Volume 62 - Number 1 - Spring 1996

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

62:10460 Baizan, Pau. A theoretical exploration of the interactions between migration and household formation. PDOD Paper, No. 30, May 1995. 14 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The present contribution is part of a research project which aims to document and explain intercohort changes in the transition behaviour from adolescence to adulthood in contemporary Spain....This paper explores the role of spatial mobility during this transition period. The focus is on the determinants and mechanisms involved in the interaction between household formation and migration of individuals."
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10461 Bideau, Alain; Foroni, Fabrice; Brunet, Guy. Migration and the life course: mobility in Haut Bugey (France) during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1995. 127-38 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"In order to study geographical mobility at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, we construct the biography of two cohorts of individuals born in the villages of Chezery and Forens during the periods 1871-1880 and 1901-1910. We seek to define the boundaries of emigration from that area and look for successive migrations. Movers are identified in the census schedules of a set of 580 communes surrounding the place of birth. Migration is studied according to sex, age, familial history and individual activity; and the features of movers and stayers are compared."
Correspondence: A. Bideau, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, University of Lyons, Lyons, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10462 Bilac, Elisabete D. Gender, family and international migration. [Genero, familia y migraciones internacionales.] Revista de la OIM sobre Migraciones en America Latina/IOM Latin American Migration Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1995. 3-20 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
This article examines issues concerning gender, class, and ethnic group in the context of migration studies, with particular reference to the participation of women in migration. Two main questions are considered: "(a) to what extent do the prevailing models, strongly influenced by the stereotype of the young, male migrant, recognize the differences introduced by gender, or the differences in gender system which can vary according to ethnic group; [and] (b) if these principles of social organization--class, gender, ethnic group--are forces which influence all levels of social life, to what extent is it possible to develop the relationships between the micro and the macro levels in an integrated model." The geographical focus is on Latin America.
Correspondence: E. D. Bilac, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Caixa Postal 6166, CEP 13081 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10463 Delbruck, Christopher; Raffelhuschen, Bernd. The theory of migration. [Die Theorie der Migration.] Jahrbucher fur Nationalokonomie und Statistik, Vol. 212, No. 3-4, Sep 1993. 341-56 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The present and expected migration flows in Europe require a detailed analysis of determinants and elements of migration decisions. This survey encompasses a view on classical--labor market and demand side oriented--theories, the more recent human capital approach as well as on migration under asymmetric information. Since these theories so far yield an unsatisfactory basis for description and forecasting of multilateral migration flows, a closer look at empirical methods of migration research is taken. Consequently, a description of possible policy oriented applications of the gravity model and the random utility approach, with their descriptive and normative characteristics, is given."
Correspondence: C. Delbruck, Christian-Albrechts-Universitat, Institut fur Finanzwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik, Olshausenstrasse 40, 24098 Kiel 1, Germany. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10464 Domenach, Herve; Guillon, Michelle. Latin America. [Amerique Latine.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1995. 208 pp. Universite de Poitiers: Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This is a collection of nine articles by various authors on aspects of migration in Latin America. The countries covered include Mexico, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Argentina. The primary focus is on international migration.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Universite de Poitiers, 95 avenue du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10465 Frey, William H. Poverty migration for U.S. states: immigration impacts. In: American Statistical Association 1994 Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1995?]. 135-40 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Analyses in this paper will employ tabulations of the full migration (`residence 5 years ago question') sample of the 1990 [U.S.] census to address the following questions: (1). How do the magnitudes of poverty population out-migration from High Immigration States compare with those for States with relatively small numbers of immigrants? (2). How does a State's immigration level affect its internal poverty migration when other social and economic migration determinants are taken into account?"
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10466 Gaal, Gergely; Xu, Yan Yi. Socioeconomic changes and migration in China. [Gazdasagi-tarsadalmi valtozasok es a migracio Kinaban.] Demografia, Vol. 38, No. 2-3, 1995. 203-12 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
Current migration trends in China are reviewed, with particular focus on the socioeconomic factors affecting migration, such as the change from a controlled to a market economy. Both the positive and the negative effects of current trends are explored, and policy options discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10467 Hansen, Kristin A. Geographical mobility: March 1993 to March 1994. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 485, Aug 1995. xvii, 166, [25] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report provides detailed statistics on the geographic mobility of Americans based on data collected in the March 1994 Current Population Survey (CPS). Mobility status was determined by asking respondents whether or not they lived in the same house or apartment 1 year earlier. Those who did not (movers) were asked the name of the State, county, and place (city or town) where they lived in March of 1993. The answers were then compared to the respondent's current location. Residential changes are first categorized as moves within the same county, between counties in the same State, and between States; movers from abroad are tallied separately."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10468 Hoddinott, John. A model of migration and remittances applied to western Kenya. Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 46, No. 3, Jul 1994. 459-76 pp. New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Existing models treat migration as either an individual or household decision. In this paper migration is modeled as the outcome of joint utility maximisation by the prospective migrant and other household members. This approach encompasses the Todaro and household models as special cases of a more general model. It provides a theoretical rationale for the inclusion of a richer set of explanatory variables in an econometric model of migration. Further, it links the determinants of migration with existing work on remittances. Empirical evidence from a rural household survey in western Kenya provides support for the model."
