Volume 62 - Number 2 - Summer 1996

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality .

62:20109 Ananijevic-Pandey, Jordanka. Premature mortality in former Yugoslavia. European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1994. 339-41 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
"To evaluate the level of health attained before the war started, premature mortality from all causes in the former Yugoslavia was analyzed by republics and provinces in two respective periods. Premature mortality, measured by the crude rate of years of potential life lost, fell from 12,762.6 in 1970 to 6,320.1 per 100,000 population aged 0-64 in 1990 (50% decrease). Age-adjusted rates of republics/provinces declined during the same period to various degrees (30% to 70%)."
Correspondence: J. Ananijevic-Pandey, University of Belgrade, Statistics and Health Research, Institute of Social Medicine, Dr. Subotica 15 (Silos), 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20110 Armstrong, Ben G. Comparing standardized mortality ratios. Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan 1995. 60-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"It is well known that the ratio of two standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) is not in general an unbiased estimate of the underlying within-stratum ratio of rates of one subcohort relative to another. It is also established, although less well known, that a sufficient condition for unbiasedness is that the underlying stratum-specific rates in each of the two subcohorts be proportional to the reference population. Further, the ratio of SMRs is more precise than the wholly internal (Poisson regression) estimate of rate ratio....To further elucidate choice between methods, we derive expression for the asymptotic precision of each. These show that improved precision of ratio of SMRs depends on the extent to which the distribution of expected deaths over strata is different in the two cohorts, or equivalently, on the variance over strata of the proportion of expected deaths falling in the first cohort. The results are illustrated by hypothetic examples."
Correspondence: B. G. Armstrong, McGill University, School of Occupational Health, 1130 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20111 Capocaccia, Riccardo; Farchi, Gino; Mariotti, Sergio; Verdecchia, Arduino; Galletti, Anita; Angeli, Andrea; Scipione, Riccardo; Feola, Giuseppe; Cariani, Giovanni. Mortality in Italy in 1991. [La mortalità in Italia nell'anno 1991.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 95/34, 1995. ii, 59 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanità [ISTISAN]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"A series of analytical tables of mortality data [for] Italy for 1991 is presented. The age-and-sex-specific rates for the whole of Italy are reported for 45 different death causes, as well as the national standardized rate referred to 1971 population. The standardized rates for each of the 20 regions and the three main subdivisions: North, Center, South/Islands are also reported. This report belongs to a series describing mortality in Italy since 1970, using the same methods, with yearly updating editions."
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20112 Caselli, Graziella. Developments in the study of mortality in the context of the dynamics of population research. [Parcours et étapes des études sur la mortalité dans la dynamique de la recherche démographique.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. 1,519-44 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Based on a review of the literature published in the major demographic journals over the past 50 years, the author describes the trends in demographic research over time. She concludes that the main factor affecting the changes in research emphasis has been the change in mortality in both developed and developing countries. She also suggests how future research interests might evolve.
Correspondence: G. Caselli, Università degli Studi di Roma la Sapienza, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20113 Dzúrová, Dagmar. Relationship between environment quality and mortality in Czechoslovakia. Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1992. 91-103 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Eng. with sum. in Cze.
"Our paper concentrates on a regional analysis of the relationship between living environment and public health....We utilized the collected data concerning the relationship between environment and public health and worked out an application of these data to be implemented in Czechoslovakia (CSFR)....Czechoslovakia's extremely disturbed areas usually correspond to regions with high mortality rates. However, the relationship between the two phenomena is not explicit because these `disrupted' areas also have different ethnic and social structures. The education standards of their populations are usually lower, in addition to other adverse characteristics which can be described as socio-pathological."
Correspondence: D. Dzúrová, Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20114 Gage, Timothy B.; Zansky, Shelly M. Anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and level of mortality. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 7, No. 6, 1995. 679-91 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The relationship between several anthropometric indicators of nutritional status, representing standards of living, and mortality is examined using data from a worldwide sample of 602 life tables spanning the period 1940-1975. "The anthropometric indicators examined include height, weight, weight-for-height, and weight-for-height at various ages. The results demonstrate that height is most closely associated with the level of mortality....Of the ages examined, age 6 consistently has the strongest relationship with the level of mortality, whereas birthweight and adult measures have the lowest associations....There is little or no sex difference in the slope of the relationship between anthropometric measure and level of mortality after correcting for smaller size and longer life expectancies of females compared to males. Overall, the anthropometric indicators are very highly correlated with mortality, exceeding 0.85 in some cases. This suggests that anthropometric dimensions may be a useful source of corroborative information when attempting to estimate demographic rates for populations where the demographic data are suspect."
Correspondence: T. B. Gage, State University of New York, Social Sciences 259a, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20115 Goyal, R. P. Mortality in India: trend and prospects. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 103-16 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author uses data from India's Sample Registration System to "analyse the pattern and level of the mortality changes that are taking place over this recent period of twenty years between 1970 to 1990....This comparative analysis...reveals that generally there has been a steady and consistent all round decline in mortality level in India during the last two decades. The trend has been similar for males as well as females and both in rural and urban areas. However, female mortality in general and male mortality at ages of 20 years and above in urban areas during 1985-89 recorded a small decline as compared to the corresponding levels in the quinquennium immediately preceding. This has been an exception to the general behaviour."
Correspondence: R. P. Goyal, Delhi University, Institute of Economic Growth, Population Research Centre, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20116 Härö, A. Sakari. Surveillance of mortality in the Scandinavian countries, 1947-1993. Studies in Social Security and Health, No. 4, ISBN 951-669-392-X. 1995. 342 pp. Social Insurance Institution: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng. with sum. in Fin.
"The study examines trends in overall mortality and deaths from 15 important causes over a period of nearly 50 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. While the observed trends are similar in all four countries, in Denmark mortality has decreased less than in the other three countries. Deaths due to accident or violence have--especially in Finland--declined less than deaths from specific diseases. The economic recession of the 1990s was not yet reflected in the 1993 mortality figures." The data used are from official sources in the countries concerned.
Correspondence: Social Insurance Institution, Research and Development Centre, P.O. Box 450, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20117 Jain, S. K. Trends in mortality by causes of death in Australia, the states and territories during 1971-92, and in statistical divisions and sub-divisions during 1991-92. Pub. Order No. 3313.0. ISBN 0-642-20675-9. 1994. xii, 169 pp. National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health [NCEPH]: Canberra, Australia; Australian Bureau of Statistics: Belconnen, Australia. In Eng.
"This publication provides a compilation and analysis of the mortality experience of the population by age, sex and selected causes of death for Australia, the States and Territories during 1971 to 1992, and for the Statistical Divisions and Subdivisions during 1991 to 1992. The study utilises death statistics compiled from data provided by the State and Territory Registrars of Births, Deaths and Marriages....Specific features of this study are: (i) the inclusion of a time trend analysis of age-standardised mortality rates by causes of death between 1971 and 1992 for Australia, and the States and Territories, (ii) an examination of regional mortality across Australia, and (iii) the pictorial depiction of the regional differences in age-standardised mortality rates on a statistical significance test scale on the maps of the States/Territories and Australia."
Correspondence: Australian Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 10, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20118 Lai, Dejian; Hardy, Robert J.; Tsai, Shan P. Statistical analysis of the standardized mortality ratio and life expectancy. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 143, No. 8, Apr 15, 1996. 832-40 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"A new theoretical relation that does not require the constant age-specific mortality ratio assumption is established between the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and the life expectancy. A set of regression equations is developed from the theoretical relation to derive estimates of the future expectation of life from estimates of the SMR. Curves are presented showing the changes in life expectancy that are associated with a given SMR for individuals aged 25, 45, and 65 years. These results will provide practical applications in estimating remaining life expectancy in epidemiologic studies in which the SMR is the summary statistic. An application is shown for studies in occupational health [in the United States] to develop and illustrate the method."
Correspondence: D. Lai, University of Texas, School of Public Health, Program in Biometry, RAS E519, Houston, TX 77030. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20119 Laourou, H. Martin. Estimating mortality in Benin from a multi-round survey (1981-83). Population: An English Selection, Vol. 7, 1995. 125-44 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"We shall in the present study proceed as follows: first, present the methodology used for the Benin Multi-Round Survey (BMRS); second, analyse the quality of the data, by evaluating the impact of mobility on the results, by a critical assessment of the levels obtained for several mortality indicators and by using indirect methods to estimate the coverage of deaths occurring between rounds; third, construct the first life tables for Benin based on raw data. We shall then consider in what these life tables are specific, and where they diverge from the standard life tables."
For the original French version of this article, see 60:30096.
Correspondence: H. M. Laourou, INSAE, B.P. 323, Cotonou, Benin. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20120 Meslé, France; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M. Mortality in Russia: a public health crisis in two stages. [La mortalité en Russie: une crise sanitaire en deux temps.] Revue d'Etudes Comparatives Est-Ouest, Vol. 26, No. 4, Dec 1995. 9-24, 195 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Over the past fifteen years, there have been very wide fluctuations in life-expectancy...in Russia. The marked increase noted in 1985-86 was followed by an equivalent drop, up until 1992. In 1993, the rates showed a further deterioration. These fluctuations stem basically from variations in mortality rates among the active population. They are closely linked, on the one hand, with Gorbachev's anti-alcoholism measures of 1985, and on the other with the worsening socio-economic conditions of recent years. However, this pattern of development is part of a long-term negative trend. In Russia, as in other Eastern European countries, there has been a deterioration in public health conditions since the middle sixties, despite the fact that these countries have succeeded in checking the rise in cardio-vascular illnesses and cancer."
