Volume 62 - Number 1 - Spring 1996

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

62:10559 Agnihotri, S. B. Missing females: a disaggregated analysis. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 30, No. 33, Aug 19, 1995. 2,074-84 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The problem of sex ratio imbalance in India needs a disaggregated analysis. The absence of such analysis masks the seriousness of the problem among certain groups and in certain areas. This paper presents data on female/male ratio for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and the rest of the population. While further disaggregation among various subgroups is necessary, the data presented here help to identify some major problem areas."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:10560 Armitage, Bob. Population review: structure and distribution of the population. Population Trends, No. 81, Autumn 1995. 7-16 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article is the first in a series of articles reviewing the changing composition of the population of the United Kingdom....This first article gives a summary view of the changes since the early Seventies in the structure and distribution of the UK population, and also takes account of population projections for future years. It begins by describing changes in the total population. The review then goes on to consider changes in sex ratios, age distribution, marital status, the regional distribution of the UK resident population, population density, ethnicity and household composition."
Correspondence: B. Armitage, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10561 Carrilho, Maria J. Demographic aging in Portugal: what are the prospects? [O processo de envelhecimento em Portugal: que perspectivas...?] Estudos Demograficos, No. 31, 1993. 75-98 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por.
Current and probable future trends in demographic aging in Portugal are examined using data from official sources. Consideration is given to regional differences in aging trends.
Correspondence: M. J. Carrilho, Instituto Nacional de Estatistica, Gabinete de Estudos Demograficos, Avenida Antonio Jose de Almeida 5, 1078 Lisbon Codex, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10562 Clare, Ross; Tulpule, Ashok. Australia's ageing society. EPAC Background Paper, No. 37, Pub. Order No. 94 1539 X. ISBN 0-644-33032-5. Jan 1994. 104 pp. Economic Planning Advisory Council [EPAC]: Parkes, Australia. In Eng.
"The ageing of the Australian population is a subject which generates much popular and specialist discussion. This paper argues that productivity growth and income distribution are keys to responding to the ageing population, through generating higher and more equitably shared standards of living for all Australians. The paper provides an overview of demographic trends, the impact of migration, the implications for social expenditures of our ageing population, the impact of retirement income reform and issues relating to home, community and institutional care of the aged."
Correspondence: Economic Planning Advisory Council, P.O. Box E4, Queen Victoria Terrace, Parkes, ACT 2600, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10563 Craig, John. Males and females--some vital differences. Population Trends, No. 80, Summer 1995. 26-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"More boys are born than girls, yet at older ages women far outnumber men. This article quantifies, for England and Wales, how and why this disparity in the sex ratio varies with age, and looks at changes over the course of this century. The differences between male and female mortality and migration--which lead to these imbalances in numbers--are also set out."
Correspondence: J. Craig, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10564 Echevarria, Cruz A. On age distribution of population, government expenditure and fiscal federalism. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 3, Aug 1995. 301-13 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper I build a simple model to analyze the consequences that population growth imposes on the relative needs of expenditure of governments in a fiscal federalism setup. I assume, first, that some government expenditure items can be classified according to the age of their recipient individuals and, second, that different levels of government are usually assigned different expenditure programs. The implication is that, for an initially given level of effective public good provision, changes in the size of population as well as in its age structure will influence the composition of public expenditure for different layers of administration in a different manner."
Correspondence: C. A. Echevarria, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Facultad de Ciencias y Empresariales, Departamento de Fundamentos del Analisis Economico, Avenida Lehendakari Aguirre 83, 48015 Bilbao, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10565 Erman, Tahire; Icduygu, Ahmet. Turkey and the European Union: a comparison of population distribution and urbanization. [Turkiye ve Avrupa Birligi: nufus dagilimi ve kentlesme acisindan bir karsilastirma.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 16, 1994. 15-27 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
"Turkey has been struggling to become a full member of the European Community (now called the European Union) since the 1960s. In this process, the view that Turkey differs significantly from the European Union in terms of its population characteristics has been considered a major obstacle to the country's acceptance into the Union. This article explores this issue by comparing Turkey and EU in terms of population distribution and [the] urbanization process. It examines the differences/similarities within the EU itself and asks to what extent Turkey is similar or different in this context."
Correspondence: T. Erman, Bilkent Universitesi, 06533 Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10566 Fuguitt, Glenn V.; Heaton, Timothy B. The impact of migration on the nonmetropolitan population age structure, 1960-1990. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1995. 215-32 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine the short-run impact of migration on the age composition of [U.S.] nonmetropolitan areas....We compare the impact of migration on age structures in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas across the last three decades. Within nonmetropolitan areas we also compare counties with colleges, commuting counties, agricultural counties and retirement counties. We conclude that several factors influence the impact of migration on age structure. Impacts will be greater in smaller than in larger population groups, and in areas that specialize in economic functions that impinge on a particular age group. But in general, migration adds young people to metropolitan areas and older people to nonmetropolitan areas."
