Volume 62 - Number 2 - Summer 1996

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

62:20056 Appleby, Stephen. Multifractal characterization of the distribution pattern of the human population. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 28, No. 2, Apr 1996. 147-60 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"The generalized entropy, calculated from the quadrat counts of the population of the United States and Great Britain, is plotted against the logarithm of the quadrat size. These graphs are linear over a range of scales that corresponds to the size of a city up to the size of the country. This linearity indicates a strong scale-invariant component to the spatial population distribution pattern. Measurements of the generalized q-dimensions and alpha spectrum of the spatial population distribution patterns estimated from these graphs are presented."
Correspondence: S. Appleby, British Telecom Laboratories, Systems Research Unit, London, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:20057 Giroir, Guillaume. Population, cultivated lands, and development in China: the case of Shandong Province. [Population, superficie cultivée et développement en Chine: le cas du Shandong.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2, 1995. 219-30 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Through the case of the Shandong Province, this study aims at developing a critical analysis of some classic models concerning Chinese population geography. Some maps, based on the ratio rural densities/cultivated areas, show Shandong as being a [significantly] anomalous province, with respect to the usual contrast between overpopulated plains and unpeopled uplands....The notion of saturation of cultivated areas, as well as that of overpopulation, more generally, the neo-Malthusian principle, are thrown back into question. Lastly, it appears that [the] local development level is only slightly determined by demographic [pressure]."
Correspondence: G. Giroir, 9 rue Albert 1er, 45000 Orleans, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20058 Spasovski, Milena. Density and distribution of population in FR of Yugoslavia. Yugoslav Survey, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1994. 3-20 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng.
Population trends in Yugoslavia, consisting of the republics of Serbia and Macedonia, are analyzed over the period 1948-1991. The focus is on changes in spatial distribution, density, and concentration. The author notes a trend toward the concentration of population in urban areas and the increasing depopulation of the more remote rural areas.
Correspondence: M. Spasovski, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Geografski Fakultet PMF, Studentski trg 1, 11001 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

62:20059 Bose, Ashish; Shanbhogue, Suresh; Bist, Mohan S. India's urban population: 1991 census data. States, districts, cities and towns. ISBN 81-85814-19-8. 1994. xiv, 495 pp. Wheeler Publishing: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This book provides quick and ready access to the 1991 census data. It presents a set of 27 key tables on India's urbanisation, based on the provisional results of the 1991 census. A separate section is devoted to each state or union territory, and the relevant data at the district, city and town level are presented in a simplified manner for ready reference."
Correspondence: A. H. Wheeler, 411 Surya Kiran, 19 K.G. Marg, New Delhi 110 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20060 Cawley, Mary. Town population change in the Republic of Ireland: the need for an urban policy review. Regional Studies, Vol. 30, No. 1, Feb 1996. 85-9 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article argues for the adoption of a co-ordinated urban planning policy in the Republic of Ireland where towns now accommodate 64% of the total population. A review of trends in town population change for the years 1986-91 suggests that the ad hoc approach to planning urban employment and service provision that exists currently is inadequate to prevent major disparities in population distribution becoming exacerbated between large and small settlements and between regions within the state. These disparities are the result in part of fundamental economic restructuring which is related to international trends but they also reflect the gradual withdrawal by the Irish Government from regional planning from the mid-1980s on. By way of introduction to the discussion of the empirical evidence, an earlier phase of Irish urban and employment planning is reviewed briefly."
Correspondence: M. Cawley, University College, Department of Geography, Galway, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:20061 Fuchs, Roland J.; Brennan, Ellen; Chamie, Joseph; Lo, Fu-chen; Uitto, Juha I. Mega-city growth and the future. ISBN 92-808-0820-6. 1994. vii, 428 pp. United Nations University Press: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The turn of the twenty-first century will mark a divide from a predominantly rural world to one where the majority of people will be living in cities. By the year 2000 there will be more than 400 cities in the world with over 1 million inhabitants. Of these, 28 will be mega-cities with populations exceeding 8 million, and two-thirds of these mega-cities will be in the developing countries....[This book examines] a range of issues related to the mega-city phenomenon. Part one deals with the growth of mega-cities and explores demographic issues, labor force change in the big cities of Asia, the effects of macroeconomic forces on the world city system, and the relations between technology and the city. In part two the discussion focuses on the economic and social consequences of mega-city growth. Part three looks at the crucial issue of the management of mega-cities, taking up such issues as infrastructure financing, land and shelter needs, transportation, and environmental management. The final chapter examines priority urban management issues in developing countries and derives a research agenda for the 1990s."
