Volume 62 - Number 1 - Spring 1996

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

62:10715 Belgium. Institut National de Statistique (Brussels, Belgium). International Conference on Population and Development 1994: national report submitted by the Belgian government. In: Population and family in the low countries 1994: selected current issues, edited by Hans van den Brekel and Fred Deven. 1995. 231-56 pp. Kluwer Academic: Norwell, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This report presents information on population and development in Belgium. Sections are included on past, current, and future trends; outlines of policy, planning, and programs; and international cooperation on population.
Correspondence: Institut National de Statistique, 44 rue de Louvain, Centre Albert, 8e etage, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10716 Benitez Zenteno, Raul; Ramirez Rodriguez, Eva G. The politics of population in Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. [Politicas de poblacion en Centroamerica, el Caribe y Mexico.] ISBN 968-6605-07-X. Jul 1994. 595 pp. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Programa Latinoamericano de Actividades en Poblacion: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This collection of papers results from a conference on the politics of population in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean, held in April 1991 in Antigua, Guatemala. The works are organized into sections on theoretical perspectives; the context of population politics; the need for demographic awareness; and human resources, information, and socio-demographic research. Results of a roundtable on population politics and human development are also included.
Correspondence: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Programa Latinoamericano de Actividades en Poblacion, Torre de Humanidades II, 9o Piso, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10717 Cook, R. J.; Plata, M. I. Women's reproductive rights. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1994. 215-20 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The authors review women's reproductive rights, with a focus on the need for national and international laws that will protect women's rights.
Correspondence: R. J. Cook, University of Toronto, Faculty of Law, 78 Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2C5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10718 Elliott, Ward. Why the EPA should stop ignoring population growth. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 2, Nov 1995. 151-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author recommends that the Environmental Protection Agency should consider the threat of population growth in the United States as part of a Federal Implementation Plan for California.
Correspondence: W. Elliott, Claremont McKenna College, Department of Government, Pitzer Hall, 850 North Columbia Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10719 Fabri, Marcel. Institutional aspects of population policy. [Aspects institutionnels des politiques de population.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 25, ISBN 2-87209-381-8. Jun 1995. 130 pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by Academia-Erasme, Grand Rue 25/115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, and in France by L'Harmattan, 7 rue de l'Ecole Polytechnique, 75005 Paris. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Dut; Spa.
The author looks at some institutional aspects of population policy. In particular, he suggests that the very concept of the modern state is part of the European tradition, and that much of the institutional framework in developing countries is essentially a foreign transfer. It is therefore unrealistic to expect that policies in the area of population can be developed and implemented in developing countries in the same way as in the developed world.
Correspondence: Academia-Erasme, Grand Rue 25/115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10720 House, William J. The role and significance of population policies in the Pacific islands. Pacific Health Dialog, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1995. 35-44 pp. Auckland, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper portrays the extensively diverse social, economic and demographic conditions in the Pacific, the underdeveloped state of [the] economies [of countries in the region] and the equally underdeveloped data and knowledge bases available to population and development planners for policy-making and implementation. To illustrate the difficulties of formulating comprehensive, multisectoral population policies and implementing and monitoring their varied strategies, a case study of the Solomon Islands is presented. From this case study the paper ends on a positive and optimistic note. The Solomon Islands is about to launch a major new initiative which has the potential to correct past mistakes and to redesign a multisectoral population policy."
Correspondence: W. J. House, United Nations Population Fund/CST, G.P.O. Box 441, Suva, Fiji. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10721 Kant, Surya. Urban development policy in India with special reference to Himachal Pradesh. Population Geography, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1993. 29-40 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"The paper addresses itself to such questions as: (i) what have been the government policies, programmes and perceptions dominating [the] urban development scenario in India? (ii) what has been the outcome of these policies and programmes of urban development? and (iii) what should be the strategy of future urban development with reference to [the] Indian hill state of Himachal Pradesh? The paper critically evaluates the Indian ethos pertaining to [the] urbanisation process, urban development policies pursued in the Five Year Plans, the current thinking on urbanisation and the main issues in urban development."
Correspondence: S. Kant, Panjab University, Department of Geography, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10722 Netherlands. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Voorburg, Netherlands). International Conference on Population and Development 1994: national report submitted by the Netherlands' government. In: Population and family in the low countries 1994: selected current issues, edited by Hans van den Brekel and Fred Deven. 1995. 257-92 pp. Kluwer Academic: Norwell, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This report describes current and future demographic trends and population related policies in the Netherlands, and indicates priorities for future action." Sections are included on demographic trends and perspectives; the population policy and program framework; and international cooperation in population.
