William J. Integrating population factors in development
planning. Pacific Health Dialog, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1995. 6-16 pp.
Auckland, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper considers social and economic development and some of its component parts. To give substance to the arguments, data for various developed and less developed countries are presented. The Pacific countries' position in these scenarios is given, wherever possible. In conclusion the paper examines a conceptual framework for illustrating the complex interrelationship between population factors and socio-economic development."
Correspondence: W. J. House, United Nations Population Fund/CST, G.P.O. Box 441, Suva, Fiji. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Heidi; House, William J. Population, women and
development. Pacific Health Dialog, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1995. 180
pp. Resource Books: Auckland, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This issue of Pacific Health Dialog examines issues relating to population, women and development as roles are redefined in the context of the new development agenda. Both global and Pacific regional events have addressed these concerns over the past year, and this issue...brings more detail and substance to the recent conferences, meetings, publications and deliberations on these areas."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Resource Books, P.O. Box 28-685, Remuera, Auckland, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Geoffrey. On population growth and revisionism: further
questions. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jun
1995. 307-40, 465-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre;
"Contradicting alarmist accounts, the `revisionist' view of the effects of rapid population growth is that on balance such growth is a fairly neutral factor in economic development. The arguments supporting this view encapsulate much of what modern economics has to say on the topic, as contained in the research summarized in the 1986 U.S. National Academy of Sciences report, Population Growth and Economic Development: Policy Questions, and in a number of studies undertaken subsequently. Yet these conclusions remain controversial. This essay probes the sources of that controversy by asking a series of questions beyond those addressed by the 1986 report. The questions concern the scope of application of the mainline arguments and approaches, potentially relevant issues that have been sidelined, and the framing of the population-growth debate. The resulting discussion points to significant aspects of the population problem that appear to elude economic analysis. The comparisons it calls for are among possible worlds rather than among income differences that a few years' growth could offset."
Correspondence: G. McNicoll, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Swarnjit. Population and development linkages:
perspectives and research tasks. Population Geography, Vol. 15,
No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1993. 23-8 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"This paper argues that the linkages between population and development are far too complex to be understood in a narrow cause-effect frame. It suggests that population policies aiming at lowering of birth rates have succeeded only where certain prerequisites could be created. Focussing on some of the popular perspectives this study indicates research [tasks] and questions which, if pursued seriously, can help in comprehending the multi-dimensionality of population-development relationships."
Correspondence: S. Mehta, Panjab University, Department of Geography, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Bajracharya, Bhishna N. Promoting small towns for
rural development: a view from Nepal. Asia-Pacific Population
Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2, Jun 1995. 27-50 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article attempts to understand the role of small towns in rural development within the context of an area with hilly terrain, severe resource constraints and ethnic diversity. It focuses on the three primary functions of such towns:...market,...employment,...[and] service centres....[The author] first discusses the process pertaining to the growth of small towns in the hill areas of Nepal. Past studies on small towns are then examined as a background for the study. The next section discusses the findings of a case study of a Nepalese town and its surrounding villages....Constraints of...[these] towns in promoting rural development are identified. An outline for a strategy of small town development in Nepal is then proposed...."
Correspondence: B. N. Bajracharya, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, Demography Programme, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
David E.; Mahal, Ajay S. Does the AIDS epidemic really
threaten economic growth? NBER Working Paper, No. 5148, Jun 1995.
28,  pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge,
Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This study examines the claim that the AIDS epidemic will slow the pace of economic growth. We do this by examining the association, across fifty-one developing and industrial countries for which we were able to assemble data, between changes in the prevalence of AIDS and the rate of growth of GDP per capita....Our main finding is that the AIDS epidemic has had an insignificant effect on the growth rate per capita income, with no evidence of reverse causality. We also find evidence that the insignificant effect of AIDS on income per capita is qualitatively similar to an insignificant effect on wages of the Black Death in England and France during the Middle Ages and an insignificant effect on output per-capita of influenza in India during 1918-19."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
Chakravorty, Sanjoy. Equity and the big city.
Economic Geography, Vol. 70, No. 1, Jan 1994. 1-22 pp. Worcester,
Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author attempts to answer two questions: "how does the spatial distribution of population change during the process of development, and how do these changes relate to changes in the size distribution and regional distribution of income. The causal connection between population and income distribution is examined through a simulation model. The theoretical implications of the model's results are empirically examined at several spatial levels: at the national level, with longitudinal data from ten Asian and Latin American nations, and at the regional and subregional levels, with data from Japan, Brazil, and the Philippines. Finally, a multistage model of polarization reversal (with interconnected regional inequality changes) is proposed."
Correspondence: S. Chakravorty, Temple University, Department of Geography and Urban Studies, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
Paul; Horsnell, Paul. The agrarian response to population
growth in Kenya. In: Economic and demographic change in Africa,
edited by Archie Mafeje and Samir Radwan. 1995. 47-62 pp. Clarendon
Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between rural population growth and agricultural development in Kenya is explored. The authors first note that, despite the fact that Kenya has one of the world's highest rates of population growth, there is little evidence of either an existing or impending demographic crisis in which the population will outgrow the ability of the country to provide the necessary food. The focus of the study is on the sources of growth of rural incomes and on the possible effect of population growth on these processes. Data for the study were primarily taken from the 1978 Labour Force Survey and from the 1982 IRS5 Household Survey of Rural Kenya.
