Volume 62 - Number 2 - Summer 1996

A. General Population Studies and Theories

Works of a general and comprehensive nature. Studies that are limited to well-defined problems of demography are cited under the relevant topic and are cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

A.1. General Population

Global population studies.

A.1.1. General Population--Long Studies

Comprehensive, book-length surveys of the present status of demography and its principal branches, including the historical development of these studies, analytical studies of demography as a whole, and global population studies.

62:20001 Diamond, Irene. Fertile ground: women, earth, and the limits of control. ISBN 0-8070-6772-5. LC 93-39064. 1994. xi, 202 pp. Beacon Press: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
In this book, the author questions much of the modern feminist approach to issues concerning reproduction and sexuality. In particular, she suggests that Western feminism leans toward technological solutions to the problems that women face in the modern world, and toward women's achieving control of those technologies. Instead, she maintains that the solutions to contemporary global problems in the area of sexual behavior, reproduction, fertility control, and food production have to be found in the context of resolving the world's ecological problems as a whole. "Throughout this book the politics of fertility--from the development of birth control movements in the United States and the state's involvement in family planning to the commodification and standardization of human procreation and food production across the globe--provides a concrete, theoretically rich touchstone for examining both the difficulties of feminism's dominant position regarding women's bodies and the environmental movement's dominant position regarding the deleterious impact of human numbers."
Correspondence: Beacon Press, 25 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108-2892. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20002 Eberstadt, Nicholas. The tyranny of numbers: mismeasurement and misrule. ISBN 0-8447-3763-1. LC 92-4238. 1995. xxii, 305 pp. AEI Press: Washington, D.C. Distributed by AEI Press, c/o Publisher Resources, 1224 Heil Quaker Boulevard, P.O. Box 7001, La Vergne, TN 37086-7001. Distributed outside the U.S. by Eurospan, 3 Henrietta Street, London WC2E 8LU, England. In Eng.
This book contains a selection of studies, many of which have been previously published elsewhere by the author. They illustrate aspects of one main theme: that modern governments increasingly base the development of social and economic policies on the official statistics they gather, and that, in many cases, these statistics are fundamentally flawed. Topics covered include the paradox of continuing poverty in the United States; the U.S. levels of infant mortality in an international perspective; health, nutrition, and literacy under Communism; the decline in health in Eastern Europe; demographic factors in the former Soviet Union; the CIA's assessment of the Soviet economy; poverty in South Africa; the world food problem; global investment and industrialization; global debt; and world population trends and U.S. security.
Correspondence: AEI Press, 1150 17th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

A.1.2. General Population--Short Studies

Short (fewer than 100 pages), general works on population and global population studies. Items on activities of research institutions in demography are also included.

62:20003 Hampl, Martin; Pavlík, Zdenek. Problems of the global population development and/or development of global problems of mankind. Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1993. 3-14 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng. with sum. in Cze.
The authors discuss problems related to global population development. They focus on rapid population growth, population policy, optimum population, and social structures and processes.
Correspondence: M. Hampl, Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20004 Hartmann, Betsy. Population fictions: the Malthusians are back in town. Dollars and Sense, No. 195, Sep-Oct 1994. 14-7, 37 pp. Somerville, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author discusses various misrepresentations of the impact of population growth throughout the world. The focus is on differences and similarities in consumption patterns, growth, and environmental degradation in developed and developing countries.
Correspondence: B. Hartmann, Hampshire College, Population and Development Program, Amherst, MA 01002. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20005 Keyfitz, Nathan. Generation replacement in a period of change. [Le remplacement des générations dans une période de transition.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1995. 1,639-57 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This article discusses the consequences of the current economic revolution, which involves the globalization of markets by computers. The author considers the impact this revolution will have on the future of the family, particularly as it affects education and employment. He also challenges demographers to take the lead in the social sciences in analyzing the consequences of these changes for the next generation.
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20006 Sagrera, Martin. Population crisis. ISBN 84-404-7822-4. 1995. 72 pp. Editorial Fundamentos: Madrid, Spain. In Eng.
This is a general introduction to the problems posed by global population growth. The author includes chapters on current demographic trends, demographic aging, sexuality, religion, and abortion, and discusses the reasons for the position taken by the Roman Catholic Church against birth control.
Correspondence: Editorial Fundamentos, Caracas 15, 28010 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20007 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Global population assistance report, 1993. 7th ed. ISBN 0-89714-275-6. [1995]. 59 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report provides information on global assistance for population activities for the year 1993. It is based on a survey carried out in September 1994. Information is included on primary donor countries, multilateral assistance, and nongovernmental agencies, as well as on the recipient countries. The data are given for each year from 1984 to 1993.
For a previous report concerning 1992, see 61:10007.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.2. Population Theory

Discussions of the main principles of demography and population theory not applied to actual data, including such concepts as Malthusianism, the demographic transition, overpopulation, optimum population, and stable and stationary population models as distinct from methodological studies and models using data, which are classified under N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models .