Correspondence: G. V. Fuguitt, University of Wisconsin, Department of Rural Sociology, 150 Linden Drive, Room 314, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10567 Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning [JOICFP] (Tokyo, Japan). Report of the workshop on population aging: women in an aging society, 14-17 March, 1994, Singapore. [1994?]. 42 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This is a report of a 1994 workshop held in Singapore on women in an aging society. The objectives of the workshop were "(1) To review the problems and policy issues surrounding women towards population aging in countries of Asia and to exchange information, experiences and strategies among participating countries; [and] (2) To prepare future directions and recommendations on the issue of women in an aging society, which could serve as background materials for the...International Conference on Population and Development and for future formulation of policies and programmes among countries in Asia."
Correspondence: Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning, Hoken Kaikan Bekkan 1-1, Sadohara-cho, Ichigaya, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10568 Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning [JOICFP] (Tokyo, Japan). Summary report: seminar on population aging, July 5-16, 1993. Nov 1993. iii, 34 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This is a report from a seminar on population aging held in Tokyo, Japan, in 1993. "The seminar was primarily aimed at promoting the formulation of health and medical policies and the development of systems and strategies to meet the needs of societies with aged population using the experience of Japan as a case study. It was attended by...representatives from China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand."
Correspondence: Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning, Hoken Kaikan Bekkan 1-1, Sadohara-cho, Ichigaya, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10569 Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning [JOICFP] (Tokyo, Japan). Summary report: seminar on population aging, October 19-28, 1994. [1994?]. 56 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This is a report from a seminar on population aging held in Tokyo and Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, in 1994. "The seminar was primarily aimed at promoting the formulation of social service policies and the development of community support systems and strategies to meet the needs of societies with aged populations using the experience of Japan as a case study. It was attended by...representatives from China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand."
Correspondence: Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning, Hoken Kaikan Bekkan 1-1, Sadohara-cho, Ichigaya, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10570 Klinger, Andras. Changing situation of the elderly within the family: an international comparison. [Az idoskoruak csaladi helyzetenek valtozasa nemzetkozi osszehasonlitasban.] Demografia, Vol. 38, No. 2-3, 1995. 118-41 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
The author presents a comparative study of the elderly and their familial situation in Europe in 1990, and discusses how this has changed since 1960. Data are presented on the elderly by marital status, sex, age, and residential status by country.
Correspondence: A. Klinger, V. Nephadsereg-utca 4, 1505 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10571 Landry, David J.; Forrest, Jacqueline D. How old are U.S. fathers? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1995. 159-61, 165 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"One in every six U.S. birth certificates have no information on the age of the baby's father; for more than four in 10 babies born to adolescent women, no data are available on the father's age. Information from mothers aged 15-49 who had babies in 1988 and were surveyed in the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey indicates that fathers for whom age is not reported on the birth certificate are considerably younger than other fathers. In 1988, 5% of fathers were under age 20, and 20% were aged 20-24. Fathers typically are older than mothers, especially when the mothers are teenagers. Fathers who are unmarried, black or partners of lower income women are younger than other fathers."
Correspondence: D. J. Landry, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10572 Mitchell, Susan. The next baby boom. American Demographics, Vol. 17, No. 10, Oct 1995. 22-31 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"The next baby boom is 72 million Americans, and their proportion of the total U.S. population rivals that of the original boom. Children and teens aged 18 or younger are 28 percent of the total population; the original baby boom, now aged 31 to 49, is 30 percent. This new generation differs from the baby boom in significant ways. While the boomer generation was a relatively uniform group, the children of the next boom differ radically from each other in race, living arrangements, and socioeconomic class."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10573 Rabusic, Ladislav. Czech society is aging. [Ceska spolecnost starne.] ISBN 80-210-1155-6. 1995. 192 pp. Masarykova Univerzita: Brno, Czech Republic; Georgetown: Brno, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
This study examines the situation concerning demographic aging in the Czech Republic. A focus is on the problems of providing social welfare to the elderly in a society making the difficult transition from a communist to a capitalist economy. The author analyzes recent trends in mortality in the country, presents population projections up to the year 2030, and considers such issues as retirement age and the provision of pensions.
Correspondence: Masarykova Univerzita, Zerotinovo nam. 9, 601 77 Brno, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10574 Treas, Judith; Torrecilha, Ramon. The older population. In: State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume two: social trends, edited by Reynolds Farley. 1995. 47-92 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
"We describe the long-run growth in the older population of the United States and contemplate a future in which the baby boomers grow old. We point to three significant changes in the composition of the population--shifts toward women, ethnic and racial minorities, and the oldest-old. The chapter describes the trends in life expectancy that contribute to the aging of the population before it considers the disabilities limiting older Americans in pursuit of a good old age. We examine troubling trends in the marital status of older Americans and their remarkable success at maintaining residential independence into their later years. We pinpoint a surprising reversal in late-life labor force participation trends and describe the employment of older Americans still on the job....We conclude by describing a small...group of `new and old' Americans--recent immigrants to the United States."
Correspondence: J. Treas, University of California, Department of Sociology, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10575 Underwood, Jane H. Sex ratio of livebirths in Micronesia. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1995. 431-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using materials from an extensive family record register for pre-World War II Guam...[the author examines] parental age and birth order effects in a Micronesian population in which the overall sex ratio of livebirths to 3,406 formally wed and fertile couples was 109.6. In contrast to the results of most studies among Euroamerican groups, secondary sex ratios on Guam were significantly higher for higher order births and for paternal age at last recorded birth to older couples. This apparent anomaly is resolved, however, and James' hypothesis of human sex ratio determination is supported when universalistic assumptions of declining coital frequencies with spousal age and marital duration are replaced by more appropriate and population-specific ethnodemographic information."