Correspondence: F. Meslé, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20121 Rychtaríková, Jitka. Contemporary mortality problems in Czechoslovakia. Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1992. 69-89 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Eng. with sum. in Cze.
The author examines recent mortality trends in Czechoslovakia. Aspects considered include age and sex differentials, causes of death, educational level, marital status, regional differences, public health, and the environment.
Correspondence: J. Rychtaríková, Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Demography and Geodemography, Albertov 6, 12 843 Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20122 Seltzer, Frederic. Choosing a standard for adjusted mortality rates. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 77, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1996. 13-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"For over half a century, the standard for age-adjustment in mortality studies has been based on the total population according to the 1940 [U.S.] census. The question periodically arises, however, whether a more recent census population might now be more appropriate. Thus, a study using the six censuses from 1940 to 1990 was conducted to see the effect each of these populations would have on the age-adjusted (standardized) death rates. While the size of the age-adjusted rates was affected by the censal standard populations from 1940 to 1990, these populations hardly changed the proportional mortality by age, sex, cause-of-death and geographic area. It appears that a shift from the 1940 standard will not be necessary, although if more detailed comparisons are needed, age-specific death rates can always be used. The 1940 standard also has the advantage of being consistent with many earlier studies."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20123 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Mortality patterns--United States, 1993. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 45, No. 8, Mar 1, 1996. 161-4 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"In 1993, a total of 2,268,553 deaths were registered in the United States--92,940 more than in 1992 and the highest number ever recorded. In addition, life expectancy at birth declined for the first time since 1980. This report characterizes mortality patterns in 1993 (the most recent year for which complete data were available) and compares these with patterns in 1992."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20124 Yashin, Anatoli I.; Iachine, Ivan A. Survival of related individuals: an extension of some fundamental results of heterogeneity analysis. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1995. 321-39, 377 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Many ideas in the analysis of heterogeneous mortality are based on the relationship between individual and observed hazard rates. This connection is established with the help of conditional averaging procedure: The observed risk of death at age x is calculated among those who survive this age. The analogy of this result for bivariate survival model with correlated individual hazards is derived. In the case of correlated frailty model the parametric specification of the mean, variance and correlation coefficient of the bivariate frailty distribution among survivors is obtained. The relationship between local association measure and the characteristics of the bivariate frailty distribution among survivors is established."
Correspondence: A. I. Yashin, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, Box 90408, Durham, NC 27708-0408. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

No citations in this issue.

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

62:20125 Brockerhoff, Martin. Child mortality in East Africa: the impact of preventive health care. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 76, 1995. 44 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the influence of preventive primary health care on early child survival in the late 1980s and early 1990s in five East African countries. While child mortality rates remained high, they were considerably lower than they would have been in the absence of specific immunizations, safe drinking water, birthspacing, and frequent antenatal care visits. There was, however, substantial missed opportunity for mortality decline as a result of incomplete health program coverage."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20126 Defo, Barthelemy K.; Palloni, Alberto. Determinants of mortality among Cameroonian children: are the effects of breastfeeding and pace of childbearing artifacts? Genus, Vol. 51, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1995. 61-96 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"We analyse a rich data source, the Yaoundé round of surveys [conducted] by IFORD (Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques) during the late seventies and early eighties in several African urban centers. We argue that despite important limitations, these surveys are potentially very useful as a source of verification of hypotheses that have been heretofore improperly tested with retrospective surveys. Using the Yaoundé round we obtain fine-tuned estimates of the effects of lactation and timing of following conception on infant and child mortality. We are able to identify the role played by birthweight, types of breastfeeding, and antecedent illnesses and thus control for important variables that are not normally recorded in conventional demographic surveys. We show that potential biases associated with losses to follow-up and selection processes are of little significance."
Correspondence: B. K. Defo, University of Montreal, Department of Demography, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20127 Frankenberg, Elizabeth. The effects of access to health care on infant mortality in Indonesia. Health Transition Review, Vol. 5, No. 2, Oct 1995. 143-63 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impact of access to health facilities and personnel on infant and child mortality in Indonesia. Demographic and Health Survey data are combined with village-level censuses of infrastructure collected by the Central Bureau of Statistics. Because the village-level data are available from two points in time, it is possible to analyse the effects on mortality risks within the village of changes in access to health care. Factors about villages that might affect both access to health care and mortality risks are held constant. Adding a maternity clinic to a village decreases the odds of infant mortality by almost 15 per cent, in comparison to the risk before the clinic was added. An additional doctor reduces the odds by about 1.7 per cent."
Correspondence: E. Frankenberg, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20128 Garenne, Michel; Coninx, Rudi; Dupuy, Chantal. The effects of the civil war in central Mozambique and an evaluation of the intervention of the Red Cross. [Effets de la guerre civile au Centre-Mozambique et évaluation d'une intervention de la Croix Rouge.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 38, ISBN 2-87762-085-9. Apr 1996. 25 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Results are presented of a retrospective study of mortality undertaken in the central Mozambique province of Maringué in October 1994. The study involved 1,503 women aged 15-60. The focus of this monograph is on changes over time in the levels of mortality of children under five years of age. "During the colonial period (1955-1974), mortality declined from 373 to 270 per 1,000. During the civil war period (1975-1991), mortality increased rapidly to reach a peak of 473 per 1,000 in 1986. It declined again thereafter and reached a plateau of 380 in 1991. A health intervention conducted by the International Red Cross Committee since the end of 1991 further reduced mortality to 269 per 1,000 in 1994. Most of the 1992-1994 decline was attributable to vaccinations, in particular measles and tetanus immunizations, and to Vitamin `A' supplementation."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20129 Gutmann, Myron P.; Fliess, Kenneth H. The social context of child mortality in the American Southwest. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 26, No. 4, Spring 1996. 589-618 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This article is a report about the social context of infant and childhood mortality levels in six rural counties in Texas....Our evidence derives from the set of questions asked of married women in the 1900 and 1910 census about the number of children born, the number of children surviving, and the number of years married. To these facts we have added other evidence about wealth, as reported in County tax assessments. Our goal is to show the nature of social differences in childhood mortality in Texas, as well as to emphasize a number of issues....The early sections are concerned with the explication of childhood mortality differences by racial and ethnic group and by occupational group. Our research indicates that differences in childhood mortality evade the readily identifiable social characteristics of families. We refer to these extended differences in our population as local mortality attributes, which, in our analysis, initially take the form of county differences in mortality, when ethnicity, social status, and other variables are held constant. Further pursuit of the matter suggests that contact with disease, through general conditions of poverty and density, was a significant factor."
Correspondence: M. P. Gutmann, University of Texas, Department of History, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

62:20130 Hill, Kenneth. Age patterns of child mortality in the developing world. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 39, 1995. 112-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article uses the data from [a] United Nations database, supplemented in a few cases with information from local studies thought to be of particular accuracy, to examine age patterns of child mortality [in developing countries]. The focus is on the split between infant mortality--that is, mortality before the first birthday, and child mortality, between the exact ages of 1 and 5 years....The underlying objective of the article is to identify regional patterns, both because the epidemiology and social behaviours underlying child mortality are likely to be similar across regions and because such identified patterns could then be used to guide the selection of a model life-table family when using indirect estimation methods in countries of a region."
Correspondence: K. Hill, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20131 Hong Kong. Census and Statistics Department (Hong Kong). Trends of infant mortality in Hong Kong, 1946-1994. Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics, Sep 1995. 1-10 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng; Chi.
"This article [which appears as an appendix] describes the trends of infant mortality in Hong Kong from 1946 to 1994. Sex differentials and major causes of infant deaths are analysed. Reasons for the decline in infant mortality and scope for further improvements are also discussed."
Correspondence: Census and Statistics Department, 19/F Wanchai Tower I, 12 Harbour Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20132 Kytir, Josef; Kock, Christian; Münz, Rainer. Historical regional patterns of infant mortality in Austria. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep 1995. 243-59 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"First an overview is given of the secular decline of infant mortality in Austria between 1820 and 1950....Second the study analyses the historical regional differences of infant mortality in Austria comparing data for all 99 political districts (Politische Bezirke) for the period 1900 to 1950. The most important results are: At the turn of the 19th century infant mortality rates were generally lower in Alpine than in non-Alpine regions and lower in cities than in their surrounding areas. This geographical pattern which remained constant until the 1950s was solely determined by differences in post-neonatal mortality rates. Plausible explanations for these regional differences are discussed."
Correspondence: J. Kytir, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Demography, Hintere Zollamtstrasse 2b, 1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20133 LeGrand, Thomas K.; Mbacké, Cheikh S. M. Sex differences in mortality among young children in the Sahel. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 39, 1995. 79-111 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article studied sex differences in mortality among children aged 1-23 months in the cities of Bamako [Mali] and Bobo-Dioulasso [Burkina Faso] and in a rural area of Senegal. No significant differences between male and female mortality risks were found in any of the areas for the full age span of 1-23 months. For smaller age groups, patterns of excess female and male child mortality are evident. Excess female mortality, statistically significant in standard tests, exists among children aged 1-8 months in the Senegalese area and 6-15 months in the combined urban areas of Bamako and Bobo-Dioulasso. Excess male mortality occurs for ages 16-23 months in the city of Bamako."
Correspondence: T. K. LeGrand, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20134 LeGrand, Thomas K.; Phillips, James F. The effect of fertility reductions on infant and child mortality: evidence from Matlab in rural Bangladesh. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 1, Mar 1996. 51-68 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The role of family planning programmes and declining fertility in improving infant and child survival has been the subject of considerable debate. In this paper, we analyse data from Matlab, Bangladesh, to assess the net effect of falling total fertility on the mortality rates of young children. Areal time-series models are estimated to determine the role of fertility decline after having controlled for the effects of other health service interventions. The results show that fertility reductions have little effect on neonatal and post-neonatal mortality, possibly a small effect on toddler (second-year) mortality, and a significant and relatively large impact on the mortality of children aged between two and four years. Possible explanations for these findings and their implications are discussed."