Correspondence: J. Hoddinott, University of Oxford, Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford 0X2 6QA, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10469 Lambert, Sylvie. Migration as a way to spread risk within a family. The example of the Ivory Coast. [La migration comme instrument de diversification intrafamiliale des risques. Application au cas de la Cote-d'Ivoire.] Revue d'Economie du Developpement, No. 2, Jun 1994. 3-38 pp. Evry, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper we look at migration as a family decision of risk-sharing. The theoretical model is based on the maximisation of a joint utility function under a budget constraint which depends on the decision taken. To assess its relevance, an empirical version of this dichotomous model is estimated. Evidence from [an Ivory Coast case study] confirms some traditionally looked-at motives for migration and supports the idea of risk-sharing behaviour."
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10470 Szasz, Ivonne. Migration and social gender relations: the anthropological perspective. [Migracion y relaciones sociales de genero: aportes de la perspectiva antropologica.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1994. 129-50, 268-9 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article reviews Mexican research of female migration. An analysis is made of socio-demographic and anthropological studies that cover the relations between inequality among the genders, the causes and features of migration, and the work performed by female migrants in their places of origin and destination. The paper responds to the growing interest shown in international literature [on] migration in order to determine the influence of gender identity in the motivations and features of the migration of women, as well as the consequences of spatial mobility on their social conditions and their autonomy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10471 Vandsemb, Berit H. The place of narrative in the study of third world migration: the case of spontaneous rural migration in Sri Lanka. Professional Geographer, Vol. 47, No. 4, Nov 1995. 411-25 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Studies of migration in geography have most often been based on quantitative research approaches. Such studies cannot adequately shed light on the contextuality of migration and the individual decision-making processes involved. Personal narratives express individual experiences within a social context. The story of `Amma', a female rural migrant in Sri Lanka, shows the role of women in migration, the importance of family ties, the contextual causes of migration, and characteristics of the migration flow per se. Personal narratives have an underutilized potential of capturing the variety of migrants' experiences and the complexity of the decision to migrate."
Correspondence: B. H. Vandsemb, University of Trondheim, Department of Geography, 7055 Dragvoll, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

62:10472 Yousif, Hassan M. Some socio-demographic aspects of rural labour markets and labour migration in Gezira (Sudan). In: Economic and demographic change in Africa, edited by Archie Mafeje and Samir Radwan. 1995. 84-108 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
In this chapter, the author analyzes the socio-demographic characteristics of rural households in the Sudan, using data from the Gezira Village Census of 1981 and the 1980 Cotton Harvest Labour Survey. The focus is on the relationship between the survival of rural households and the availability of land and labor. "The principal objective is to relate rural labour market conditions to the survival of rural households. Then the chapter tackles some aspects of labour migration and its effects on labour-force participation, especially female labour-force participation. Finally, the chapter explores some of the socio-demographic and dynamic aspects of seasonal migration...."
Correspondence: H. M. Yousif, University of Gezira, Population Studies Centre, P.O. Box 20, Wad Medani, 2667 Khartoum, Sudan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

62:10473 Amankwaa, Adansi A. The world economic system and international migration in less developed countries: an ecological approach. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1995. 93-114 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper analysed net migration within the context of [the] world economic system and urban ecological framework using the structural equation model." The author "employs linear structural equation modelling to examine determinants of international migration, using data from the World Bank World Tables, World Development Reports and the World Bank."