Correspondence: J. H. Underwood, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

62:10576 Cazzola, Alberto. A profile of the female cycle length. Statistica, Vol. 54, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1994. 455-79 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"This study suggests some points of view about the menstrual cycle length. In the first part aggregate indicators of cycle characteristics are computed for various types of data aggregations....In the second part, the period analysis and the consequent estimated spectral density functions are applied to the basal body temperature series." Data are for 1,798 women in London, England.
Correspondence: A. Cazzola, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche Paolo Fortunati, Via delle Belle Arti 41, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10577 Leidy, L. E. Biological aspects of menopause: across the lifespan. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 23, 1994. 231-53 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"This review outlines the biological basics of menopause and then places menopause within the context of a dynamic lifespan. The basic tenets of the lifespan approach maintain that, for each individual, aging and development are lifelong processes from birth to death; biological, psychological, and sociocultural trajectories interweave across the life course; the entire lifespan serves as a frame of reference for understanding particular events or transitions; and the life course can be affected by environmental change....This review also points to the gap between population-level studies of menopause and studies carried out at the biochemical, cellular, or organ systems level. Filling this gap...offers the most interesting directions for future anthropological research."
Correspondence: L. E. Leidy, University of Massachusetts, Department of Anthropology, Amherst, MA 01003-4805. Location: Princeton University Library (DR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

62:10578 Angeli, Aurora; Cocchi, Daniela; Pasquini, Lucia; Samoggia, Alessandra. Family structure and income: a first analysis on cross-sectional data. [Struttura delle famiglie e reddito: primi risultati di un'analisi su dati trasversali.] Statistica, Vol. 54, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1994. 435-54 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"In the paper the hypothesis of differences in household incomes depending on the sex of the householder is investigated. The data come from the 1991 Bank of Italy Survey on Household Income....A multiple regression model has been formulated in order to appreciate the contribution of the householder's sex to the family and per-capita income differentials."
Correspondence: A. Angeli, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche Paolo Fortunati, Via delle Belle Arti 41, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10579 Attanasio, Orazio P.; Hoynes, Hilary W. Differential mortality and wealth accumulation. NBER Working Paper, No. 5126, May 1995. 30, [15] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effect of differential mortality on cross-sectional estimates of wealth-age profiles in [the United States]. Our approach is to quantify the dependence of mortality rates on wealth and use these estimates to`correct' wealth-age profiles for sample selection due to differential mortality. We estimate mortality rates as a function of wealth and age for a sample of married couples drawn from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our results show that accounting for differential mortality produces wealth profiles with significantly more dissaving among the elderly."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:10580 Baldwin, Richard; Venables, Anthony J. International migration, capital mobility and transitional dynamics. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 796, Jun 1993. 26 pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
"International factor mobility implies that factor `endowments' of the Central and East European Countries (CEECs) are not pre-determined in the long run. Due to factor complementarity, there is a circular relationship between emigration and foreign investment: capital inflows boost the wages of human capital, thereby discouraging emigration, while a high skill level encourages foreign investment....Our policy analysis finds that once there is international factor mobility, the market-based equilibrium transition path is not socially optimal. This holds even if there are no externalities or other distortions. These concerns are magnified if human capital has beneficial externalities and there are multiple equilibrium paths."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10581 Behrman, Jere R. Intra-family distribution in developing countries. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 33, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 253-96 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The focus of this paper is on...the roles of gender, age, endowments, household resource levels, labour market opportunities, marriage markets, human resource investment prices and preferences in intra-household allocations in developing countries. My interest is primarily in...the nature and implications of empirical relations....I begin with a brief summary of economic models of intra-household allocations. Since most of the empirical literature that builds on these models focuses on intra-household allocations among children, I focus on models related to such allocations. These models provide a basis for interpreting empirical evidence, to which I turn next. Finally, I conclude with a summary of what we do and do not know about intra-household allocations in developing countries."
Correspondence: J. R. Behrman, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10582 Bianchi, Suzanne M. Changing economic roles of women and men. In: State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume one: economic trends, edited by Reynolds Farley. 1995. 107-54 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The fundamental gender question of the past two decades, rising in part out of the civil rights movement of the 1960s and the renewed women's movement of the late 1960s and 1970s, has been: How equal are economic opportunities and outcomes for women and men in U.S. society?...Understanding what caused the wage gap to narrow in the 1980s is a major focus of this chapter....[This narrowing] is in large part a story about the baby boom generation of young women....However, this chapter is also about another group for whom life did not seem so `fair' in the 1980s--young men and women with a high school education or less....Finally, this chapter is about...how recent decisions away from early marriage and childbearing have influenced gender equality and how differences in responsibility for children keep men's and women's roles differentiated...."