Correspondence: P. Collier, University of Oxford, Institute of Economics and Statistics, St. Cross Building, Manor Road, Oxford OX1 3UL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Partha. The population problem: theory and evidence.
Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 33, No. 4, Dec 1995. 1,879-902 pp.
Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the relationships among population growth, poverty, and environmental degradation, with particular focus on the situation in developing countries. The author rejects the concept of a general theory of fertility behavior in favor of an interpretation of these relationships which might be applicable to certain situations in the poorest parts of the Indian subcontinent and Sub-Saharan Africa; such situations include unacceptable risks of maternal death for poor, illiterate women, and a condemnation to extreme poverty in conditions of the deterioration of local resources and of the environment. The author concludes that population growth rates are too high in certain specific areas and that an appropriate policy reaction to such conditions would be to try to change the options that men and women face so that their reasoned choice would be to lower their fertility.
Correspondence: P. Dasgupta, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).
Demetriades, Evros I.; House, William J.; Khoury, Nabil F.;
Matsis, Symeon. Population and human resources development
in Cyprus: research and policy issues. ISBN 92-2-107367-X. 1992.
274 pp. Department of Statistics and Research: Nicosia, Cyprus;
International Labour Organisation, Regional Office for Arab States:
Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This is a selection of studies by various authors on the interactions among population, employment, and socioeconomic development in Cyprus. Following an introductory overview, there are chapters on past demographic trends, future population perspectives, the determinants of fertility and mortality, international migration, the impact of demographic change on social expenditure, the labor market, the position of older workers, education, income distribution, and the female labor force.
Correspondence: Department of Statistics and Research, Nicosia, Cyprus. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:10631 Doan, Peter
L. Population density, urban centrality, and agricultural
intensification in Jordan. Population Research and Policy Review,
Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1995. 29-44 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper explores the relationship between population growth, agricultural production, and urban development....This analysis uses the special case of Jordan with its massive refugee flows to evaluate the influence of a sudden and exogenous change in population in urban areas on the intensification of agricultural production. Spearman Rank Order correlations are calculated from time series data to show that the districts which experienced the most rapid population growth and increases in population density also exhibit the largest increases in agricultural intensity....The results suggest that population density has a strongly positive effect on agricultural intensity in areas with few urban goods and services available, whereas the influence of population density on agricultural intensity is substantially reduced in areas with a greater diversity of urban goods and services."
Correspondence: P. L. Doan, Florida State University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2030. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:10632 Ekanem, Ita
I.; Arowolo, Oladele O. Population and development
planning: an integrated approach. Some lessons for African
countries. ISBN 0-89388-228-3. LC 92-062805. 1994. [xiv], 269 pp.
Third Press Publishers: New Rochelle, New York. In Eng.
This study concerns the integration of demographic factors into development planning, with specific reference to African countries. It deals first with the theoretical aspects of such integration, and then proceeds to examine its operational aspects, such as the development of population policy. The authors examine what has actually been achieved along these lines since the 1970s, both in Africa as a whole and in Nigeria in particular.
Correspondence: Third Press Publishers, Okpaku Communications Corporation, 222 Forest Avenue, New Rochelle, NY 10804. Location: Fordham University Library, Bronx, NY.
Archie; Radwan, Samir. Economic and demographic change in
Africa. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-828892-1.
LC 94-34897. 1995. [ix], 173 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In
Most of the chapters in this volume were originally presented at a seminar on the economic consequences of current demographic trends in Africa, organized by IUSSP's Committee on Economic Consequences of Alternative Demographic Patterns. The seminar was held in Nairobi, Kenya, December 8-11, 1986. The papers represent a mixture of case studies and general surveys, written by both economists and demographers. While no clear theory emerges concerning the relationship between demographic change and economic development, two major conclusions emerge. "The first is that the process of developing factor markets such as labour and capital markets in Africa has been accelerated mainly under the impact of external factors. Land, labour, and credit markets have been emerging and taking shape in different African economies under the impact of the integration of these economies in the international economy. These changes have far-reaching implications for demographic change in Africa. Secondly, the studies highlight the responses of African households to such changes in the wider economy."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Brigitte. Human demography and animal demography in
pastoral societies of the Sahel: towards a better understanding of the
pastoral economy. In: Economic and demographic change in Africa,
edited by Archie Mafeje and Samir Radwan. 1995. 36-46 pp. Clarendon
Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this chapter is to show the relationship between human and animal demography in pastoral societies of the Sahel and the importance of this relationship in understanding the organization of the economy within these societies. The data and observations presented in this analysis are based on recent studies of pastoralism in Africa and on three years' fieldwork conducted between 1983 and 1987 among pastoral communities from the region of Diffa in eastern Niger on the borders with Chad and Nigeria....The purpose of the study was to determine whether the drought in the Sahel caused the herdsmen to change their manner of raising their herds and of using their environment; and, if so how? The hypothesis put forward was that the 1973 drought had simply triggered a crisis that would have occurred sooner or later, since it was produced by a number of factors, many of which were socio-economic."
Correspondence: B. Thebaud, 83 rue Vieille du Temple, 75003 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Mary. Population density, economic growth and societies in
transition: Boserup reconsidered in a Kenyan case-study.
