Volume 62 - Number 2 - Summer 1996

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

62:20206 Aguinaga Roustan, Josune. Bongaarts: a model of fertility and its application to Spain. [Bongaarts: un modelo de fecunididad y su aplicación en España.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1995. 79-94 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author describes the Bongaarts model and applies it to data from a 1985 national fertility survey undertaken in Spain. The focus is on evaluating the model's explanatory power and validity.
Correspondence: J. Aguinaga Roustan, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20207 Ahn, Namkee. Measuring the value of children by sex and age using a dynamic programming model. Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 62, No. 3, Jul 1995. 361-79 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"One of the important determinants of fertility is the value of children as perceived by parents. This paper estimates gender- and age-specific values of children using a dynamic programming model. The underlying hypothesis is that observed fertility outcome for any couple is the solution to their life-cycle optimization problem. Findings from the [South] Korean data indicate that children impose net costs when young and net benefits when old. Both the early costs and the later benefits are larger for male children than female children, and for better-educated women than lower-educated women. Simulation studies which use estimated values of children suggest that a decrease in the costs of abortion and pre-natal gender-screening tests may raise the male-birth ratio through gender-selective abortions."
Correspondence: N. Ahn, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 1397, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20208 Avdeev, Alexandre; Monnier, Alain. A survey of modern Russian fertility. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 7, 1995. 1-38 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"In the present study, we shall attempt to throw light on the recent fertility decline in Russia, by analysing the situation during the latter decades, after a historical review of developments since the turn of the century....During the 1970s, the politicians became aware of the need for a population policy, that is, for...a pronatalist policy....The fertility decline observed in Russia since 1987 is, to a large extent, an effect of the family policy measures adopted in 1981. As is often the case, these measures produced changes in fertility timing rather than any substantial change in family size. They encouraged couples to have children they would no doubt have had anyway, but later. This move forward ended in 1987, and the fall observed since is in part a pendular swing following the preceding rise: women are now having fewer children because those they wanted are already born. These trends confirm a common observation: the impact of pronatalist measures is strongest when they have just been introduced."
For the original French version of this article, see 61:20203.
Correspondence: A. Avdeev, University of Moscow, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20209 Barbieri, Magali; Blum, Alain; Dolkigh, Elena; Ergashev, Amon. Nuptiality, fertility, use of contraception, and family policies in Uzbekistan. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 1, Mar 1996. 69-88 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Using data from a retrospective survey conducted [in Uzbekistan] in 1992 among women of reproductive age, the paper examines fertility trends and determinants during the twentieth century. The analysis shows that the absence of a government-supported birth control programme and the strong pro-natalist policies of the Soviet authorities during most of the century did not affect either the onset, nor the progress of the fertility transition. The results indicate, however, that the social development programmes undertaken by the Soviet government did play a very active part in the transition as shown by the impact of education on reproductive behaviour, as well as on the very specific contraceptive mix adopted by the population after the mid-1970s."
Correspondence: M. Barbieri, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20210 Behar, Cem. The fertility transition in Turkey: reforms, policies, and family structure. In: Family, gender, and population in the Middle East: policies in context, edited by Carla M. Obermeyer. 1995. 37-56 pp. American University in Cairo Press: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to assess the relative weight of the factors that explain the uniqueness of the Turkish demographic transition." Aspects considered include the historical background of Turkey's fertility transition; the national family planning policy; republican reforms and the legal empowerment of women; and men, fertility decisions, and household structure.
Correspondence: C. Behar, Bogaziçi University, Department of Economics, 80815 Bebek, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20211 Belácek, Jaromír. Optimization of demographic models with Poissonian response. Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1993. 87-95 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng. with sum. in Cze.
"The general solution of related estimation and inference problems we can specify as application of Fisher scoring algorithm for maximum likelihood estimators with constraints (in Section 2)....Application to regional fertility patterns (in Section 3) yields the simultaneous solutions of tasks about structural fertility differentiations which have not been presented with correct stochastic evaluation....The functions used for approximations of age-specific fertility schedules coincide with the most usual types of curves described in demographic literature...."
Correspondence: J. Belácek, Research Institute for Building and Architecture, Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20212 Bhattacharya, Bishwanath; Singh, Kaushlendra K.; Singh, Uttam. Proximate determinants of fertility in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Human Biology, Vol. 67, No. 6, Dec 1995. 867-86 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Our main objective here is to examine and discuss the effects of some sociocultural and economic factors on the proximate determinants of fertility in rural areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh [India] (population more than 40 million persons)....The determinants considered are age at marriage of female, postpartum amenorrhea..., fecundability and sterility, and menopause. The sociocultural and economic factors studied are caste, education, breast-feeding status, and social status of the currently married females in the reproductive age group."
Correspondence: B. Bhattacharya, Indian Statistical Institute, Population Studies Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20213 Bodrova, V. Features of the reproductive behavior in Russia in the transition period. [Osobennosti reproduktivnogo povedeniya naseleniya Rossii v perekhodnyi period.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 2, 1996. 73-8 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"The article is dedicated to the analysis of [the] reproduction behaviour of Russia's population in the transition period (1991-1995) based on the data of the monitoring conducted by the All-Russian Centre for Public Opinion Studies using a representative sample survey covering the country's territory. According to the returns of this monitoring some stabilisation [became] apparent by 1995 referring to reproduction processes in Russia."
Correspondence: V. Bodrova, All-Russian Centre for Public Opinion Studies, Nicolskaya 17, Moscow 103012, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20214 Castro Martín, Teresa; Juárez, Fátima. The impact of women's education on fertility in Latin America: searching for explanations. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jun 1995. 52-7, 80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"According to data from Demographic and Health Surveys for nine Latin American countries, women with no education have large families of 6-7 children, whereas better educated women have family sizes of 2-3 children, analogous to those of women in the developed world. Despite these wide differentials in actual fertility, desired family size is surprisingly homogeneous throughout the educational spectrum. While the least educated and the best educated women share the small family norm, the gap in contraceptive prevalence between the two groups ranges from 20-50 percentage points. Better educated women have broader knowledge, higher socioeconomic status and less fatalistic attitudes toward reproduction than do less educated women. Results of a regression analysis indicate that these cognitive, economic and attitudinal assets mediate the influence of schooling on reproductive behavior and partly explain the wide fertility gap between educational strata."
Correspondence: T. Castro Martín, United Nations Population Division, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20215 Caudill, Steven B.; Mixon, Franklin G. Modeling household fertility decisions: estimation and testing of censored regression models for count data. Empirical Economics, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1995. 183-96 pp. Heidelberg, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper adds to the recent body of research on fertility by estimating and testing censored Poisson regression models and censored negative binomial regression models of household fertility decisions. A novel feature of this study is that in each case the censoring threshold varies from individual to individual. Also, a Lagrange multiplier or score test is used to investigate overdispersion. In these regression models the dependent variable is the number of children. In this situation, censored Poisson regression models and censored negative binomial regression models have statistical advantages over OLS, uncensored Poisson regression models, and uncensored negative binomial regression models. The censored models employed in this study are estimated using panel data collected from the Consumer Expenditure Survey compiled by the [U.S.] Bureau of Labor Statistics."
Correspondence: S. B. Caudill, Auburn University, Department of Economics, 415 W. Magnolia, Room 203, Auburn, AL 36849-5242. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20216 Corijn, Martine; Liefbroer, Aart C.; de Jong Gierveld, Jenny. It takes two to tango, doesn't it? The influence of couple characteristics on the timing of the birth of the first child. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 1, Feb 1996. 117-26 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Empirical research on factors influencing fertility behavior usually focuses on characteristics of women only. In this study, the timing of the first childbirth is studied using information about characteristics of both partners. The context specificity of the determinants of childbearing is examined by comparing couples with and without cohabitation experience. The sociocultural specificity is studied using data from the Netherlands and Flanders. Results from hazard models based on a representative sample of young couples (N=1,438) show, in general, that in Flanders a sphere-of-interest rule of decision making and in the Netherlands an egalitarian rule are at play in the decision on the timing of the first birth among couples. Contextual differences show that more specific theories on factors influencing the family formation process are needed."
Correspondence: M. Corijn, Centre for Population and Family Studies, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20217 Courbage, Youssef. Fertility transition in the Mashriq and the Maghrib: education, emigration, and the diffusion of ideas. In: Family, gender, and population in the Middle East: policies in context, edited by Carla M. Obermeyer. 1995. 80-104 pp. American University in Cairo Press: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author compares fertility trends in Egypt and Morocco. Aspects considered include population policies; proximate determinants of fertility; indirect determinants of fertility; educational achievement; female employment and state revenues; and international migration and the demographic transition.
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20218 Curtis, Siân L.; Diamond, Ian. When fertility seems too high for contraceptive prevalence: an analysis of Northeast Brazil. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jun 1995. 58-63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Standard regression equations relating the total fertility rate to contraceptive prevalence indicate that the fertility rate of 5.5 lifetime births per woman observed for Northeast Brazil in the 1986 Brazil Demographic and Health Survey is about 1.6 births per woman higher than would be expected on the basis of contraceptive prevalence at that time. An exploratory approach for evaluating the reasons for higher-than-expected levels of fertility attributes 0.6 of the apparent excess births in Northeast Brazil to the lag effects of recent increases in contraceptive use and 0.6 to the relatively small fertility-inhibiting effect of breastfeeding. Marriage patterns play a smaller role, but appear to be responsible for 0.3 births of the remaining difference between observed and expected fertility."
Correspondence: S. L. Curtis, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20219 Day, Lincoln H. Recent fertility trends in industrialized countries: toward a fluctuating or a stable pattern? European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep 1995. 275-88 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"By the mid-1980s, fertility in most of the world's `developed' countries had declined to unprecedentedly low levels. Since then, it has declined still further in some, increased slightly in others, and fluctuated in still others. Irrespective of cause, these changes could not have occurred in the absence of substantial control over childbearing. While future increases and decreases are both possible, it is argued that, contrary to the usual demographic expectations for populations exercising substantial control over fertility, fertility in most of these countries will increase to approximate replacement levels and then undergo only minor fluctuations around these levels thereafter."
Correspondence: L. H. Day, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20220 De Simoni, Alessandro. Concise measures of period fertility by birth order. An application to Italian data. [Misure di sintesi della fecondità del momento per ordine di nascita. Applicazione al caso italiano.] Genus, Vol. 51, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1995. 105-31 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"In recent studies several authors have shown how fertility tables and concise measures by birth order, strictly and exclusively related to the period fertility conditions, can be derived on the basis of parity progression rates....The many indicators derivable from the fertility tables compiled as stated above are described systematically and completely in relation to their different features. On the basis of a `complementary' model [I show] a further category of concise measures referring to fertility tables which are formally identical to the classical life tables with regard to each order of birth. The study includes applications to concrete data concerning North Central and Southern divisions of Italy (1980-1982 and 1988-1990)."
Correspondence: A. De Simoni, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20221 Duraisamy, Malathy. Women's choice of work and fertility in urban Tamil Nadu, India. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 8, 1996. 3-24 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the joint determinants of women's choice of work and fertility within the Nash-bargaining framework using household survey data from urban Tamil Nadu, India. The labor force participation decision is formulated in a dichotomous and trichotomous choice framework. Alternative estimation methods are used to estimate the parameters of the wage and the choice of work equations. The empirical results show that women do not regard the decision to participate in wage work as identical to self-employment. The trichotomous model emerges as the preferred formulation of women's work decisions. The results suggest that an increase in women's wages would draw more women into wage work and self-employment and concomitantly reduce fertility."
Correspondence: M. Duraisamy, Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Madras, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20222 Falaris, Evangelos M.; Peters, H. Elizabeth. Responses of female labor supply and fertility to the demographic cycle. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 8, 1996. 63-89 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"We propose a model in which women alter the timing of childbearing and duration of time not working following childbearing in order to mitigate any adverse effects of the demographic cycle on their lifetime wages....We explore the reduced-form empirical implications of our model and estimate the importance of these two responses utilizing data from three cohorts of the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience which include women born from 1918-1964. The hazard rate estimates of the timing of the first birth and the return to work following that birth indicate that women who were born during the upswing of the demographic cycle begin childbearing earlier and return to work more quickly (holding schooling constant) than do women who were born during the downswing of the demographic cycle. These results imply that when responding to the demographic cycle, the cohort choice effect is more important than the opportunity cost effect."
Correspondence: E. M. Falaris, University of Delaware, Department of Economics, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20223 Fargues, Philippe. Changing hierarchies of gender and generation in the Arab world. In: Family, gender, and population in the Middle East: policies in context, edited by Carla M. Obermeyer. 1995. 179-98 pp. American University in Cairo Press: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper explores the relationship between the changing order of the family and the demographic transition in the Arab world. It develops the following three points: 1. The specificity of an Arab model of the demographic transition, if any, is attributable to the existence, until recently, of a strong patriarchal order of the family and a strong neopatriarchal order of the society and the political system. 2. The way in which the demographic transition developed in the Arab world (in particular the increasing levels of education) has key implications for the traditional order of societies....3. The resistance of the old patriarchal order to these transformations is likely to create a context of social crisis, which can be manifested by political violence."
Correspondence: P. Fargues, Centre d'Etudes Démographiques, Economiques, et Juridiques, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20224 Forsberg, Anna J. L.; Tullberg, Birgitta S. The relationship between cumulative number of cohabiting partners and number of children for men and women in modern Sweden. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 16, No. 3, May 1995. 221-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study investigates the relationship between the number of cohabiting partners and the number of children in a modern society where serial monogamy is common in both sexes. Data from an investigation on cohabitation and reproduction were provided by the Swedish Statistics Bureau....About 78% males and 79% females had one partner, and about 15% of both sexes had more than one partner during their reproductive lifespan in the oldest cohort. Thus, monogamy was predominant, and serial monogamy was equally common among men and women. Serial monogamy was somewhat more frequent in the next-to-oldest cohort. Remating increased the number of offspring for males, but not for females, in both cohorts."
Correspondence: B. S. Tullberg, Stockholm University, Department of Zoology, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20225 Gabriel, R.; Shantharajan, A. A retrospective assessment of current reproductive practices. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jun 1994. 10-3 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"The aim of the study is to assess retrospectively...current reproductive practices [in Johore, Malaysia] with regard to the number, spacing and timing of pregnancies. Two hundred and ninety seven women were interviewed regarding their age, number of children and their respective ages. From this the age of the mother at each pregnancy, the number of children and the spacing were deduced. 93% had their children between the ages of 18-35 years, 86% had families with 4 or less children and 70% had children more than 2 years apart. The current reproductive practice is of benefit to the family but some scope exists for improvement which can be achieved through public health education and family planning."
Correspondence: R. Gabriel, Klinik Ruby and Rajan, 71 Jalan Sri Skudai, Taman Sri Skudai, 81300 Skudai, Johore, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20226 Gauvreau, Danielle. Uncertain fertility. [La fécondité incertaine.] Sociologie et Sociétés, Vol. 26, No. 2, Autumn 1994. 111-26 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This examination of recent trends in Quebec fertility puts the accent on the concrete conditions which give rise to the desire for children. First, a look back in time illustrates the scope of changes that have come about and makes it possible to identify a number of possible avenues to account for them. Three elements are then examined in turn and in their interrelationships: fertility, the couple and work. The discussion of the political aspects related to these questions has been voluntarily relegated to the end, to better anchor the debate in the most realistic perspective possible."
Correspondence: D. Gauvreau, Concordia University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, 1455 Boulevard de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20227 Indonesia. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jakarta, Indonesia); Indonesia. National Family Planning Coordinating Board (Jakarta, Indonesia); Indonesia. Ministry of Health (Jakarta, Indonesia); Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton, Maryland). Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey, 1994. Oct 1995. xxviii, 366 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
This report gives results from the 1994 Demographic and Health Survey carried out in Indonesia. The survey was the third in a series of surveys on demography and health, and the second in the DHS series for the country. It involved a nationally representative sample of 28,000 ever-married women aged 15-49. Following chapters on survey methodology, there are chapters on fertility, knowledge and ever-use of family planning, current use of family planning, fertility preferences, nonuse and intention to use family planning, other proximate determinants of fertility, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, immunization of children, childhood diseases, infant feeding, maternal mortality, knowledge of AIDS, and availability of family planning and health services. "Results from the 1994 IDHS confirm that Indonesia has continued to make considerable progress in providing more couples with effective, high quality family planning services. As of 1994, 55 percent of all currently married women were using a method of contraception. The contraceptive prevalence rate has contributed to the decline in fertility in Indonesia. The fertility level in Indonesia has undergone a notable decline in the past 25 years, from 5.6 births per woman in the 1960s to 2.9 births in the early 1990s."
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Jl. Dr. Sutomo 8, Jakarta 10710, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20228 Italy. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica [ISTAT] (Rome, Italy). Births: demographic and social characteristics, 1992. [Nascite: caratteristiche demografiche e sociali, anno 1992.] ISTAT Annuario, No. 1, 1995. 102 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This report includes the main indicators of fertility in Italy for the period 1988-1992, together with an analysis of the demographic and social characteristics of births at the national and provincial levels for 1992.
Correspondence: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Via Cesare Balbo 11a, 00184 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20229 Jain, Rita; Biswas, Suddhendu. On a renewal theory approach for estimating the parity specific fertility rates under intrinsic variation of fecundity level. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 97-102 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors present a model that is "pertinent for estimating parity specific fertility for a compound population exhibiting different levels of intrinsic fecundity level. Therefore, one possible application of this study lies in constructing fertility tables based on the renewal theoretic model which we have developed. The premises of the model lies in systematic reduction of parity specific fertility (hazard) rates subject to inherent variation in the fecundity level." Data from a survey in Delhi, India, are used to test the model.
Correspondence: R. Jain, University of Delhi, Department of Statistics, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20230 Kane, Penny. Victorian families in fact and fiction. ISBN 0-333-61825-4. 1995. xiii, 172 pp. Macmillan Press: Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
The author uses information from biographies, letters, and novels to examine the reasons why families in England started to have fewer children toward the end of the nineteenth century. Concepts explored include attitudes toward children, literacy and learning, the single girl, love and marriage, births and babies, and fertility limitation.
Correspondence: Macmillan Press, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 2XS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20231 Knudsen, Lisbeth B. Fertility trends in Denmark in the 1980s: a register based socio-demographic analysis of fertility trends. No. 44, ISBN 87-501-0874-3. Aug 1993. 166 pp. Danmarks Statistik: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
This is an analysis of fertility trends in Denmark in the 1980s using data from the Fertility Database developed by Danmarks Statistik from 1990 to 1992. The database contains statistics on all men and women of reproductive age residing in Denmark, the number of children they have, and their social and demographic characteristics. Topics covered in this volume include spacing and parity progression, family characteristics, women's occupational and educational status, and men's fertility levels.
Correspondence: Danmarks Statistik, Sejrøgade 11, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20232 Kojima, Katsuhisa; Yamamoto, Chizuko. Fertility in Japan: 1993. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 51, No. 2, Jul 1995. 34-40 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Fertility trends in Japan for 1993 are analyzed. Data are included on births by nationality from 1955 to 1993, changes in fertility rates from 1970 to 1993, and births and birth rates by age and sex for 1992 and 1993.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20233 Kulkarni, P. M.; Rani, S. Recent fertility declines in China and India: a comparative view. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 10, No. 4, Dec 1995. 53-74 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"In this paper, it is proposed to provide a comparative view of fertility decline in [China and India]. This comparison is made against the background of socio-economic changes and programme effort. The evidence on fertility decline is examined first, followed by a brief description of socio-economic changes and population policies and programmes. The fertility decline is then discussed in the context of these two sets of factors."
Correspondence: P. M. Kulkarni, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 046, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20234 Lefebvre, Pierre; Brouillette, Liliane; Felteau, Claude. Fertility behavior in Quebec, family allowances, and taxes: results and simulations with a discrete choice model for the years 1975-1987. [Comportements de fécondité des Québécoises, allocations familiales et impôts: résultats et simulations d'un modèle de choix discrets portant sur les années 1975-1987.] Actualité Economique, Vol. 70, No. 4, Dec 1994. 399-451 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"We suppose that women (couples), who are less than 40 years old, are faced with three types of sequential decisions: the fertility decision, the decision relative to the number of children to have and the decision concerning labour force participation....We use a nested polychotomous discrete choice model to estimate the responsiveness of the behaviour of `married' women in Québec to variations in the expected flow of revenue resulting from changes in the parameters of the personal income tax and in the level of public monetary transfers conditional on the number of children. The model is estimated with micro-data from 9 repeated cross-sections for the years 1975 to 1987 with a full information maximum likelihood method....This empirical setting is used to simulate the effects of changes made to the fiscal and transfer policies in favor of families with dependent children on fertility, [women's] labor force participation and the importance of spending costs for the two levels of government."
Correspondence: Université du Québec, Département de Sciences Economiques, CERFE, C.P. 8888 Succursale, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20235 Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Grossbard-Shechtman, Shoshana; Leasure, J. William. Comment on "a theory of the value of children". Demography, Vol. 33, No. 1, Feb 1996. 133-9 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors comment on a recent article by D. Friedman, M. Hechter, and S. Kanazawa concerning the value of children. They consider the basic question that the article raises: why people continue to have children in developed societies, where children's net instrumental value is negative. "To address this question, they develop a theory based on the assumption that `the value of children derives from their capacity to reduce uncertainty for individuals and to enhance marital solidarity for couples'....[The] results suggest that couples who perceive that their marriages are at risk of dissolution respond by restricting their fertility. There is also evidence that women who face high probabilities of divorce orient their investments to labor market experience and on-the-job training...." A response by Friedman et al. is included (pp. 137-9).
For the 1994 article by Friedman et al., see 61:10234.