Correspondence: T. K. LeGrand, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20135 LeGrand, Thomas K.; Phillips, James F. The effect of fertility reductions on infant and child mortality: evidence from Matlab in rural Bangladesh. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 77, 1995. 42 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes data from Matlab, Bangladesh, to assess the net effect of falling total fertility rates on the mortality rates of young children. Areal time-series models are estimated to determine the role of fertility decline after controlling for the effects of other health-service interventions. The results show that fertility reductions have little effect on neonatal and postneonatal mortality, possibly a small effect on toddler (second-year) mortality, and a significant and relatively large impact on the mortality of children aged between two to four years."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20136 Masuy-Stroobant, Godelieve. Infant mortality in Europe and Canada: a resolved problem? [La mortalité infantile en Europe et au Canada: un problème résolu?] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 23, No. 2, Autumn 1994. 297-340 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Tendencies in foetal-infant mortality in countries characterized by very low overall mortality rates should be set forth in terms of health. First with respect to physical health, greater use of technology in reproductive matters is translated by an increase in both survival rates of very low birth weight infants and, in certain countries, in multiple deliveries. Next concerning social health, given the persistence and potential deepening of social inequalities, it is unlikely that overall rates have reached a peak. Several indicators can be developed with vital statistics, including incidence of low and very low birth weight, specific risks by birth weight, and differential risks by social characteristics of the parents. These phenomena can be monitored and, to a certain extent, compared in [Canada and] a large number of European countries."
Correspondence: G. Masuy-Stroobant, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20137 Muhuri, Pradip K. Estimating seasonality effects on child mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 1, Feb 1996. 98-110 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper estimates the net effect of seasonality on child mortality in Matlab [Bangladesh]. Results suggest that childhood mortality was well above the average monthly level in the hot, dry month of April and in November....It was found to be remarkably low in the postharvest months of February and March, and also in August. During the hungry months of September and October, children were at a considerably increased risk of mortality, particularly from diarrheal diseases, if mothers had no schooling, but this was not the case if mothers had schooling. The protective effect of the Matlab interventions on childhood death from diarrheal diseases was also greater during the hungry months than during other months of the year....The present analysis uses information [from the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System] for 12,512 children (out of 14,125 babies born in Matlab between January 1, 1981 and December 31, 1982)."
Correspondence: P. K. Muhuri, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20138 Muhuri, Pradip K. Health programs, maternal education, and differential child mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 4, Dec 1995. 813-34, 922, 924 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the extent to which differences in child mortality linked to mother's education are affected by health intervention programs. The Matlab research area in Bangladesh, site of the study, exhibits variations in the composition of services within the intervention area, the presence of a comparison group, and a time series of accurate data since the 1960s. Results show that children in the `mother had no schooling' subgroup benefited most from the interventions. Differences in child mortality linked to maternal schooling were sharply diminished in the `intensive' blocks of the Matlab intervention area, moderately reduced in the nonintensive blocks, and remained large in the comparison area. In the intensive intervention area, the effect of maternal schooling on overall child mortality was diminished particularly because of the absence of measles deaths, while insignificant differences were related to mother's schooling in deaths from watery diarrhea, fever, respiratory diseases, and `other causes' with the exception of dysentery and accidental drowning."
Correspondence: P. K. Muhuri, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20139 Murthi, Mamta; Guio, Anne-Catherine; Dreze, Jean. Mortality, fertility, and gender bias in India: a district-level analysis. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 4, Dec 1995. 745-82, 921, 923-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the determinants of fertility, child mortality, and gender bias in child survival in India using district-level data from the 1981 census. A common set of explanatory variables is used, including male and female literacy, the level of poverty, female labor force participation, urbanization, health care facilities, and other socioeconomic variables. The analysis demonstrates the powerful demographic influence of variables that relate directly to women's agency, notably female literacy and labor force participation. The former, in particular, significantly reduces child mortality, fertility levels, and the female disadvantage in child survival. The latter has no statistically significant effect on the level of child mortality, but reduces gender bias in child survival as well as fertility levels. Variables reflecting the general level of development and modernization have a negative but comparatively weak impact on mortality and fertility levels, and, if anything, amplify rather than reduce the gender bias in child survival. In particular, the female disadvantage in child survival is significantly lower in districts with higher poverty levels."
Correspondence: M. Murthi, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20140 Polednak, Anthony P. Trends in U.S. urban black infant mortality, by degree of residential segregation. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 5, May 1996. 723-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Trends in Black infant mortality rates from 1982 through 1991 in large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas were examined. In some least-segregated areas, the total Black infant mortality rate reached a low of 13 per 1,000 live births in 1985; it increased sharply after 1985 in the West but not in the South. The explanation for these trends is unknown, but variation in regional trends in Black postneonatal infant mortality rates suggested that social and medical-care differences among Blacks should be examined. A high Black infant mortality rate for a group of most-segregated metropolitan statistical areas persisted and contributed to the rising Black-White ratio of rates."
Correspondence: A. P. Polednak, Connecticut Department of Public Health, 410 Capitol Avenue, P.O. Box 340308, Hartford, CT 06134-0308. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20141 Prazak, Miroslava; Booth, Heather. Measurement and meaning: community-based research on child mortality in rural Kenya. Working Papers in Demography, No. 59, 1995. 29 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This article explores child mortality in one small region of rural Kenya, based on longitudinal, ethnographic data....The article also addresses the measurement issues involved in demographic estimation from ethnographic data and the meaning of child death to the families involved."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20142 Ritter, C.; Bouckaert, A.; Van Lierde, M.; Theunissen, I. Modelling mortality and morbidity of newborns. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 20, Oct 30, 1995. 2,191-204 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Data of 10,514 singleton births collected over a ten year period at a single hospital are analysed and models linking birthweight and gestational age with mortality and morbidity defined by low Apgar scores are constructed and compared. Based on these models, charts of mortality and morbidity are drawn and compared with common charts of birthweight centiles....The results suggest that, as far as neonatal mortality is concerned, classification rules based on simple marginal birthweight centiles perform almost as well as iso-mortality contours and considerably better than birthweight centiles adjusted for gestational age....The data consist of records of all births in Hopital St. Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain [Belgium], from 1 January 1982 until 31 December 1992."
Correspondence: C. Ritter, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Statistique, 34 voie du Roman Pays, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20143 Scheper-Hughes, Nancy. Death without weeping: the violence of everyday life in Brazil. ISBN 0-520-07536-6. LC 91-12829. 1992. xiii, 614 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is an anthropological study on aspects of love and death among the poor in northeastern Brazil. The main emphasis is on characteristics of maternal love and the death of children. "I argue that in the absence of a firm grounding for the expectancy of child survival, maternal thinking and practice are grounded in a set of assumptions (e.g., that infants and babies are easily replaceable or that some infants are born `wanting' to die) that contribute even further to an environment that is dangerous, even antagonistic, to new life."
Correspondence: University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20144 Strobino, Donna; O'Campo, Patricia; Schoendorf, Kenneth C.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Oberdorf, Mary A.; Paige, David M.; Guyer, Bernard. A strategic framework for infant mortality reduction: implications for "Healthy Start." Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 73, No. 4, 1995. 507-33 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The high infant mortality rate in the United States, especially in urban areas, remains a major federal concern. Four strategies for reducing infant mortality in cities participating in the federal `Healthy Start' are reducing high-risk pregnancies; reducing the incidence of low birthweight and preterm births; improving birthweight-specific survival; and reducing specific causes of post neonatal mortality. Estimates of the impact of known interventions indicate that the reduction in infant mortality would be large for only one strategy: improving birthweight-specific survival. Most interventions yield a 2 percent reduction, or less, in mortality and, when combined, would amount to about 30 percent. This strategic model provides a realistic framework to asses the impact of the Healthy Start demonstration and is useful in highlighting the interventions most likely to reduce infant mortality in a population."
Correspondence: D. Strobino, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Maternal and Child Health, 624 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20145 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Poverty and infant mortality--United States, 1988. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 44, No. 49, Dec 15, 1995. 922-7 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"To analyze the relation between parental low income and infant mortality [in the United States], CDC analyzed data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS) (the most recent data available). This report presents the findings of the analysis and indicates that for women with household incomes below the poverty level in 1988, the infant mortality rate was 60% higher and the postneonatal mortality rate was twice as high as those for women living above poverty level."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20146 van Poppel, Frans; Kok, Jan; Kruse, Ellen. "The major cause of the differences is crime": an attempt to explain the excess mortality of illegitimate children in The Hague in the middle of the nineteenth century. ["La cause principale des différences c'est le crime": essai d'explication de la surmortalité des enfants illégitimes a La Haye au milieu du XIXe siècle.] Annales de Démographie Historique, 1995. 241-75 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Reasons are explored for the high rates of mortality experienced by illegitimate children in The Hague, Netherlands, during the nineteenth century. The data, which were taken from the city's population register, concern children born in the period 1850-1852. "After children had reached the age of one month, mortality among illegitimate children became very high, compared to that of our reference group. Proportional hazards analysis showed that this excess mortality was caused by a set of factors, the most important being the age of the mother at birth, regional background, and the socioeconomic group to which the notifier of the birth belonged. Aside from those factors, legal status of the child as such had an effect on infant mortality. The unwed mothers most likely to lose their child in its first year of life lived alone with their child and were obliged to resume work to support themselves and their child. The opportunity to breast-feed may have played a key role in this."