Correspondence: S. M. Bianchi, University of Maryland, Department of Sociology, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10583 Borjas, George J. The economic benefits from immigration. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 9, No. 2, Spring 1995. 3-22 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper uses a simple economic framework to describe how natives benefit from immigration, provides a back-of-the-envelope calculation of these benefits, and suggests the parameters of an immigration policy that would maximize the economic benefits. The discussion indicates that natives do benefit from immigration mainly because of production complementarities between immigrant workers and other factors of production, and that these benefits are larger when immigrants are sufficiently `different' from the stock of native productive inputs....The analysis...discusses the impact of immigration on a host country within a competitive, market-clearing framework." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: G. J. Borjas, University of California at San Diego, Department of Economics, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0508. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:10584 Bruto da Costa, Alfredo. The elderly poor. [Pobres idosos.] Estudos Demograficos, No. 31, 1993. 99-105 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por.
The author examines the growth in the number of the elderly living in poverty in Portugal. The focus is on trends occurring over the course of the 1980s.
Correspondence: A. Bruto da Costa, University of Bath, School of Social Sciences, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10585 Farley, Reynolds. State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume one: economic trends. 1990 Census Research Series, ISBN 0-87154-240-4. LC 94-40284. 1995. xvi, 375 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In two volumes, State of the Union: America in the 1990s offers a systematic, authoritative, and concise interpretation of what the 1990 census reveals about the American people today. This book, the first of the two volumes, builds a comparison with prior censuses and illuminates the economic trends that have so greatly altered our lives....[It] focuses on the schism between the wealthy and the poor that intensified in the 1980s as wages rose for highly educated persons but fell for those with less than college degrees....Each chapter in this volume focuses on a specific aspect of economic life in the United States, but all chapters approach the task by describing the decisions that birth cohorts--that is, all people born within a particular 10-year period--made at different points in their life."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10586 Furstenberg, Frank F.; Hoffman, Saul D.; Shrestha, Laura. The effect of divorce on intergenerational transfers: new evidence. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 3, Aug 1995. 319-33 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper draws on new data on intergenerational transfers of time and money that were collected in the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We use these data to examine the effects of divorce on these transfers. We find that the timing of divorce is critical. Fathers and mothers involved in late divorces have similar levels of transfers with their adult children, while divorce during a child's childhood years increases transfers with mothers and sharply lowers them with fathers. Somewhat surprisingly, we find no evidence that divorced fathers who paid child support are more likely to be involved in intergenerational transfers than those who did not pay child support."
Correspondence: F. F. Furstenberg, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6299. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10587 Gonzalez, Jorge G. Illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions. International Economic Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer 1994. 57-70 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper develops a general equilibrium framework of a two-sector economy which incorporates illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions. It demonstrates that stricter enforcement of immigration laws, by reducing the demand for or supply of illegal aliens, benefits all legal workers in the economy. The model is used to evaluate the impact of these policy changes on national income. Results indicate that national income does not necessarily fall when immigration controls are tightened. The existence of a union mitigates the negative welfare impact of a reduction in the number of illegal immigrants."
Correspondence: J. G. Gonzalez, Trinity University, Department of Economics, San Antonio, TX 78212. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10588 Gustafsson, Bjorn. Assessing poverty: some reflections on the literature. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 4, Nov 1995. 361-81 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper examines the quantitative poverty measurement literature. After describing the literature a number of issues in poverty research are discussed. It can be concluded that the framework for poverty assessments is not always fixed. Much has been written about the poverty line but the issue of updating it seems to have attracted less attention than deserved. Substantial advancements in poverty research have been gained by fuller reports on the extent of poverty through the use of poverty indices and because of increased availability of panel data."
Correspondence: B. Gustafsson, University of Goteborg, Department of Social Work, Sprangkullsgatan 23, 411 23 Goteborg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10589 Gustafsson, Bjorn; Makonnen, Negatu. The importance of remittances for the level and distribution of economic well-being in Lesotho. Journal of International Development, Vol. 6, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1994. 373-97 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Using the 1986/87 Household Budget Survey of Lesotho, we measure the extent of inequality, identify the determinants of economic well-being and decompose total inequality by population subgroups. The results show large inequality in economic well-being. Many households in Lesotho are heavily dependent on miners' remittances from the Republic of South Africa. In the study we quantify their effects on the level of well-being and the extent of inequality. It is concluded that remittances decrease inequality in Lesotho."
Correspondence: B. Gustafsson, University of Goteborg, Department of Economics, Vasaparken, 411 24 Goteborg, Sweden. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10590 Karoly, Lynn A.; Burtless, Gary. Demographic change, rising earnings inequality, and the distribution of personal well-being, 1959-1989. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 3, Aug 1995. 379-405 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper uses new methods to determine the sources of the sharp fall and then the steep rise in [U.S.] personal income inequality between 1959 and 1989. The increase in the proportion of single-head families tended to boost inequality over the entire period. Forty percent of the reduction in income inequality in the 1960s occurred because of the decline in earnings inequality among male heads of families; more than one-third of the increase in inequality after 1969 occurred because inequality in male earnings soared. Since 1979 females' gains in earnings have increased inequality because these gains have been concentrated increasingly in families with high incomes."
Correspondence: L. A. Karoly, RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10591 Konrad, Kai A. Social security and strategic inter-vivos transfers of social capital. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 3, Aug 1995. 315-26 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper explains public provision of social capital in an overlapping generations model with `gerontocracy', without resort to any bequest motive. The old generation has an incentive to provide education and infrastructure because these goods shift the Laffer curve of social security taxation, thereby increasing old-age income in the political equilibrium. The incentive is stronger if population growth is larger. The marginal productivity of social capital in the political equilibrium may exceed or fall short of the marginal productivity of social capital in an efficient allocation."