Correspondence: E. L. Lehrer, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, 601 South Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607-7121. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20236 Lévy, Michel L. The 50 years of the baby boom. [Les cinquante ans du baby-boom.] Population et Sociétés, No. 311, Mar 1996. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This article presents a retrospective review of the post-war baby boom that occurred in France. The author notes that its impact has been more lasting than originally anticipated, and that its impact on the social security system will be felt from the year 2006 onward.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20237 Liu, Gordon G.; Yamada, Tetsuji; Yamada, Tadashi. An economic analysis of Chinese fertility behavior. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 7, Apr 1996. 1,027-37 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper...[presents] a Chinese general fertility model that simultaneously controls for the endogeneity of infant mortality and per capita income determination at county level." The data are from the 1982 census. The authors first "treat both the per capita income and infant mortality rates as endogenous...[and] our testing results strongly reject the null hypothesis of the exogeneity of both infant mortality and income determination....Secondly...strong evidence is obtained in support of the variable income elasticity model, predicting a U-shaped income effect on Chinese general fertility. This suggests that a more equitable income distribution leads to a reduction in the Chinese fertility rates. Thirdly, employing the two stage least squares procedure, we find a much stronger positive replacement effect of infant mortality when the endogeneity of infant mortality and income are both controlled for simultaneously. Our results indicate that Chinese general fertility may well be shaped by optimizing behavior."
Correspondence: G. G. Liu, University of Southern California, Department of Pharmaceutical Economics, 1540 Alcazar Street, Room 140-G, Los Angeles, CA 90033. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20238 Liu, Paul K. C. A comparative study on fertility transitions in China and Taiwan in historical perspective. Academia Economic Papers, Vol. 23, No. 2, Aug 1995. 97-133 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"Mainland China and Taiwan have both successfully undergone remarkable transitions from high to low fertility in recent decades. Comparing the transitions of the two Chinese populations brings out striking similarities in the changes in age patterns of fertility, but distinctive contrasts between the trends and speed of declines....An overview of the history of population dynamics in the past 500 years reaffirms the assertion that fertility and mortality rates in ancient China were primarily reflections of biological responses to population pressure on resources. The results of the regression analysis of this study demonstrates that this density-dependent relationship has gradually vanished as the deliberate control of fertility prevails in contemporary China and Taiwan. The prevalence of fertility control is in large part attributable in Taiwan to the rational response of the population to changes in economic and social conditions that favor fewer children while the size of families in China is largely prescribed by the government there."
Correspondence: P. K. C. Liu, Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20239 Morgan, S. Philip; Niraula, Bhanu B. Gender inequality and fertility in two Nepali villages. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, Sep 1995. 541-61, 705-6, 708 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Two villages in Nepal chosen for study were expected to produce a sharp contrast in gender inequality, especially in women's autonomy. Autonomy was measured through questions to wives about their freedom of movement and about their role in household decisionmaking. The two settings provide a sharp contrast in women's autonomy by these measures. The authors argue that this contrast in autonomy influences fertility: greater autonomy reduces the desire for additional children, increases contraceptive use, and lowers levels of unmet need for contraception. The empirical analysis supports these arguments."
Correspondence: S. P. Morgan, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6299. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20240 Mosher, William D.; Bachrach, Christine A. Understanding U.S. fertility: continuity and change in the National Survey of Family Growth, 1988-1995. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 4-12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we summarize and interpret some of the most important findings of the 1988 NSFG [National Survey of Family Growth] and the 1990 reinterview by reviewing some 50 studies based on NSFG data. Most of the discussion uses as its conceptual framework the proximate determinants of fertility....We also look at NSFG data on teenage pregnancy, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, and women's use of health services. This review then describes how the 1995 NSFG was redesigned to improve the quality of the data and to answer a new generation of questions about fertility and women's health." Results indicate that "black women have almost twice as many pregnancies as do white women (5.1 vs. 2.8), with nearly all of the difference being unintended pregnancies. Unwanted births increased between 1982 and 1988, particularly among less-educated, poor and minority women....Concern with the AIDS epidemic led to increases in condom use between 1982 and 1990, especially among the partners of teenagers and college-educated women. Rates of teenage pregnancy were fairly stable during the period 1980-1988....Rates of infertility did not change significantly in the 1980s...."
Correspondence: W. D. Mosher, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Family Growth Survey Branch, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20241 Nath, Dilip C.; Land, Kenneth C.; Singh, Kaushlendra K. A waiting time distribution for the first conception and its application to a non-contracepting traditional society. Genus, Vol. 51, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1995. 95-103 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"In this paper, a stochastic model is developed for the waiting time to the first birth conception leading to a live birth of a cohort of married females. The model distinguishes two groups of females: (i) those who are not biologically mature at the time of marriage but are exposed to the risk of ovulation and (ii) those who are biologically mature at the time of marriage and are exposed to the risk of conception for a finite marital duration. This facilitates the simultaneous estimation of the risk of ovulation, risk of conception, and the proportion of adolescent sterile females at the time of marriage. The three parameters of the model are estimated by the minimum chi-square method. It is shown that the model provides a close fit to data on the waiting time to first conception in a sample from a rural area of India."
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Duke University, Department of Sociology, Durham, NC 27708-0088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20242 Nebenführ, Eva. Factors determining the birth of a second child. [Determinanten für die Geburt eines zweiten Kindes.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1995. 207-14 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"In Austria, the ideal family consists of the parents and two children. In our survey, the decision to have a second child mostly depends on the woman's age and on her marital status. What is striking is that criteria like education, income, the size of the community and religious beliefs do not seem to be really important....Looking at the age factor and its influence and finding that the older the woman the less are the chances for a second child, [we note that] the consideration of interactions between age and marital status shows a more complex structure of interdependency. [It is shown here] that marital status affects the decision for or against a second child via the age factor. Unmarried mothers have a greater tendency to delay the birth of a second child whereas married mothers aged 35 to under 40 years give birth to a second child less often."
Correspondence: E. Nebenführ, Institut für Demographie, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Hintere Zollamtstrasse 2b, 1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20243 Nguyen, Van Phai; Knodel, John; Mai, Van Cam; Hoang, Xuyen. Fertility and family planning in Vietnam: evidence from the 1994 Inter-censal Demographic Survey. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 1-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Results from the 1994 Vietnam Inter-censal Demographic Survey reveal substantial change over recent years in reproductive behavior and attitudes. Fertility has continued to decline to a level not far above a total fertility rate of three children per woman. Compared with the late 1980s, contraceptive knowledge has broadened and contraceptive prevalence has increased, reaching a level of 65 percent of currently married women of reproductive age. The dominance of the IUD among modern methods has been reduced somewhat. Stated family-size preferences have shifted noticeably downward. Recently married women indicate that they want only 2.3 children, on average, suggesting that fertility will continue to fall in coming years. These findings suggest that Vietnam is in the midst of a transition that will lead to low levels of fertility in the near future."
Correspondence: V. P. Nguyen, General Statistical Office, Division of Population and Labor Statistics, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20244 Palivos, Theodore. Endogenous fertility, multiple growth paths, and economic convergence. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Vol. 19, No. 8, Nov 1995. 1,489-510 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper extends the Cass-Koopmans optimal growth model to allow for endogenous fertility choice. It is shown that if agents choose their fertility rate, then the net rate of return on capital (marginal product of capital minus the population growth rate) may not be monotonically decreasing in capital. In this case, multiple steady states and growth paths may emerge, which can explain the persistent differentials in income between poor and rich countries, as well as the existence of development miracles and disasters. The paper provides also empirical evidence which supports the existence of multiple convergence groups and is consistent with the theoretical model."
Correspondence: T. Palivos, Tilburg University, CentER, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20245 Pandey, Arvind; Suchindran, C. M. Some analytical models to estimate maternal age at birth using age-specific fertility rates. Sankhya: Indian Journal of Statistics, Series B, Vol. 57, No. 1, 1995. 142-50 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
"A class of analytical models to study the distribution of maternal age at different births from the data on age-specific fertility rates has been presented. Deriving the distributions and means of maternal age at birth of any specific order, final parity and at next-to-last birth, we have extended the approach to estimate parity progression ratios and the ultimate parity distribution of women in the population....We illustrate computations of various components of the model expressions with the current fertility experiences of the United States for 1970."
Correspondence: A. Pandey, University of North Carolina, University Square 300A/CB No. 8120, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20246 Rajaram, S.; Rao, Saumya R.; Pandey, Arvind. Birth interval dynamics in Goa: a parity specific analysis. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 67-81 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present paper...analyses the birth intervals of women from three parity cohorts [in India] after including socio-economic controls. It is envisaged that separate analysis of the parity cohorts will highlight the differences between women who are at different stages of the family building process....Data analysed for the present study are from a survey conducted in 1984 in the state of Goa by International Institute for Population Sciences....The four background variables taken are the place of residence, religion, educational level of women and socio-economic status of the household. Age at the beginning of the respective intervals, use of contraception during the interval and survival status of the previous child are the three intermediate variables used for the present study which can be directly observed from the data. The dependent variable is the waiting time to give birth of a particular order."
Correspondence: S. Rajaram, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20247 Ren, Xinhua Steve. Birth spacing dynamics in China: the cases of Hebei and Shaanxi provinces. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1995. 411-25 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Even as fertility has declined in China in the last several decades, the first and second birth intervals have become shorter over time and the probability of having a second child has increased since the late 1970s. This increase in the probability of conception seems to be contradictory to the Chinese government's birth planning strategy which explicitly stresses timing and parity. Using retrospective survey reports from 1985 in Hebei and Shaanxi provinces, the study explored this paradox. The study revealed several findings: (1) government intervention, especially the `one-child' policy of the late 1970s, had a strong, unexpected influence on early conception in China; (2) the timing and probability of having a first birth were associated with macrosocial forces and familial relationships; and (3) the timing and probability of having a second birth were associated with biosocial, familial as well as macro-social characteristics."
This paper was originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: X. S. Ren, New England Medical Center, Health Institute, 750 Washington Street, Box 345, Boston, MA 02111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20248 Retherford, Robert D.; Ogawa, Naohiro; Sakamoto, Satomi. Values and fertility change in Japan. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 1, Mar 1996. 5-25 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyses how value change and economic and social change have jointly affected fertility in Japan since 1950, and especially since 1973 when fertility resumed declining after some 15 years at near-replacement level. The resumption of fertility decline since 1973 has been driven primarily by underlying economic and social changes. Value change has tended to lag behind fertility change, and this lag has tended to be larger in Japan than in other advanced nations, primarily because underlying economic and social conditions have evolved more rapidly in Japan, and because it takes time for values to adjust to changes in underlying conditions. Because of Japan's high degree of cultural homogeneity, values tend to be widely and quickly shared, so that under certain conditions value change tends to occur in spurts. In Japan, many of the more important value changes affecting fertility in recent decades are bound up with major educational and job gains by women, which have led to greater economic independence and more emphasis on values of individualism and equality between the sexes."
Correspondence: R. D. Retherford, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20249 Sánchez Barricarte, Jesús J. The critical analysis of the Princeton indices (Ig, Im, If, Ih). A new proposal of measurements of the birth rate. [Análisis crítico de los índices de Princeton (Ig, Im, If, Ih). Una nueva propuesta de medición de la natalidad.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1995. 61-78 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The article highlights the problems of using the marital indices (Ig and I'g) developed for the European Fertility Project. The article points out that the information given by these indices is basically the same as the Total Marital Fertility Rate (all of them are calculated without considering the mean age at marriage). The author develops new indices that analyze marital fertility in combination with mean age at marriage [in Navarre, Spain]."
Correspondence: J. J. Sánchez Barricarte, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20250 Seiver, Daniel A.; Lage, Maureen J. An empirical test of the Becker-Barro model of fertility. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 8, 1996. 173-202 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The Becker-Barro (1988) dynastic model has several testable implications: real interest rates and the infant mortality rate should have a positive effect on fertility, while the scale of the social security program and the growth rate of real consumption per capita should have negative effects on fertility. We subject all four implications to empirical testing, using U.S. quarterly time-series data. With the exception of the growth rate of real consumption per capita, we find support for the Becker-Barro model; in particular, both the short- and long-term real interest rates have statistically and substantively significant positive effects on fertility."
Correspondence: D. A. Seiver, Miami University, Department of Economics, Oxford, OH 45056. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20251 Shapiro, David. Fertility decline in Kinshasa. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 1, Mar 1996. 89-103 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines key socio-economic changes over the past 40 years in the lives of women in Kinshasa, Zaire, and how those changes relate to observed fertility behaviour. Data from surveys carried out in 1955, 1975, and 1990 are used to highlight the remarkable shift that has taken place in the educational attainment of women: in the 1950s the vast majority of adult women had no formal education, while by 1990 the median woman had been to secondary school. This dramatic shift was accompanied by several related changes, including delays in age at marriage and increased participation in the labour market. Total fertility, which was estimated at 7.5 in the 1950s and had not changed much by 1975, appears to have fallen more recently, by about 1.5 children or more. This decline in fertility appears to be closely linked to the improvements in secondary schooling for women in Kinshasa."
Correspondence: D. Shapiro, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802-6202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20252 Syamala, T. S.; Roy, T. K. Relationship between child mortality and fertility: a few empirical evidences from Goa, India. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 117-26 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
In this study, the authors use "information from a sample survey conducted in Goa, India. The effect of the traumatic experience of child loss to a woman on her subsequent fertility aspirations/behaviour as against a comparable group of women with no such experience has been addressed in this study as one of the key issues, the other related issues being the degree of manifestation of such differential according to the sex of the dead child as well as the time (parity) at which this traumatic event had occurred. The study is further extended to the domain of societal level effect through the examination of the impact of a woman's perceptions concerning societal level mortality on her fertility options. Finally, a few aspects of family size control have been considered in relation to mortality perceptions and child loss experience."
Correspondence: T. S. Syamala, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20253 Szreter, Simon. Fertility, class and gender in Britain, 1860-1940. Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time, No. 27, ISBN 0-521-34343-7. LC 94-42262. 1996. xix, 704 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author "offers an original interpretation of the history of falling fertilities [in England and Wales]. It integrates the approaches of the social sciences and of demographic, gender and labour history with intellectual, social and political history. [He] excavates the history and exposes the statistical inadequacy of the long-standing orthodoxy of a national, unitary class-differential fertility decline. A new analysis of the famous 1911 fertility census presents evidence for over 200 occupational categories, showing many diverse fertility régimes, differentiated by distinctively gendered labour markets and changing family roles. Surprising and important findings emerge: births were spaced from early in marriage; sexual abstinence by married couples was far more significant than previously imagined. A new general approach to the study of fertility change is proposed; also a new conception of the relationship between class, community and fertility change; and a new evaluation of the positive role of feminism."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20254 Tasiran, A. C. Fertility dynamics: spacing and timing of births in Sweden and the United States. Contributions to Economic Analysis, No. 229, ISBN 0-444-82132-5. 1995. xx, 329 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This volume examines the determinants of fertility and focuses on the relationship between women's wage rates and men's income and births, using data from the 1981 Swedish Fertility Survey (SFS) and the 1984 and 1988 waves of the Swedish Household Market and Non-market Activities (HUS) Panel in Sweden, and from the 1985 and 1988 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data in the United States. The dynamic relationship is represented in a Continuous Time Birth Process framework, using event-history analysis. Our results from Swedish and American fertility studies show that the widespread expectations of a negative wage-rate effect and a positive income effect on fertility are not generally borne out."
Correspondence: Elsevier Science, Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20255 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). 1990 population and housing census. Subject Report No. 3: female employment and fertility. ISBN 974-236-166-5. [1996?]. [xiii], 40, 82 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This is the third in a series of reports in which sample data from the 1990 census of Thailand are analyzed. This report is about female labor force participation and fertility. "It investigates the trends and impacts of female employment on fertility level among currently married women according to female labor force participation and various demographic, economic and social characteristics. In this study, employment of women is divided into 2 categories; the work status and principal occupation of women. Comparison of differentials in fertility for currently married women are analyzed, by the Southern and Other regions, because...the majority of population in the Southern region are Moslems."
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20256 Thomas, Neil; Mercer, Charles. An examination of the fertility/contraceptive prevalence anomaly in Zimbabwe. Genus, Vol. 51, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1995. 179-203 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"According to data from the 1988/89 Demographic and Health Survey of Zimbabwe, the total fertility rate is around 5.7 and the contraceptive prevalence rate 43%. Application of the Bongaarts model to data on intermediate fertility variables yields an estimated TFR of 3.35: well below 5.7. Data on the individual intermediate variables are analysed, in order to explain this anomaly....It is concluded that inadequacies in the contraceptive use and effectiveness data account for 48% of the anomaly....The contraceptive data are examined further, focusing on the unusually high proportion of contraceptive use attributable to the pill; the extended use of the progestogen-only pill, with high potential for misuse; and on evidence of high levels of discontinuation and over-reporting of use."
Correspondence: N. Thomas, University of Wales, College of Cardiff, Department of City and Regional Planning, P.O. Box 906, Cardiff CF1 3YG, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20257 Toulemon, Laurent. Few couples remain voluntarily childless. [Tres peu de couples restent volontairement sans enfant.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1995. 1,079-109 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Childlessness remains uncommon in France, compared to other European countries. In France, the proportion of women remaining childless has declined from 25% to 10% for the cohorts born between 1900 and 1940. For women born in 1940-50, only 4% of the couples never tried to have a child. Half of childless couples are involuntarily childless, because of sterility problems. The proportion of childless women is increasing for recent cohorts....But at the same time, more and more couples will have to face physiological problems...."
Correspondence: L. Toulemon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20258 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division (New York, New York). Women's education and fertility behaviour: recent evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/137, Pub. Order No. E.95.XIII.23. ISBN 92-1-151295-6. 1995. viii, 113 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This study is a product of an ongoing research program on the linkage between women's status and fertility. In a previous study, the UN Population Division used data from the World Fertility Survey to provide an overview of the impact of socioeconomic factors on reproductive behavior in developing countries, and particularly on the relationship between female education and fertility. In this study, data from the Demographic and Health Surveys are used to examine the education-fertility relationship within a comparative framework. The report confirms that advanced female education is universally linked to lower fertility, although fertility differentials by education are not uniform under all conditions of development.
For a related study, published in 1987, see 53:30307.
Correspondence: UN Population Division, Room DC2-1950, 2 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20259 Valkovics, Emil; Wunsch, Guillaume. Some possibilities of modeling the cumulated values of general age-specific fertility rates. Institut de Démographie Working Paper, No. 178, ISBN 2-87209-413-X. Mar 1995. 29 pp. Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng.
"A very good model of cumulated values of general age-specific fertility rates may be obtained by fitting to these values the Gompertz function using the method of partial sums. The paper examines two other approaches for creating such models: attempts based on different transformations of the `saturation function' and attempts based on different transformations of relative magnitudes of cumulated values of general age-specific fertility rates....[The] conclusions are based on our experiments in modelling the Hungarian general age-specific fertility rates of 1983."
Correspondence: Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20260 van de Kaa, Dirk J. Anchored narratives: the story and findings of half a century of research into the determinants of fertility. PDOD Paper, No. 35, Dec 1995. 48 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper is an attempt to review the current state of affairs regarding the determinants of fertility behaviour and change in the world. It is presented against the backdrop of the anchored sub-narratives published and defended by various authors in the course of the last half-century. In turn, this backdrop is preceded by a broad sketch of the research efforts and orientations in the field."
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20261 Walker, James R. Parental benefits, employment, and fertility dynamics. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 8, 1996. 125-72 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the effect of parental benefits on the timing and spacing of births and on employment dynamics of Swedish women. Using microdata on wages and incomes, I estimate a reduced-form multistate duration model of the bivariate life-cycle fertility and employment process. The paper provides an example of the application of empirical procedures to develop and evaluate multistate hazard models. Estimation results are mixed, with estimated wage effects generally consistent with theoretical predications while estimated effects of the benefits are not. The evaluation procedures offer valuable diagnostic information and suggest several avenues for future research."
Correspondence: J. R. Walker, University of Wisconsin, Department of Economics, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20262 Yadava, Surendar S.; Chadney, James G. Female education, modernity and fertility in India. Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1994. 110-9 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the effect of female education and modernity on general fertility [in India]. Evidence from available data indicates that education of females has a significant effect on fertility after controlling for the effect of modernity and some other factors. On the other hand, modernity is not found to have an independent effect on the number of live births after controlling for education, infant mortality, and age at marriage. A significant relationship is seen between infant mortality and fertility. Thus, policies aimed at increasing...female education and reducing...infant mortality hold the key to reducing...fertility."
Correspondence: S. S. Yadava, University of Northern Iowa, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Cedar Falls, IA 50614-0513. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20263 Zeng, Yi. Is fertility in China in 1991-92 far below replacement level? Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 1, Mar 1996. 27-34 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this article it is shown that the extremely low fertility rates reported in China--well below replacement level--derived from the Chinese Survey in 1992 are false. Serious under-reporting of most recent births in China was caused by various factors, among them high pressure on officials to achieve the birth control targets set, the design of the questionnaire, and the employment of family planning workers as enumerators. The most likely value of total fertility in 1991-92 was at or slightly below replacement level, i.e. between 2.1 and 2.2 children per woman. Even after adjustment for serious under-reporting, marital fertility fell substantially between 1990 and 1992, mainly as a consequence of tighter implementation of the strict family planning programme. Rapid economic development also contributed to the fall, as many young people in the country left farming to engage in non-agricultural activities locally, or migrated to urban areas, particularly in the southern part of the country, where economic boom conditions may also have contributed to reduced or delayed fertility."
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

