating in modern India has its origins in a particular small but vocal class."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20454 Strohmeier, Klaus P.; Schulze, Hans-Joachim. Family formation and the desire for children in Germany: labor force participation and the family formation process in social transition. [Familienbildung und Kinderwunsch in Deutschland: Erwerbstätigkeit und Familienbildungsprozess im gesellschaftlichen Umbruch.] Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, No. 82c, 1995. 122 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Data from the 1992 Fertility and Family Survey are used to analyze differences in the life histories of young men and women in East and West Germany two years after German reunification. The data cover approximately 10,000 persons aged 20-39 who are grouped into four birth cohorts. A typology based on marital status, number of children, number of generations in the household, and employment status is constructed. The impact of reunification is then analyzed.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20455 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division (New York, New York). Living arrangements of women and their children in developing countries: a demographic profile. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/141, Pub. Order No. E.96.XIII.5. ISBN 92-1-151302-2. 1995. viii, 104 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This publication represents an effort to bring together data on living arrangements of women and their children in developing countries. The central purpose of this report is to present a comprehensive overview of women and children as household members in the context of social, economic and demographic changes surrounding women. By analysing comparable data, the report aims at elucidating commonalities and differences in the way women and children live and satisfy their basic needs in various cultures, countries and regions. One of the approaches taken in this study is the close examination of the relationship between women's marital status and their living arrangements...."
Correspondence: UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20456 van der Avort, Arno; de Hoog, Kees; Kalle, Pieter. Single parent families. ISBN 90-70815-41-9. 1995. 190 pp. Netherlands Family Council: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
This volume contains proceedings of an international conference on single-parent families, held in Amsterdam in November 1994. "In the first part the speeches and statements of the chairs and the representatives of the [organizing bodies] are included....The second part consists of the contributions of...keynote speakers....In the third part...four single mothers...present their personal experiences and their views on the position of single parent families in society. In the fourth part the chairs of four workshops of the conference present their characterization of the position of single parent families in the respective global region that constituted the topic of each workshop (i.e., Europe, North America, Asia and Africa)....Additional recommendations from the four global regions have been drafted."
Correspondence: Netherlands Family Council, Duinweg 1, 2585 JT The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20457 van Imhoff, Evert; Kuijsten, Anton; Hooimeijer, Pieter; van Wissen, Leo. Household demography and household modeling. Plenum Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis, ISBN 0-306-45187-5. 1995. xiii, 369 pp. Plenum Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this book is to offer a comprehensive treatment of recent developments in various aspects of the growing field of household demography. Since these recent developments have particularly occurred in household analysis and modelling, these topics will receive special emphasis. The book was written for demographers, social scientists, and planners who are involved in the study and projection of population in general, and of households in particular." It is the product of a summer course held in the Netherlands in 1992, which included a one-day workshop on recent issues in household modeling. Apart from introductory and concluding chapters, the book is organized into three parts, which deal with trends and theories, data and analysis, and models. The primary geographical focus is on Europe, with individual papers on the Netherlands, Germany, France, and Sweden.
Correspondence: Plenum Press, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013-1578. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20458 Vikat, Andres. Family formation in Estonia. Publications of the Finnish Demographic Society, No. 15, ISBN 951-95357-6-4. 1994. 176 pp. Finnish Demographic Society: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
This doctoral thesis concerns family formation in Estonia. "Aggregate indicators of family formation (total first marriage rate, mean age at first marriage, illegitimacy ratio) are analysed in comparison with European countries over the period 1959-1991. Life history survey data is used for analysing the differences in the behaviour of population groups within the Estonian population. In Estonia, first marriages are started on the average earlier than in west and north European countries, but later than in eastern Europe. Proportion of extra-marital births in Estonia is higher than in most European countries. Within Estonia, there is a clear difference between the family formation behaviour of the native population, predominantly ethnic Estonians, and the behaviour of the post Second World War immigrants and their descendants."
Correspondence: Finnish Demographic Society, c/o Riikka Raitis, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 25 (Franzeninkatu 13), 00014 Helskini, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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