62:20008 Broome, John. The value of life and the value of population. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 1, Feb 1996. 3-18 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper first distinguishes structured and unstructured approaches to valuing life. The unstructured approach bases its valuations on people's raw preferences, whereas the structured approach imposes a theoretical framework about the structure of value. The paper recommends the structured approach. This opens the way to considering the value of adding people to the population. The paper examines a common intuition that adding people is not in itself valuable, and explains the difficulties this intuition encounters."
Correspondence: J. Broome, University of Bristol, Department of Philosophy, 9 Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1TB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20009 Carey, Arlen D.; Lopreato, Joseph. The evolutionary demography of the fertility-mortality quasi-equilibrium. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, Sep 1995. 613-30, 706-7, 708-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Our general contention here is that population dynamics can be grasped more fully from a deeply historical perspective. We argue against the tendency to emphasize the recent demographic transition to the near exclusion of the quasi-equilibrium between fertility and mortality that appears to have characterized most of the human past....First, we attempt to identify the normal shape of the relationship between fertility and mortality in human evolution. Next, we seek to explain the relationship through an evolutionary-ecological approach that addresses demographic phenomena in a holistic manner...; our reliance here is predominantly on `life history theory' and a multifaceted argument conveniently termed a `two-child psychology.' Finally, we briefly examine a number of cultural factors that are related to demographic transitions and that help to explain demographic variation."
Correspondence: A. D. Carey, University of Central Florida, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Orlando, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20010 Dean, Russell. Owenism and the Malthusian population question, 1815-1835. History of Political Economy, Vol. 27, No. 3, Fall 1995. 579-97 pp. Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
"The population theory of T. R. Malthus (the idea that population increase outstrips the means of subsistence) was the source of several significant debates in the early nineteenth century....The major critics of Malthusian population theory and, more widely, classical political economy/ists in this period included the British proto-socialists, the Owenites....This article has highlighted the inadequacy of the historiography that has characterized the relationship between a homogeneous Owenism and Malthusianism/political economy as simply one of mutual enmity....There were claims and counterclaims from some Owenites and political economists through the 1820s and 1830s, of a loss of difference between the two discourses, claims of an abandoning of positions, and a convergence on the Malthusianism issue. By 1835, this convergence appeared more tangible, with the desertion of Malthusianism by many leading political economists. For some Owenites and political economists therefore, though by no means all, `Malthusianism' had ceased to be the site of important differences between the two discourses."
Correspondence: R. Dean, Murdoch University, School of Social Sciences, History Program, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20011 Hunt, Charles W. Social vs. biological: theories on the transmission of AIDS in Africa. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 9, May 1996. 1,283-96 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"There are fundamental differences in the epidemiological patterns of AIDS in Africa and the United States. A number of theories have been advanced to explain these differences. These theories may be divided into two basic approaches, theories based upon biological explanations and theories based upon social explanations....The present article critically examines these biological and social theories. It argues that the biological theories lack scientific support, lack sufficient evidential support, have an inequality of cause and effect, and fail to integrate the micro/macro. This article argues that the social theories also have some major difficulties including, in some cases, a failure to integrate the micro/macro and a lack of adequate or sufficient causation to produce the massive epidemic of AIDS in Africa."
Correspondence: C. W. Hunt, University of Utah, Department of Sociology, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20012 Rothschild, Emma. Social security and laissez faire in eighteenth-century political economy. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 4, Dec 1995. 711-44, 921, 923 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The article describes two contrasting developments of Adam Smith's ideas. Condorcet, following Turgot's reforms of the 1770s, described a theory of social equality based on free competition, public instruction, and social security, and proposed a system of social insurance establishments. Malthus in his Essay on Population criticized Condorcet's ideal of social security, arguing that social insurance would reduce industry and lead to increased population. The conflict over fear versus confidence as incentives to industry was of central importance to subsequent disputes in political economy. These disputes are enlightening, it is suggested, for modern problems. They cast doubt, first, on the presumption that social security is inimical to economic development. Second, while they provide some support for the modern view that social security tends to reduce fertility, they suggest that this effect is associated more generally with social and political equality. Third, they suggest that the politics of laissez faire is compatible with criticism both of government and of powerful corporate and local institutions."
Correspondence: E. Rothschild, University of Cambridge, King's College, Centre for History and Economics, Cambridge CB2 1ST, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20013 Smith, Claire E.; Smith, Joseph W. Economics, ecology and entropy: the second law of thermodynamics and the limits to growth. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 4, Mar 1996. 309-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The second law of thermodynamics has played an important role in ecological economics as providing a justification for the view that economies have limits to growth. Yet beyond basic [textbook] statements of this law, we seldom find informed philosophical examinations of the meaning and metaphysical justification for the second law. In this paper we shall examine some challenges which have been made to the limits to growth (Limitationist) position by those criticizing the scope and application of the second law of thermodynamics and we shall in turn defend Limitationism against these criticisms."
Correspondence: J. W. Smith, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20014 Wunsch, Guillaume. "God has chosen to give the easy problems to the physicists": or why demographers need theory. Institut de Démographie Working Paper, No. 179, ISBN 2-87209-414-8. Mar 1995. 24 pp. Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng.
"Good explanations of the causes and consequences of population trends require theories taking account of both the micro and the macro levels, of individuals and society. Multi-level theories cannot therefore be based on a rationality principle which would be firmly grounded at the individual level only....Demographic theories...have to tell us how and why society influences individual behaviors concerning birth, death, and migration, but also how and why individual behaviors are themselves organised into higher-level social conducts. In other words, population theories must integrate individual behavior and social structure."
Correspondence: Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.3. Interrelations with Other Disciplines