Development and Change, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan 1995. 31-66 pp. Oxford,
England. In Eng.
"In examining the relationship between population growth and income growth, this article first looks at the Malthusian, transition and revisionist positions. The first is not borne out by historical experience, and the latter two do not explain why greater affluence generally leads to lower rates of population growth. It is argued here that the crucial population characteristic is density. Rising densities from a low base facilitate more productive agriculture and greater specialization and exchange within a society, as Boserup (1965) pointed out. This leads to increased wealth but also to higher costs for education and land. This provides a link to Caldwell's (1976) explanation of changing attitudes to family size: at low densities in simple societies benefits from children exceed costs, while at higher densities in complex societies costs exceed benefits. The changes in societies and economies are illustrated by a Kenyan case study. Kenya has experienced particularly rapid population growth this century, and high economic growth; it is now experiencing the transition to lower birth rates."
Correspondence: M. Tiffen, Parsonage House, Tower Hill Road, Crewkerne, Somerset TA18 8BJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Arne; Heilemann, Ullrich; von Loeffelholz, Hans D.
Economic implications of migration into the Federal Republic of
Germany, 1988-1992. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No.
3, Fall 1995. 693-709 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"An analysis of the effects of the last wave of migration into West Germany on labor markets, public finances and economic growth, this study points at the often ignored fact that the migrants were rather successful in finding jobs and thus helped in eliminating labor shortages in certain industries. Simulations with a macroeconometric model for the FRG indicate that in 1992 the GDP was almost 6 percent higher than without migration, that 90,000 jobs were created and that migration created a surplus of DM14 billion in the public sector, compared to the baseline. This study also makes clear, however, that these effects mainly depend on a quick absorption of migrants by FRG labor markets, and as to the social system, the relief may be only transitory."
Correspondence: A. Gieseck, Rheinisch-Westfalisches Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung, Hohenzollernstrasse 1-3, 45128 Essen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Kees; Van de Kar, Hans. The impact of demographic change
on tax revenue. Atlantic Economic Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep
1994. 52-60 pp. Edwardsville, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper [simulates] the impact of demographic change on direct tax revenue for the Netherlands using extensive survey data and population projections. Projected demographic development in the Netherlands fits in well with the OECD mainstream. The analysis thus has a more general relevance. The simulations indicate a 27 percent rise in tax revenue until 2010 because of population growth and a relatively older labor force. After 2030, revenue falls as a consequence of a declining population and a rapidly rising share of the elderly. The authors also simulated a variant in which labor-force participation rates are set on the substantially higher OECD average. In this case, the increase in tax revenue almost doubles as compared to the base variant."
Correspondence: K. Goudswaard, Leiden University, Stationsweg 46, P.O. Box 9500, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
Timothy. Economic transition and demographic change in
Russia, 1989-1995. Post-Soviet Geography, Vol. 36, No. 7, Sep
1995. 446-58 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
The author "reviews recent population changes in Russia, relating trends in fertility, mortality, natural increase, and migration to the social and economic effects of the transition to a market economy. Significant trends (a precipitous drop in fertility, an extraordinary increase in mortality--especially among middle-aged males--and a consequent decline in natural increase) are identified and analyzed, with dislocations caused by the uncertainties of economic and political transition suggested as the principal causes. The effect of net in-migration to Russia (probably mainly ethnic Russians from the Near Abroad countries) in partially offsetting the natural population decrease is examined as well."
Correspondence: T. Heleniak, World Bank, Europe and Central Asia Region, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
62:10639 Nord, Mark;
Luloff, A. E.; Jensen, Leif. Migration and the spatial
concentration of poverty. Rural Sociology, Vol. 60, No. 3, Fall
1995. 399-415 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"[U.S.] Current Population Survey data are used to estimate the effects of migration of the poor and nonpoor on the spatial concentration of poverty among five categories of counties defined by county poverty rates and, separately, among nonmetropolitan high-poverty areas, central city high-poverty areas, and other areas. During the 1981-1984 period studied, migration patterns of both the poor and nonpoor consistently reinforced pre-existing poverty concentrations. High migration rates of the poor into and out of high poverty counties suggests an equilibrium condition. Implications for theory, research, and policy are discussed."
Correspondence: M. Nord, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Washington, D.C. 20005-4788. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Alexandratos, Nikos. Food-production potential of
African lands and projections to 2000. In: Economic and
demographic change in Africa, edited by Archie Mafeje and Samir Radwan.
1995. 143-66 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author reviews recent studies on the potential for Africa to feed both its current and projected populations up to the year 2000. He draws primarily on Food and Agriculture Organization studies on this subject. The general conclusion drawn is that the potential exists for the continent to feed both populations, but that recent experience in this area is not encouraging with regard to the prospects for realizing this potential.
Correspondence: N. Alexandratos, Food and Agriculture Organization, Economic and Social Policy Department, Global Perspective Studies Unit, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Mahinder. Global population growth, economic development
and environmental impact. Case-study of India, 1991-2100. Economic
and Political Weekly, Vol. 30, No. 49, Dec 9, 1995. 3,163-7 pp. Bombay,
India. In Eng.
"The nature of environmental problems depends upon the level of economic development, the nature of industrialisation, and the degree of urbanisation and the effectiveness of public policies. This article examines the impact of population growth and economic development separately, but with reference to the conjectured global warming between 1991 and 2100, with special reference to India."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).