62:20264 Alvi, S. A.; Srivastava, T. N. A simultaneous equation model of fertility: the case of Muslims of Indian sub-continent. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 51-65 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present study focuses its attention on the pattern and trends in Muslim fertility in the Indian sub-continent. It explains, and measures, the impact of certain socio-economic and cultural factors on reproductive behaviour. It uses a model based on...time series data for the period 1971-1990....The causal effects of selected variables on fertility are measured and analyzed. Chosen for this study, some of the predictors are: accessibility to, and attitudes towards, family planning programmes, education, labour market opportunities (particularly for women), family income and religious values and norms as expressed indirectly in terms of women's status, gender preference and female literacy."
Correspondence: S. A. Alvi, Concordia University, Department of Economics, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20265 Bosveld, Willy; Kuijsten, Anton. Delayed childbearing: generational change in life course patterns of fertility. PDOD Paper, No. 34, Oct 1995. 24 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper presents and discusses a selection of data from the research project `Fertility at higher ages: A comparative demographic analytic study in Europe'. This research project aims at studying how the age at which women have their children has changed over time, differentiated by birth order of the child....Another aspect of interest was, how these changes in fertility differ between a number of countries in Europe."
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20266 Butzelaar, E. Fertility behavior of foreign women. [Vruchtbaarheidsgedrag van allochtonen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jan 1996. 10-3 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The total fertility rate of Turkish and Moroccan women in the Netherlands is developing in the direction of the level of the Dutch women. The total fertility rate of women born in Surinam and at the Dutch Antilles and Aruba has already been close to the level of the Dutch women since the end of the eighties. Even though the total fertility rate of foreign women has been moving in the direction of the Dutch level, differences in fertility behaviour still exist. Most significant is the difference of the age of the mother at the birth of her children. On average Dutch women have their first child around age 29, whereas Turkish women become mothers around age 22."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20267 Castro Martín, Teresa; Juárez, Fátima. The influence of women's education on fertility in Latin America: in search of explanations. [La influencia de la educación de la mujer sobre la fecundidad en América Latina: en busca de explicaciones.] Perspectivas Internacionales en Planificación Familiar, 1995. 4-10 pp. New York, New York. In Spa.
The authors examine educational levels among Latin American women and present empirical evidence of the relation between education and fertility in Latin America. They analyze how educational experience changes women's lives and link these changes to reproductive behavior. Aspects considered include contraceptive knowledge and use, socioeconomic status, and fatalistic attitudes toward reproduction.
Correspondence: T. Castro Martín, UN Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20268 Kouamé, Aka; Rwenge, Mburano. The structure of production and reproductive behavior in the Ivory Coast. [Structure de production et comportement procréateur en Côte d'Ivoire.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 36, ISBN 2-87762-083-2. Mar 1996. 31 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The main objective of this article is to analyse the differences in fertility behaviour of women according to their partners' [occupation]. It is based on the hypothesis of economic value of children as a motive for high fertility. Because living and production conditions that affect fertility vary according to sectors of activity, we anticipate that each sector may correspond to a distinct fertility regime. Based on data from the Ivorian fertility survey (EIF) of 1980-1981, results indicate a significant difference in fertility levels between the sectors. An examination of the effect of socio-cultural and socio-economic factors on fertility equally shows some variation according to sectors."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20269 Krishnan, Parameswara. Estimates of Christian fertility and mortality in nineteenth century rural India. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 143-7 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"We attempt to present here estimates of fertility and mortality of the Christian population of India from ecclesiastical returns and compare them with what [is] known from the censuses....The estimates generated for the rural population of Madras and Bengal, though based on missionary statistics, show that fertility was indeed high among the converts to Christianity....The rates for Goa are comparatively low, even though the Goans are Catholic. We...hypothesize several reasons for this huge differential in fertility between the Goan and the non-Goan Christians....We...also hypothesize that the Hindu value system had shaped the values and norms of the new converts and that they had not yet acquired [the] value system that the missionaries had brought with them."
Correspondence: P. Krishnan, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20270 Lodewijckx, E.; Page, H.; Schoenmaeckers, R. C. Changes in family formation among Turkish and Moroccan women in Belgium. Genus, Vol. 51, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1995. 205-27 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This paper addresses the extent to which the behaviour of migrants...diverges from the pattern observed in the country of origin and converges on that of the country of destination....In the first part of the analysis we compare the family formation patterns of Turks and Moroccans living in Flanders and Brussels with the patterns of Belgians living in the same regions on the one hand and with the populations of Turkey and Morocco on the other hand. In the second part we look in more detail at the behaviour of Turks and Moroccans in Belgium, distinguishing between the first and the second generation. To what extent, if any, do the immigrant communities diverge from the countries of origin on various aspects of family formation behaviour, and to what extent is there convergence with the patterns observed for Belgians?"
Correspondence: E. Lodewijckx, Centre for Population and Family Studies, Flemish Community, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20271 Lundberg, Shelly; Plotnick, Robert D. Adolescent premarital childbearing: do economic incentives matter? Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 13, No. 2, Apr 1995. 177-200 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"We develop an empirical model of adolescent premarital childbearing [in the United States] in which a woman's decisions affect a sequence of outcomes: premarital pregnancy, pregnancy resolution, and the occurrence of marriage before the birth. State welfare, abortion, and family planning policies alter the costs and benefits of these outcomes. For white adolescents, welfare, abortion, and family planning policy variables have significant effects on these outcomes consistent with theoretical expectations. Black adolescents' behavior shows no association with the policy variables. The different racial results may reflect differences in sample size or important unmeasured racial differences in factors that influence fertility and marital behavior."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: S. Lundberg, University of Washington, Department of Economics, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

62:20272 Osirike, Animam B. The implication of spatial variations in marital fertility for development planning: a case study from Nigeria. Geographical Perspectives, No. 64, Spring 1993. 49-55 pp. Cedar Falls, Iowa. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on...the spatial variation in marital fertility in one of Nigeria's rapidly urbanizing areas and shows how education and family planning services can be more effectively pursued by concentrating on areas with high fertility rates rather than by providing these services uniformly over space. The paper has two main objectives. First, to demonstrate that significant variations in marital fertility rates exist in Warri-Effurun conurbation; and second, to describe an effective operational approach to population education and family planning services based on identifying varying fertility rates. The paper assumes that national development requires slower population growth and a citizenry better informed about population matters."
Correspondence: A. B. Osirike, University of Benin, Department of Geography and Regional Planning, Benin City, Bendal State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20273 Sharma, A. K. Muslim fertility in urban U.P. : a qualitative study. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 41-9 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present study was conducted in Kanpur [Uttar Pradesh, India] to explore various dimensions of Muslim fertility in the urban setting....[Results indicate that] fertility among urban Muslims is largely a socio-economic problem....Islam forbids Malthusianism but Islam says that God has given wisdom to man and man should make use of it for advancing his secular and religious welfare. The real impact of Islamic teachings regarding birth prevention is confined only to segregated poor people; in mixed areas and in abject poverty Muslims hardly bother about religion. In urban areas pressure of economic forces is so great that once they start thinking about economics of reproduction the family size norm will reduce to 1-2 children in all socio-economic classes."
Correspondence: A. K. Sharma, HSS Department, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20274 Spitz, Alison M.; Velebil, Petr; Koonin, Lisa M.; Strauss, Lilo T.; Goodman, Karyn A.; Wingo, Phyllis; Wilson, Jacqueline B.; Morris, Leo; Marks, James S. Pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates among U.S. adolescents--1980, 1985, and 1990. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 275, No. 13, Apr 3, 1996. 989-94 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This is an analysis of pregnancy, abortion, and fertility trends among U.S. adolescent girls using data from official sources. The authors conclude that "although pregnancy rates among all teenaged girls 15 to 19 years old remained fairly stable from 1980 to 1985, they increased by 9% during the last half of the decade, totalling 95.9 pregnancies per 1,000 teenaged girls 15 to 19 years old by 1990. Because rates of sexual experience increased even faster, pregnancy rates among sexually experienced teens aged 15 to 19 actually declined between 1980 and 1990 by approximately 8%. Abortion rates among these teens remained stable during the 1980s....Despite efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy in the United States, pregnancy and birth rates for that group continue to be the highest among developed countries. Considering that 95% of adolescent pregnancies are unintended, increased efforts to prevent these pregnancies are warranted."
Correspondence: A. M. Spitz, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20275 Yana, Simon D. In search of cultural models of fertility in Cameroon. [A la recherche des modèles culturels de la fécondité au Cameroun.] Institut de Démographie, Serie Démographie, Monographie, No. 6, ISBN 2-87209-380-X. 1995. ii, 329 pp. Academia-Erasme: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
This is an analysis of fertility differentials in Cameroon, focusing on differences by ethnic group and rural or urban residence. The study, which was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the Université Catholique de Louvain, focuses on fertility differences between two ethnic groups, the Bamiléké and the Bëti. Data are from the 1978 World Fertility Survey, a 1991 survey on innovation and social change, and from fieldwork carried out in 1991 and 1992. The results indicate that the cultural factors favorable to high levels of fertility remain unaltered, even though favorable attitudes toward fertility control are gaining ground, particularly in urban areas. However, urban conditions have not yet resulted in radical changes in behavior affecting the family or reproduction.
Correspondence: Academia-Erasme, 25 Grand Rue, Boite 115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