Interdisciplinary studies of demographic problems and studies of the interaction of demography with other disciplines. This coding is also used for reports, studies, and surveys from other disciplines that include information of demographic interest.

No citations in this issue.

A.4. Textbooks and Teaching Programs

Major demographic textbooks and teaching aids, general surveys and collections of readings that are particularly suitable as supplements to coursework, studies on the organization and coverage of training programs in demography, and selected items on population education.

62:20015 Loudon, Nancy; Glasier, Anna; Gebbie, Ailsa. Handbook of family planning and reproductive health care. 3rd ed. ISBN 0-443-05157-7. 1995. xii, 462 pp. Churchill Livingstone: New York, New York/Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
"This is a practical handbook for daily reference by those working in family planning. It provides up to date coverage of all aspects of family planning and in this third edition its scope has been extended to women's reproductive health." The book is intended primarily for those providing family planning services in the United Kingdom. It consists of 17 chapters by different authors on the various methods of contraception available. Chapters are also included on family planning services and training, factors influencing contraceptive choice, emergency postcoital contraception, induced abortion, legal and ethical aspects of family planning, screening and reproductive health, sexually transmitted diseases, sexuality and family planning, gynecological problems, menopause, and contraception of the future.
Correspondence: Churchill Livingstone, 650 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20016 Pressat, Roland. The basics of mathematical demography. [Eleménts de démographie mathématique.] ISBN 2-9509356-0-5. 1995. xi, 279 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a textbook intended to introduce French-speaking students to the concepts of mathematical demography. Topics covered include life tables, nuptiality tables, fertility tables, interference between phenomena, population models, stable populations, population replacement, longitudinal analysis, and birth intervals.
Correspondence: Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20017 Racioppi, Filomena. Professional demography and training opportunities: a survey among Italian demographers. [Demografia professionale e opportunità formative: un'indagine tra i demografi italiani.] Materiali di Studi e di Ricerche, No. 9, Jan 1996. 15 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
The activities and orientations of 54 academic demographers in Italy are analyzed, with reference to the potential for working in professional fields outside the university. Comparisons are made with the United States, where the subdiscipline of Applied Demography has evolved.
Correspondence: Università degli Studi di Roma la Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20018 Rogers, Andrei. Multiregional demography: principles, methods and extensions. ISBN 0-471-95892-1. 1995. xi, 236 pp. John Wiley and Sons: Chichester, England. In Eng.
This study is designed as a textbook on multiregional demography that combines and updates the author's previous work on this subject. "This book...is an exposition of some of the mathematics of multiregional population systems. It is designed for the reader who is familiar with the mathematics of uniregional demographic analysis and is primarily intended to be a reference work for mathematically inclined demographers, sociologists, geographers, economists, and regional planners." Particular attention is paid to the analysis of migration and its contribution to projections of the growth and distribution of multiregional population systems. The concepts are illustrated with observed data from many different countries.
Correspondence: John Wiley and Sons, Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20019 Vandeschrick, Christophe. Demographic analysis. [Analyse démographique.] Population et Développement, No. 1, ISBN 2-87209-416-4. 1995. 183 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France; Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Développement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This book is intended to introduce readers to the reasons for undertaking demographic analysis and to the methods of such analysis. The emphasis is on the ways in which demographers approach problems of demographic analysis rather than on the actual methods that they use. The objective is not to train demographers in analytical techniques, but to enable the reader to understand the demographic concepts under discussion. Separate consideration is given to Lexis diagrams; the analysis of fertility, mortality, spatial mobility, and population growth; and the analysis of age and sex distribution and sex ratios.
Correspondence: Academia-Bruylant, 25 Grand Rue, Boite 115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20020 Vidal, Annie. Demography: the basics of analysis and population dynamics. [Démographie: eléments d'analyse et évolution du peuplement humain.] L'Economie en Plus, ISBN 2-7061-0558-5. 1994. 154 pp. Presses Universitaires de Grenoble: Grenoble, France. In Fre.
This is a basic introduction to the concepts and methods of demography. There are chapters on data sources and the collection of data; the methods commonly used by demographers; the analysis of mortality, fertility, nuptiality, and migration data; population characteristics, change, and reproduction; and the growth of the human population.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, B.P. 47, 38040 Grenoble Cedex 9, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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