62:10642 Cohen, Joel
E. How many people can the earth support? ISBN
0-393-03862-9. LC 95-6133. 1995. x, 532 pp. W. W. Norton: New York, New
York/London, England. In Eng.
In this study, the author "examines a wide spectrum of estimates of the Earth's `carrying capacity,' which has typically been calculated at levels ranging from 4 to 16 billion people. Using easily readable graphs to illustrate [the] discussion, he explains the various demographic techniques used for the last three centuries to make such projections, then explores where they fail and why they have produced conclusions that are so widely divergent. [He also examines why it has] not been possible to refine and narrow the range of these estimates...[and] leads the reader through the various ecological, political, economic, social, cultural, religious, and other factors that affect rates of population growth, always emphasizing the balance between human choices and natural constraints. This balance, he argues, is critical to speculating sensibly about probable human growth: because of the important roles of human choices, natural constraints and uncertainty, estimates of human carrying capacity cannot aspire to be more than conditional and probable estimates."
Correspondence: W. W. Norton and Company, 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Paul R.; Ehrlich, Anne H.; Daily, Gretchen C. The stork
and the plow: the equity answer to the human dilemma. ISBN
0-399-14074-3. LC 95-5691. 1995. xvi, 364 pp. G. P. Putnam's Sons: New
York, New York. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the relationship between the population of the earth and its natural resources. The first chapter is concerned with the extent to which humans have subdued the planet. "The rest of the book explores in more detail the population and food security aspects of the human dilemma, focusing on the measures that need to be taken to keep the plow ahead of the stork in the race to maintain food security and create a sustainable world for our descendants."
Correspondence: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Robert; LeRoy, Pamela. Conserving land: population and
sustainable food production. 1995. 48 pp. Population Action
International, Population and Environment Program: Washington, D.C. In
This is the third in a series of reports on the impact of population size, growth, and distribution and consumption patterns on the natural resources critical to human well-being. This report concerns global food production, and notes that current food production is sufficient to feed the world's population. However, the report points out that the latest UN projections suggest that by the year 2050, only one-sixth of a hectare of arable land will be available to feed each person, down from one-half of a hectare in the 1960s. By 2050, between 1.6 and 5.5 billion people will live in countries with less than 0.07 hectares of arable land per capita. The need to stabilize world population growth in order to achieve global food security is stressed.
Correspondence: Population Action International, Population and Environment Program, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
David; Eden-Green, Monica; Devaney, Joan. World index of
resources and population. ISBN 1-85521-503-9. 1994. xii, 417 pp.
Dartmouth: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
This book "systematically analyses the 30-year trend in population and related resource demand, globally and regionally from the early post-war years to 2025. It interprets the effects of changes in the politics, economics and prices of all the important mineral commodities, particularly energy. It shows how these translate into the fortunes of the 61 countries, 31 companies and 40 minerals which collectively represent over 95 percent of the world's largest business, over one trillion dollars per year."
Correspondence: Dartmouth Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hants GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SXF).
Mark L.; Bell, Paul A. The moderating effect of threat on
the relationship between population concern and environmental
concern. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 2, Nov 1995.
123-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Two hundred sixty-one research participants completed a questionnaire designed to measure concern for the environment and concern for population growth. The introduction to the questionnaire focused on either threat to society, personal threat, or no threat. Contrary to some previous research findings, a positive correlation between concern for the environment and concern for population growth was found. This finding is explained by the simultaneity of measurement of the two constructs, item phrasing, and the possibility that previous research findings lacked transhistorical reliability. The threat manipulation was found to moderate the relationship between concern for the environment and concern for population growth. Analyses of demographic variables showed that women expressed more environmental concern than men, and that regular church attendees expressed the least concern for population growth."
Correspondence: M. L. Harvey, 1409 Alta Vista #205, Hollywood, CA 90046. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
International Union for the Scientific Study of Population
[IUSSP] (Liege, Belgium); United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization [UNESCO] (Paris, France); International
Geographical Union [IGU]. Commission on Population Geography (Bonn,
Germany). Population and environment in arid regions.
.  pp. Liege, Belgium. In Eng; Fre.
This publication includes papers, in English and French, presented at a seminar on population and environment in arid regions. The conference was held in Amman, Jordan, October 24-27, 1994. There were sessions on human causes of desertification, environmental problems of living in arid regions, population dynamics in such regions, and population and environment management policies in those areas. The primary geographical focus is on Africa and the Middle East.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Howard E.; Skakkebaek, Niels E. Environmental effects on
human reproduction: the basis for new efforts in Eastern Europe.
Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 11, Dec 1995. 1,479-86 pp.
Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Increasing data are becoming available to implicate toxic environmental effects on the reproductive process in animals and man. Political changes in Central and Eastern Europe have provided new opportunities to study reproductive health in an area where environmental effects may be marked. Eastern European health has been affected by environmental transgressions, but other factors, including life style, have played a role in recent changes in life expectancy in the region. While a few programs worldwide are actively pursuing the implications of environmental toxins on reproduction, human data remain sparse. Further research in this field on a global basis is needed. A new center in Copenhagen has begun to pursue such activities, additionally supported by wider World Health Organization (WHO) programs to promote greater communication between eastern and western scientists working in reproductive health."