Correspondence: K. A. Konrad, Free University of Berlin, Department of Economics, Boltzmannstrasse 20, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10592 Levy, Frank. Incomes and income inequality. In: State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume one: economic trends, edited by Reynolds Farley. 1995. 1-57 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author explores the question, "what has happened to [the U.S.] standard of living over the last two decades?...I discuss the distributions of male and female earnings, beginning with the macro- and microeconomic forces that shaped these distributions....I discuss the distributions of family and household incomes beginning with a review of demographic changes in household and family structure. This section also closes with a geographic look at the data....I extend the discussion into several areas that standard census data do not cover: the impact of fringe benefits and taxes, the details of the extreme upper tail of the income distribution, and the distribution of household wealth....[I describe] the experience of three broad income groups: the rich, the middle class, and the poor....I briefly trace the economic status of four demographic groups that crosscut income levels: children, the elderly, blacks, and Hispanics. [Then] I focus specifically on the post-1989 period and the `white collar recession,' a period that seems to run against the widening college-high school earnings gap...."
Correspondence: F. Levy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10593 Lloyd, Cynthia B. Household structure and poverty: what are the connections? Population Council Research Division Working Paper, Vol. 74, 1995. 37 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper assesses household structure and function as factors in the wellbeing or poverty of individuals. It explores the implications for the measurement of poverty of differences between the coresidential household and the sharing family....The remainder of the paper is devoted to three dimensions of household economics that affect the relationship between household structure and poverty: the determinants of household formation and affiliation, the existence of economic links between households, and the distribution of resources within households."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10594 Potts, Deborah. Shall we go home? Increasing urban poverty in African cities and migration processes. Geographical Journal, Vol. 161, No. 3, Nov 1995. 245-64 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The impact of economic decline in the 1980s, as well as that of IMF structural adjustment programs, on urban incomes in Africa is explored. The author notes that, in addition to devastating the real income of a large proportion of the urban population, "the gap between real rural incomes and real urban incomes has often narrowed considerably. It appears that the rate of urban growth in some African countries has slowed considerably, and there is also some evidence that new forms of `reverse migration' from urban to rural areas have occurred. An attempt will be made to assess this evidence, drawing on examples from different countries, including Zambia, Uganda and Tanzania."
Correspondence: D. Potts, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, Department of Geography, Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H 0XG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10595 Rendall, Michael S.; Speare, Alden. Elderly poverty alleviation through living with family. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 4, Nov 1995. 383-405 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"We estimate here the extent of United States elderly poverty alleviation through living with family. These estimates are motivated by public-policy concern about the well-being of the elderly, and by the relevance of the process for fertility under the old-age-security hypothesis. An inter-temporal poverty-measurement model is estimated with 1984 Survey of Income and Program Participation income and wealth data. Without extended-family co-residence, and assuming no bequests, poverty rates would increase 42% over observed rates. Female elderly account for almost all the alleviated poverty. As a population, their impoverishment with age is effectively prevented by co-residence. Proportionately more black than white elderly are beneficiaries of poverty alleviation through living with family, but white elderly are more likely to be beneficiaries if at risk."
Correspondence: M. S. Rendall, Cornell University, Department of Consumer Economics and Housing, Ithaca, NY 14853-4401. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10596 Schoeni, Robert F. Marital status and earnings in developed countries. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 4, Nov 1995. 351-9 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"When estimating earnings equations for men in the United States, a dichotomous variable for whether or not the man is currently married is often included as a regressor. The coefficient estimate for this variable is most usually large and significant. However, there is rarely much discussion of the marriage effect. This effect is central to this study, which contributes to the understanding of this statistical association in two ways. First, it shows that the relationship exists in almost all of the fourteen developed countries examined and across several different time periods. Controlling for age, and, when available, education, race/ethnicity, hours worked, and location, marriage differences in annual earnings in favor of currently married males range from 0% to 30%. Second, it finds that there are important differences between those who are separated, divorced, widowed, and never married."
Correspondence: R. F. Schoeni, RAND, Labor and Population Program, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10597 Thom, Linda H. How Thor tried to drain the magic drinking horn or why poverty increases in the United States. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 1, Sep 1995. 7-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the impact of immigration on poverty in the United States. She uses data for California and Texas to make the case that the United States needs to limit immigration if it wants to control poverty.
Correspondence: L. H. Thom, 1236 Camino Palomera, Santa Barbara, CA 93111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10598 Walker, Chip. The global middle class. American Demographics, Vol. 17, No. 9, Sep 1995. 40-6 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
This article examines the growth of a relatively affluent middle class in developing countries around the world, with reference to the opportunities that arise for U.S. businesses seeking new markets.
Correspondence: C. Walker, McCann-Erickson, 750 Third Avenue, New York, NY 14304. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10599 Weeks, John. Income distribution and its implications for migration in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Economic and demographic change in Africa, edited by Archie Mafeje and Samir Radwan. 1995. 63-83 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This chapter concerns the relationship between demographic trends and income distribution in Sub-Saharan Africa in a period characterized by economic stagnation or, in some cases, decline. The conventional wisdom concerning this relationship is first summarized, and shown no longer to apply to current conditions. The author then examines rural-urban differentials in income, and discusses the role that rural-urban migration plays. "The central argument of this chapter is that [Sub-Saharan Africa] is no longer characterized by wide income differentials between town and countryside or between urban worker and rural peasant."