Correspondence: United Nations University Press, 53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:20062 Geyer, Hermanus. Expanding the theoretical foundation of differential urbanization. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 87, No. 1, 1996. 44-59 pp. Utrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Recently, the concept of differential urbanization was introduced. It conceptually links the processes of urbanization, polarization reversal, and counterurbanization across the development spectrum in the First and Third Worlds. Based on supporting evidence in developed and less developed countries, this study expands the theoretical foundation of the concept by first focusing on a graphical analysis of the processes of urbanization, polarization reversal, and counterurbanization. Secondly, it looks into the explanations given for counterurbanization. Thirdly, factors likely to influence post-counterurban migration trends are discussed, and finally, the relevance of certain causes of differential urbanization given in the literature are explored."
Correspondence: H. Geyer, Potchefstroom University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20063 Gihula, Terence J. Metropolitan population growth and distribution in the American South, 1970-1990. Southeastern Geographer, Vol. 34, No. 2, Nov 1994. 108-24 pp. Athens, Georgia. In Eng.
"Southern Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) are rated among the nation's leaders in [U.S.] population growth in recent decades. Growth and rankings of MSAs are examined using Pannell's (1974) method. A linear rank-size pattern of cities is revealed, with centers of greatest population growing larger while smaller centers follow with proportionally smaller population changes. A regression model provided some support for the contention that city sizes affect city growth rates. Additional factors in southern metropolitan growth and decline were considered. Introduction of a labor cost factor into the regression model provided moderate support in accounting for variation in MSA growth rates. Several MSAs grew at rates predicted by the regression model while others performed differently than expected. Explanations for variations are presented for selected MSAs."
Correspondence: T. J. Gihula, University of Tennessee, Department of Geography, Knoxville, TN 37996-1420. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:20064 Graizbord, Boris. The urban anthropology of middle-sized cities. [Antropología urbana de las ciudades medias.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 2, May-Aug 1994. 277-501 pp. El Colegio de México: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The focus of this issue is on urban development and growth in Mexico. Articles are included on the appeal of medium-sized cities; the study of urban communities; historic patterns of urbanization; domestic units in a regional urban system; regional development policy; socio-geographic urban segregation; and anthropology of industrial cities.
Correspondence: El Colegio de México, Departamento de Publicaciones, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20065 Heller, Daniel. Trade restrictions, migration, and economic geography. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Revue Suisse d'Economie Politique et de Statistique/Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 131, No. 3, Sep 1995. 535-46 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"This paper investigates why Third World cities have been growing in the last several decades much more quickly than cities in industrialized countries. For this purpose, we develop a Krugman-type model of economic geography with two continents, North and South, each of which consisting of two regions, East and West. We study the impact different levels of transport costs and tariffs exert on the distribution of economic activities among the regions. We find that lower costs for transport between the regions in the South, for instance, induced by an improved infrastructure, as well as lower tariffs on intercontinental trade tend to lead to less concentrated economies."
Correspondence: D. Heller, Swiss National Bank, 8022 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20066 Larivière, Jean-Pierre. Urbanization in China. [L'urbanisation en Chine.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2, 1995. 249-58 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre.
Four aspects of current urbanization trends in China are analyzed in this article. They are changes over time, differences among provinces, the recent acceleration in the pace of urbanization, and attempts to control migration through policy measures.
Correspondence: J.-P. Larivière, Université de Rennes 2, 6 avenue Gaston Berger, 35043 Rennes Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20067 Lilja, Sven. The geography of urbanization--Sweden and Finland, c. 1570-1770. Scandinavian Economic History Review, Vol. 42, No. 3, 1994. 235-56 pp. Lund, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this article Swedish urbanization is considered as a long term growth cycle. The urban system expanded both geographically and demographically during the seventeenth century. Many new towns were founded, and urban growth rates were generally high. Swedish urban geography was characterized by peripheral expansion mainly towards northern Sweden. At the same time there was a strong tendency towards the centralization of urban resources....During the eighteenth century several of the seventeenth century trends were reversed: the centralising tendency ended and indeed regressed, while general urban growth slowed down....Stockholm became a `stagnation metropolis' and the eastern-central part of Sweden experienced an urban setback relative to western Sweden, where several towns, including Gothenburg, profited from their close connections with the expansive markets of northern and western Europe."
Correspondence: S. Lilja, Stockholm University, Department of History, Institute of Urban History, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20068 Mills, Edwin S.; Lubuele, Laun' S. Projecting growth of metropolitan areas. Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 37, No. 3, May 1995. 344-60 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper is about the determinants of growth of [U.S.] metropolitan areas (MSAs)." The authors review and evaluate the relevant literature.
Correspondence: E. S. Mills, Northwestern University, Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Department of Finance, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20069 Pannell, Clifton W.; Hu, Xueqiang; Luo, Yu; Leppman, Elizabeth J. Special issue: Chinese cities and urbanization I. Urban Geography, Vol. 16, No. 6, 1995. 467-559 pp. V. H. Winston and Son: Palm Beach, Florida. Distributed by Bellwether Publishing. In Eng.