Correspondence: H. E. Kulin, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
Jan C. Population growth and road construction: looking to
traditional indigenous ways. Population and Environment, Vol. 17,
No. 1, Sep 1995. 79-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the links among road construction, fossil-fuel consumption, and population growth. "Overpopulation in some northern nations, notably the United States, is overlooked due to official neglect of the scientific measurement of carrying capacity, and due to political considerations in discussing immigration even as an environmental issue or component of overpopulation. Traditional indigenous peoples' population sizes and such societies' ethic toward their land are indicated as models of sustainability."
Correspondence: J. C. Lundberg, Fossil Fuels Policy Action Institute, Alliance for a Paving Moratorium, P.O. Box 4347, Arcata, CA 95521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Thomas T. Population: past growth and future control.
Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 1, Sep 1995. 19-40 pp. New
York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper is the opening chapter and demographic context of a forthcoming book on The World's Food. It offers a summation of the Malthusian perception of food and population, an overview of population growth in history and the role of the demographic transition. The varying experiences of developing countries in bringing down the birth rate are examined and used as a basis for projecting future population growth."
Correspondence: T. T. Poleman, Cornell University, Department of Agricultural, Resource, and Managerial Economics, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Mary; Mortimore, Michael; Gichuki, Francis. Population
growth and environmental recovery: policy lessons from Kenya. IIED
Gatekeeper Series, No. SA45, 1994. 26 pp. International Institute for
Environment and Development [IIED], Sustainable Agriculture Progamme:
London, England. In Eng.
This report describes "the beneficial interactions between population growth, growth in output per head, and improvements in environmental status, [which] have recently been studied for the period 1930-1990 in Machakos District, Kenya....The outcome of the study shows not only improvement of the environment. It also conflicts with other common beliefs, for instance, that there has been little increase in agricultural productivity in Africa, that increased commercial production harms food supplies, that investment in semi-arid areas does not pay as well as investment in more humid areas, that out-migration is all negative, and that development depends overwhelmingly on government initiative and aid support. It finds considerable progress, much of it generated by local effort, in the relatively supportive policy environment provided by Kenya."
Correspondence: International Institute for Environment and Development, Sustainable Agriculture Programme, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago,
Chile). Two articles on population, the environment, and
development in Latin America and the Caribbean. [Dos articulos
sobre poblacion, medio ambiente y desarrollo en America Latina y el
Caribe.] CELADE Serie E, No. 43, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.152. Apr 1995.
95 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
This publication contains two articles on population and the environment. The first, by Miguel Villa, is concerned with the Caribbean, and includes consideration of issues related to spatial distribution, sustainable development, and equality. The second, by Jorge Rodriguez Vignoli, looks at Latin America and the Caribbean as a whole, and examines the relationships among population, the environment, and development in the region.
Correspondence: UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:10653 von Cube,
Alexander. Concept for a system of
environmental-demographic accounting: a demographic contribution to the
discussion on the environment. [Konzeption fur eine
Umweltdemographische Gesamtrechnung (UDG): ein Beitrag der
Bevolkerungswissenschaft zur Umweltdebatte.] Zeitschrift fur
Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1995. 27-65 pp. Wiesbaden,
Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This review essay illuminates links between environment and population. The paper proposes an environmental-demographic accounting construct inspired by systems of environmental-economic accounting. Part I of the article reviews links between environment and population developments. Part II discusses the contribution which population studies could make to an environmental-demographic accounting system....The paper outlines how [an] analysis of anthropogenic impacts on the environment might be done on the basis of examples in the areas of land use, urbanization, forests and deforestation, water and endangered species."
Correspondence: A. von Cube, 1800 Highway 9, Mount Vernon, WA 98273. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Paul J. Energy and population: transitional issues and
eventual limits. Focus, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1993. 9-17 pp. Tulsa,
Oklahoma. In Eng.
This paper addresses two questions: "What U.S. population size is compatible with the environmental consequences of energy use? What levels of population would lead to maximum efficiency in the energy sector, as a guesstimate, in long-term equilibrium?" The author concludes that "in the long term, the energy sector and the environment would probably be healthiest if the U.S. population were somewhere around 50 to 100 percent of the present level...."
Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.
David E.; Grenier, Gilles; Gunderson, Morley. The changing
labour market position of Canadian immigrants. Canadian Journal of
Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 28, No. 4b, Nov 1995.
987-1,005 pp. North York, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper uses pooled 1971, 1981, and 1986 Canadian census data to evaluate the extent to which (1) the earnings of Canadian immigrants at the time of immigration fall short of the earnings of comparable Canadian-born individuals, and (2) immigrants' earnings grow more rapidly over time than those of the Canadian born. Variations in the labour market assimilation of immigrants according to their gender and country of origin are also analysed. The results suggest that recent immigrant cohorts have had more difficulty being assimilated into the Canadian labour market than earlier ones, an apparent consequence of recent changes in Canadian immigration policy, labour market discrimination against visible minorities, and the prolonged recession of the early 1980s."
Correspondence: D. E. Bloom, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Jeffrey A.; Massagli, Michael P.; Mutchler, Jan E. Labor
force status and transitions among older African American and white
men. In: American Statistical Association 1994 Proceedings of the
Social Statistics Section. [1995?]. 129-34 pp. American Statistical
Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to compare late-life labor force transitions between African American and white men in the United States during the mid-1980s. To accomplish this goal we establish a measure of late-life labor force behavior that allows us to evaluate reductions in number of work hours, complete withdrawal from the labor market, and reentry into the labor force as well as other transitions. We utilize pooled data from the 1984 and 1985 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation...."