62:20276 Bolumar, F.; Olsen, Jørn; Boldsen, J. Smoking reduces fecundity: a European multicenter study on infertility and subfecundity. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 143, No. 6, Mar 15, 1996. 578-87 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The present study was designed to examine male and female smoking at the start of a couple's waiting time to a planned pregnancy. Two types of samples were used: population-based samples of women aged 25-44 years who were randomly selected in different [European] countries from census registers and electoral rolls....More than 4,000 couples were included in each sample, and 10 different regions in Europe took part in data collection. The data were collected between August 1991 and February 1993....The results based on the population sample showed a remarkably coherent association between female smoking and subfecundity in each individual country and in all countries together....Results based on the pregnancy sample were similar...."
Correspondence: J. Olsen, Steno Institute of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Building 2C, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20277 Larsen, Ulla. Childlessness, subfertility, and infertility in Tanzania. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 18-28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the trends and variations in childlessness, subfertility, and infertility in Tanzania according to data from the 1973 National Demographic Survey and the 1991-92 Demographic and Health Survey. Between the surveys, the proportion of women older than 30 who were childless was found to have declined more than 60 percent, and the proportion with an open birth interval extending for longer than five years was reduced by 40 to 50 percent in each standard five-year age group from 20 to 39. Within Tanzania, both childlessness and infertility are higher among urban than among rural residents, and a substantial range prevails across eight rural zones. Finally, evidence suggests that the decline in impaired fertility has been followed by an increase in the total fertility rate. The difficulties of implementing population policies that aim simultaneously to control population growth and to improve women's health are discussed."
Correspondence: U. Larsen, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20278 Larsen, Ulla. Trends in infertility in Cameroon and Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 4, Dec 1995. 138-42, 166 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"After providing a brief description of the cultural background of Cameroon and Nigeria, this article presents an analysis of recent trends in infertility in both countries, including an examination of the association between women's age at first intercourse and infertility. It offers a discussion of the effects that further reductions in infertility may have on fertility and population growth, and considers fertility preferences and their implications for contraceptive use." Results indicate that "infertility has declined among all age-groups younger than 40 in the decade between the World Fertility Surveys and the Demographic and Health Surveys. The expected number of infertile years between ages 20 and 39 declined from 7.3 to 6.0 in Cameroon and from 5.6 to 4.2 in Nigeria. In addition, the proportion of childless women declined from 12% to 6% in Cameroon and from 6% to 4% in Nigeria. Still, a substantial proportion of women suffer from infertility in both countries--39% of women aged 20-44 in Cameroon and 33% in Nigeria. The age pattern of infertility is similar in both countries, and the prevalence of infertility is associated with a woman's age at first sexual exposure....Marked regional variations in infertility also exist in both countries."
Correspondence: U. Larsen, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20279 Olsen, Jørn. Is human fecundity declining--and does occupational exposure play a role in such a decline if it exists? Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Vol. 20, No. Special Issue, 1994. 72-7 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"Recent publications seem to indicate a decline in semen quality over time, but still no good data corroborate or refute this hypothesis. The very sparse data do not indicate any substantial changes in fecundity over the last 10-30 years in the United States, but none of the studies have a comparability which permit any firm conclusion. Several chemical and physical exposures interfere with human fecundity. Some are found at the worksite, sometimes in an intensity which does harm. The marked effect of dibromochloropropane on semen quality and fecundity was a clear warning to occupational health workers. Several other occupational exposures have shown an effect on gonads in men or women, and it is time to give more research priority to the topic. The rapidly rising cost of infertility treatment could be the stimulus to trigger the development of this research field."
Correspondence: J. Olsen, University of Aarhus, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Steno Institute of Public Health, Høegh Guldbergs Gade 8, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

62:20280 Toulemon, Laurent. Solutions to infertility problems and their impact on the risk of remaining childless. [Les solutions apportées aux problemes de stérilité et leur impact sur le risque de rester sans enfant.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1995. 1,212-8 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines the various methods that are used to provide couples wishing to have children with solutions to problems of infertility in France. The article attempts to estimate the demographic impact of such efforts.
Correspondence: L. Toulemon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