This is the first of two special issues devoted to urbanization in China. "The seven papers in these two special issues examine and discuss a few, but by no means all, of the salient and significant themes associated with China's extraordinary urbanization and city development. These papers also enhance and clarify our understanding of the processes of urban growth and change."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Bellwether Publishing, 8640 Guilford Road, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20070 Simon, Patrick. The renewal of the Parisian population between 1975 and 1990. [Le renouvellement de la population parisienne entre 1975 et 1990.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1995. 1,235-45 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Results of a survey on residential mobility in Paris undertaken in 1992 are presented. Information is presented both on moves within the urban region and on migration to the city from the rest of France and from abroad. A general trend toward greater stability is noted.
Correspondence: P. Simon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20071 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division (New York, New York). The challenge of urbanization: the world's largest cities. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/151, Pub. Order No. E.96.XIII.4. ISBN 92-1-151301-4. 1995. ix, 290 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present publication concentrates on city problems and special city planning issues of the world's large cities, pinpointing their demographic characteristics, economic structure, available social services and infrastructure, as well as current issues facing the city planners....Contained in this volume are profiles of 100 of the world's large cities, including three cities each in China and India, two each from a number of large countries with several large urban centres...and one each from a large number of the remaining countries."
Correspondence: UN Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20072 Warf, Barney; Erickson, Rodney. Globalization and the U.S. city system. Urban Geography, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 126 pp. V. H. Winston and Son: Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
This special issue contains six articles that examine how the process of globalization has affected specific cities in the United States. The cities discussed are Miami, Dallas/Fort Worth, San Francisco, Minneapolis-St. Paul, and Portland (Oregon). Significant differences in the timing, degree, and nature of globalization among these cities are noted.
Correspondence: Bellwether Publishing, 8640 Guilford Road, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20073 Xu, Xueqiang; Ouyang, Nanjiang; Zhou, Chunshan. The changing urban system of China: new developments since 1978. Urban Geography, Vol. 16, No. 6, 1995. 493-504 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"The city-size structure and spatial distribution of the urban system reflect socioeconomic development and its spatial distribution. By tracking the development of the urban system, we can not only monitor the development of the society, but also reveal problems in the process of development and thereby provide a basis for policymaking....Since 1978 a series of new policies has been introduced, including rural reform, urban reform, establishment of the socialist market system, the opening to the outside world, and emphasis on the development of the coastal region of China. All have contributed to China's emergence as the most rapidly growing economy in the world and have dramatically changed its economic structure and pattern of regional development....This paper focuses on new trends in China's urban system between 1978 and 1990 and their relationships with economic development during this period."
Correspondence: X. Xu, Zhongshan University, Center for Urban and Regional Studies, Guangzhou 510275, China. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20074 Yan, Xiaopei. Chinese urban geography since the late 1970s. Urban Geography, Vol. 16, No. 6, 1995. 469-92 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"Economic reforms and the opening of China to the outside world beginning in the late 1970s have provided the impetus for increased research in urban geography. Major research themes have included urbanization (including rural to urban migration and control of city size), national and regional urban systems, and urban morphology and internal spatial structure. Topics for further investigation in the future should include the effects of a land market, urban sprawl, and the problems resulting from the shift to a market-oriented economy."
Correspondence: X. Yan, Zhongshan University, Department of Geography, Guangzhou 510275, China. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

62:20075 Eberhardt, Piotr. Distribution and dynamics of rural population in Central Eastern Europe in the 20th century. Geographia Polonica, No. 63, 1994. 75-94 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
This is an analysis of rural population trends in Central Eastern Europe during the twentieth century. The region is defined as including "Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Kaliningrad District, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Moldavia, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia....For each of them the size of rural population and its density have been evaluated, and then, the dynamics of demographic evolution described. An important part of the analysis has been the comparison of rural population to total population. On the basis of this comparison, structural changes and demographic trends have been defined. Particular attention has been paid to the processes of depopulation as well as their range and intensity in rural areas of Central Eastern Europe."
Correspondence: P. Eberhardt, Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN, ul. Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20076 Rola-Kunach, Stefania. Demographic processes in rural areas. [Procesy demograficzne na obszarach wiejskich.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 40, No. 10, Oct 1995. 33-8 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Population trends in the rural areas of Poland are analyzed over the period 1975-1993. The data are presented separately on natural increase by province. The author notes that the population in rural areas is declining, while the population in urban areas continues to grow.
Correspondence: S. Rola-Kunach, Glowny Urzad Statystyczny, Al. Niepodleglosci 208, 00-925 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1996-1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.