Correspondence: F. van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20147 Yaakoubd, Abdel-Ilah. Social class and inequalities in mortality under one year of age in Morocco. [Classes sociales et inégalités devant la mort à moins d'un an au Maroc.] Genus, Vol. 51, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1995. 147-54 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre.
This is an analysis of mortality differentials among children under one year of age in Morocco. Data are used from the National Survey on Fertility and Family Planning which was carried out in 1979-1980. The focus of the analysis is on mortality differentials by social class. Separate consideration is given to neonatal, postneonatal, and infant mortality. The author also examines the effects of contraceptive practice, quality of housing, and urban-rural residence on infant mortality.
Correspondence: A.-I. Yaakoubd, Institut National de Statistique et d'Economie Appliquée, Département de Démographie et Sciences Humaines, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

62:20148 Ahmed, M. Faroque. Recent estimates of adult mortality from widowhood in Bangladesh: a critical comparison. Genus, Vol. 51, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1995. 97-116 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The indirect techniques of demographic estimation available at the moment are often inadequate to estimate levels in the presence of trends. The generalised stable population relations have been applied to census and survey data collected in Bangladesh for the estimation of adult mortality. This method combines two sets of widowhood data and yields estimates for the intersurvey period. The generalised stable population relations are based on the assumption that the population is closed to migration between the censuses. The application of the method is simple whatever may be the length of the inter survey period. But the method may be found to be affected by age misreporting and other errors."
Correspondence: M. F. Ahmed, 31 Lansdell Road, Mitcham, Surrey CR4 2JF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20149 Chung, Sung J. Formulas expressing life expectancy, survival probability and death rate in life table at various ages in U.S. adults. International Journal of Bio-Medical Computing, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1995. 209-17 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"Formulas expressing death rate, survival probability and life expectancy at various ages in U.S. adults are constructed from the data of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). A mathematical model of the `probacent'-probability equation previously published by the author is employed in this study. Analysis of the computer-assisted predicted values and the data reported by the NCHS indicates that the formulas are accurate and reliable with a close agreement in expressing death rate, survival probability and life expectancy at various ages in U.S. adults of 25 years of age and older. The formulas can determine the relationship between the age and the death rate, the survival probability or the life expectancy and may be of value for epidemiologic evaluation of U.S. adults."
Correspondence: S. J. Chung, Morristown-Hamblen Hospital, Department of Pathology, 908 West Fourth North Street, Morristown, TN 37814. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20150 Festy, Patrick. Adult mortality and proportions orphaned in Austria in 1991. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 7, 1995. 232-8 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"At the Austrian micro-census taken in June 1991, a question was inserted on survival of parents and grandparents (on both sides), with the object of investigating family networks....By comparing the census information on survival of parents and the corresponding direct measures of mortality, we have an opportunity to assess the validity of techniques which are commonly used in countries with defective vital registration. We shall consider here female adult mortality and proportions of persons whose mothers have died (maternal orphanhood)....This method, which hinges on the reporting of a single event that is no doubt remembered well, proves a good substitute for direct mortality measures, despite a slight underestimation. It describes the performance of cohorts, some of which are relatively old, but the results can be translated into the recent period."
Correspondence: P. Festy, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20151 Hirschman, Charles; Preston, Samuel; Loi, Vu Manh. Vietnamese casualties during the American war: a new estimate. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 4, Dec 1995. 783-812, 921-2, 924 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Retrospective reports of the birth and death dates of 5,562 kin from the 1991 Vietnam Life History Survey (VLHS), a sample survey of 403 households and 921 adults in four areas of Vietnam, provide plausible estimates of adult mortality trends and patterns in that country. The VLHS mortality estimates are consistent with estimates from independent sources for recent periods, and, when war deaths are excluded, are in broad agreement with expected patterns from model life tables. After analyzing the quality of the VLHS mortality data, the authors estimate the costs, in Vietnamese lives, of the `American war', from 1965 to 1975. Death rates of young men, age 15-29, during the peak war years were more than seven times higher than `normal' (nonwar) death rates. Applying the VLHS estimated age-specific death rates for war-related deaths to population estimates for the period, the authors estimate that approximately one million (plus or minus 175,000) Vietnamese died either as military or civilian casualties, on both sides, from 1965 to 1975."
Correspondence: C. Hirschman, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20152 Kitange, Henry M.; Machibya, Harun; Black, Jim; Mtasiwa, Deo M.; Masuki, Gabriel; Whiting, David; Unwin, Nigel; Moshiro, Candida; Klima, Peter M.; Lewanga, Mary; Alberti, K. G. M. M.; McLarty, Donald G. Outlook for survivors of childhood in Sub-Saharan Africa: adult mortality in Tanzania. British Medical Journal, Vol. 312, No. 7025, Jan 27, 1996. 216-20 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Mortality and the probability of death are analyzed among a population of 160,733 adults aged 15-59 living in both rural and urban areas of Tanzania between 1992 and 1995. "During the three year observation period a total of 4,929 deaths were recorded in adults aged 15-59 years in all areas. Crude mortalities ranged from [6.1 per 1,000 per] year for women in Hai to [15.9 per 1,000 per] year for men in Morogoro rural. Age specific mortalities were up to 43 times higher than rates in England and Wales." The results show that the survivors of childhood continue to show high rates of mortality throughout adult life.
Correspondence: D. G. McLarty, Muhimbili Medical Centre, P.O. Box 63320, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

62:20153 Dupâquier, Jacques. The invention of the life table. [L'invention de la table de mortalité.] Collections Sociologies, ISBN 2-13-047361-X. 1996. 177 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study examines the development of the life table and its implications. The author shows that the concept of the life table, and the mathematical formulas needed to express it, evolved through two separate channels during the second half of the seventeenth century. The first step of this evolution was taken in the Netherlands as part of the empirical process of raising state loans based on tontines, a process which in turn depended on calculating how long people would live. The second step toward the invention of the life table was taken in England and was based on the theoretical realization that mortality was a function of age; this realization led to the development of the concept of life expectancy. By bringing together these two approaches, Halley was able to construct the first life table in 1693. The author then goes on to describe the further applications of life table techniques that became possible when more extensive mortality data became available toward the end of the eighteenth century.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de France, 108 boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20154 Mitra, S. The search for models of life table functions. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 149-55 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author outlines attempts to develop mathematical models of life table functions. Sections are included on the single hump model, a mathematical model of survivorship function, and other statistical models.
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20155 Nath, Dilip C.; Choudhury, Labananda. Two regional (rural-urban) life tables for India. Genus, Vol. 51, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1995. 45-67 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This paper proposes to construct, for India, a two-regional life table, considering two regions viz., rural and urban. Such a table provides information on the probabilities of survivorship and migration, as well as life expectancy by age, region and place of birth and in particular information on: (1) The probability that an individual living in a rural area at age x will be living in an urban area at age y. (2) Life expectancy at birth in a rural area, and the number of years on average this individual may live in an urban area. The aim here is to compare and contrast rural to urban and urban to rural migration probabilities by sex and age for the years 1971, 1981 and 1991, and provide the underlying reasons. Region-specific life expectancy is also compared for these years."
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Duke University, Department of Sociology, Durham, NC 27708-0088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20156 Ng, Edward; Gentleman, Jane F. The impact of estimation method and population adjustment on Canadian life table estimates. [Incidence de la méthode d'estimation et de la correction de la population sur les estimations tirées des tables de mortalité canadiennes.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1995. 15-22 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"Abridged life tables centered on 1991 were produced from the 1991 Canadian census, net census undercoverage estimates, and death data from 1990 to 1992. The sensitivity of life table values to differing methods of estimation and population estimates was investigated. The results from four methods by Greville, Chiang, and Keyfitz were compared, and population estimates, both adjusted and unadjusted for net census undercoverage, were used to test the effects of method and type of population estimate on life table values. The results indicate that the method used to derive the estimates had much less influence on the life table values than did the choice of population estimate."
Correspondence: E. Ng, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20157 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). Vital statistics of the United States, 1992. Volume II, Section 6. Life tables. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 96-1104. ISBN 0-16-048039-6. Apr 1996. 20 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Life table data are presented for the United States. The data concern abridged life tables, numbers of survivors by age, and life expectancy for 1992; life tables by race and sex, 1900-1992; and estimated average length of life by race and sex, 1900-1992.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20158 Zaba, Basia; Paes, Neir. An alternative procedure for fitting relational model life tables. Genus, Vol. 51, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1995. 19-43 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The paper considers the problem of fitting a relational model life table to mortality data which does not include reliable estimates of infant and child mortality. This type of data could arise from indirect estimation of adult mortality using orphanhood or widowhood, or from adjustment of incomplete registration data using growth balance methods in a population recently de-stabilized by falls in fertility. The proposed fitting technique can give equal weight to all the age specific mortality risk information available, rather than giving more weight to the information for younger ages, as is the case with the traditional method. An application to Brazilian data is presented."
Correspondence: B. Zaba, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

62:20159 Appels, A.; Bosma, H.; Grabauskas, V.; Gostautas, A.; Sturmans, F. Self-rated health and mortality in a Lithuanian and a Dutch population. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 5, Mar 1996. 681-9 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between individuals' poor self-evaluation of their health and mortality is analyzed using data on 2,452 Lithuanian and 3,365 Dutch males aged 45-60 who had originally been screened for cardiovascular risk factors in 1973 and had subsequently been followed up for about ten years. "In both cohorts a negative evaluation of one's health was associated with mortality, controlling for past or present heart disease, cardiovascular risk factors, parental life span, socio-economic and marital status. Especially the data with regard to the comparative question indicate that self-rated health is associated with mortality in men living in two different socio-cultural systems. The data suggest that a weak sense of mastery may explain the association between health perception and mortality."