Correspondence: J. A. Burr, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 430 Park Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Marc. Family life cycle and employment in Flanders:
results from NEGO V (1991). In: Population and family in the low
countries 1994: selected current issues, edited by Hans van den Brekel
and Fred Deven. 1995. 81-106 pp. Kluwer Academic: Norwell,
Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study analyses recent changes in the labour force course of Flemish men and women across the family life cycle on the basis of retrospective data from the Fifth Fertility and Family Survey in Flanders (NEGO V, 1991)....An overview of the institutional context that has fostered the expansion of part-time employment in Belgium provides the background for the data analysis. The relative importance of part-time employment, full-time employment, and non-employment is considered by constructing age-cohort tables of time spent in different `activities'. Special attention has been given to gender differences generated by marriage and parenthood. The influence of educational level is investigated for women only."
Correspondence: M. Callens, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
African Republic. Bureau Central du Recensement. (Bangui, Central
African Republic). General population census, December
1988. Volume 2: analysis report. Part 7: economic activities.
[Recensement general de la population de decembre 1988. Volume 2:
rapport d'analyse. Tome 7: activites economiques.] Jun 1993. 78 pp.
Bureau Central du Recensement: Bangui, Central African Republic. In
This report analyzes data from the 1988 census of the Central African Republic concerning economic activity, including the labor force, the characteristics of the employed, and unemployment.
Correspondence: Bureau Central du Recensement, Division des Statistiques et des Etudes Economiques, Ministere de l'Economie, du Plan, des Statistiques et de la Cooperation Internationale, Bangui, Central African Republic. Location: University of Texas, Population Research Center Library, Austin, TX. Source: APLIC Census Network List No. 152, Dec 1994.
Louis M.; Sinare, Tinga. Analysis of results from the
Demographic Survey, 1991. Part 4: economic activity. [Analyse des
resultats de l'Enquete Demographique 1991. Quatrieme partie: activites
economiques.] Feb 1994. 70 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et
de la Demographie: Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In Fre.
Data from the 1991 Demographic Survey carried out in Burkina Faso are analyzed in this report concerning economic activity in the country. There are chapters on the active labor force, the unemployed, and the inactive population.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et de la Demographie, Ministere de l'Economie, des Finances et du Plan, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.
Rachel M.; Hunt, Jennifer. The impact of immigrants on
host country wages, employment and growth. Journal of Economic
Perspectives, Vol. 9, No. 2, Spring 1995. 23-44 pp. Nashville,
Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the recent theoretical and empirical research on immigration's impact on the income growth and labor market outcomes of natives." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: R. M. Friedberg, Brown University, Department of Economics, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).
Guzman, Brigida. Occupations in Mexico in the 1980s: facts
and dates. [La ocupacion en Mexico en los anos ochenta: hechos y
datos.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 55, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1993.
137-53 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article summarizes some of the main changes that have taken place in employment [in Mexico] during the '80s by comparing information from the XIth Population Census with other sources. Changes in employment include the increasing number of women in the workplace, participation of the active population and the growth of small-scale economic activities, which in turn leads to a number of other factors."
Correspondence: B. Garcia Guzman, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
62:10662 Green, A.
E.; Owen, D. W. Ethnic minority groups in regional and
local labour markets in Britain: a review of data sources and
associated issues. Regional Studies, Vol. 29, No. 8, Dec 1995.
729-35 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This paper outlines the context of, and discusses the need for, local information on the demographic patterns and labour market experience of ethnic minority groups in many parts of Britain. The specific focus is on the identification and assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of particular data sources providing spatially disaggregated information on the economic position of ethnic minority groups."
Correspondence: A. E. Green, University of Warwick, Institute for Employment Research, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).
Moshe; Hartman, Harriet. Long-term effects of
international migration: lessons from Israel. Population Research
and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1995. 45-69 pp. Dordrecht,
Netherlands. In Eng.
"The paper shows that characteristics of immigrants at the time of immigration affect both long-term occupational achievements and income at the end of the labor force career, after age 59. Data representing 174,000 Jewish males 60 and older from a 1985 survey by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics are analyzed to show how the timing of immigration, the number of years in the country, age at immigration, country of origin, and educational resources at time of immigration are related to years in the labor force in the host country, occupational achievement, pension entitlement and income after age 59. Both direct and indirect effects are analyzed. The results show the importance of immigration characteristics on long-term socioeconomic adjustment, and the necessity of considering social status over the life course as an indicator of long-term immigrant adjustment."
Correspondence: M. Hartman, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Behavioral Sciences, P.O. Box 653, Beersheba 84105, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Timothy J.; Williamson, Jeffrey G. The impact of
immigration on American labor markets prior to the quotas. NBER
Working Paper, No. 5185, Jul 1995. 59 pp. National Bureau of Economic
Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This study analyzes the impact of large-scale immigration on the U.S. labor market at the end of the nineteenth century. Three questions are considered in the light of their continued relevance to the situation today: "Did late nineteenth century American immigrants act as a flexible (guestworker) labor supply? Did they flow into occupations where job creation was fast, or did they displace natives in occupations where job creation was slow? Did immigrants reduce the growth of wages and living standards for natives while increasing their unemployment? We use econometrics and computable general equilibrium models to get surprising and unambiguous answers."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
Daniel. Are immigrants displacing black workers?
Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 1, Sep 1995. 59-62 pp. New
York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the relationship between immigration and black unemployment in the United States, with a focus on the displacement of black Americans by working-age foreigners.
Correspondence: D. James, Carrying Capacity Network, 2000 P Street NW, Suite 240, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
John D. Industrial restructuring and the changing location
of jobs. In: State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume one:
economic trends, edited by Reynolds Farley. 1995. 215-67 pp. Russell
Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the transforming industrial geography of the United States and its implications for employment and earnings of people at different locations. Focus will be on shifts in jobs and earnings during the 1980s across census regions, metropolitan-nonmetropolitan areas, and central cities and suburbs, and their consequences for skills and spatial mismatches between local labor and available work, structural unemployment, and urban problems....An appraisal of associated problems and their implications for policy [is included]."
Correspondence: J. D. Kasarda, University of North Carolina, Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise, Kenan-Flagler Business School, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Augustine J. The impact of immigration on unemployment and
earnings among racial minorities in the United States. Ethnic and
Racial Studies, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jul 1995. 605-28 pp. London, England.
"Employing United States census data covering 1940 to 1980, and using states and a sample of metropolitan statistical areas as units of analysis, this study found that increases in immigration in some periods of U.S. history had significant negative effects on employment levels among racial minorities in the United States. Specifically, results of the regression analysis showed that, in 1970, a standard deviation change in immigration increased unemployment among minorities by nearly 14 per cent, while in 1980 unemployment increased by nearly 10 per cent, given a standard deviation increase in immigration. With regard to earnings, the study found that immigration decreases minority income. In 1980 a one per cent increase in immigration reduced racial minority earnings, on average, by nearly $25.32."
Correspondence: A. J. Kposowa, University of Delaware, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, 322 Smith Hall, Newark, DE 19716-2580. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
62:10668 Lee, Hyun
Song. Are labor markets segmented across occupations?
Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 15, No. 1,
Summer 1995. 113-42 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in
The author uses data from the 1991 Current Population Survey and the fourth edition of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles to examine the extent to which U.S. labor markets are segmented across occupational as well as industrial divisions. Consideration is also given to the differences between the male and the female work force in this regard. The author uses differences in educational status to identify distinct wage regimes across occupations. The implications both for the market structure as a whole and for gender inequalities are assessed.
Correspondence: H. S. Lee, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Arleen; Klerman, Jacob A. Explaining changes in married
mothers' employment over time. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 3, Aug
1995. 365-78 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Employment of married mothers with preschool children rose dramatically between 1971 and 1990. Using [U.S. Current Population Survey] data, we find that about one-fifth of the increase in labor supply can be attributed to changes in mothers' demographic characteristics (age, education, and number of children). Changes in the earnings opportunities of new mothers and their husbands explain another one-fifth of the growth in employment. Over two decades, infants up to three months old became less of a barrier to employment, while women's labor supply became more sensitive to their own earnings opportunities and less sensitive to those of their husbands."
Correspondence: A. Leibowitz, RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Peter. The change of female employment in Hungary in the
transition to a market economy. [Zur Veranderung der
Frauenerwerbstatigkeit in Ungarn beim Ubergang von der sozialistischen
Planwirtschaft zur Marktwirtschaft.] In: Vom Plan zum Markt: eine
Untersuchung am Beispiel Ungarns, edited by Peter Meusburger and Andras
Klinger. ISBN 3-7908-0843-1. 1995. 130-81 pp. Physica-Verlag:
Heidelberg, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the [recent] political and economic transformation in Hungary on the age-specific female employment rates, the proportion of women taking child-care leave, and the rates of female unemployment....This study begins with an analysis of the large social and regional disparities of female employment in 1980, using individual data records of the 1980 and 1990 censuses...." The authors note that, contrary to expectations, the change to a market economy in fact increased female employment rates for some ages and regions, even though unemployment in general increased.
Correspondence: P. Meusburger, Universitat Heidelberg, Geographisches Institut, Im Neuenheimer Feld 348, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Hiromasa. Foreign migrant workers in Japan: trends and
policies. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2-3,
1995. 411-27 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This research note presents data on trends in foreign workers in Japan, and reviews recent policy changes relating to these workers. Trends from 1973-1993 are reviewed and data for recent years include disaggregation by country of origin, residence within Japan, status of residence, illegal workers, and gender."
Correspondence: H. Mori, Hosei University, 17-1 Fujimi 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Nachrowi D.; Fergus, Dwiantini J.; Dwiwati, C. Bea. Labor
market issues in Indonesia: an analysis in a globalization
context. Journal of Population, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jun 1995. 71-105
pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
The authors analyze the Indonesian labor market in a global context for the period 1980-1990. The "Indonesian economy has grown significantly for the past quarter of [a] century. However, welfare of the [laborers is still poor]....Increasing minimum wages is not the only way to increase workers' welfare. Improving the productivity of the labor through formal and informal education is an indirect way of raising the welfare of workers. Considering that the quality of Indonesia's labor is still very low and the fact that factors of production are more mobile in this globalization era, improving the quality of workers to be more competitive globally is seen as a key [solution] to the problem."