Correspondence: J. Weeks, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, Department of Economics, Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H 0XG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

62:10600 Bradburn, Ellen M.; Moen, Phyllis; Dempster-McClain, Donna. Women's return to school following the transition to motherhood. Social Forces, Vol. 73, No. 4, Jun 1995. 1,517-51 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This study draws on a life course perspective and event history methods to analyze the factors affecting the rate of [U.S.] women's school reentry following marriage and motherhood. We use a panel data archive of women born between 1905 and 1933 who were married and had children at the time of their first interviews in 1956 and draw on life histories collected during a second interview in 1986. Key variables related to an increase in the rate of school reentry include higher levels of prior education, holding nontraditional gender-role orientations, and life course experiences such as divorce and part-time employment. Further, more recent cohorts of women are more likely to return to school than those born earlier in the century."
Correspondence: E. M. Bradburn, Coe College, Department of Sociology, 1220 First Avenue NE, Cedar Rapids, IA 52402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10601 Egidi, Viviana; Sabbadini, Linda L.; Zaccarin, Susanna. Women's roles between family and employment: empirical evidence from individual data. [Ruoli della donna tra famiglia e lavoro: evidenze empiriche da dati individuali.] Statistica, Vol. 54, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1994. 411-33 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"Status of women is generally recognised as a key variable in the analysis of demographic and social behaviour. Women's status is a multidimensional concept that arises from the complex interactions of different factors. In this paper, the links between women's individual characteristics and roles that women played are analysed by the means of a sequence of multivariate techniques. Data are taken from the Italian Multipurpose Survey and the roles of worker, wife and mother are considered."
Correspondence: V. Egidi, Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Via Cesare Balbo 11a, 00184 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10602 Farley, Reynolds. State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume two: social trends. 1990 Census Research Series, ISBN 0-87154-241-2. LC 94-40284. 1995. xvii, 377 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In two volumes, State of the Union: America in the 1990s offers a systematic, authoritative, and concise interpretation of what the 1990 census reveals about the American people today. This book, the second of the two volumes, builds a comparison with prior censuses and illuminates the social trends that have so greatly altered our lives....[It] examines the striking changes in American families and the rapid shifts in the country's racial and ethnic composition. Americans are marrying much later and divorcing more often, and increasing numbers of unmarried women are giving birth. These shifts have placed a growing proportion of children at risk of poverty. In glaring contrast, the elderly were the only group to make gains in the 1980s and are now healthier and more prosperous than ever before. The concentrated immigration of Asians and Hispanics to a few states and cities created extraordinary pockets of diversity within the population."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10603 Fielding, A. J. Migration and social change: a longitudinal study of the social mobility of "immigrants" in England and Wales. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1995. 107-21 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Data from the OPCS Longitudinal Study is used to examine the social mobility of `immigrants' in England and Wales between 1971 and 1981. Three issues are raised: (i) in what respects and to what degree do `immigrants' differ in their social mobility characteristics from the norm set by the population as a whole?; (ii) in what respects and to what degree do `immigrants' differ amongst themselves in their social mobility characteristics according to their country of origin?; and (iii) how do `second-generation immigrants' and recently-arrived immigrants differ in their social class locations from those who have been in the British labour market for a considerable length of time?"
Correspondence: A. J. Fielding, Ritsumeikan University, Faculty of Economics, Kyoto, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10604 Mare, Robert D. Changes in educational attainment and school enrollment. In: State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume one: economic trends, edited by Reynolds Farley. 1995. 155-213 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author "describes an important gender difference in [the] trend toward greater [U.S. educational] attainment: women, much more so than men, continued their enrollments and now statistically dominate the pool of recent college graduates....But racial differences remain large, since Asians and whites stay enrolled much longer than do Hispanics or blacks and thus get a large share of the advance degrees that lead to the best jobs and highest pay. On an optimistic note, [the author] reports about the rising scores of African Americans on standardized tests....Using an innovative approach with census data, [he] demonstrates that during the 1980s highly educated parents continued to transmit their advantages to their children, both by sending them to preschools and by encouraging their school enrollment in late adolescence."
Correspondence: R. D. Mare, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10605 Massey, Douglas S.; Hajnal, Zoltan L. The changing geographic structure of black-white segregation in the United States. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 76, No. 3, Sep 1995. 527-42 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The goal of this study is to measure black segregation at four geographic levels in the United States--state, county, city, and neighborhood--and to assess the changing geographic structure of segregation using census data from 1900 to 1990. The results indicate "a long-term trend away from macro-level segregation toward micro-level segregation....Whereas state-level and county-level segregation indexes fell from 1900 to 1970, neighborhood-level indexes rose. Beginning around 1950, municipal-level segregation began to increase as well, yielding a geographic pattern in which blacks and whites increasingly live in different cities as well as different neighborhoods."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10606 Meekers, Dominique; Gage, Anastasia; Li, Zhan. Preparing adolescents for adulthood: family life education and pregnancy-related school expulsion in Kenya. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1995. 91-110 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper, we use data from a sample of 154 Kenyan primary and secondary schools to study differentials in the extent to which various types of schools are affected by pregnancy-related school dropouts, and to examine the opinions of the head teachers regarding teaching about contraceptive methods and readmittance of pregnancy-related dropouts....The results from this study demonstrate that all types of schools are affected by pregnancy-related dropouts."