Correspondence: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Prinses Beatrixlaan 428, Postbus 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

62:10723 Nobile, Annunziata. The population policy of the Fascist government in the European context. [La politique demographique du gouvernement fasciste dans le contexte europeen.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 5, No. 4, Dec 1994. 37-75 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author describes the development of population policy in Italy. The focus is on the Fascist regime of Mussolini in the period between the two world wars in the context of demographic trends in Europe at that time. The pronatalist period (1927-1937) is analyzed first; during this period, the dictator attempted to use Italian demographic trends as an instrument of foreign policy. This involved measures against contraception, abortion, urbanization, and celibacy, as well as efforts to encourage larger families. The author then proceeds to show how the relative failure of these policies, coupled with the example of racial policies being developed in Nazi Germany, led to the development in Italy of policies that combined pronatalism with measures to improve the supposed `quality' as well as the quantity of the population. The impact of these policies is considered.
Correspondence: A. Nobile, Universita degli Studi di Roma la Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10724 Walker, James R. The effect of public policies on recent Swedish fertility behavior. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 3, Aug 1995. 223-51 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In the literature the recent upsurge in period birth rates is seen as evidence of a pronatalist effect on Sweden's extensive social insurance programs. Yet, these explanations can not account for the downturn in birth rates in the 1970s, the delay in childbearing, and the constancy of cohort birth rates which characterize recent Swedish fertility behavior. To summarize the effect of Sweden's economic and policy environment on the observed fertility patterns, I use a neoclassical economic framework to develop the shadow price of fertility. Although strong simplifying assumptions are imposed, the estimated price series exhibit a negative relationship with period fertility rates and the change in the estimated relative prices of fertility over the life cycle lends modest support for the delayed childbearing."
Correspondence: J. R. Walker, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

62:10725 Altzinger, Wilfried. How labour market experiences of migrants differ: Australia and Austria compared. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1995. 55-91 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author compares migration policies and their economic impact in Australia and Austria. "The second section of the article presents the framework of Austrian and Australian migration policy....A comparison of the Austrian and Australian Gross Domestic Product (GDP)/unemployment/foreign employment-relationships displays different forms of flexibility. The third section of the article examines some distinctive features of migrants in both countries, including labour force participation, distribution by industry, wage policy and unemployment. The final section is a brief summary and some political reflections."
Correspondence: W. Altzinger, University of Economics and Business Administration, Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10726 Battistella, Graziano. Family reunification: policies and issues. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 1995. 233-50 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"International standards provide for protection of the family as the fundamental unit of society. However, a consequent right to family reunification for migrants is not sanctioned and continues to be resisted. This article reviews the formulation of the possibility for family reunification as provided for in international and regional standards and by migration policies. It argues that family separation, if inherent in some forms of migration, should not be institutionalized by migration policies and that state sovereignty is limited when dealing with human rights. More specifically it argues that labor migration, as currently developing in Asia, will require appropriate family reunification policies, because it will evolve into some form of settlement."
Correspondence: G. Battistella, Scalabrini Migration Center, P.O. Box 10541 Broadway Centrum, 1113 Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10727 Betts, Katharine. The law and the management of Australian immigration. People and Place, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1995. 42-6 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"Two new reports document the growing role of migration advisers, lawyers and the courts in Australian immigration, as well as the conflict between the judiciary and the executive over immigration control. One consequence of this conflict is that some foreigners now have a legal right to immigrate. Foreigners continue to be able to draw on legal aid to enforce this right and the Attorney General's Department does not record the costs."
Correspondence: K. Betts, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 18, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR). Source: `.

62:10728 Birrell, Bob. The 1995-96 migration program. People and Place, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1995. 30-8 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"In May 1995 the [Australian] Government announced an increase in the migration program for 1995-96. The implications for family and skilled migration flows to Australia are explored." Topics considered include family migration; increased migration from China; skilled migration and the Australian labor market; immigration selection since March 1993; and the case of doctors trained overseas.
Correspondence: B. Birrell, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10729 Canada. Citizenship and Immigation Canada (Hull, Canada). A broader vision: immigration plan. 1996 annual report to Parliament. [Une vision elargie: plan en matiere d'immigration. 1996 rapport annuel depose au Parlement.] Pub. Order No. Ci1-1996. ISBN 0-662-62089-5. 1995. i, 26, 26 pp. Hull, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
This is a report on the implementation of Canada's 10-year immigration plan; it includes a focus on the encouragement of immigrants with particular skills and experience, the reunification of families, and the acceptance of a limited number of refugees.