Correspondence: A. Appels, University of Limburg, Department of Medical Psychology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20160 Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; White, Ian R.; Marmot, Michael. Does the variation in the socioeconomic characteristics of an area affect mortality? British Medical Journal, Vol. 312, No. 7037, Apr 20, 1996. 1,013-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This article examines whether the risk of mortality in a geographical area is related to the degree of socioeconomic variation within that area as well as to the average level of deprivation. The authors use data from the 1981 census of England and mortality data for the period 1981-1985. "Our results confirm a strong gradient in mortality related to deprivation, together with a positive association between degree of variation within an area and increased mortality (P<0.001). These results support the hypothesis that variations in income contribute an additional effect on mortality over the effect of deprivation alone."
Correspondence: Y. Ben-Shlomo, University College London Medical School, International Centre for Health and Society, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20161 Biaye, Mady. Sexual inequalities concerning children's health, morbidity, and mortality in three West African countries: explanatory hypotheses, methods, and research. [Inégalités sexuelles en matière de santé, de morbidité et de mortalité dans l'enfance dans trois pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest: hyothèses, mesures et recherche d'explication des mécanismes.] Institut de Démographie, Serie Démographie, Monographie, No. 5, ISBN 2-87209-371-0. 1994. xi, 292 pp. Academia: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
In this doctoral dissertation, mortality differentials by sex are examined for three West African countries: Liberia, Mali, and Senegal. Data are from three Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in the late 1980s. The focus is on the sociocultural causes of excessive female mortality in what are predominantly patriarchal societies with a strong preference for male children. The author concludes that excessive female mortality is caused primarily by preventive and therapeutic actions taken by parents, rather than by differences in the nutrition and feeding of boys and girls.
Correspondence: Academia-Erasme, 25 Grand Rue, Boite 115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20162 Bobak, Martin; Marmot, Michael. East-West mortality divide and its potential explanations: proposed research agenda. British Medical Journal, Vol. 312, No. 7028, Feb 17, 1996. 421-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"There is a sharp divide in mortality between eastern and western Europe, which has largely developed over the past three decades and is caused mainly by chronic diseases in adulthood. The difference in life expectancy at birth between the best and worst European countries...is more than 10 years for both sexes....The contributions of medical care and pollution are likely to be modest; health behaviour, diet, and alcohol consumption seem to be more important; smoking seems to have the largest impact. There is also evidence that psychosocial factors are less favourable in eastern Europe. Available data show socioeconomic gradients in all cause mortality within eastern European countries similar to those in the West. Determinants of the mortality gap between eastern and western Europe are probably related to the contrast in their social environments...."
Correspondence: M. Bobak, University College London Medical School, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20163 Buettner, Thomas. Sex differentials in old-age mortality. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 39, 1995. 18-44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines levels and trends of sex differentials in life expectancy at older ages for 29 developed countries. Significant sex differentials in life expectancy among the elderly have been found--but no common trend among countries....The article concludes that it is necessary to draw more attention to old-age mortality, and to sex differentials in particular, since the size and relative weight of the elderly segment of the population continues to grow. Also, it seems to be necessary to include specific goals for old-age mortality in national health strategies aimed at reducing overall mortality and narrowing inequalities between social groups."
Correspondence: T. Buettner, UN Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, Estimates and Projections Section, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20164 Congdon, Peter. Life table analysis for areas using vital register data. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1995. 343-69 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study considers the utility of parameterised life tables derived by survival analysis for comparing mortality between areas, using death registration records and accompanying information on the social characteristics for each individual deceased. Such methods enable a comparison of summary measures of mortality experience such as life expectancy and median age at death before and after adjustment for socio-economic variables. In the absence of comparable information on the survivor population an approximate life table method is investigated as a means of comparing mortality profiles and the effects of social factors. Such factors may pertain both to the individuals (e.g. their birthplace) or to their small area of residence (e.g. measures of area deprivation). These methods also permit a comparison of the impact of socio-economic factors on different causes of death. The application is to mortality in London over the period 1990-92 and to its constituent boroughs and electoral wards."
Correspondence: P. Congdon, University of London, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Department of Geography, 327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20165 Drever, Frances; Whitehead, Margaret. Mortality in regions and local authority districts in the 1990s: exploring the relationship with deprivation. Population Trends, No. 82, Winter 1995. 19-26 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Regional and local authority patterns of mortality in England and Wales for both males and females are presented for the latest available years (1989-93)....Using a modified form of the Department of Environment's 1991 deprivation index, mortality in more than 350 English local authorities in 1989-93 was analysed to study the interaction between socio-economic and geographic variables. There is a very strong relationship between mortality and deprivation at the local authority level measured by this new index, with a tendency for higher mortality to be associated with greater deprivation. This relationship is most marked for males, but is still strong for females."
Correspondence: F. Drever, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Health Statistics, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20166 Fordyce, E. James. Urban mortality--race or place? Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 77, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1996. 2-10 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Several concomitant trends have occurred in American society in the 20th century. First, life expectancy has improved overall, and the gap between blacks and whites has narrowed. Second, as the nature of the economy has changed from rural agrarian to urban postindustrial, there have been fundamental changes in population residential patterns, with most Americans now living in metropolitan areas. Within metropolitan areas, blacks have become concentrated in poor inner cities as whites have moved to the more affluent suburbs. Black mortality rates are higher in big cities than elsewhere, and appear to be directly related to the proportion of blacks in those cities. Black-white mortality ratios, however, are lower in cities of medium size than in either very large or small cities."
Correspondence: E. J. Fordyce, New York City Department of Health, Office of AIDS Surveillance, 346 Broadway, Room 706, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20167 Kaplan, George A.; Pamuk, Elsie R.; Lynch, John W.; Cohen, Richard D.; Balfour, Jennifer L. Inequality in income and mortality in the United States: analysis of mortality and potential pathways. British Medical Journal, Vol. 312, No. 7037, Apr 20, 1996. 999-1,003 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This paper analyzes the relations between variations in income distribution in the United States and a variety of health outcomes, including variations in mortality by age. The data used are from the period 1980-1991. The authors conclude that "variations between states in the inequality of the distribution of income are significantly associated with variations between states in a large number of health outcomes and social indicators and with mortality trends. These differences parallel relative investments in human and social capital. Economic policies that influence income and wealth inequality may have an important impact on the health of countries."
Correspondence: G. A. Kaplan, California Department of Health Services, Human Population Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94704. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20168 Kark, Jeremy D.; Shemi, Galia; Friedlander, Yechiel; Martin, Oz; Manor, Orly; Blondheim, S. H. Does religious observance promote health? Mortality in secular vs religious kibbutzim in Israel. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 3, Mar 1996. 341-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study assessed the association of Jewish religious observance with mortality by comparing religious and secular kibbutzim [in Israel]. Mortality was considerably higher in secular kibbutzim....The lower mortality in religious kibbutzim was consistent for all major causes of death." The data concern 3,900 men and women living in 11 religious and 11 secular kibbutzim between 1970 and 1985.
Correspondence: J. D. Kark, Hadassah University Hospital, Department of Social Medicine, Ein Karem, Jerusalem 91010, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20169 Kennedy, Bruce P.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Prothrow-Stith, Deborah. Income distribution and mortality: cross sectional ecological study of the Robin Hood index in the United States. British Medical Journal, Vol. 312, No. 7037, Apr 20, 1996. 1,004-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Data from the 1990 U.S. census and other sources are used to determine the effect of income inequalities on all-cause and cause-specific mortality, using both the Robin Hood index and the Gini coefficient. The results indicate that "variations between states in the inequality of income were associated with increased mortality from several causes. The size of the gap between the wealthy and less well off--as distinct from the absolute standard of living [among] the poor--seems to matter in its own right. The findings suggest that policies that deal with the growing inequalities in income distribution may have an important impact on the health of the population."
Correspondence: B. P. Kennedy, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20170 Langford, Ian H.; Bentham, Graham. Regional variations in mortality rates in England and Wales: an analysis using multi-level modelling. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 6, Mar 1996. 897-908 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Mortality rates in England and Wales display a persistent regional pattern indicating generally poorer health in the North and West....This study attempts to establish the magnitude of such independent regional differences in mortality rates by using the techniques of multi-level modelling. Standardized mortality rates (SMRs) for males and females under 65 for 1989-91 in local authority districts are grouped into categories using the ACORN classification scheme. The Townsend Index is included as a measure of social deprivation. Using a cross-classified multi-level model, it is shown that region accounts for approximately four times more variation in SMRs than is explained by the ACORN classification. Analysis of diagnostic residuals [shows] a clear North-South divide in excess mortality when both regional and socio-economic classification of districts are modelled simultaneously, a possibility allowed for by the use of a multi-level model."
Correspondence: I. H. Langford, University of East Anglia, School of Environmental Sciences, Health Policy and Practice Unit, Norwich NR4 7TJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20171 Laourou, H. Martin. Differential mortality according to region of residence in Benin. [Mortalité différentielle selon la région de résidence au Bénin.] Genus, Vol. 51, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1995. 69-93 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita.