Correspondence: D. Meekers, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10607 Myers, Dowell; Wolch, Jennifer R. The polarization of housing status. In: State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume one: economic trends, edited by Reynolds Farley. 1995. 269-334 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Our task in this chapter is to describe [U.S.] housing dynamics in the 1980s....We focus primarily on the shelter situation of the population and the extent of the mismatch between shelter needs and the supply of dwelling units. As indicators of housing stress, we consider, sequentially, household formation rates, residential overcrowding, affordability, and homeownership rates. Then, as a means of providing an aggregate picture of housing status changes, we analyze changes experienced at both margins of the housing status distribution. Throughout, we emphasize the changing housing market experiences faced by different age groups, racial-ethnic groups, gender divisions, and other key demographic and socioeconomic cleavages."
Correspondence: D. Myers, University of Southern California, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10608 Rosenbaum, Emily. The making of a ghetto: spatially concentrated poverty in New York City in the 1980s. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1995. 1-27 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper utilizes a multivariate analysis to identify the processes underlying areal income-class transition in New York City during 1978-1987, and the areal characteristics that predict a consistent path of change. By anchoring the analysis at the level of the individual housing unit, this study disentangles the competing mechanisms of poverty concentration and demonstrates that both selective mobility and shifts in income class contribute to areal income-class transition, but that the latter mechanism accounts for a greater amount of change. Further, after controlling for the proportion of minority residents and public housing units in the area, the results show that location in poor areas is associated with poor in-movement, nonpoor out-movement, and downward shifts in the income class among long-term residents. These mutually reinforcing processes lead to continued decline in extreme- and high-poverty areas, while processes in the opposite direction sustain the economic vitality of low-poverty areas."
Correspondence: E. Rosenbaum, Fordham University, Department of Sociology, 407 Dealy Hall, 441 East Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10609 Shariff, Abusaleh. Socio-economic and demographic differentials between Hindus and Muslims in India. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 30, No. 46, Nov 18, 1995. 2,947-53 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the socio-economic and demographic data according to religion available from various censuses, [the] National Sample Survey and academic publications since the independence of India. Indicators such as the structure and levels of employment, of living and of education according to religion are discussed. The fertility and mortality indicators, distribution and growth of population are also presented. The paper emphasises the need to strengthen the data [base] which would allow a study of ethnic and religious differentials in socio-economic and educational achievements."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:10610 Sufian, Abu J. M. Socioeconomic determinants of crowding inside home in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: a comparative analysis. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 16, 1994. 57-63 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"To explore the relationship between...socioeconomic factors and...crowding inside [the] home, measured as the average number of persons per room in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, two groups of families--Saudis, and non-Saudis--were examined by employing the dummy regression technique. For both Saudis and non-Saudis, the number of living children and income are significantly related with the number of persons per room. The other explanatory variable of significance, but only for Saudis, is the husband's occupation."
Correspondence: A. J. M. Sufian, King Faisal University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10611 Tucker, C. Jack; Long, Larry; Marx, Jonathan. Seasonality of children's residential mobility: a research note. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1995. 205-13 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Parents are often advised to schedule changes of residence for the summer so that children do not change schools during the regular school year. But very little research has been done on seasonality of children's moves and whether families that move `off season' differ from those that move in the summer. The child supplement to the 1988 [U.S.] National Health Interview Survey offers an opportunity to examine the degree of seasonality of children's mobility and to analyze characteristics that increase or decrease the probability of moving during the summer months. We find that many variables included in studies of differential mobility exhibit seasonal effects, but in a multivariate model age of child (beyond 7 or 8 years old), long-distance moves, a highly educated mother, and race that is not Black most strongly raise the odds of moving in the summer."
Correspondence: C. J. Tucker, Winthrop University, Department of Sociology, 320 Kinard Building, Rock Hill, SC 29773. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

62:10612 Alba, Richard D.; Denton, Nancy A.; Leung, Shu-yin J.; Logan, John R. Neighborhood change under conditions of mass immigration: the New York City region, 1970-1990. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, Fall 1995. 625-56 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article investigates the shifting racial and ethnic composition of neighborhoods in the Greater New York metropolitan region in the 1970-1990 period, during which the region has been one of the nation's major receiving grounds for new immigrant groups. Neighborhoods are defined in terms of census tracts, and changes in neighborhood composition are tracked with data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 censuses. Four racial/ethnic groups are considered: non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics and Asians. The analysis, which exploits the neighborhood transition table...,reveals a somewhat paradoxical set of developments. On the one hand, there is increasing racial and ethnic complexity in neighborhoods throughout the region: more and more neighborhoods contain multiple groups; fewer and fewer are ethnically or racially homogeneous. On the other hand, there is a crosscutting trend: all-minority neighborhoods, occupied by blacks or blacks and Hispanics, are growing in number. We demonstrate further that these two patterns are associated with other characteristics of neighborhoods, such as the median incomes of their households and whether they are located in cities or suburbs."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. D. Alba, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10613 Haberman, Steven; Schmool, Marlena. Estimates of the British Jewish population 1984-88. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A: Statistics in Society, Vol. 158, No. 3, 1995. 547-62 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"During the 20th century, estimates of the British Jewish population have been obtained by applying appropriate death-rates to communal mortality data. This death-rate method has become increasingly sophisticated with respect to the death-rates used. The exercise reported here covers more than 22,000 deaths recorded in the community over the 5-year period [1984-1988]....An estimate of 308,000 is suggested for the community, in which deaths-related data are augmented by information about births within the community."