62:20281 Ali, Mohamed; Cleland, John. Contraceptive discontinuation in six developing countries: a cause-specific analysis. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 3, Sep 1995. 92-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A descriptive analysis of contraceptive discontinuation, based on Demographic and Health Survey data from six countries with high levels of contraceptive use, shows that about one-third of couples stop use of their method within 12 months and about half do so within 24 months. IUD users are the least likely to stop using their method, with 82-98% of users persisting after one year and 65-80% continuing at the end of two years. Levels of discontinuation of other modern methods are similar to those of traditional methods, but the reasons for discontinuation vary. For hormonal contraceptives and the IUD, health concerns (including side effects) are the most common reason. For withdrawal and periodic abstinence, accidental pregnancy is the dominant reason. Women using the pill or the IUD are more likely to continue use if they have attained their desired family size. However, analysis of pill data indicates that education and residence have little or no influence on levels of discontinuation." The countries analyzed are Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Thailand.
Correspondence: M. Ali, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20282 Anderson, John E.; Brackbill, Robert; Mosher, William D. Condom use for disease prevention among unmarried U.S. women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 25-8, 39 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Among a nationally representative sample of 932 sexually experienced unmarried [U.S.] women aged 17-44, 41% reported using condoms for protection against sexually transmitted diseases, and 30% said they used condoms for this reason every time or most times they had intercourse. While 67% of unmarried condom users cited disease prevention as their primary motivation for choosing this method, only 4% said contraception was their sole reason for using condoms; the remaining 29% gave both reasons....Results of logistic regression analysis showed that black women and those who believed condoms and spermicides are effective in protecting against disease were about twice as likely as their counterparts to use condoms for disease prevention every time or most times they had sex; women who had intercourse two or more times a week, who used the pill or who had been pregnant were about half as likely as others to do so."
Correspondence: J. E. Anderson, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of STD/HIV Prevention, Mailstop E-44, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20283 Arends-Kuenning, Mary; Mensch, Barbara; Garate, María R. Comparing the Peru service availability module and Situation Analysis. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 44-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report reviews the experience of the World Fertility Surveys and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in collecting community-level data on family planning. It assesses the validity of the community data for Peru that were collected via a service availability module, much like that which is used for the DHS, through a comparison with data from the Situation Analysis. The analysis indicates that the knowledgeable informant, the main source of information about family planning in each community for the service availability module, may not be an accurate source of data. Information about the availability of family planning services is more reliable when it is obtained by means of visits to service sites. However, given cost consideration, sampling problems, and analysis issues, routine linkage of Situation Analyses to household surveys such as the DHS is not recommended at this time."
Correspondence: M. Arends-Kuenning, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 122 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20284 Bairagi, Radheshyam; Rahman, Mizanur. Contraceptive failure in Matlab, Bangladesh. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 21-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Contraceptive failure rates and the determinants of failure can be most accurately estimated using prospective data from an area served by a well-established maternal and child health and family planning program. In Matlab, Bangladesh, the cumulative probability of contraceptive failure within one year of method acceptance was 1% for the injectable, 3% for the IUD and 15% for the pill and other temporary methods among 2,856 married women aged 15-49 during the period 1984-1989. Among women using no method, the 12-month cumulative probability of conception was 38%. For the pill, the likelihood of failure was consistently high during the first 12-18 months of use, after which it declined substantially; by contrast, the probability of an IUD failure increased, peaking at 24 months of use. The injectable maintained a low likelihood of failure regardless of duration of use, and no pattern was evident for other temporary methods. The quality of community health workers' performance was associated with the risk of failure of all temporary methods except the injectable; women's background characteristics associated with failure varied by method. Calculations from failure rates suggest that 25% of births in Bangladesh may reflect contraceptive failure."
Correspondence: R. Bairagi, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Population Studies Centre, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20285 Baydar, Nazli. Consequences for children of their birth planning status. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. 228-34, 245 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Of 1,327 children younger than two in 1986 whose mothers were participants in the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 61% were wanted, 34% were mistimed and 5% were unwanted. Planning status is associated with the level of developmental resources the child receives at home: At ages one and older, mistimed and unwanted children score significantly lower on a scale measuring opportunity for skill development and on a scale measuring nonauthoritarian parenting style than their wanted peers; by preschool age, they also have significantly less-positive relationships with their mothers. Measures of the direct effects of planning status on development also indicate that mistimed and unwanted children are at a disadvantage: Those younger than two have higher mean scores for fearfulness than wanted infants and lower scores for positive affect; unintended preschoolers score lower on a measure of receptive vocabulary."
Correspondence: N. Baydar, Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation, 4000 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20286 Bertrand, Jane T.; Hardee, Karen; Magnani, Robert J.; Angle, Marcia A. Access, quality of care and medical barriers in family planning programs. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jun 1995. 64-9, 74 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Access to family planning, quality of care and medical barriers to services are key factors in the adoption of contraceptive use. Access helps determine whether the individual makes contact with the family planning provider, while quality of care greatly affects the client's decision to accept a method and the motivation to continue using it. Medical barriers are scientifically unjustifiable policies or practices, based at least in part on a medical rationale, that inappropriately prevent clients from receiving the contraceptive method of their choice or impose unnecessary process barriers to access to family planning services. In the past, international family planning efforts have been criticized as placing too much emphasis on issues of access and the quantity of contraceptives distributed. The climate now exists for pursuing improvements in quality and access simultaneously and for exploring through research the linkages between access, quality and medical barriers."
Correspondence: J. T. Bertrand, Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20287 Bhatnagar, S.; Jain, Nutan P.; Gupta, Jaishree. A community study on contraceptive gap in periurban women of South Delhi. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 17, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 165-77 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"To estimate the proportion of women who were using some kind of contraceptive as against the proportion who [were at] risk of conception [a] community study was undertaken on 764 women from periurban areas of South Delhi [India] who had given birth to a child in [the] 24 months prior to the date of survey. It was observed that contraceptive use lagged far behind the growing risk of conception and that this contraceptive gap widened as more time elapsed from the...birth."
Correspondence: S. Bhatnagar, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Planning and Evaluation, New Mehrauli Road, Munirka, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20288 Cates, Willard. Contraception, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted diseases: why isn't a simple solution possible? American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 143, No. 4, Feb 15, 1996. 311-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The complex relationships among contraception, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases are examined from an epidemiological perspective. Specifically, the author shows how a population-level approach to preventing the adverse consequences of human sexuality requires a myriad of imperfect, cumulatively effective contraceptive methods.
Correspondence: W. Cates, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20289 Chao, Dennis N. W.; Gupta, Y. P.; Stover, John; Talwar, Prem P. Using age-specific appropriate method-mix strategy to achieve replacement level fertility in India: a model for policy analysis. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 157-66 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors develop a model "to analyse the effect of changes in the...variables which affect fertility and population growth and design alternate strategies for the family planning programme [in India]....The...analysis shows that use of appropriate method mix based on parity will be crucial in achievement of replacement level fertility by India during 2011-2016."
Correspondence: D. N. W. Chao, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20290 Chimere-Dan, Orieji. Contraceptive prevalence in rural South Africa. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 4-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The aim of this article is to identify the dominant features of contraceptive behavior in the predominantly rural South African subregion of Transkei." Results from a "study of 2,290 women aged 15-49...[reveal] an exceptionally high prevalence of contraceptive use and unexpected patterns of use for a poor Sub-Saharan African society. Overall, 60% of women have ever used a contraceptive method, and 42% are currently using one. Moreover, highly effective contraceptives, particularly injectables and the pill, represent 58% and 29% of use, respectively. Among women who have never used a method but intend to at some time, 90% plan to use injectables or the pill. About half of women have heard of the condom, but use of this method is negligible. Another striking feature of contraceptive use is that the proportions of never-married women who have ever used a method (64%) and who are current users (53%) exceed those among currently married women."
Correspondence: O. Chimere-Dan, University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Sociology, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20291 Ciszewski, Robert L.; Harvey, Philip D. Contraceptive price changes: the impact on sales in Bangladesh. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 4, Dec 1995. 150-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In April 1990, the Bangladesh social marketing project increased the prices of the contraceptives it sold by an average of about 60%. In the year following these increases, condom sales dropped by 29%, and pill sales fell by 12%, despite a well-established trend of annual increases. When sales had not returned to their previous levels after about two years, the project lowered prices; sales returned to earlier levels within a few months and have increased since. These events occurred in a large and mature program, where major variables affecting project performance are well understood. Therefore, the results appear to constitute strong evidence that, at least in social marketing structures, contraceptive prices, and changes in those prices, have a substantial impact on demand."
Correspondence: R. L. Ciszewski, Population Services International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20292 Curtis, Siân L.; Neitzel, Katherine. Contraceptive knowledge, use, and sources. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 19, Mar 1996. viii, 92 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents an update on knowledge, use, and sources of contraceptive methods among the 22 populations surveyed in the DHS-II project....This report describes the DHS-II data on contraceptive knowledge and use and defines the terms and indicators used in the report....The first analyses examine patterns in knowledge of contraceptive methods and sources of methods. The next section analyzes patterns of ever-use of contraception. This is followed by a detailed descriptive analysis of current contraceptive use and a summary of recent trends in use for countries with data for more than one point in time. The final analysis looks at the current source of contraception among users of modern methods. It focuses on the relative importance of government versus private suppliers of contraceptives, but it also uses some of the new information collected in DHS-II surveys on time to source of supply. The report concludes with a discussion of the main findings and how they fit in with existing knowledge of contraceptive practice in the less developed world."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20293 Curtis, Siân L. The impact of postpartum redundant use of contraception on contraceptive failure rates. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 1, Feb 1996. 24-34 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Redundant use of contraception occurs when periods of contraceptive use overlap with periods of reduced fecundity, and will downwardly bias estimates of contraceptive failure rates. This paper investigates this bias using calendar data from the Demographic and Health Surveys [conducted in developing countries during 1990-1992]. The paper presents unadjusted and adjusted 12-month failure rates for each of nine countries. The impact of redundant use on failure rates is generally modest. It tends to be greater in Indonesia, however, where both the incidence and the duration of overlap are relatively large."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20294 Dharmalingam, A. The social context of family planning in a South Indian village. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 3, Sep 1995. 98-103 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A quasi-anthropological study, relying on structured and unstructured interviews and observation of participants, reveals several factors that have a strong bearing on birth control in a South Indian village, where the level of contraceptive use is lower than the statewide level. These factors are the lack of follow-up services, gender inequality and the unsuitability of sterilization to all working situations and living conditions. To improve program performance and quality of life, the government family planning program needs to address the side effects associated with the adoption of sterilization and facilitate individual choice, taking into account the village's social and economic context."
Correspondence: A. Dharmalingam, University of Waikato, Population Studies Centre, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20295 do Lago, Tania Di G.; Barbosa, Regina M.; Kalckmann, Suzana; Villela, Wilza V.; Gohiman, Samuel. Acceptability of the diaphragm among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 3, Sep 1995. 114-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A study of the acceptability of the diaphragm among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil, found that about 11% of 1,723 women who sought a method in one of five public health clinics opted for the diaphragm following a contraceptive educational session on all methods. The main reason they gave for doing so was because it was physically harmless. Women who chose the diaphragm were older and better educated than those who chose the pill, and were more likely than IUD users to want to space births rather than limit them. However, 46% of the women who selected the method were no longer using it three months later, compared with 29% of women who chose the condom and 16% who chose the pill. Although low-income women appear willing to use the diaphragm, providers may need further training to assist women in resolving difficulties that appear in the first few months of diaphragm use."
Correspondence: T. Di G. do Lago, São Paulo Institute of Health, Division of Maternal and Child Health, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20296 Entwisle, Barbara; Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Guilkey, David K.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Curran, Sara R.; Sawangdee, Yothin. Community and contraceptive choice in rural Thailand: a case study of Nang Rong. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 1, Feb 1996. 1-11 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper blends quantitative with qualitative data in an investigation of community and contraceptive choice in Nang Rong, Thailand." The data were collected from a census which was conducted in April 1984 and involved 51 villages. "Specifically, it develops an explanation of (1) method dominance within villages, coupled with (2) marked differences between villages in the popularity of particular methods. The quantitative analysis demonstrates the importance of village location and placement of family planning services for patterns of contraceptive choice. The qualitative data provide a complementary perspective, emphasizing the importance of social as well as physical space and giving particular attention to the structure of conversational networks."
Correspondence: B. Entwisle, University of North Carolina, Department of Sociology, CB 3210, Hamilton Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20297 Frank, Margaret L.; Poindexter, Alfred N.; Cox, C. Adriana; Bateman, Louise. A cross-sectional survey of condom use in conjunction with other contraceptive methods. Women and Health, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1995. 31-46 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"A cross-sectional survey of 3,136 women attending family planning clinics in Texas was conducted to examine past use of and future plans for use of condoms by partners during sexual intercourse for disease prevention in conjunction with other contraceptive methods. Following the receipt of clinical services, including counseling about family planning and disease prevention, both contraceptive and planned condom use reporting increased for the majority of subjects. However, 22% of the sample indicated that they intended to reduce condom use in the future and instead use a contraceptive which protects from pregnancy but not from disease....[The results indicate] that without changes in risk behavior, these women will be at increased risk of HIV or another sexually transmitted disease."
Correspondence: A. N. Poindexter, Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20298 Hassan, Ezzeldin O.; Fathalla, Mahmoud F. Broadening contraceptive choice: lessons from Egypt. In: Family, gender, and population in the Middle East: policies in context, edited by Carla M. Obermeyer. 1995. 216-31 pp. American University in Cairo Press: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper draws on the Egyptian experience to derive lessons concerning successes and problems in the introduction of new methods to broaden contraceptive choice." Aspects considered include diversity in the prevalence of specific contraceptive methods; the introduction of contraceptive methods in Egypt--the pill and the problem of noncompliance; the success of the IUD; the efficacy of barrier methods; injectables; voluntary surgical contraception and abortion; and the advantages and disadvantages of Norplant.
Correspondence: E. O. Hassan, Mansoura University, P.O. Box 35516, Mansoura, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20299 Janaud, A. The condom: an unknown method in 1995. [Le préservatif: un produit mal connu en 1995.] Contraception--Fertilité--Sexualité, Vol. 24, No. 2, Feb 1996. 117-22 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This article reviews condom use in the world in general and in France in particular in 1995. In view of the condom's contraceptive effectiveness and its role in reducing the spread of HIV infections, the author suggests that the scientific community should pay more attention to the development and use of condoms in the future.
Correspondence: A. Janaud, 174 rue de la Pompe, 75116 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20300 Janowitz, Barbara; Bratt, John H. What do we really know about the impact of price changes on contraceptive use? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 38-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Growing demand for family planning services in the developing world continues to drive up the total cost of providing services....Most current funding for family planning programs comes from three principal sources: government revenues, donor contributions, and fees collected from clients....Before establishing or increasing fees for family planning services, program managers need to know the likely impact of price changes on demand." The authors review several recent studies that "have either used econometric models to analyze cross-sectional data or attempted to carry out experimental or quasi-experimental studies in which demand responses to price changes are observed over time....In summary, each of the studies reviewed here has methodological problems that undermine the validity of its conclusions."
Correspondence: B. Janowitz, Family Health International, Service Delivery Research Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20301 Jensen, An-Magritt. Prospect of a decline in fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of the recent debate. Acta Sociologica, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1995. 263-73 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"This essay focuses on two main approaches to understanding `the population problem' in developing countries: the demand and the supply approach to family planning. While fertility is declining in most regions of the world, having a large number of children is still common in many African countries. An essential question in the population debate is whether the high fertility is demanded, or is rather a result of low availability of family planning services. In this article, the issue is illustrated by the case of Kenya, one of the few African countries where fertility has started to decline. What role has family planning played in this development, and what are the future prospects?"
Correspondence: A.-M. Jensen, Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, P.O. Box 44, Blindern, 0313 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20302 Kiragu, Karungari; Zabin, Laurie S. Contraceptive use among high school students in Kenya. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 3, Sep 1995. 108-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Data from a 1989 survey of 2,059 secondary students in Nakuru District of Kenya show that 69% of the males and 27% of the females were sexually experienced. Among the sexually experienced students, 49% of the males and 42% of the females had ever used a contraceptive. Only 25% of the males and 28% of the females had used a method the first time they had sex, and similar percentages had done so the last time they had sex (31% and 29%, respectively). The condom was the method most frequently used at last intercourse (55% males, 43% females), followed by the `safe period' (29% males, 43% females) and the pill (6% males, 10% females). To obtain contraceptives, 33% of males and 46% of females visited clinics, and 36% of males and 25% of females relied on friends. Logistic regression analysis shows that for females, high socioeconomic status, high academic achievement and a favorable attitude toward contraception were the most important factors predicting use of a contraceptive method at first sex and use at last sex. None of these factors predicted male contraceptive use. Males who said their partner approved of contraception were twice as likely to have used a method at last sex."
Correspondence: K. Kiragu, Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20303 Klitsch, Michael. Still waiting for the contraceptive revolution. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. 246-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses reasons for the lack of advances in contraceptive technology in the United States, and speculates on possible future developments. "Overall, rather than being revolutionary, any new methods that reach the U.S. market before the end of the century will probably represent the kind of steady evolutionary change that has characterized contraceptive development over the past decade or more. If methods that would transform contraceptive practice (as the pill and IUD did in the early 1960s) are to appear in the longer run, increased public support, a mobilization of ever-scarcer resources and closer cooperation between public-sector and private-sector entities will be needed."
Correspondence: M. Klitsch, Family Planning Perspectives, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20304 Larsson, Gerd; Milsom, Ian; Andersch, Björn; Blohm, Febe. A comparison of contraceptive habits and pregnancy outcome at 19 years of age in two cohorts of Swedish women born 1962 and 1972. Contraception, Vol. 53, No. 5, May 1996. 259-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This study, which was performed in 1981 and 1991, involved 19-year-old women living in Göteborg, Sweden. "The aims of this study were to describe and compare contraceptive habits and pregnancy outcome in two representative samples of 19-year-old women from the same urban area born 10 years apart, 1962 and 1972, respectively, and to relate possible changes in contraceptive habits and pregnancy outcome to changes in prevailing social and medical factors." The 1962 sample comprised 596 women and the 1972 sample included 641 women.
Correspondence: G. Larsson, University of Göteborg, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, East Hospital, 416 85 Göteborg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20305 Madulu, Ndalahwa F. Contraception prevalence under rural poverty: the case of the rural areas of Kondoa District, Tanzania. Genus, Vol. 51, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1995. 155-62 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"The data reported in this paper were collected from 849 women aged 15 years and above in October 1992. The purpose of the survey was to examine, among other things, the causes of high fertility in the Kondoa Eroded Area (KEA) [Tanzania], an area which is affected by severe land degradation....[This] review of the factors leading to low contraceptive prevalence in the rural areas of Kondoa District demonstrates that the rural socio-economic environment is conducive to high fertility. The subsistence type of production, the high value of children, early marriage, low education levels, the discriminative distribution system of contraceptives and the persistence of traditional norms and values, all seem to encourage high fertility and non-contraception."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20306 Mahran, Maher; El-Zanaty, Fatma H.; Way, Ann A. Perspectives on fertility and family planning in Egypt: results of further analysis of the 1992 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. Aug 1995. viii, 182 pp. National Population Council: Cairo, Egypt; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This report presents summaries of further analysis of data from the 1992 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. The chapters, which are written by various authors, concern trends and determinants of contraceptive usage, fertility levels and determinants, men's and women's fertility preferences, the unmet need for family planning, family planning in Upper Egypt, contraceptive use dynamics, choice of family planning service provider, and profiles of the lives of Egyptian women.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20307 Mauldon, Jane; Luker, Kristin. The effects of contraceptive education on method use at first intercourse. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 19-24, 41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Despite long-standing public support for sex education in the schools, it has been difficult to show concrete effects of sex education on sexual and contraceptive behavior. Data from the 1988 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth indicate that exposure to a formal contraceptive education program increases the likelihood that a teenage woman will use a contraceptive method at first intercourse. According to the results of a multivariate analysis, the odds that a young woman will use any method and the odds that she will use a condom increase by about one-third following instruction about birth control; the effect on the likelihood of pill use, however, is nonsignificant. If contraceptive education occurs in the same year that a teenager becomes sexually active, the odds of any method use and of condom use are increased by 70-80%, and the odds of pill use are more than doubled. The results also suggest that with greater educational efforts, the proportion of teenagers who use condom at first intercourse could increase from 52% to 59%, while the proportion using no method might decrease from 41% to 33%."
Correspondence: J. Mauldon, University of California, Graduate School of Public Policy, 2607 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20308 McClory, Robert. Turning point: the inside story of the Papal Birth Control Commission, and how Humanae Vitae changed the life of Patty Crowley and the future of the Church. ISBN 0-8245-1458-0. LC 95-3454. 1995. xiv, 202 pp. Crossroad: New York, New York. In Eng.
The Papal Birth Control Commission of 1966 was set up as part of the Second Vatican Council's initiative to bring the Roman Catholic Church more up to date. This book explains how the commission became convinced that artificial contraception should be considered morally acceptable for married couples. Following extensive debate, the commission voted 52 to 4 for reform on this issue, and the majority report recommending this change was sent to Pope Paul VI. The author describes how the small number of commission members who were opposed to this change, in conjunction with conservative Vatican officials, constructed a minority report arguing against changes to the Church's teaching on contraception. This minority report, which was also submitted to the Pope, formed the basis of the Humanae Vitae encyclical continuing the Church's ban on artificial contraception. The author discusses the consequences of this decision both for the future of the Church and for the majority of Catholics who continue to accept and practice artificial contraception.
Correspondence: Crossroad Publishing, 370 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20309 Oakley, Deborah; Bogue, Erna-Lynne. Quality of condom use as reported by female clients of a family planning clinic. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 85, No. 11, Nov 1995. 1,526-30 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study analyzes the prevalence and determinants of the quality of condom use following one visit to a Michigan family planning clinic. The data concern 360 women visiting the clinic between 1987 and 1989. Five behaviors associated with efficient condom usage were identified. The analysis indicates that only 1% of the women engaged in all five of these behaviors all the time, indicating a need for more attention to be paid to the determinants of effective condom usage.
Correspondence: D. Oakley, University of Michigan, School of Nursing, Center for Nursing Research, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0482. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20310 Pattnaik, B. K. Marketing and price determination of contraceptives--an economic analysis. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 17, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 156-64 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
The author discusses the generation of demand in developing countries for contraceptives through social marketing, advertising, or counseling. The focus is on price determination and its impact on contraceptive prevalence and fertility.
Correspondence: B. K. Pattnaik, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Education and Training, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20311 Ranjan, Alok. A comparison of fertility transition in India and Madhya Pradesh. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 29-39 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper, we have made an attempt to compare the process of fertility transition in the state [of Madhya Pradesh] with that in India since 1975. One of the objectives of this comparison is to identify salient features of the fertility transition path in the state as well as in the country and the factors that appear to have been responsible for particular paths followed by the birth rate in the state and in the country. A second objective of the present analysis is to discuss the future prospects of fertility decline in the state in the light of [the] fertility transition that has taken place in the state so far."
Correspondence: A. Ranjan, Shyam Institute of Public Cooperation and Community Development, Datia, Madhya Pradesh 475 661, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20312 Sawyer, Robin G.; Fong, Diane; Stankus, Lisa R.; McKeller, Laura A. Emergency contraceptive pills: a survey of use and experiences at college health centers in the mid-Atlantic United States. Journal of American College Health, Vol. 44, No. 4, Jan 1996. 139-44 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The authors conducted a telephone survey to investigate the availability of the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) at college health centers in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of an ECPs protocol, personnel involved, contraindications, follow-up procedures, methods of advertising, and staff attitudes were examined. Of the 124 completed responses, 43 schools (35%) reported distributing ECPs. The major reasons the schools listed for not distributing ECPs (n=81, 65%) were inadequate staffing, religious convictions, no perceived need, and the service was available from a source in the local community."
Correspondence: R. G. Sawyer, University of Maryland, Department of Health Education, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20313 Sinding, Steven W.; Fathalla, Mahmoud F. The great transition. Populi, Vol. 22, No. 8, Dec 1995. 18-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss the impact of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. "If the spirit of Cairo is to succeed, family planning programmes must begin to do a better job of treating clients as the beneficiaries--in the true sense of the word--rather than as the objects of population policies. The implications of the shift from demographic targets to individual need are far-reaching. Family planning programmes should begin to strive for these objectives."
Correspondence: S. W. Sinding, Rockefeller Foundation, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10021-6399. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20314 Srinivasan, K. Regulating reproduction in India's population: efforts, results, and recommendations. ISBN 81-7036-468-X. LC 95-11725. 1995. 329 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This book is an attempt to understand the nature of the efforts that have been put into the Indian family planning program, the results achieved at state and national levels, and the implications of successful experiences within the country that may help to make the program more effective." Following a description of the development of population policies and programs in the country in general, there are chapters on natural fertility and nuptiality; demographic and developmental changes; the acceptance and use of contraception; modernization, contraception, and fertility decline; and case studies of three states where the fertility transition has been successfully achieved: Goa, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. A final chapter summarizes some critical issues and recommendations.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, M-32 Greater Kailash Market I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20315 Steele, Fiona; Diamond, Ian; Wang, Duolao. The determinants of the duration of contraceptive use in China: a multilevel multinomial discrete-hazards modeling approach. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 1, Feb 1996. 12-23 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper describes the extension of the discrete-time competing-risks hazards model to a multilevel framework that allows for data at different levels of aggregation. The model is illustrated with data from the 1988 Chinese National Survey of Fertility and Contraceptive Prevalence, which collected complete contraceptive histories. Women may stop using a method of contraception for a number of reasons; this paper describes how one can control for correlations between the outcomes of repeated spells of contraceptive use."
Correspondence: F. Steele, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO17 1BJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20316 Terborgh, Anne; Rosen, James E.; Santiso Gálvez, Roberto; Terceros, Willy; Bertrand, Jane T.; Bull, Sheana E. Family planning among indigenous populations in Latin America. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 4, Dec 1995. 143-9, 166 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Approximately 40 million people living in five Latin American countries--Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru--retain the language and much of the culture of the ancient pre-Columbian civilizations of the Aztecs, Mayans and Incas. These indigenous people tend to be poor, rural residents with little education. Long an underserved population from a health care perspective, the indigenous population has also proved difficult to reach with family planning services. An examination of two promising projects--one in Guatemala and one in Bolivia--suggests several potentially useful strategies for reaching indigenous people, among them the use of community workers and traditional health practitioners to promote family planning, the provision of a mix of maternal and child health services along with family planning and the employment of bilingual and bicultural staff members."
Correspondence: A. Terborgh, Development Associates, Arlington, VA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20317 Vernon, Ricardo. Operations research on promoting vasectomy in three Latin American countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 26-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Data from six operations research projects in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico suggest that potential vasectomy clients come from a well-defined population of relatively young, well-educated men who have small families and are already practicing contraception. Clients' wives and other vasectomized men are especially influential in the decision to adopt vasectomy. Promoting vasectomy through mass media campaigns can be particularly effective in urban centers that have high-quality, accessible services. Promotion campaigns might stress the reasons men in these countries give for choosing vasectomy, especially its advantages over female sterilization and temporary methods, men's concern for their wife and her health, their desire to share responsibility for family planning, and the freedom from unintended pregnancy that vasectomy confers."
Correspondence: R. Vernon, Population Council, Operations Research Projects for Latin America, Mexico City, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20318 Visaria, Pravin; Visaria, Leela; Jain, Anrudh. Contraceptive use and fertility in India: a case study of Gujarat. ISBN 81-7036-483-3. 1995. 264 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This monograph on contraceptive use and fertility in Gujarat, a state in western India, is based on a survey of 13,600 households. The study was conducted during 1989 in four districts of Gujarat, covering a population of over 10 million. The purpose of the study was to examine the consistency and possible discrepancy between the level of contraceptive use according to official data and the actual fertility rate. The authors point out that the official statistics generally overstate the use of reversible methods; they then proceed to offer alternative methods for defining the national population goal and for implementing family planning programs.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, M-32 Greater Kailash Market I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20319 Wagstaff, David A.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Perry, Melissa J.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Solomon, Laura J.; Heckman, Timothy G.; Anderson, Eileen S. Multiple partners, risky partners and HIV risk among low-income urban women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. 241-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A sample of 671 predominantly single, young black women living in 10 low-income housing developments in five [U.S.] cities completed an anonymous questionnaire assessing factors related to their risk of contracting the human immunodeficiency virus, including their sexual behavior and condom use, and their partners' risk-related behaviors. In the two months before the 1994 survey, 17% of the women had sex with multiple partners and 22% had an exclusive partner who either had had other sexual partners in the past year or had a history of injection drug use; 40% had an exclusive partner who they believed had not engaged in these risky behaviors. During the same interval, 26% of women who had multiple partners received treatment for a sexually transmitted disease, compared with 9-11% of those who had an exclusive relationship. Condom use at last intercourse and communications about condom use were less frequent among women with an exclusive, risky partner than among those with multiple partners; attitudinal barriers to condom use did not vary, however, by the characteristics of women's relationships."
Correspondence: D. A. Wagstaff, Medical College of Wisconsin, Center for AIDS Intervention Research, Milwaukee, WI. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20320 Westoff, Charles F.; Bankole, Akinrinola. The potential demographic significance of unmet need. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 16-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The controversial question of the potential fertility decline that would result from the satisfaction of the unmet need for contraception is of fundamental importance for population policy. Estimates of the amount and kinds of unmet need that could realistically be satisfied--based on Demographic and Health Survey data collected in 27 developing countries between 1990 and 1994--suggest that fertility could be expected to decline by an average of 17% in the 13 Sub-Saharan African countries included in the analysis and by 18% in the remaining 14 countries. These declines would represent an average of 30% of the distance to replacement fertility in the Sub-Saharan countries and would cover more than 50% of the distance to replacement in some other countries, indicating that the satisfaction of unmet need would have a significant demographic impact."
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