Correspondence: A. A. Amankwaa, Florida Department of Corrections, Tallahassee, FL. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10474 Appleyard, Reginald T.; Stahl, Charles W.; Nagayama, Toshikazu. Migration and the family. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 1995. 195-447 pp. Scalabrini Migration Center: Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This issue of APMJ examines international migration from broad, interdisciplinary perspectives, with particular focus on the family and women. The articles were originally presented as papers at Nihon University International Conference on Work and Family Life of International Migrant Workers, held December 5-7, 1995, in Tokyo."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Scalabrini Migration Center, P.O. Box 10541 Broadway Centrum, 1113 Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10475 Baker, Michael; Benjamin, Dwayne. The receipt of transfer payments by immigrants to Canada. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 30, No. 4, Fall 1995. 650-76 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Using the native born as a benchmark, we examine immigrants' reliance on Canada's social safety net....We find that immigrants have lower participation rates in Unemployment Insurance and Social Assistance than natives. We also find that `assimilation' leads to greater participation in both these programs....More recent immigrant cohorts have higher recipiency rates than their predecessors....The results for Social Assistance contrast with U.S. evidence that the raw entry participation rates of many immigrant cohorts exceed the native rates. Finally, our analysis of rent subsidies...[shows that] immigrants initially have higher rates of participation which fall with assimilation."
Correspondence: M. Baker, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

62:10476 Basavarajappa, K. G.; Beaujot, R. P.; Samuel, T. J. Impact of migration in the receiving countries: Canada. ISBN 92-9068-037-7. 1993. [x], 95 pp. International Organization for Migration [IOM]: Geneva, Switzerland; Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
This is one in a series of monographs on the impact of international migration on receiving countries. This report concerns Canada. It includes chapters on trends and patterns in international migration affecting the country, and on the demographic, social, cultural, and economic impacts of migration. A final chapter examines policy issues.
Correspondence: International Organization for Migration, 17 route des Morillons, P.O. Box 71, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10477 Baubock, Rainer. From aliens to citizens: redefining the status of immigrants in Europe. Public Policy and Social Welfare, Vol. 17, ISBN 1-85972-059-5. 1994. xiii, 234 pp. Avebury: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England; European Centre: Vienna, Austria. In Eng.
This volume contains a selection of the papers presented at an international workshop held in Vienna, Austria, November 5-6, 1993. The papers examine such issues as the legal status of immigrants, naturalization, the definition of citizenship, the implications of the development of the European Union, dual citizenship, and the relevance of the experience of Australia and Canada. Other questions examined include which amount of cultural adaption is appropriate in naturalization, what host countries can reasonably expect from immigrants and what immigrants can legitimately expect from them in return, and whether a new concept of citizenship based on permanent residence is required.
Correspondence: Avebury Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hants GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10478 Birrell, Bob. Policy implications of recent migration patterns. People and Place, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1995. 32-40 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
The author examines changing trends in migration in Australia and possible policy implications. "There have been sharp recent increases in the arrivals of Independent, and spouse and fiance(e) category migrants. In both cases, the likely outcome from the point of view of costs to the Australian community are canvassed and policy implications reviewed."
Correspondence: B. Birrell, Monash University, Department of Sociology, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10479 Bocker, Anita. Chain migration over legally closed borders: settled immigrants as bridgeheads and gatekeepers. Netherlands Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 30, No. 2, Dec 1994. 87-106 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article analyses the role of kinship networks in the migration of Turks to the Netherlands. It focuses on the adaptations of Turkish immigrants and prospective migrants to the Dutch admittance policy, which has gradually become more restrictive since the end of the 1960s. The first part of the article examines the literature on chain migration. The second part presents some of the findings of a small-scale study on Turkish migrants in the Netherlands and their relatives in Turkey."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10480 Bodega, Isabel; Cebrian, Juan A.; Franchini, Teresa; Lora-Tamayo, Gloria; Martin-Lou, Asuncion. Recent migrations from Morocco to Spain. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, Fall 1995. 800-19 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This study addressed the problem of the Moroccan immigration into Spain within the context of South-North movements, focusing on analyzing provisional data from the last immigrant regularization in the country completed during the end months of 1991."
Correspondence: I. Bodega, Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10481 Bohning, W. R.; Oishi, Nana. Is international economic migration spreading? International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, Fall 1995. 794-9 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Are the numbers of migrants growing? Proof is hard to come by--many countries' statistics do not provide reliable data for legal migration; most countries do not have good estimates for illegal migration; quite a few have no useable data at all, especially migrant-sending countries. We make use of an alternative yardstick, which over a period of time compares the number of countries that receive foreigners who are economically active or that are these persons' countries of origin....Our yardstick includes only countries of a minimum population size fixed in terms of a comparable population base in the years 1970 and 1990."