Correspondence: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Public Affairs Branch, Information Centre, Second Level (Commercial), 200 Promenade du Portage, Hull, Quebec K1A 1L1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10730 Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Anne H.; Ehrlich, Paul R. Response to Bartlett and Lytwak (1995): population and immigration policy in the United States. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 6, Jul 1995. 521-37 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors critically examine an article by Albert A. Bartlett and Edward P. Lytwak in which those authors "present a series of alternatives for reaching ZPG [zero populatin growth] in the U.S. immediately." The focus is on which kind of population and immigration policy the United States should have. A response from Lytwak and Bartlett is included (pp. 527-37).
For the article by Bartlett and Lytwak, published in 1995, see 61:30720.
Correspondence: G. C. Daily, University of California, Energy and Resources Group, Building T-4, Room 100, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10731 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Acevedo, Dolores. Migrant cohort size, enforcement effort, and the apprehension of undocumented aliens. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1995. 145-72 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article examines macro-structural conditions that affect time trends in aggregate probabilities of undocumented alien apprehension along the Mexico-U.S. border. We show that the number of migrants attempting to cross the border illegally in a given period and the level of effort expended by the INS to apprehend undocumented migrants are principal determinants of apprehension probabilities. Our findings differ from those in earlier work by Donato, Durand, and Massey who argue that individual, household, and community factors are not significant predictors of apprehension probabilities and conclude that escaping INS detection at the border is essentially a random process unrelated to personal traits or to enforcement provisions of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act....We conclude that...it is worth modeling the effects of individuals' characteristics on apprehension probabilities by including as predictors an estimate of the flow of undocumented migrants and measures of INS border enforcement effort."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10732 Fuchs, Lawrence H. An agenda for tomorrow: immigration policy and ethnic policies. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, No. 530, Nov 1993. 171-86 pp. Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
"Since 1980, the Congress of the United States and three Presidents have vastly expanded immigration, mostly from Asia and Latin America. The expansion, having come as a result of policies enacted in 1980, 1986, and 1990, has stimulated a growing movement for immigration restriction. Even if that movement is partly successful, immigration is likely to continue at high levels, and it is important to pay attention to public policies that will help unify immigrants and their children as Americans. A civic unity policy agenda is suggested for the...Clinton administration that will promote civic unity while protecting ethnic diversity."
Correspondence: L. H. Fuchs, Brandeis University, Department of American Civilization and Politics, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02254-9110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

62:10733 Glytsos, Nicholas P. Problems and policies regarding the socio-economic integration of returnees and foreign workers in Greece. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1995. 155-76 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The integration of repatriating Greek migrants, ethnic Greeks and foreign workers has individual and macroeconomic aspects, both of which must be addressed within a dynamic perspective....This article analyses the problems involved, and the policies and programmes adopted (or the lack of policies), for the integration of incoming workers to the Greek economy. Wherever possible, the suitability and effectiveness of measures taken are evaluated against the experience gained....It may be concluded from this analysis that policies adopted for the integration of various migrant groups to Greece (i.e. Greek migrant returnees, ethnic-Greek foreigners and illegal migrants) lack a central aim, orientation and strategy, as well as a long-term perspective."
Correspondence: N. P. Glytsos, Centre of Planning and Economic Research, Athens, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10734 Green, Alan G.; Green, David A. Canadian immigration policy: the effectiveness of the point system and other instruments. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 28, No. 4b, Nov 1995. 1,006-41 pp. North York, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the effects of changes in Canadian immigration policy on the occupational composition of immigration. We focus on 1967 changes that created a regulatory system, including the point system, that still forms the framework of Canadian immigration policy. We find that the point system provides some control over occupational composition but that its effectiveness in fine tuning is limited by the large number of other characteristics it seeks to control. We also find that entry class and source country composition of inflow have impacts that have swamped the effects of the point system in the last two decades."