62:20321 Albert, Alexa E.; Warner, David L.; Hatcher, Robert A.; Trussell, James; Bennett, Charles. Condom use among female commercial sex workers in Nevada's legal brothels. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 85, No. 11, Nov 1995. 1,514-20 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study evaluated the condom use and the incidence of breakage and slippage during vaginal intercourse among 41 licensed prostitutes during a nine-day period in August 1993. "Condoms were used for every act of vaginal intercourse with a brothel client during the study period....Condoms were used in 353 acts of vaginal intercourse with clients. No condoms broke, and none fell off the penis during intercourse. Only twice (0.6%) did condoms completely fall off during withdrawal. Twelve times (3.4%) during intercourse and 15 times (4.3%) during withdrawal, condoms slipped down the penis but did not fall off. These findings...suggest that regular condom use may lead to condom mastery and the development of techniques to reduce the likelihood of breakage and slippage."
Correspondence: A. E. Albert, c/o Robert A. Hatcher, Emory University School of Medicine, Family Planning Program, 69 Butler Street SE, Atlanta, GA 30303. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20322 Grubb, Gary S.; Moore, Deborah; Anderson, N. Gustav. Pre-introductory clinical trials of Norplant implants: a comparison of seventeen countries' experience. Contraception, Vol. 52, No. 5, Nov 1995. 287-96 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report summarizes the data collected in pre-introductory Norplant implants clinical trials in 17 countries in Latin America, Asia and Africa that were coordinated by either the Population Council or Family Health International (FHI) between 1984 and 1991. A total of 16,282 women between the ages of 18 and 40 years participated in the studies with semi-annual or annual follow-up visits for up to 5 years. Gross cumulative pregnancy rates were <0.6 per 100 women in the first year and <1.5 in the second year in all countries....Total cumulative discontinuation rates after five years of Norplant implants use ranged from 35.8 to 60.0 per 100 women. Younger age and low parity were associated with a higher discontinuation rate. Cumulative discontinuation rates for menstrual reasons more than doubled between the end of the first year and second year of use in 13 of 17 countries."
Correspondence: Family Health International, Publications Department, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20323 Indian Council of Medical Research Task Force on Natural Family Planning (New Delhi, India). Field trial of Billings ovulation method of natural family planning. Contraception, Vol. 53, No. 2, Feb 1996. 69-74 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"There are couples with unmet family planning needs and couples who do not use any modern method, yet they desire to space or avoid pregnancies. Many of them look for safe and effective options like the natural family planning methods. The Billings Ovulation Method based on single index cervical mucus parameter is one such option. The present multicentre trial conducted in India has shown an encouraging use-effectiveness of the method....The method continuation rates have also been as high as 88.3/100 users at 6 months and 52.0/100 users at 21 months."
Correspondence: B. N. Saxena, Indian Council of Medical Research, Division of Reproductive Health and Nutrition, Post Box No. 4911, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20324 Puri, Chander P.; van Look, Paul F. A. Current concepts in fertility regulation and reproduction. ISBN 81-224-0695-5. 1994. xix, 641 pp. Wiley Eastern/New Age International: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This volume contains 53 papers presented at the International Conference on Fertility Regulation held in Bombay, India, November 5-8, 1992. The papers are organized under the following topics: hormonal contraceptives for women, male fertility regulation, antifertility vaccines, termination of early pregnancy, fertilization and implantation, follicular development and corpus luteum function, reproductive physiology, clinical reproductive endocrinology and infertility, and reproduction of farm animals.
Correspondence: Wiley Eastern, 4835/24 Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20325 Shallat, Lezak. Business as usual for quinacrine sterilisation in Chile. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 6, Nov 1995. 144-6 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author discusses quinacrine sterilization in Chile. The article focuses on the public controversy surrounding the method and on ethical issues concerning quinacrine use.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20326 Steiner, Markus; Spruyt, Alan; Joanis, Carol; Glover, Lucinda; Cordero, Milton; Alvarado, Gloria; Onoka, Charles. Acceptability of spermicidal film and foaming tablets among women in three countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 3, Sep 1995. 104-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A convenience sample of 162 family planning clients in Kenya, the Dominican Republic and Mexico provided data for an evaluation of the acceptability of two woman-controlled contraceptive methods that may also provide disease protection. Women significantly preferred contraceptive film over foaming tablets at two sites: In Kenya, 86% of participants said they would rather use the film and 14%, the tablets; in Mexico, these proportions were 58% and 30%, respectively. Although a slight majority of women in the Dominican Republic preferred the film also, about one-half of participants there and in Mexico complained that the film sometimes stuck to their fingers during insertion."
Correspondence: M. Steiner, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

62:20327 Andaleeb, Syed S. Explaining the commitment of family planning fieldworkers in Bangladesh. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 10-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Fieldworkers are a crucial component of the family planning program in Bangladesh; yet, the factors influencing fieldworkers' commitment--an important determinant of program effectiveness--have not previously been explored. Data from a 1993-1994 survey of 217 workers representing both government and nongovernmental organizations indicate that when fieldworkers have good relationships with coworkers and a high opinion of their supervisors' expertise, their level of commitment to the goals of the program is likely to be relatively high. When workers believe that their peers are motivated more by employment benefits than by a desire to help clients, their commitment declines. Surprisingly, income has a significant inverse effect on workers' level of commitment. Two client-related factors, being able to communicate effectively with clients and having good relationships with them, are also associated with increased levels of commitment."
Correspondence: S. S. Andaleeb, Pennsylvania State University, Behrend College, School of Business, Erie, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20328 Askew, Ian; Fisher, Andrew. Using operations research to guide family planning program development and policy formulation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1995. 373-93 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Many questions are raised during the design of family planning programs that are often best answered with reference to empirical evidence collected through applied, or operations research (OR). This paper provides a review of the three main OR approaches currently being used in sub-Saharan Africa: diagnostic or needs assessment studies; experimental pilot studies; and intensive technical assistance for problem-solving and institutional development. The extent to which these OR approaches can play a role in family planning program development to improve and expand service delivery activities is discussed, and examples where these approaches have been used are given."
Correspondence: I. Askew, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20329 Halawa, M.; Bashay, M. F.; Eggleston, E.; Hardee, K.; Kafafi, L.; Brown, J. W. Assessing the impact of a family planning nurse training program in Egypt. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1995. 395-409 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In 1991 the Egyptian Ministry of Health introduced a new training program for family planning nurses....Managerial staff from family planning agencies designed and implemented a study to evaluate the impact of the new training program. The study objective was to assess the impact of nurse training on nurse performance in the clinic and on clients' family planning knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive use....The study results indicate that there is an association between improved family planning training for nurses and positive changes in family planning knowledge, attitudes and behavior among women attending MoH clinics in this study. The greatest relative change occurred in knowledge....Attitudinal change was less pronounced....Finally, although contraceptive use was already high prior to the nurse training, IUD use increased significantly among women in one governorate."
Correspondence: E. Eggleston, Family Health International, Women's Studies Division, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20330 Hardee, Karen; Clyde, Maureen; McDonald, Olivia P.; Bailey, Wilma; Villinski, Michele T. Assessing family planning service-delivery practices: the case of private physicians in Jamaica. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. 338-49 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents the results of a study of the family planning service-delivery practices of private physicians in Jamaica. All 367 private physicians in Jamaica who offer family planning services, counseling, or referral were included in the survey. The study revealed that a client seeking services might be given a method by one provider and not by another, and that the methods clients use are likely to be influenced by the providers' preferences. Private physicians in Jamaica are in need of access to current international guidance on contraceptive methods and service practices."
Correspondence: K. Hardee, Family Health International, Service Delivery Research Division, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20331 Khalil, Karima; Myntti, Cynthia. Target-setting in family planning programs: controversies and challenges. In: Family, gender, and population in the Middle East: policies in context, edited by Carla M. Obermeyer. 1995. 199-215 pp. American University in Cairo Press: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
With a particular focus on Egypt, the authors review the process of setting targets and goals in national family planning programs in developing countries. Changes in the definition and use of targets are reviewed. Concerns about targets in the Egyptian program are discussed, and global issues are outlined.
Correspondence: K. Khalil, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20332 Kim, Young Mi; Marangwanda, Caroline; Kols, Adrienne. Involving men in family planning: the Zimbabwe Male Motivation and Family Planning Method Expansion Project, 1993-1994. IEC Field Report, No. 3, Jan 1996. xi, 57 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Over the past decade...increasing recognition of men's influence on reproductive decisions and family planning practices has given rise to new communication projects promoting male involvement in family planning. The Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council (ZNFPC), a pioneer in this area, successfully implemented a male motivation campaign in 1988-1989. In September 1993, ZNFPC launched a second male motivation campaign with technical assistance from the Johns Hopkins Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS)....This paper describes ZNFPC's campaign strategies, materials, and activities. It also reports on campaign effects determined by several different analytic methods. Lessons learned from the Zimbabwe project--notably the value of different communication channels, the benefits of involving men, and the importance of multiple evaluation methods--should be useful for planning similar campaigns in other countries."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Street, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20333 Mensch, Barbara S.; Arends-Kuenning, Mary; Jain, Anrudh; Garate, María R. Meeting reproductive goals: the impact of the quality of family planning services on unintended pregnancy in Peru. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 81, 1995. 45 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Through linkage of three data sets from Peru, the 1991-92 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), a 1994 follow-up of a subsample of the DHS population, and the 1992 Situation Analysis, this paper investigates the impact of the quality of family planning services on the ability of women in two regions of the country to achieve their reproductive intentions over a period of nearly two and one-half years....Nearly one-fifth of the women in the follow-up sample were estimated to have had an unintended pregnancy during the interval under analysis. While separating the effect of region of residence from the effect of quality of care is difficult, quality apparently has a significant impact in reducing the number of unwanted births, and it does so net of potentially confounding variables."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20334 Nazzar, Alex; Adongo, Philip B.; Binka, Fred N.; Phillips, James F.; Debpuur, Cornelius. Developing a culturally appropriate family planning program for the Navrongo experiment. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. 307-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article describes the first six months of the strategic planning process to develop a culturally appropriate community health and family planning program for a traditional community in a district of northern Ghana, served by the Navrongo Health Research Centre. To explain the context within which fertility decisions are made, this article describes the district's severe ecological, social, economic, and health constraints to family planning. It discusses related programmatic obstacles and presents the strategies developed to respond to them. A system of care has been developed that is closely coordinated with traditional leaders and communication networks. Management systems support outreach workers by emphasizing the importance of peer leadership, supervisory support, and community liaison in the implementation of village-based services. A large-scale experiment will be fielded to test the demographic impact of this approach."
Correspondence: A. Nazzar, Ministry of Health, Navrongo Health Research Centre, Box 114, Navrongo, Upper East Region, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20335 Ramanathan, Mala; Dilip, T. R.; Padmadas, Sabu S. Quality of care in laparoscopic sterilisation camps: observations from Kerala, India. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 6, Nov 1995. 84-93 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Laparoscopic sterilisations are performed in institutional as well as mobile settings, known as camps, under the Indian Family Welfare Programme. One such camp, held at a Taluk (sub-district) hospital in Palakkad district in Kerala, was observed as part of a study on quality of services in this Programme. Services in sterilisation camps in Kerala were found to be better than elsewhere in India, but they did not conform to the standards laid down by programme authorities specifically for such camps. Due to the high demand for these services, 48 sterilisations were performed by only one surgical team in just over two hours in one day, in clear violation of the regulations. Counselling of the women before surgery was inadequate, the surgeon never changed his gloves, the linen on the operating tables was never changed, and the facilities in the building were grossly insufficient to support the women's requirements afterwards."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20336 Schuler, Sidney R.; Hashemi, Syed M.; Jenkins, Ann H. Bangladesh's family planning success story: a gender perspective. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 4, Dec 1995. 132-7, 166 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Working within the constraints of a social system in which women are subordinated and secluded, the Bangladeshi family planning program uses village-based female workers to deliver contraceptive information and supplies to women in their homes. In-depth interviews conducted with 104 women and 92 men (including 85 couples) as part of an ethnographic study in rural Bangladesh suggest that this strategy, despite its success in increasing contraceptive prevalence, often fails to provide adequate information and support to contraceptive users and may actually reinforce women's isolation and powerlessness by accommodating existing gender norms. In addition, the program has placed the costs of fertility control primarily on women by emphasizing female methods and failing to involve men."
Correspondence: S. R. Schuler, JSI Research and Training Institute, 1616 North Fort Myer Drive, Arlington, VA 22209. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