"The first mortality tables of Benin elaborated by direct estimation for the whole country deal with relatively different regional realities. It is in this regard that the data, whether it is death from multiround surveys or information about survival of parents, allows one to distinguish between the North (with a higher mortality) and the South (which has a lower mortality). Moreover, this differential study reveals that the level of male adult mortality after 35 years in the South, is well above the national average, probably because of the increase in deaths through violence (road accident or victim of a fire) in this part of Benin....The originality of this study is to have highlighted the mortality differentials at almost all age groups of life...."
Correspondence: H. M. Laourou, Institut National de la Statistique et de l'Analyse Economique du Bénin, B.P. 323, Cotonou, Benin. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20172 Morris, J. N.; Blane, D. B.; White, I. R. Levels of mortality, education, and social conditions in the 107 local education authority areas of England. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 50, No. 1, Feb 1996. 15-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "investigate the relationships between education, social conditions, and mortality...[using data for] England and its 107 local education authority areas in 1991....Educational attainment was closely associated with all cause, coronary, and infant mortality and strongly associated with the index of local conditions. This social index was also closely associated with all the measures of mortality....Area levels of both educational attainment and deprivation-affluence are strong correlates of local mortality rates in England. In these analyses educational attainment may be indexing the general cultural level of a community. Preliminary investigation with these ecological data suggests that deprivation-affluence has the stronger association but a surer assessment of their relative importance will require individual level information."
Correspondence: J. N. Morris, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Health Promotion Sciences Unit, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20173 Stout, Nancy A.; Jenkins, E. Lynn; Pizatella, Timothy J. Occupational injury mortality rates in the United States: changes from 1980 to 1989. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 1, Jan 1996. 73-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Changes in occupational injury mortality rates over the 1980s were examined through analysis of the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system. The U.S. occupational injury mortality rate decreased 37% over the decade, with decreases seen in nearly every demographic and employment sector. Greater declines were among men, Blacks, and younger workers, as well as among agricultural, trade, and service workers. Electrocutions, machine-related incidents, and homicides showed the greatest decreases."
Correspondence: N. A. Stout, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Safety Research, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505-2845. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20174 Tabutin, Dominique; Willems, Michel. Excess female child mortality in the developing world during the 1970s and 1980s. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 39, 1995. 45-78 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"How did...excess female child mortality evolve from the 1970s to the 1980s, during a period when mortality declined significantly? Is there a relationship between the intensity of the phenomenon and levels of mortality or certain social development indicators? These are some of the questions which the article discusses on the basis of reliable and comparable data taken from approximately 60 [developing] countries."
Correspondence: D. Tabutin, Université Catholique de Louvain, CIDEP, Place de l'Université 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20175 Watt, Graham C. M. All together now: why social deprivation matters to everyone. British Medical Journal, Vol. 312, No. 7037, Apr 20, 1996. 1,026-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author considers the growing body of evidence of the relationship between socioeconomic inequalities and differential mortality in the United Kingdom and examines the reasons for the lack of action taken. He points out the need for doctors to become more involved in a public debate on this issue. He suggests that "there is a crying need to improve public and professional understanding of the links between health, education, and economic policy and the consequences for everyone of the increasing social and economic exclusion of a substantial proportion of the population."
Correspondence: G. C. M. Watt, University of Glasgow, Woodside Health Centre, Glasgow G20 7LR, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

62:20176 Anderson, H. Ross; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Bland, J. Martin; Bower, Jonathan S.; Strachan, David P. Air pollution and daily mortality in London: 1987-92. British Medical Journal, Vol. 312, No. 7032, Mar 16, 1996. 665-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This study investigates "whether outdoor air pollution levels in London influence daily mortality....[It uses] Poisson regression analysis of daily counts of deaths, with adjustment for effects of secular trend, seasonal and other cyclical factors, day of the week, holidays, influenza epidemic, temperature, humidity, and autocorrelation, from April 1987 to March 1992....[The authors conclude that] ozone levels (same day) were associated with a significant increase in all cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality....Black smoke concentrations on the previous day were significantly associated with all cause mortality, and this effect was also greater in the warm season and was independent of the effects of other pollutants....Significant but smaller and less consistent effects were also observed for nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. [Thus,] daily variations in air pollution within the range currently occurring in London may have an adverse effect on daily mortality."
Correspondence: H. R. Anderson, Saint George's Hospital Medical School, Department of Public Health Sciences, London SW17 ORE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20177 Bender, Deborah; Santander, Ana; Balderrama, Aurora; Arce, Alfredo; Medina, Rosario. Transforming the process of service delivery to reduce maternal mortality in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 6, Nov 1995. 52-9 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Maternal mortality is a problem of considerable magnitude yet it still receives inadequate attention in developing countries. Recently, increased attention has been given to preventing maternal mortality through innovative programmes of service delivery, in which success is usually measured by outcomes such as changes in the ratio of maternal mortality/morbidity or an increase in use of health services, without looking at the actual process of service delivery. This paper presents a model of participative management as a means of changing the process of maternal health care delivery. It was developed as part of Proyecto MADRE, a community-based reproductive health project in Cochabamba, Bolivia."
Correspondence: A. Santander, University of San Simon, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20178 Bongaarts, John. Global trends in AIDS mortality. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 80, 1995. 37 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"A set of projections of the annual number of AIDS cases and AIDS deaths from 1995 to 2005 for each of the world's major regions is presented. The epidemic is expected to continue to grow rapidly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In contrast, in North America and Europe the annual number of new AIDS cases is projected to level off in the next few years. The effect of the epidemic on the death rate will be highest in sub-Saharan Africa, but population growth in this region will remain high."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20179 Burgio, Alessandra; Frova, Luisa. Mortality projections by cause of death: extrapolation of trends or age-period-cohort model. [Projections de mortalité par cause de décès: extrapolation tendancielle ou modele age-periode-cohorte.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1995. 1,031-51 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"An age-cohort model is used to project mortality from specific causes and the results are compared with those from a more determinist method of analyzing time series, based on an adjustment of period data by analytic functions. This method is applied to Italian statistics for those aged 60 and older....First, results from a projection for 1971-1986 based on death rates between 1951 and 1986 were compared with actual data. The death rate was then projected to 2020, on the basis of rates for the period 1951-1986. The results and theoretical considerations clearly show the strengths and weaknesses of the two methods of projection used."
Correspondence: A. Burgio, Ministerio della Sanità, Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20180 Collins, Veronica R.; Dowse, Gary K.; Cabealawa, Sereima; Ram, Parshu; Zimmet, Paul Z. High mortality from cardiovascular disease and analysis of risk factors in Indian and Melanesian Fijians. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1996. 59-69 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Here we report 11-year all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates and risk factors for total, CVD [cardiovascular disease] and coronary heart disease (CHD) for indigenous Melanesian and Asian Indian people of Fiji....Following a baseline risk factor survey in 1980, mortality surveillance continued until 1991 in a representative cohort of 1,325 Melanesians and 1,221 Indians from urban and rural areas of Fiji....Total mortality rates in Melanesians were 15.9 and 9.2/1,000 person-years, and in Indians were 13.5 and 6.8/1,000 person-years, in men and women respectively. Death due to CHD was more common in men than women, and in Indian than Melanesian men, although total CVD deaths were more common in Melanesian men. Deaths due to CHD were more common in the urban than the rural area. After adjusting for other risk factors Indian ethnicity was associated with a significantly reduced risk of total and CVD mortality in men, and total mortality in women....Cardiovascular disease is now responsible for a large proportion of total mortality in both Indian and Melanesian Fijians. The major risk factors identified in Fijians are similar to those observed in developed populations."
Correspondence: V. R. Collins, International Diabetes Institute, 260 Kooyong Road, Caulfield South, 3162 Victoria, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20181 Devaraj, K.; Kulkarni, P. M.; Krishnamoorthy, S. An indirect method to estimate maternal mortality ratio: a proposal and a first approximation. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 127-31 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors "use infant mortality rate and total fertility rate to estimate maternal mortality ratio....The regression equation developed to estimate MMR [maternal mortality ratios] from IMR [infant mortality rates] indicates a reasonably high level of precision in predicting MMR (i.e. 64 percent of variation explained) in spite of low quality of input data. The results may, therefore, be considered only as a first approximation."
Correspondence: K. Devaraj, Gandhigram Institute for Rural Health and Family Welfare Trust, Ambathurai R. S., Tamil Nadu 624 309, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20182 Fawcus, S.; Mbizvo, M. T.; Lindmark, G.; Nystrom, L. A community based investigation of causes of maternal mortality in rural and urban Zimbabwe. Central African Journal of Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 4, 1995. 105-13 pp. Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
"Most data on maternal mortality in Zimbabwe has been urban hospital based. Using a network of informants and sensitized health workers an attempt was made to identify and investigate all maternal deaths in rural Masvingo and urban Harare over a two year period. The present report discusses place of death and the medical causes in both populations....This community based study revealed higher maternal mortality rates (MMR) than conventional statistics, especially in the rural area where deaths occurred at home or in transit. In the rural area the MMR was higher and the leading cause of death was hemorrhage, compared to eclampsia in the urban area. Strategies to reduce maternal deaths should include factors both within and outside health service structures."
Correspondence: S. Fawcus, Grooteschuur Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20183 Gaizauskiené, Aldona; Westerling, Ragnar. A comparison of avoidable mortality in Lithuania and Sweden 1971-1990. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 24, No. 6, Dec 1995. 1,124-31 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this study is to examine the possibility of comparing data on avoidable mortality in Lithuania with Sweden and, when realistic, to compare avoidable mortality rates between Lithuania and Sweden....Comparisons were made for the time period 1971-1990....In the age group 5-64 years in 1971-1975 the total mortality in Lithuania was 60% higher than that in Sweden. In 1986-1990 this gap had increased to 90%. For most avoidable death indicators the difference was even greater, i.e. the death rate in Lithuania was several times higher than that in Sweden....The results indicate potential fields for improvement of the health care system in Lithuania. The importance of implementing international classification systems for epidemiological surveillance of the outcome of health care is stressed."