Correspondence: S. Haberman, City University, Department of Actuarial Science and Statistics, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:10614 Hansen, Kristin A.; Bachu, Amara. The foreign-born population: 1994. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 486, Aug 1995. 5 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors describe selected characteristics of the foreign-born population in the United States in 1994. Data are presented on spatial distribution, year of entry, country of birth, age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, fertility, education, labor force status, income, poverty status, and home ownership.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10615 Harrison, Roderick J.; Bennett, Claudette E. Racial and ethnic diversity. In: State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume two: social trends, edited by Reynolds Farley. 1995. 141-210 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors describe the "heterogeneous racial and ethnic minorities [in the United States] in 1990. They stress the rapid growth of minority populations vis-a-vis the white population. But they point out that the rapidly growing Asian and Hispanic populations are geographically concentrated, so the shift away from numerical dominance by whites is occurring in some places but not in others. They address the question of whether today's minorities will replicate the highly successful assimilation process of the European immigrants who came to the United States between 1880 and the early 1920s. They conclude that this may happen for some groups, including Asians, but will probably not occur for others, especially for African Americans and for American Indians."
Correspondence: R. J. Harrison, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10616 Kosmin, Barry A.; Scheckner, Jeffrey. Jewish population in the United States, 1994. In: American Jewish year book, 1995, edited by David Singer and Ruth R. Selden. ISBN 0-87495-108-9. LC 99-4040. 1995. 181-206 pp. American Jewish Committee: New York, New York. In Eng.
Estimates of the Jewish population of the United States for 1994 are presented by state, metropolitan statistical area, and community. The total Jewish population for the country is estimated to be 5.9 million.
Correspondence: American Jewish Committee, American Jewish Year Book, 165 East 56th Street, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (DR).

62:10617 Mora Bernasconi, Carlos. The national census and indigenous Amazonian groups. [El censo nacional y los grupos indigenas amazonicos.] Revista Peruana de Poblacion, No. 4, 1994. 9-40 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author uses data from the 1981 Peruvian census to determine the size and characteristics of the indigenous population of the Amazon region. "The document includes a series of graphs and tables comparing ethnic group, province and district categories, which could constitute a first data base and an important source of comparison with information coming from the recent (1993) census."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10618 Mutlu, Servet. Population of Turkey by ethnic groups and provinces. New Perspectives on Turkey, No. 12, Spring 1995. 33-60 pp. Istanbul, Turkey. In Eng.
"The principal objective of this paper...is to estimate the number of Kurds in Turkey and their spatial distribution....The ethnically Kurdish component of the population has increased from 3.132 million in 1965 to 7.046 million in 1990. This very substantial increase has been due to high fertility, which is a characteristic of agrarian or recently agrarian societies...coupled with falling mortality, a typical case of demographic transition....Perhaps more importantly, the massive population movements during the last two decades have spatially redistributed the Kurds."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10619 Oyarce, Ana M.; Schkolnik, Susana. The Mapuche population: a multidisciplinary investigation of indigenous communities in Chile. [Los mapuches: una investigacion multidisciplinaria en reducciones indigenas de Chile.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 23, No. 61, Jun 1995. 211-39 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The main purpose of this document is to present a multidisciplinary research experience [concerning] the mapuche population living in indigenous communities in Chile. The project was developed in three stages. The first one was a preliminary overview of the demographic characteristics and living conditions of the population in the indigenous communities in the Araucania Region....In the second stage an experimental census was carried out in four districts in the area of Temuco, Cautin province. Information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as cultural and mother and child care data was collected. The third stage was an in-depth case study of the risk factors related to infant mortality."
Correspondence: A. M. Oyarce, Universidad de la Frontera, Programa de Apoyo y Extension en Salud Materno Infantil, Avenida Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10620 Spickard, Paul R.; Fong, Rowena. Pacific Islander Americans and multiethnicity: a vision of America's future? Social Forces, Vol. 73, No. 4, Jun 1995. 1,365-83 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Americans are rapidly becoming an ethnically plural people. Not only are there many different peoples in the U.S., but a sharply increasing number of individuals are coming to have and to recognize multiple ethnic strains within themselves....Drawing on survey data and interviews as well as literary sources, this article analyzes the features of Pacific Islander American multiethnic identity: it is situational; individuals commonly simplify their ethnicity in practical living; and people with multiple ancestries are admitted to group membership on much the same basis as people with single ancestries. The bases of Pacific Islander American ethnicity include ancestry, family, practice, and place."
Correspondence: P. R. Spickard, Brigham Young University--Hawaii, Division of Social Sciences, Laie, HI 96762. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.