62:20337 Abeykoon, A. T. P. L. Sex preference in South Asia: Sri Lanka an outlier. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, Sep 1995. 5-16 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article focuses on the situation regarding sex preference for sons in four South Asian countries: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, which account for a combined population of about 1.2 billion. It finds that in South Asia, with the exception of Sri Lanka where there is generally no preference for boys, sex preference is mainly manifested post-natally in the form of excessive mortality of female children as a result of discrimination against females in the allocation of food and health care in the household. It concludes by drawing out implications for policy."
Correspondence: A. T. P. L. Abeykoon, Ministry of Health and Social Services, Population Division, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20338 Bankole, Akinrinola; Westoff, Charles F. Childbearing attitudes and intentions. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 17, Dec 1995. vii, 32 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"Based on national surveys in 28 developing countries, this study examines women's statements on their ideal family size, whether they desire more children, and if so, how long they would prefer to wait before the next birth. Levels of unwanted childbearing and the demographic implications of reproductive childbearing are also examined. The significance of this study for population policy and family planning programs is that it permits assessing the potential demographic impact of fertility regulation and indicates levels of unwanted fertility. The research reported here indicates that a preference for smaller families is spreading widely in developing countries....The desire for smaller families is out-pacing the decline of actual fertility. One result is that the level of unwanted childbearing is rising....In general, there is a significant downward trend in the number of children desired over the past 10 to 15 years in all of the countries in which more than one survey has been conducted."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20339 Bourqia, Rahma. Women, uncertainty, and reproduction in Morocco. In: Family, gender, and population in the Middle East: policies in context, edited by Carla M. Obermeyer. 1995. 136-46 pp. American University in Cairo Press: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"Despite the substantial decline of the fertility rate in Morocco during the last decade, this phenomenon remains specific to urban areas....In this chapter, I would like to stress the importance of women's perception of children and the social cost that a woman has to bear in exchange for adopting family planning, especially in a culture that defines womanhood as dependent on the reproductive function....The ethnographic data used in this contribution derive from a study of women and reproduction in four poor neighborhoods in the city of Oujda, in the eastern region of Morocco, close to the Algerian border."
Correspondence: R. Bourqia, Mohammed V University, Department of Sociology, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20340 Dillon, Michele. Cultural differences in the abortion discourse of the Catholic Church: evidence from four countries. Sociology of Religion, Vol. 57, No. 1, Spring 1996. 25-36 pp. Cambridge, Illinois. In Eng.
"This essay investigates the cultural themes used by the Catholic Church in arguing against abortion in four different countries: Ireland, Poland, the U.S., and England & Wales. The focus is whether the Church differentiates its use of cultural arguments in accordance with its insider/outsider institutional status, or the contested nature of the abortion policy-making environment. The prevalence of women-oriented themes is also explored. I find that in each country the Church draws more heavily on cultural than on doctrinal sources of legitimation, and exhibits a strong similarity in the sorts of cultural arguments used. There is a significant difference in the patterned appeal to national identity in the U.S. and Poland, and its absence in England and Ireland."
Correspondence: M. Dillon, Yale University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 208265, New Haven, CT 06520-8265. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20341 Gu, Baochang; Roy, Krishna. Sex ratio at birth in China, with reference to other areas in East Asia: what we know. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, Sep 1995. 17-42 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Although this article focuses mainly on China, which alone accounts for 1.2 billion people, it also refers to the situation regarding sex preference for children in Taiwan Province of China and the Republic of Korea. In assessing the current situation regarding abnormal sex ratios at birth, the article discusses when, where, among whom, how and why it occurs as well as what can be done about it. Noting that the pattern shows pre-natal preference through the abortion of female fetuses, the article brings out several implications for both policy and programme."
Correspondence: B. Gu, China Population Information and Research Centre, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20342 Haughton, Jonathan; Haughton, Dominique. Son preference in Viet Nam. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. 325-37 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article assesses the strength of son preference in Vietnam, as reflected in fertility behavior. It formulates and estimates a proportional hazards model applied to birth intervals, and a contraceptive prevalence model, using household survey data from 2,636 ever-married women aged 15-49 with at least one living child who were interviewed for the Vietnam Living Standards Survey 1992-1993. Son preference is found to be strong by world standards, but nevertheless, it has a minor effect on fertility; in its absence, the total fertility rate would fall by roughly 10 percent from the current level of about 3.2 children per woman of reproductive age."
Correspondence: J. Haughton, Northeastern University, Department of Economics, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20343 Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen. Becoming a parent in Europe. Welfare State Programme Discussion Paper Series, No. 116, Oct 1995. 58 pp. Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper lays out a broad theoretical discussion of the issues involved in choices about becoming a parent, drawing upon and contrasting several disciplinary perspectives. It elaborates both pronatalist forces and a series of constraints on becoming a parent, involving biology, time, money, ideas, and security....[The authors] apply the frameworks and ideas developed from the theoretical discussion to provide a bold explanatory sketch of changing patterns of becoming a parent in Europe since the 1930s and of current regional variations. Important features include the emergence of and changes to welfare states, the contraceptive revolution, gender roles, and employment patterns."
Correspondence: London School of Economics and Political Science, Welfare State Programme, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20344 Kolorosová, Jirina. Common features of population climate in the Czech and Slovak Republics in 1991. Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1993. 73-85 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng. with sum. in Cze.
The author reports on a 1991 survey in the Czech and Slovak Republics "concerning the attitudes towards demographic tendencies, family formation and population-related policies....The objective was to gain a better knowledge of the opinions and perceptions of the Czech and Slovak populations on these matters, as well as the demands to the government arising from society, both regarding its present position on the subject and its future responsibilities." Sections are included on family formation, the meaning of parenthood, and family policy and fertility intentions.
Correspondence: J. Kolorosová, Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Demography and Geodemography, Albertov 6, 12 843 Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20345 Lovell, Nadia. Therapeutic pluralism and strategies of health care among the Ewe of southeastern Togo. [Pluralisme thérapeutique et stratégies de santé chez les Evhe du sud-est Togo.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 33, ISBN 2-87762-078-6. Sep 1995. 20 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The barriers to access to modern medical services, including family planning, are analyzed using the example of the Ewe people of southeast Togo. The author concludes that although people are ready to consult Western-style doctors or other health professionals if given the chance, they are often deterred from so doing by the dominating attitude they frequently meet when they attempt to do so. The need for health professionals to become more aware of local knowledge regarding health matters, the treatment of illness, and the control of fertility is stressed.
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20346 Murphy, Penny; Kirkman, Alice; Hale, Ralph W. A national survey of women's attitudes toward oral contraception and other forms of birth control. Women's Health Issues, Vol. 5, No. 2, Summer 1995. 94-9 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A survey of [U.S.] women 18 years of age and older was conducted in 1993 for The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists by the Gallup Organization to examine women's attitudes toward oral contraceptives and other methods of birth control. Many of the questions asked in the survey were repeated from an earlier Gallup study conducted for the College in 1985....Women are still skeptical of the most popular method of reversible contraception--oral contraceptives....Although women's concerns about the health risks of oral contraceptives have decreased over the past 8 years, fears about their safety linger on....Although there is considerable agreement that the condom is the only birth control method that offers protection against STDs and AIDS, only 6% say they currently use condoms....These data indicate that women are still not adequately informed about the risk and benefits of various contraceptive methods--particularly oral contraceptives."
Correspondence: P. Murphy, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 409 12th Street SW, Washington, D.C. 20024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20347 Phelps, Charlotte D. Wives' motives and fertility. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jun 1995. 49-67 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A model of fertility demand is constructed that incorporates a shift parameter for wives' motives. The model is used to test the hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship between a wife's taste for children and her level of education. Data from the 1976 survey of Americans' mental health indicate that wives who are motivated by both hope of power and affiliation in social interactions with their husbands do not have less education than wives with other personality dispositions, tend to have more children, and tend to work fewer hours."
Correspondence: C. D. Phelps, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20348 Rasevic, Mirjana. Research results relevant for the family planning program. [Istrazivacko iskustvo relevantno za program planiranja porodice.] Demografske Sveske, No. 24, 1995. 15-26 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
This article uses data from a 1990 survey on abortion that was carried out in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, and that involved 400 women. With particular reference to the implications for population policy, the author examines aspects of knowledge, attitude, and behavior concerning family planning. The results indicate that although most women were aware of the serious problems facing the Serb community with regard to the low level of fertility, and although three was perceived as the ideal number of children, only about half of the women with one child planned to have more children. Factors affecting the low use of effective contraception are also analyzed.
Correspondence: M. Rasevic, Univerziteta u Beogradu, Instituta Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20349 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Report: The Social Attitude Towards Children Survey 1993. ISBN 974-236-164-9. [1995?]. [iv], 120, [5] pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This report, which is in Thai with table headings also provided in English, gives results from a survey on attitudes toward children in Thailand. Data are included on currently married women aged 15-49 by number of children and age, educational status, and occupation; attitudes of women and of women with two children toward having more children; breast-feeding; and women's knowledge of AIDS.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20350 Vieira, Elisabeth M.; Ford, Nicholas J. Regret after female sterilization among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 32-7, 40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"According to a 1992 survey of 407 sterilized women living in two low-income areas of greater São Paulo, three-quarters of the women underwent sterilization immediately following a cesarean section, and the same proportion said they were completely satisfied with their decision. Seventeen percent, however, said they now regretted their decision or had done so in the past, 6% were somewhat or very ambivalent, and 2% were dissatisfied (but did not regret the operation). Four-fifths of the sample paid for their sterilization, although voluntary sterilization is a legally ambiguous procedure in Brazil that is often considered illegal. Among one-fifth of the sample, the operation was deemed medically necessary and provided through official channels without charge. Results of a multiple regression analysis predicting age at sterilization indicate that women who started having children at a young age, who had a culturally acceptable number of children, who had had problems with a reversible method and who were comparatively better educated were all more likely to have been sterilized before age 30 than at age 30 or later."
Correspondence: E. M. Vieira, Family Health International, Project AIDSCAP, São Paulo, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20351 Wongboonsin, Kua; Ruffolo, Vipan P. Sex preference for children in Thailand and some other South-East Asian countries. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, Sep 1995. 43-62 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The results of this analysis of South-East Asian countries with a combined population of 482 million show a mixed pattern: preference for sons in some countries, and either no preference or what is called an `egalitarian' gender preference, where one boy and one girl are preferred, in other countries. It suggests the use of the Coomb's scale as a helpful measure for determining preference for both number and gender composition of children. The article also brings out implications of the research for policy purposes."
Correspondence: K. Wongboonsin, Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

62:20352 Avdeev, Alexandre; Blum, Alain; Troitskaya, Irina. The history of abortion statistics in Russia and the USSR from 1900 to 1991. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 7, 1995. 39-66 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"In the USSR and in present-day Russia alike, abortion has always been a sensitive issue. Legalized very early, it later followed the winds of political change. It has also been a perpetual source of conjecture, abortion statistics having been `highly confidential' for a very long time. Although these data are now accessible, foundless estimates continue to appear in the Russian press, and are used to fuel political argument over the contemporary situation. Prior to 1986, when the first complete abortion statistics were published, and with the exception of the yearbooks of 1925 and 1926 which went practically unnoticed in the west, the available figures....were risky extrapolations based on a handful of scattered survey data....The aim of the present study is twofold. First...to unravel the different threads in the construction of an official system of statistical observation that was subject to strong ideological pressures, but at the same time was set up by men who were concerned with the understanding of social problems. Second, to briefly summarize the abortion statistics...."
For the original French version of this article, see 61:20337.
Correspondence: A. Avdeev, University of Moscow, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20353 David, Henry; Pick de Weiss, Susan. Abortion in the Americas. In: Reproductive health in the Americas, edited by Abdel R. Omran et al. ISBN 92-75-12047-1. 1992. 323-54 pp. Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This chapter reviews trends in induced abortion in the Americas. "Legislation will be considered in terms of historical aspects, world wide liberalization, and the de jure and de facto situation in the region. Trends in the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, and the Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries of Central and South America will be cited with comments on reported incidence and perceived prevalence, client characteristics, mortality and morbidity, and economic, social, and psychological costs. This part is followed by a presentation of Cuban experience with legal abortion, a study of clandestine abortion in Mexico, and a note on Denmark as a comparative country from Northern Europe. The interrelationship between abortion and contraception, barriers, and perspectives are discussed."
Correspondence: Pan American Health Organization, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20354 Georges, Eugenia. Abortion policy and practice in Greece. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 4, Feb 1996. 509-19 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Despite its illegality until recently, abortion is estimated to have been responsible for almost half of the sharp postwar decline in the Greek birth rate. This article examines abortion as a part of a Greek contraceptive culture which has taken shape during the postwar period both in response, and in resistance to, a variety of macro- and micropolitical institutions and forces. During much of this period, pronatalist policies and discourses of both state and church combined to foreclose most medical contraceptive alternatives. In contrast, illegal abortion was a relatively safe, medicalized procedure widely practiced by doctors. Even after being legalized in 1980, female medical contraceptive methods continue to be rejected by the great majority of Greek women, and abortion and male methods of birth control remain the principal means of controlling fertility. The article focuses on the specific abortion practices and meanings of three generations of married women living in the city of Rhodes...."
Correspondence: E. Georges, Rice University, Department of Anthropology, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20355 Glasier, Anna. The acceptability of medical abortion and other uses of mifepristone. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 6, Nov 1995. 147-51 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"For the great majority of women the decision to have a pregnancy terminated is a difficult and painful one. The circumstances surrounding the need for abortion, such as the end of a relationship, are often distressing. Many women feel guilty about destroying the fetus and most are fearful about the abortion procedure. Since the development of a medical method for inducing abortion--mifepristone (first known as RU486) plus prostaglandin--in countries where the two drugs are licensed and in settings where medical techniques are available, women are being given a choice as to how they would prefer their pregnancy to be terminated....This paper reviews existing studies and discusses the potential limitations on the development of mifepristone for contraceptive use, for emergency contraception and other possible indications because of anti-abortion pressure."
Correspondence: A. Glasier, Edinburgh Healthcare NHS Trust, Family Planning and Well Woman Services, Edinburgh, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20356 Gursoy, Akile. Abortion in Turkey: a matter of state, family or individual decision. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 4, Feb 1996. 531-42 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The context in which the legalization of abortion in Turkey was adopted in 1982 is described. The contrast between the generally prevalent permissive attitude toward abortion and the strictly non-permissive attitudes of both secular and religious authorities is noted. The author also notes that "the 1982 laws which legalize abortion until the eighth week of pregnancy consider family planning to be a family issue and bring the restriction of making married women have their husband's permission before proceeding with abortion....In the last 70 years a historical and ideological progression can be discerned in the line of assuming first the state and then the family to have decision making legitimacy as regards reproductive choices. Today, the platform of radical discussion has shifted to evaluating the importance of individual women in making this reproductive choice."
Correspondence: A. Gursoy, Marmara University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Department of International Relations, Goztepe, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20357 Haas-Wilson, Deborah. The impact of state abortion restrictions on minors' demand for abortions. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 31, No. 1, Winter 1996. 140-58 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Many [U.S.] states restrict the access of minors to abortion services. By October 1995, 27 states had enacted and begun to enforce parental consent or notification laws for minors and 34 states restricted Medicaid funding for abortions. This paper includes estimates of the impact of these enforced abortion restrictions on minors' demand for abortions between 1978 and 1990. Using four estimation methods that account for difficult-to-measure variables, such as anti-abortion sentiment, the results suggest that parental involvement laws decrease minors' demand for abortions by 13 to 25 percent and state restrictions on Medicaid funding of abortions decrease minors' demand for abortions by 9 to 17 percent."
Correspondence: D. Haas-Wilson, Smith College, Department of Economics, Northampton, MA 01063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

62:20358 Huntington, Dale; Hassan, Ezzeldin O.; Attallah, Nabil; Toubia, Nahid; Naguib, Mohamed; Nawar, Laila. Improving the medical care and counseling of postabortion patients in Egypt. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. 350-62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report analyzes the results of an operations research project carried out at two sites in Egypt to improve the medical care and counseling of postabortion patients. Preintervention and postintervention surveys and observations were conducted. After the introduction of vacuum aspiration under local anesthesia, the number of cases treated with dilatation and curettage under general anesthesia dropped from an average of 169 per month to 16. The majority of the remaining cases (an average of 119 per month) were treated with vacuum aspiration. Both providers' and women's knowledge about postabortion complications improved. Family planning information provided to postabortion patients increased as a result of the project's training program. The proportion of patients intending to use a contraceptive method increased by 30 percentage points due to the improved counseling."
Correspondence: D. Huntington, Population Council, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20359 Johnson, Brooke R.; Horga, Mihai; Andronache, Laurentia. Women's perspectives on abortion in Romania. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 4, Feb 1996. 521-30 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Romanian women have commonly used abortion (both legal and clandestine) to prevent unwanted births. We introduce this paper with a brief summary of the recent history of abortion in Romania, then we combine quantitative data from a previous report...of the research with women's own words about the following issues: their decisions to have an abortion, the impact of abortion restrictions under the Ceausescu government, and their needs and desires for improved reproductive health services. We also present gynaecologists' views of abortion restrictions and needs for improved family-planning services to make a compelling case for the need for safe, legal, comprehensive abortion care in Romania and elsewhere."
For a related report, published in 1993, see 59:20390.
Correspondence: B. R. Johnson, IPAS, P.O. Box 100, Carrboro, NC 27510. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20360 Kulczycki, Andrzej. Abortion policy in postcommunist Europe: the conflict in Poland. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, Sep 1995. 471-505, 705, 707 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"During 1989-93, in the midst of profound systemic changes, Poland experienced a divisive abortion debate. Although the issue of abortion was reexamined throughout East Central Europe, nowhere was it as fiercely contested as in Poland, where the Catholic Church spearheaded an intensive campaign to make abortion illegal. These actions assumed great significance because abortion had become a key method of birth control due primarily to the failure of the state to adequately support family planning services. While this campaign furthered the Pope's goal of setting a precedent for the former socialist countries of the region and elsewhere, the dispute was also a critical test case for all participants, including women's and family planning groups. The article seeks to explain why one of the most liberal abortion statutes in the world was radically reversed and to assess the implications of these policy changes."
Correspondence: A. Kulczycki, University of Michigan, Center for Population Planning and International Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20361 Lader, Lawrence. A private matter: RU 486 and the abortion crisis. ISBN 1-57392-012-6. LC 95-20257. 1995. 254 pp. Prometheus Books: Amherst, New York. In Eng.
This is a history of the abortion rights movement in the United States. The author describes the leaders, organizations, and tactics of the movement, particularly over the last 30 years. Particular attention is given to the opposition to abortion rights and to the efforts of the Catholic church in this regard. The book concludes with a description of the forces working both to encourage and to prevent the importation and use of the abortifacient agent RU 486 in the United States.
Correspondence: Prometheus Books, 59 John Glenn Drive, Amherst, NY 14228-2197. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20362 Luo, Lin; Wu, Shi-Zhong; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Li, Min-Xiang; Pullum, Thomas W. A follow-up study of first trimester induced abortions at hospitals and family planning clinics in Sichuan province, China. Contraception, Vol. 53, No. 5, May 1996. 269-73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Four-thousand women aged 18-40 underwent an early induced abortion at hospitals and family planning clinics in six counties in Sichuan province, China, between 1 July 1990 and 30 June 1991. The subjects were followed-up three times, on days 15, 90 and 180 after the operation. Information was obtained about their age, parity, contraceptive use, social behaviors, and gynecological and psychological characteristics before and after the abortion. The results indicate that induced abortion is safe when provided by medically trained personnel in health facilities such as hospitals or clinics....A substantial proportion of the abortions were to unmarried women or resulted from non-use of contraception or contraceptive failure, implying that the incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions could be reduced by more effective and accessible contraception."
Correspondence: L. Luo, Sichuan Family Planning Research Institute, Chengdu, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20363 Magnani, Robert J.; Rutenberg, Naomi; McCann, H. Gilman. Detecting induced abortions from reports of pregnancy terminations in DHS calendar data. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 36-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study considers whether pregnancy terminations reported in Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) calendar data can be classified accurately as having been spontaneous or induced based upon other information collected in the survey interview. A classification scheme is proposed that is an adaptation of the method developed by the World Health Organization for categorizing cases in which women admitted to hospitals experienced complications of pregnancy termination. The scheme is evaluated using data from the 1993 Turkey DHS. Evaluation results indicate that the method identifies true cases of induced abortion accurately, but tends to classify a relatively large number of reported spontaneous terminations as induced abortions. However, when it is corrected for likely respondent misreporting of induced abortions as spontaneous terminations, both the sensitivity and specificity of the method appear to be acceptable."
Correspondence: R. J. Magnani, Tulane University, Medical Center, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Department of International Health and Development, 1440 Canal Street, Suite 2200, P.O. Box 13, New Orleans, LA 70112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20364 Nunes, Frederick E.; Delph, Yvette M. Making abortion law reform happen in Guyana: a success story. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 6, Nov 1995. 12-23 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"On 4 May 1995, after two years of intense public debate, the National Assembly of Guyana passed the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill, making Guyana the second country in the English-speaking Caribbean to introduce such legislation....This paper describes the history and content of the campaign in support of the new law by the Pro-Reform Group, whose main slogan was `Pro-Life, Pro-Choice, Pro-Reform'. This campaign sought common interests with the opposition, their public education was based on research among health and legal professionals, students and the public and on facts about abortion and women's experiences. It was carried out mainly through the media. The paper ends with a description of the new law and efforts to begin implementing it."
Correspondence: F. E. Nunes, Pan-American Health Organization, Georgetown, Guyana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20365 Renne, Elisha P. The pregnancy that doesn't stay: the practice and perception of abortion by Ekiti Yoruba women. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 4, Feb 1996. 483-94 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Ekiti Yoruba village women in southwest Nigeria make use of traditional and `patent' medicines as abortifacients as well as D&Cs performed in urban centers to terminate unwanted pregnancies. This paper examines present day abortion practices and attitudes and relates them to traditional beliefs about conception, fetal development and infertility. These beliefs, along with factors of economy and access, help to explain the continued use of abortion as a form of birth control, despite the presence of other options. The paper concludes with a discussion of the current debate about legalizing abortion in Nigeria and a recommendation consonant with everyday village practice."
Correspondence: E. P. Renne, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20366 Rigdon, Susan M. Abortion law and practice in China: an overview with comparisons to the United States. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 4, Feb 1996. 543-60 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article utilizes legal documents, policy statements and ethnographic data to compare abortion law and practice in China and the United States. It outlines Chinese abortion law from ancient to modern times, identifies categories of reasons for aborting, and describes both folk remedies and the most common methods of modern medicine for inducing abortion. The contemporary incidence of abortion is discussed in the context of official family planning policy; evidence is presented to suggest that while modern methods are far safer than traditional remedies, the use of abortion as a major form of birth control has had an impact on women's health. The interference of the state in women's reproductive life is put in historical/cultural context and compared to U.S. views of women's reproductive rights."
Correspondence: S. M. Rigdon, University of Illinois, Department of Anthropology, 607 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20367 Rylko-Bauer, Barbara. Abortion from a crosscultural perspective: an introduction. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 4, Feb 1996. 479-82 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is an introduction to a special section which includes six papers on abortion from a cross-cultural perspective. The papers, which concern Greece, Turkey, China, Nigeria, Jamaica, and Romania, are cited individually elsewhere in this issue. "The purpose of this introduction is to place these papers into a broader context, by presenting a brief, selective overview of past research on abortion from a crosscultural perspective."
Correspondence: B. Rylko-Bauer, Michigan State University, Department of Anthropology, East Lansing, MI 48824. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20368 Sobo, E. J. Abortion traditions in rural Jamaica. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 4, Feb 1996. 495-508 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"I begin by describing the traditional abortion techniques of Jamaica, exploring their connection to both reproductive and general health practices and demonstrating how the meaning of abortion is linked to the meanings of kinship and parenthood. Then, having discussed the ideological context in which abortions are or are not procured, I investigate the real and apparent inconsistencies between abortion talk and abortion practice. I also explore the distinction--and the overlap--between abortion as such, efforts at menstrual regulation and the expurgation of `witchcraft' or monster babies; the methodological and theoretical implications of categorization are discussed and the ramifications that cultural understandings about procreation have on people's interpretations of symptoms and their reactions to them are examined. Finally, I discuss the structural functions of abortion...."
Correspondence: E. J. Sobo, University of Durham, Department of Anthropology, 43 Old Elvet, Durham DH1 3HN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20369 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Abortion surveillance: preliminary data--United States, 1993. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 45, No. 11, Mar 22, 1996. 235-8 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"For 1993, CDC received data about legal induced abortions from 52 [U.S.] reporting areas (the 50 states, New York City, and the District of Columbia). This report presents preliminary data for 1993." Information is included on characteristics of women receiving abortions; gestation period; ratio of abortions to live births; national fertility rate; and prevention of unintended pregnancy.
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20370 Wetstein, Matthew E. Abortion rates in the United States: the influence of opinion and policy. SUNY Series in Health Care Politics and Policy, ISBN 0-7914-2847-8. LC 95-2884. 1996. xv, 153 pp. State University of New York Press: Albany, New York. In Eng.
The connections between public opinion, public policies, and the behavior of the public as a whole are examined using the example of abortion politics in the United States. "Using public opinion data for all fifty states, the author demonstrates the state policies to restrict abortion closely match the preferences of the mass public. More important, he shows a profound link between public opinion on abortion and abortion rates in the United States. Where state publics are more permissive in their attitudes toward abortion, state policies tend to be more permissive, and rates of abortion utilization tend to be higher. The book also explores the impact of policy changes on abortion rates. Using sophisticated statistical techniques, the author examines policy changes at both the state and national level. The analysis points to an intriguing paradox: national policy changes have no real effect on abortion rates, yet state policy changes do. This finding suggests that the states are the place to look for significant changes in abortion utilization in response to policy."
Correspondence: State University of New York Press, State University Plaza, Albany, NY 12246. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