Correspondence: A. Gaizauskiené, Ministry of Health, Lithuanian Health Information Centre, Tilto 13, 2001 Vilnius, Lithuania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20184 Giles, Graham G.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Burton, Robert C.; Staples, Margaret P.; Thursfield, Vicky J. Has mortality from melanoma stopped rising in Australia? Analysis of trends between 1931 and 1994. British Medical Journal, Vol. 312, No. 7039, May 4, 1996. 1,121-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in mortality from melanoma in Australia are described over the period 1931 to 1994. The results suggest that "melanoma mortality in Australia peaked in about 1985 and has now plateaued. On the basis of trends in cohorts it can be expected to fall in coming years."
Correspondence: G. G. Giles, Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria, Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Carlton South, Victoria 3053, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20185 Hionidou, Violetta. The demography of a Greek famine: Mykonos, 1941-1942. Continuity and Change, Vol. 10, No. 2, Aug 1995. 279-99 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"This article examines the demographic characteristics of the famine that occurred in 1941-1942 on the Greek island of Mykonos; it deals with the case of an acute famine that took place within the restricted space of an island, where social disruption was minimal....In the first [section], the series of events that led to the famine are presented....In the second section, the scale of excess mortality, its distribution among occupational groups and the short-term evolution of fertility and nuptiality during the famine will be examined. The last section is concerned with the differential effect of the famine on levels of mortality by age and sex. The reported causes of death are also examined. Finally, the conclusions summarize the main findings."
Correspondence: V. Hionidou, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20186 Hoyert, Donna L. Mortality trends for Alzheimer's disease, 1979-91. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 20: Data from the National Vital Statistics System, No. 28, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 96-1856. ISBN 0-8406-0511-0. LC 95-50806. Jan 1996. iv, 23 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents basic data on Alzheimer's disease mortality [in the United States] between 1979-91....The purpose of this report is to describe trends for this cause of death by age, race, and sex; to describe geographic differentials; to discuss Alzheimer's disease as a multiple cause of death; and to present mortality data on the other dementing conditions. Data are shown for all ages, but as this condition primarily affects the older population, patterns for those 65 years of age and older are emphasized."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20187 Iribarren, Carlos; Sharp, Dan; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sun, Ping; Dwyer, James H. Association of serum total cholesterol with coronary disease and all-cause mortality: multivariate correction for bias due to measurement error. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 143, No. 5, Mar 1, 1996. 463-71 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors examined the impact of measurement error in the association between total serum cholesterol and 16-year coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 6,137 middle-aged men of Japanese descent in the Honolulu Heart Program (1973-1988). A Cox regression model that enables modeling of survival time with correction for measurement errors in multiple covariates was employed. After controlling [for various factors]...a difference of one standard deviation...in total cholesterol was associated with a significant increase in the risk of coronary disease death....After correction for measurement errors in total cholesterol and covariates (except smoking and age), the estimated hazard ratio increased to 1.65 (a 22% increase)....The authors conclude that the impact of elevated total cholesterol on the risk of coronary disease and all-cause mortality may be greater than previously estimated with standard methods of analysis. In addition, the correction for measurement error in total cholesterol and covariates did not explain the excess mortality associated with low total cholesterol."
Correspondence: J. H. Dwyer, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Institute for Prevention Research, 1540 Alcazar Street, CHP 205, Los Angeles, CA 90033. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20188 Johnson, Jeffrey V.; Stewart, Walter; Hall, Ellen M.; Fredlund, Peeter; Theorell, Tores. Long-term psychosocial work environment and cardiovascular mortality among Swedish men. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 3, Mar 1996. 324-31 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The physical effects of aspects of work organization in Sweden are explored using data on a sample of 12,517 individuals. The data were drawn from official surveys carried out between 1977 and 1981 and followed up for 14 years. The results indicate that long-term exposure to such psychosocial factors as low levels of work control in the work place is associated with increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease.
Correspondence: J. V. Johnson, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Science, Room 706, 624 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20189 Levi, F.; La Vecchia, C.; Lucchini, F.; Negri, E; Boyle, P. Patterns of childhood cancer mortality: America, Asia and Oceania. Vol. 31, No. 5, 1995. 771-82 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Age-standardised mortality rates for childhood cancers for the calendar period 1950-1989 were reviewed for 22 countries (Canada, U.S.A., 10 Latin American countries or territories, Egypt, seven countries or territories from Asia, Australia and New Zealand) using data from the World Health Organization database....Over the last three decades, the decline in childhood cancer mortality has been over 50% in the U.S.A. and Canada, corresponding to the avoidance of over 2,000 deaths per year in the U.S.A. alone. Comparable declines were observed only in Puerto Rico, and in other developed countries of the world, such as Australia, Israel and Japan, and, to a lesser extent, New Zealand. The pattern was, however, much less favourable in other areas of the world for which data on childhood cancer were available, including South America and a few countries from Asia."
Correspondence: F. Levi, Institut Universitaire de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Registre Vaudois des Tumeurs, CHUV Falaises 1, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20190 Meslé, France; Shkolnikov, Vladimir; Hertrich, Véronique; Vallin, Jacques. Recent trends in causes of death in Russia, 1965-1993. [Tendances récentes de la mortalité par cause en Russie, 1965-1993.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 50, Dec 1995. 68 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the first report in a planned series that will examine recent trends in causes of death in the various countries that constituted the former Soviet Union. This report is concerned with the situation in Russia and has chapters on trends in life expectancy and in age-specific mortality, the collection and quality of mortality data, the reconstruction of series of cause-of-death statistics with constant definitions, and trends in causes of death.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20191 Prati, Sabrina. A method of analysis and interpretation of concurrent risks of cause-specific mortality. [Une methode d'analyse et d'interpretation des risques concurrents de mortalité par cause.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1995. 1,013-30 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"All individuals during their lifetimes are exposed to mortality from different causes, which are competing risks. Several statistical models have attempted to deal with this problem, but most start with the easier hypothesis that the risks are independent of each other....In [some] cases, it is preferable to introduce individual factors into the analysis (e.g. bio-physiological characteristics or lifestyles). These factors can be used to predict overall mortality rates or those for some major causes of death. A logistic model was applied to individual data obtained from a long-term longitudinal study. A vector of probabilities (one for every possible cause) was estimated for each individual. Various issues relating to competing mortality risks from different causes may be approached from a new angle."
Correspondence: S. Prati, Università degli Studi di Roma la Sapienza, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20192 Ranganathan, H. N.; Rode, P. P. On a method of estimating level of maternal mortality in rural India from limited data. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 133-42 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"A simple methodology is presented in this paper which can be profitably used to ascertain the MMR [maternal mortality rate] annually in India as well as various states for rural areas by utilising the limited data available at present....The MMR ascertained from the methodology compares well with those of independent studies not only at the national level but also at subnational levels and this close agreement gives validity to data sources utilized in the methodology. The methodology has many advantages. In the first place, MMR can be ascertained annually. Second, the MMR can be known not only at the national level but also at the state level. Third, no funds are necessary for estimating the MMR as the methodology makes use of the available data."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20193 Rehm, Jürgen; Sempos, Christopher T. Alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. Addiction, Vol. 90, No. 4, Apr 1995. 471-98 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Based on a large U.S. representative cohort with detailed baseline interview and examination data, the relationship between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality is examined over a period of 15 years follow-up. Results show a significant linear relationship for females and males under 60 years of age at baseline, and a non-significant U-shape for the older ones. Both results remain stable for different kinds of adjustment including adjustment for nutritional variables and smoking. Excluding people with heart disease history at baseline leads to an even more pronounced linear relationship for both males and females under 60 years of age. Furthermore, it is shown that the curvilinear relationship for men found in previous research is partly due to the age groups examined." Comments are included (pp. 481-93) by Peter Anderson, John C. Duffy, Roberta Ferrence and Lynn T. Kozlowski, A. G. Shaper, Ole-Jørgen Skog, and Maurizio Trevisan. A reply by Rehm and Sempos is also included (pp. 493-98).
Correspondence: J. Rehm, Addiction Research Foundation, Social Evaluation and Research, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2S1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20194 Salinas, Manuel; Vega, Jeanette. The effect of outdoor air pollution on mortality risk: an ecological study from Santiago, Chile. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 48, No. 2, 1995. 118-25 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The aim of this ecological study was to investigate the effect of outdoor air pollution on the mortality risk of metropolitan inhabitants in Santiago de Chile. Cause-specific deaths by the day for the years 1988-1991 in Santiago de Chile were extracted from mortality data tapes of the National Center for Statistics. Deaths from accidents were excluded. Total and some specific respiratory diseases deaths were compared calculating the risk of death by municipality and month of the year using age-adjusted standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) controlling for socioeconomic level....A clear pattern in the geographical distribution of risk of death, both for general mortality and specific respiratory causes (pneumonia, [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] and asthma) was found using SMR, with higher values in the most polluted areas regardless of socioeconomic and living conditions. A highly significant positive association was found between total mortality and both fine suspended particles and CO level."