Correspondence: N. D. Nachrowi, University of Indonesia, Faculty of Economics, Demographic Institute, Jalan Salemba Raya 4, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Nana. Training or employment? Japanese immigration policy
in dilemma. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2-3,
1995. 367-85 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article examines the Japanese training system for foreign workers from developing countries. While providing foreign trainees with the opportunities to acquire skills and knowledge at enterprises, the system concurrently serves as an adjustment function in the labor market....The fundamental problem derives from the gap between a strict immigration policy and the Japanese economy's structural dependence on foreigners. A clear national consensus must be established on whether or not Japan should accept semi- and unskilled foreign labor. The immigration policy should reflect this in formulating its long-term vision. The training system needs reformation to fulfil its functions appropriately and to protect trainees from abuse."
Correspondence: N. Oishi, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Yoshio; Sano, Tetsu. Labor markets of Japanese-descended
workers and foreign trainees in Japan. Asian and Pacific Migration
Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 1995. 387-409 pp. Quezon City, Philippines.
"This article first presents a classification of foreign workers in Japan, trends in their numbers, and the legal framework pertaining to them. This is followed by a focus on workers of Japanese descent and foreign trainees, and the means by which they are recruited and the labor market problems they confront in Japan. The article concludes with several policy recommendations and suggestions for future research."
Correspondence: Y. Okunishi, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:10675 van Soest,
Arthur. Structural models of family labor supply: a
discrete choice approach. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 30, No.
1, Winter 1995. 63-88 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"A static neoclassical structural model is presented, explaining labor supply of both spouses in [two-adult] households [in the Netherlands]. Family preferences are described with a direct translog utility function, with the husband's leisure, the wife's leisure, and family income as its arguments. We assume that the choice set of each family is finite. Account is taken of the Dutch tax and benefits system. We allow for hours restrictions and random preferences, and account for unobserved wages of nonworkers. The models are estimated using smooth simulated maximum likelihood. Results based upon Dutch cross-section data from 1987 are illustrated by confidence intervals for elasticities, and by several policy simulations."
Correspondence: A. van Soest, Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.
Shengjin. China's export of labor and its management.
Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 1995. 429-47 pp.
Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This research note presents trends and data on China's labor export from 1979-1991. By 1990, China had deployed over 400,000 workers in 139 countries and regions, with labor export becoming an important source of foreign exchange. Data include China's contract value and number of workers annually; international distribution of Chinese workers; comparative figures for construction; contractors and labor cooperatives; and China's labor exports by corporation."
Correspondence: S. Wang, Jilin University, 83 Jie Fang Road, Changchun, Jilin Province 130021, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
James R. Labor force, unemployment, and earnings. In:
State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume one: economic trends,
edited by Reynolds Farley. 1995. 59-105 pp. Russell Sage Foundation:
New York, New York. In Eng.
The author describes labor market trends in the United States, with a focus on their impact on demographic and social developments. "This chapter is divided into five broad subject areas: labor supply, employment and work experience, total compensation and earnings, unemployment, and labor market-related economic hardship. The average labor market experiences of women and men by education, age, occupation, and industry are summarized as are differential trends among whites, blacks, and Hispanics. Because the size and composition of the nation's armed forces were little changed over the decade, I focus entirely on the civilian economy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
David E. Income redistribution and migration.
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 27,
No. 3, Aug 1994. 637-56 pp. Downsview, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in
"This paper analyses redistribution policies that transfer income between owners of immobile factors of production and workers in a given region. The menu of income distribution possibilities attainable through tax/transfer policy in the presence of labour mobility is characterized. Simple general equilibrium analysis shows that migration can lead to Pareto-inferior outcomes in the destination region if immigrants are the beneficiaries of redistributive transfers. All residents of the destination region may gain, however, if transfer payments are also paid to workers in the source region so as to reduce the level of immigration."
Correspondence: D. E. Wildasin, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.
Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf; Zweimuller, Josef. Do
immigrants displace native workers? The Austrian experience. CEPR
Discussion Paper, No. 991, Jul 1994. 25 pp. Centre for Economic Policy
Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper studies the effect of increased immigration in Austria on the risk to natives of becoming unemployed....We concentrate on entry into unemployment of young male workers who are thought to compete most with new immigrants. Our results indicate that the detrimental impact--if it exists at all--is only minor and is irrespective of the chosen proxy for competition (the share of foreign workers in an industry, in a region or at the firm level)."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.
Andrew M. Testing hypotheses of immigrant
self-employment. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 30, No. 1,
Winter 1995. 194-204 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to explain high rates of immigrant self-employment, relative to native workers. Three hypotheses are tested. Estimates of a two-sector model of earnings support the home-country self-employment hypothesis: immigrants from countries with larger self-employed sectors have higher self-employment rates. The data also support the tax-avoidance hypothesis. These two hypotheses explain 62 percent of the immigrant-native self-employment differential. There is little support for the enclave hypothesis. Enclaves do, however, affect sectoral earnings, in ways that are consistent with compensating differentials for enclave life, or negative selection into enclaves."
Correspondence: A. M. Yuengert, Pepperdine University, Division of Business Administration, 24255 Pacific Coast Highway, Malibu, CA 90263. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.