Correspondence: A. G. Green, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10735 Marmora, Leilo. Political logic and regional integration. Migration to Latin America. [Logiques politiques et integration regionale. Les migrations en Amerique Latine.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1995. 13-33 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Now that a new international order is widening the gap between the developed and developing countries, new migration policies are being created in Latin America....In the past, migration policies were of three main types: a logic based on the recruitment of labor, a logic based on territorial settlement, and a logic that aimed to secure the protection of existing population. Now that regional economic integration is underway in the three main Latin-American areas (the Andean Countries, Central America, and the Southern Cone), a new logic is emerging. However, the actual strategies for economic integration in each region have only slowly and hesitantly addressed the problem of the free movement of people. Nevertheless, one can identify three objectives of strategies for the circulation of people in the existing schemas. In order of priority they are: security, development of transportation and tourist industries, and regulation of the labor market."
Correspondence: L. Marmora, Organizacion Internacional para las Migraciones, Avenida Callao 1033, piso 3, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10736 Ongley, Patrick; Pearson, David. Post-1945 international migration: New Zealand, Australia and Canada compared. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, Fall 1995. 765-93 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"New Zealand's immigration policies and trends since 1945 are compared with those of Canada and Australia. For most of this period, Australia has pursued the more expansive immigration policy while Canada and New Zealand have tended to link immigration intakes to fluctuations in labor demand. All three countries initially discriminated against non-European immigrants but gradually moved towards nondiscriminatory policies based on similar selection criteria and means of assessment. New Zealand has traditionally been more cautious than both Canada and Australia in terms of how many immigrants it accepted and from what sources, but it has recently followed the other two in raising immigration targets encouraging migration from nontraditional sources, particularly Asian countries. Historical, global and national factors are drawn upon to explain the degree of convergence between these three societies."
Correspondence: P. Ongley, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10737 Ram, Sodhi. A case for internal migration policy in India. Population Geography, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1993. 65-71 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"Most of the studies on migration in India either describe the patterns of migration or analyse reasons [for] the moves. Little attention has been paid to the issue of migration policy. This paper examines the issue focussing on the need for a bi-focal policy on migration which ensures employment opportunities as well as better amenities of life in rural areas and also incorporates planning of cities/city surroundings."
Correspondence: S. Ram, Panjab University, Department of Correspondence Studies, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10738 Thompson, John H.; Weinfeld, Morton. Entry and exit: Canadian immigration policy in context. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 538, Mar 1995. 185-98 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Immigration and the multicultural population that results from it are contentious issues in contemporary Canada....Critics of a liberal immigration policy charge that these newcomers threaten Canada's social harmony and challenge its cultural identity and that the country faces unprecedented economic and security problems because of uncontrolled immigration. Historical and contemporary evidence suggests, however, that the situation is neither unprecedented nor a crisis. Canada needs immigrants for the compelling reasons it has always sought them: for economic growth and to replace population lost by emigration to the United States. By any comparative yardstick, the Canadian experiments in immigration and multiculturalism have been a resounding success."
Correspondence: J. H. Thompson, Duke University, Department of History, Durham, NC 27706. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10739 Ucarer, Emek M. The challenges of migration: the German case. Mediterranean Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 3, Summer 1994. 95-122 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The major aims of this essay are threefold: 1. To provide a background of migration in Germany, highlighting the 1991 German Act Relating to the Status of Aliens....2. To provide the political and sociological backdrop by discussing events complicating the status of aliens....3. To demonstrate the regional and international implications of domestic policies by fitting Germany into the European context."
Correspondence: E. M. Ucarer, University of South Carolina, Richard L. Walker Institute of International Studies, Gambrell Hall, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10740 Widgren, Jonas. Global arrangements to combat trafficking in migrants. Migration World, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1995. 19-25 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article furthers the search for new global arrangements to reinforce bilateral and multilateral cooperation to combat trafficking among governments for a new and sustainable migration order which would diminish the role of irregular movements of people between nations."
Correspondence: J. Widgren, International Centre for Migration Policy Development, Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10741 Woodrow-Lafield, Karen A. An analysis of net immigration in census coverage evaluation. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1995. 173-204 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"First, the paper explicates [U.S.] census evaluation techniques when there are resident undocumented immigrants....Reviewing 1980 and preliminary 1990 census evaluations in the second section, the tenuousness of constructing demographic estimates for the resident population is illuminated....The paper next discusses possible errors in estimating the foreign-born resident population....Setting forth minimum guidelines, defensible ranges are postulated for possible numbers of counted and uncounted undocumented residents, according to various undercoverage levels for the total foreign-born and legally resident foreign-born populations. The final section returns to the question of census undercoverage and the difficulty of preserving an uncounted undocumented component."
Correspondence: K. A. Woodrow-Lafield, 33 Overbrook Road, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458-1928. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.