Correspondence: M. Salinas, Catholic University of Chile, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20195 Shkolnikov, Vladimir; Meslé, France; Vallin, Jacques. Health crisis in Russia. I. Recent trends in life expectancy and causes of death from 1970 to 1993. [La crise sanitaire en Russie. I. Tendances récentes de l'espérance de vie et des causes de décès de 1970 a 1993.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1995. 907-43 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Since the mid-1960s, the trend of life expectancy at birth in Russia has differed from...other Western populations....After 1987, the fall in life expectancy continued for both sexes, and even accelerated in 1993....Unpublished data on causes of death have made it possible to construct time series for the period from 1970 to 1993 for deaths classified into the 185 causes in the Soviet classification of causes of death. Increases in the prevalence of cardio-vascular diseases which the health system was unable to treat have contributed to the long-term negative trend. Deaths from violence were responsible for fluctuations towards the end of the 1980s. Finally, the recent fall in life expectancy in 1993 applies to deaths from all causes and is undoubtedly related to the economic crisis in that year which contributed to the disorganization of the health system."
Correspondence: F. Meslé, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20196 Shkolnikov, Vladimir; Meslé, France; Vallin, Jacques. Health crisis in Russia. II. Changes in causes of deaths: a comparison with France and England from 1970 to 1993. [La crise sanitaire en Russie. II. Evolution des causes de décès: comparaison avec la France et l'Angleterre (1970-1993).] Population, Vol. 50, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1995. 945-82 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In order to increase our understanding of the unfavourable trend in Russian mortality after the 1960s, we compare it with the trends in two Western countries, France and England and Wales, for which continuous series of deaths by cause are available for the same period. The increasing gap between Russia and the other two countries is largely due to diverging trends in mortality from cardio-vascular diseases. After 1970, mortality from this group of causes decreased in France and Britain, but increased in Russia. Deaths from violence also contributed to this difference....However, some causes of death are less unfavourable in Russia. Except in 1993, deaths from infectious diseases and from diseases of the respiratory system have declined. Mortality from neoplasms is equal to that in France and England for men, and is lower for women."
Correspondence: F. Meslé, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20197 Surault, Pierre. Changing patterns in suicide in France. [Variations sur les variations du suicide en France.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1995. 983-1,012 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Between 1950 and 1990 movements in the suicide rate [in France] differed by sex, age, and period. In particular, suicide by young people increased steadily after World War II. The higher suicide rate recorded during the 1960s spread to all age groups between 1976 and the middle 1980s, when the trend was reversed in all generations. The unexpected and poorly documented break during the mid 1980s appears to be a period effect. Hypothetical explanations for these movements have suggested a renewal of social bonds, and more specifically a strengthening of family ties which had been under strain since the 1960s, improvements in medical and psychiatric services for the most vulnerable, and changed social and economic conditions, e.g. massive unemployment, insecurity, greater social inequalities and early exclusion from the labour market."
Correspondence: P. Surault, Université de Poitiers, Faculté de Sciences Economiques, 15 rue de Blossac, 86034 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20198 Sytkowski, Pamela A.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Belanger, Albert; Kannel, William B. Sex and time trends in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality: the Framingham Heart Study, 1950-1989. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 143, No. 4, Feb 15, 1996. 338-50 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present study was to describe sex and time differences in 20-year cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality among women and men in the Framingham Study [Massachusetts] and to relate these to secular trends and sex differences in cardiovascular risk factors." The results suggest that "more than half of the 51% decline in coronary heart disease mortality observed in women between 1950 and 1989 and one third to one half of the 44% decline observed in men could be attributed to improvements in risk factors in the 1970 cohorts."
Correspondence: P. A. Sytkowski, Boston University, Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Consulting Unit, Framingham Heart Study, 111 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20199 Tardon, A. G.; Zaplana, J.; Hernandez, R.; Cueto, A. Usefulness of the codification of multiple causes of death in mortality statistics. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 24, No. 6, Dec 1995. 1,132-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this work was to carry out a comparative study of the mortality statistics by coding of multiple causes with those of selection and coding of underlying cause in order to be able to identify the diseases that the official mortality statistics have underestimated (selection of underlying cause)." A sample of 595 death certificates in Asturias, Spain, was analyzed for the year 1988. "More than 80% of the certificates studied contained more than one cause of death. Chronic diseases are those which are accompanied by a greater number of causes and acute diseases those which appear alone. The highest ratios appear for diseases which are ill defined and also in those which are chronic....Our data show that information is lost in the production of the statistics of mortality and there are repercussions for the usefulness of these statistics."
Correspondence: A. G. Tardon, Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, c/Julian Clavería s/n, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20200 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Update: mortality attributable to HIV infection among persons aged 25-44 years--United States, 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 45, No. 6, Feb 16, 1996. 121-5 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report updates [U.S.] trends in deaths caused by HIV infection in 1994, which continue to increase....Rates were calculated using midyear U.S. population estimates based on decennial census data compiled by the U.S. Bureau of the Census....In 1994, an estimated 41,930 U.S. residents died from HIV infection, a 9% increase over the estimated 38,500 in 1993; of these, 3% were aged <25 years; 72% [were aged] 25-44 years; and 25% [were aged] >45 years. HIV infection was the eighth leading cause of death overall, accounting for 2% of all deaths. Among persons aged 25-44 years, HIV infection was the leading cause of death and accounted for 19% of deaths in this age group."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, AIDS Clearinghouse, P.O. Box 6003, Rockville, MD 20849-6003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20201 van Loon, A. Jeanne M.; Brug, Johannes; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A. Differences in cancer incidence and mortality among socioeconomic groups. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1995. 110-20 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this article studies on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and [cancer incidence and mortality] at different sites are reviewed....The review is restricted to studies conducted in affluent societies, after 1970. Only studies using income, education and/or occupation as SES indicators are included....A more or less consistent positive association between SES and cancer risk was found for colon and breast cancer. More or less consistent inverse associations were found for lung, stomach, oropharyngeal and esophageal cancer. Inconsistent associations were reported for cancer of the rectum and pancreas. Possible explanations for SES differences in cancer risk are discussed with special emphasis on lifestyle variables related to cancer risk....It is concluded that it is still unclear whether the reported associations can be (partially) attributed to the lifestyle related risk factors for cancer such as smoking, nutritional habits, drinking habits and reproductive factors."
Correspondence: A. J. M. van Loon, University of Limburg, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20202 Westerling, Ragnar. Systematic small-area variation in mortality for malignant neoplasms in Sweden 1975-1990. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 24, No. 6, Dec 1995. 1,086-93 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The variation in total and cause-specific cancer mortality among health administrative areas in Sweden was analysed in order to find out if the mortality outcome has been equally distributed....Data on underlying causes of death for ages 0-74 years were analysed for the 26 health administrative areas in Sweden, 1975-1990....The systematic variance for all malignant neoplasms was reduced by about 40% during the study period. The largest systematic variations in mortality were found for cancer of the oesophagus and lung....Large systematic variation was also found for cancer of the cervix uteri and of the bladder....Generally speaking, the outcome of cancer has become more equally distributed across the country. Preventive measures should be possible for the malignant neoplasms with the largest regional variation."
Correspondence: R. Westerling, Uppsala University, Department of Social Medicine, Akademiska Sjukhuset, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20203 Wilmoth, John R. Are mortality projections always more pessimistic when disaggregated by cause of death? Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1995. 293-319, 377 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"It is often observed that mortality projections are more pessimistic when disaggregated by cause of death. This article explores the generality and strength of this relationship under a variety of forecasting models. First, a simple measure of the pessimism inherent in cause-based mortality forecasts is derived. Second, it is shown that the pessimism of cause-based forecasts can be approximated using only data on the distribution of deaths by cause in two pervious time periods. Third, using Japanese mortality data during 1951-1990, the analysis demonstrates that the pessimism of cause-based forecasts can be attributed mainly to observed trends in mortality due to cancer and heart disease, with smaller contribution due to trends in stroke (women only), pneumonia/bronchitis, accidents, and suicide. The last point requires the important qualification, however, that observed trends in cancer and heart disease may be severely biased due to changes in diagnostic practice."
Correspondence: J. R. Wilmoth, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720-2120. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20204 Writer, James V.; DeFraites, Robert F.; Brundage, John F. Comparative mortality among U.S. military personnel in the Persian Gulf region and worldwide during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 275, No. 2, Jan 10, 1996. 118-21 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors examine cause-specific mortality rates among U.S. troops stationed in the Persian Gulf region and make comparisons with the rates among U.S. troops serving in other areas during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. They conclude that "except for deaths from unintentional injury, U.S. troops in the Persian Gulf region did not experience significantly higher mortality rates than U.S. troops serving elsewhere. There were no clusters of unexplained deaths. The number and circumstances of nonbattle deaths among Persian Gulf troops were typical for the U.S. military population."
Correspondence: J. V. Writer, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Division of Preventive Medicine, Washington, D.C. 20307-5100. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:20205 Wunsch, Guillaume; Thiltges, Evelyne. Reorder the disorder: disturbance and standardization variables. [Une confusion standardisée: variables confondantes et standardisation.] Genus, Vol. 51, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1995. 27-59 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita.
"Spatial variations in crude death rates by cause-of-death may result among others from differences in the age structures of the populations of the regions and/or from the small numbers of deaths at certain ages or for certain cause-of-death. This paper addresses, on the one hand, the issue of controlling the impact of age structures (or of confounding factors, generally speaking) and, on the other hand, that of the chance variations in the results of the various standardization methods. Standardization is considered here from the viewpoint of causal modelling: controlling for age structures is a special case of controlling for confounding variables when using aggregate data. From this point of view, we have evaluated and compared the different standardization techniques and their ability to control for confounding factors. The construction of significance tests and confidence intervals has been pursued in order to evaluate the methods from the point of view of the statistical robustness of the standardized indices."
Correspondence: G. Wunsch, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Collège Jacques Leclercq, 1 place Montesquieu, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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