62:20371 Bhatnagar, S.; Jain, Nutan P.; Gupta, Jaishree. Does breast feeding prevent pregnancy? Perception and practices of breast feeding with special reference to colostrum in peri-urban women of South Delhi. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 17, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 178-89 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"[A] total of 1,200 mothers from different social strata [in South Delhi, India] having children up to the age of two years were interviewed for breast feeding practice and its role in pregnancy prevention. Only 16.4 per cent women believed that breast feeding prevents pregnancy and 31.7 per cent had no knowledge about it. Colostrum feeding practice was common among the sample respondents but they had no adequate knowledge about its merits. The appearance of menstruation has been regarded as a well recognised landmark making a woman exposed to risk of conception irrespective of breast feeding status. Therefore, positive perception of linking pregnancy with onset of menstruation and relevance of colostrum feeding for better infant health should be promoted."
Correspondence: S. Bhatnagar, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Planning and Evaluation, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20372 Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M. The effect of changes in population characteristics on breastfeeding trends in fifteen developing countries. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1996. 94-102 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, trends in breastfeeding duration are examined in 15 developing countries, using data from two comparable surveys for each country, the World Fertility Survey (conducted in the late 1970s) and the Demographic and Health Survey (conducted in the late 1980s). Multivariate regression models are used to examine differentials in breastfeeding behaviour across population subgroups in these countries for each time period, and these differentials are used to determine the extent to which the observed trends are due to changes in population characteristics and to what extent behaviour has changed within population subgroups....Results show that changes in the characteristics of the population have almost universally pushed breastfeeding durations in a downward direction. On the other hand, trends within population subgroups have been positive in all but two of the 15 countries examined....Changes in population characteristics can be expected to continue for most developing countries, exerting a downward pressure on breastfeeding."
Correspondence: L. M. Grummer-Strawn, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Nutrition, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20373 Hsiung, Ping-Chen. To nurse the young: breastfeeding and infant feeding in late imperial China. Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1995. 217-38 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The article concerns breastfeeding and infant feeding in late imperial China, as described in medical texts and family records....The common practice of breastfeeding in China, as shown by these books of medical advice, was to have wide health and demographic implications. First of all, breast milk provided nutrition and protection against diseases (from both its immunal effect and the absence of contaminants). Second, the prolonged period of breastfeeding (Chinese women usually did not wean their children until they reached two years of age or when walking began) probably lowered fertility rates because of post-partum amenorrhea. Historical family records indicate general birth intervals to have been between two and three years, and historical demographic studies have deduced a moderate birth rate of 5.2 or so."
Correspondence: P.-C. Hsiung, Academia Sinica, Institute of Modern History, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20374 Jakobsen, Marianne S.; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kåre; Aaby, Peter. Reason for termination of breastfeeding and the length of breastfeeding. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1996. 115-21 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Risk factors for termination of breastfeeding were studied in a prospective community study following 1,678 children in Guinea Bissau, West Africa, from birth to cessation of breastfeeding, migration or death....The median weaning age was 22.6 months. Illness of the child, new pregnancy of the mother and illness of the mother were associated with a significantly shorter lactation period compared with children weaned because they were `healthy' or `old enough'. These explanations had an impact independent of other determinants for weaning, including ethnic group, mother's age, mother's education, birth order and number of dead siblings. Weaning before 12 months of age was only associated with illness of the mother or child and new pregnancy and not with any socioeconomic or cultural factors."
Correspondence: M. S. Jakobsen, University of Aarhus, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Building 02C, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20375 Mannan, Haider R.; Islam, M. Nurul. Breast-feeding in Bangladesh: patterns and impact on fertility. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 10, No. 4, Dec 1995. 23-38 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study shows that breast-feeding in Bangladesh is virtually universal and of long duration. It also shows that breast-feeding is the principal determinant of post-partum amenorrhoea, which offers a natural protection against pregnancy for up to 12 months. The study assesses the factors that are favourable to breast-feeding and draws out a number of implications for policy and programme purposes."
Correspondence: H. R. Mannan, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20376 Mukherjee, S.; Bhattacharya, B. N.; Singh, K. K. Distribution of time of first birth in presence of social customs regulating physical separation and coital frequency. Mathematical Biosciences, Vol. 131, No. 1, Jan 1, 1996. 1-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This study examines the factors affecting the interval between marriage and first birth in India. The authors suggest that "the models to explain the length of the interval of marriage to first birth proposed by Western demographers, which assume that the period of cohabitation between marriage and first birth is uninterrupted, often do not describe the data satisfactorily when applied to rural India. In this paper a model to describe data on first birth interval is proposed that takes account of the distributions of timing and periods of physical separation and variation in fecundity with effective marriage duration."
Correspondence: S. Mukherjee, Indian Statistical Institute, Population Studies Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

62:20377 Rajaretnam, T. Trend and differentials in breastfeeding and amenorrhea durations in a rural area in South India. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 83-95 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Trends and differentials in duration of breastfeeding and duration of amenorrhea in a rural community in South India [are] analyzed. In the study area, initiation of breastfeeding and continuation of breastfeeding up to 12 months of age of the child, are almost universal, provided the child had survived until then. The pattern has not changed much overtime, at least during the last two decades. However, the breastfeeding pattern has changed substantially beyond this interval....Though breastfeeding up to 12 months of age of the child is almost universal, the `modern' mothers viz. literate, and those engaged in non-agricultural sector occupations and housewives are often the violators of this norm."
Correspondence: T. Rajaretnam, J. S. S. Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad, Karnataka 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20378 Truong, Si Anh; Ngo, Thi Thai Hoe; Knodel, John; Le, Huong; Tran, Thi Thanh Thuy. Infant feeding practices in Viet Nam. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 10, No. 4, Dec 1995. 3-22 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Results from two national surveys, conducted in 1988 and 1994, indicate that breast-feeding is virtually universal in Viet Nam, that its average duration is well over a year, and that there appears to be no indication of a decline during the last decade in either breast-feeding initiation or duration. Only a minority of mothers, however, initiate breast-feeding within the first few hours following birth as recommended by health officials; supplementary food and liquids, including plain water, are provided at very early ages. The current situation deserves careful monitoring in view of the opening up of the country to international commerce. The article draws out several implications for policy and programme purposes."
Correspondence: S. A. Truong, Institute of Economic Research, Population Labour and Social Affairs Team, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

62:20379 Blaikie, Andrew. Illegitimacy, sex, and society: northeast Scotland, 1750-1900. ISBN 0-19-828680-5. LC 93-26043. 1993. xiii, 268 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study concerns the regulation of sexual behavior in a specific local environment, northeast Scotland, from 1750 to 1900. Data are from a variety of sources, including parish registers, civil registration certificates, and census enumerators' records. The author focuses on the application of family reconstitution techniques to the study of the relationship between legitimate and illegitimate fertility. He also examines the relationships between unmarried motherhood and the demographic behavior and household arrangements of the community at large. Finally, he analyzes aspects of age-specific fertility, age at first marriage, and birth spacing.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20380 Carmichael, Gordon A. From floating brothels to suburban semi-respectability: a history of nonmarital pregnancy in Australia. Working Papers in Demography, No. 60, 1995. 53 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The sexual revolution which through the 1950s and 1960s saw nonmarital fertility and marital childbearing following premarital conception rise rapidly in Australia, especially among women in their teens and early twenties, received considerable research attention. Now, in the mid-1990s, childbearing following nonmarital pregnancy has assumed a very different character....Australia boasts a distinctive parallel between this new phase and the earliest years of colonial settlement, when convictism also gave rise to widespread childbearing within consensual unions. This parallel is highlighted in the context of tracing the full and varied history of fertility associated with nonmarital coitus in Australia."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20381 Hollander, Dore. Nonmarital childbearing in the United States: a government report. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 29-32, 41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In a 1995 report of the U.S. Congress, a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) working group analyzed a broad range of data--primarily vital statistics and survey results--to illustrate temporal trends in and current patterns of nonmarital fertility. The analysis is supplemented by a collection of articles in which social scientists from various disciplines attempt to sort out questions raised by the data, assess the research and policy initiatives that have addressed these questions to date, and discuss potential solutions." Sections are included on patterns and trends, including age of unmarried parents, race and ethnicity, education, residence, and background; reasons for these trends; causes of nonmarital births; subsequent fertility; public assistance; and the international context.
Correspondence: D. Hollander, Family Planning Perspectives, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20382 Lelièvre, Eva. Couple formation and fertility outside marriage in Great Britain: differences and similarities with the French situation. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 7, 1995. 67-94 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"In this paper, we shall attempt to give a detailed presentation of the recent evolution of the mechanisms of family formation in Great Britain. Basing our investigations on an original use of retrospective longitudinal data, we shall, in effect, explore the changes in the behaviours of successive generations and, as far as possible, relate these to comparable data on the French situation. This study aims at a more specific analysis of the respective evolutions in the two countries in order to show how, despite similarities in trends, these evolutions remain profoundly marked by their own socio-political and cultural traits. This will also bring to light the differences and similarities between France and Great Britain in family formation and, more specifically, in the evolution of extra-marital births and cohabitation."
For the original French version of this article, see 60:30341.
Correspondence: E. Lelièvre, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20383 Manning, Wendy D.; Landale, Nancy S. Racial and ethnic differences in the role of cohabitation in premarital childbearing. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 1, Feb 1996. 63-77 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"The research reported in this article focuses on the role of cohabitation in premarital childbearing among U.S women. Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households and the New York Fertility, Employment and Migration Survey, we examine the influence of cohabitation on the likelihood of premarital pregnancy and the decision to marry between premarital conception and birth. Our analyses show marked racial and ethnic differences in the role of the cohabiting union in family building. Although cohabitation increases the rate of premarital pregnancy for all women, its effect is much greater among Puerto Ricans than among non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans. Cohabitation accelerates the transition to marriage among premaritally pregnant White women, but has no effect among Blacks and has a strong negative effect among Puerto Ricans. We interpret our findings in terms of long-standing family patterns and cultural traditions within each group."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: W. D. Manning, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20384 Mott, Frank L.; Fondell, Michelle M.; Hu, Paul N.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Menaghan, Elizabeth G. The determinants of first sex by age 14 in a high-risk adolescent population. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 13-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A study using data for mothers from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and their children aged 14 or older indicates that, after accounting for a wide range of demographic and socioeconomic antecedents, children are significantly more likely to become sexually active before age 14 if their mother had sex at an early age and if she has worked extensively. In addition, early sexual debut is eight times as likely among black boys as among non-Hispanic white boys. Children who use controlled substances at an early age are more than twice as likely to have sex before age 14 as those who do not, although the type of substance having an effect is different for girls (cigarettes) and boys (alcohol). Church attendance is an important determinant of delayed sexual activity, but only when a child's friends attend the same church."
Correspondence: F. L. Mott, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20385 Schellekens, Jona. Illegitimate fertility decline in England, 1851-1911. Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1995. 365-77 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This study attempts to determine the extent to which several hypotheses are able to account for the illegitimate fertility decline in England in the second half of the nineteenth century. The results of a pooled time-series analysis are consistent with the hypothesis that a rise in working-class prosperity accounts for much of the decline. Additional reasons for the decline, which cannot be ruled out with the data used in the analysis, include the diffusion of knowledge and the acceptability of contraceptive methods and a decline in agricultural employment."
Correspondence: J. Schellekens, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus, 91905 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20386 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). Report to Congress on out-of-wedlock childbearing. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 95-1257. ISBN 0-16-048332-8. Sep 1995. xxii, 265 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Using data taken from official U.S. sources, "the report summarizes the current status and trends in nonmarital childbearing. In addition, information on related trends such as sexual behavior and marriage is included. International comparison data are also provided....This volume contains a series of supplemental papers by experts from various social science disciplines." These papers cover such topics as the determinants of marriage, the relationship between family structure and nonmarital births, the connection between public programs and nonmarital births, the role of individual and neighborhood opportunities, the relation between access to preventive services and nonmarital births, variations in nonmarital births over time and across populations, and the risk factors leading to nonmarital births among adolescents. A summary report is published separately.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1996-1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.