Correspondence: W. R. Bohning, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10482 Boleda, Mario. Latin America, land of emigration: the process approach to net migration. [L'Amerique Latine terre d'emigration: approche des processus par la migration nette.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1995. 35-46 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this paper, the author deals with migration in America since 1950, focusing on the emigration process from Latin America. For this purpose, the analysis is based upon net migration rates that can be obtained by indirect methods. At the beginning, data are provided by continents, then the analysis focuses on 25 Latin American countries."
Correspondence: M. Boleda, Universidad de Salta, Grupo de Estudios Socio-Demograficos, Casilla 4, Correo Central, 4400 Salta, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10483 Bruni, Michele; Venturini, Alessandra. Pressure to migrate and propensity to emigrate: the case of the Mediterranean Basin. International Labour Review, Vol. 134, No. 3, 1995. 377-400 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Pressure to migrate and the propensity to emigrate are terms increasingly encountered in the literature on international migration....The present article seeks first to clarify what interpretation can or should be given to these terms and to point out the limits to their applicability. Recognizing that this terminology originated in genuine attempts to respond to specific analytical needs, the article seeks to meet those same needs by introducing the concept of migration potential and by redefining that of propensity to emigrate....The analysis ends with a section devoted to migration policies, with particular reference to the countries in the Mediterranean Basin."
Correspondence: M. Bruni, Universita degli Studi, Via Universita 4, 41100 Modena, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

62:10484 Carlson, Alvar W. America's new immigration: characteristics, destinations, and impact, 1970-1989. Social Science Journal, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1994. 213-36 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Recent foreign immigration has become a major factor not only in contributing to America's population growth, but also in creating greater diversity among its people. Since the enactment of the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments, most immigrants are coming from new sources in Asia and Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in the policies that have allowed these new immigrants [to arrive], the immigrants' characteristics, and destinations within America. Current policies will lead to a significant decline in the country's percentage of Euroamericans and a corresponding increase in the population categorized as minorities....With record numbers of Asian, particularly South and East Asians, and Latin American immigrants arriving annually, America's metropolitan areas are increasingly expected to accommodate them. Consequently, rapid racial and ethnic diversity is developing in these urban centers while most rural areas remain populated largely by Euroamericans."
Correspondence: A. W. Carlson, Bowling Green State University, Department of Geography, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0217. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:10485 Celton, Dora E. More than a century of international immigration into Argentina. [Plus d'un siecle d'immigration internationale en Argentine.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1995. 145-65 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"From the second half of the 19th century, Argentina was, along with the United States and Brazil, one of the main destinations that attracted European emigration to America....The arrival of more that six million people between 1869 and 1930 resulted in radical changes in the socioeconomic structure of the country. After the crisis of the 1930s the impact of a development plan based on the export of agricultural products waned and the economic growth accompanied with political instability generated a slowing decline of migratory flows, despite a new wave between 1945 and 1952. The decrease of international migration comes along with an important change in the composition by places of origin....The article analyses the successive migratory policies of Argentina's government as well as the migrants' spatial distribution and their incorporation in the labor market."
Correspondence: D. E. Celton, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10486 Chen, Shyh-jer. Migrant selectivity and returns to skills: the case of Taiwanese immigrants in the United States. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1995. 251-74 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the selection of international migration from Taiwan to the United States in terms of the skills and abilities of emigrants. Micro data from Taiwan and the U.S. are used to test Borjas' self-selection model (1987)....Based on the assumption that emigrants choose to move to the destination that can maximize their expected lifetime earnings and provide higher returns to their human capital, Heckman (1979) developed a two-stage method that allows one to correct the problem of selectivity bias and to estimate directions of the selection on the basis of observed characteristics (the levels of skills or education) and unobserved characteristics (innate ability or motivation) for both emigrants and non-emigrants."
Correspondence: S.-j. Chen, University of Illinois, Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, Champaign, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10487 Chiswick, Barry R.; Sullivan, Teresa A. The new immigrants. In: State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume two: social trends, edited by Reynolds Farley. 1995. 211-70 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This chapter uses data from the 1990 Census of Population to explicate the demographic, social, and economic circumstances of the foreign-born population of the United States." Sections are included on immigration, law, and diversity (trends over time and migrant origins); immigrants' residence characteristics and citizenship (local impact, children and education, seniors, and naturalization); the skills of immigrants (education, language, and school enrollment); immigrants and the labor market; household structure, marital status, and fertility; immigrant income (earnings, public assistance, household income, and poverty); and the consequences of immigration.
Correspondence: B. R. Chiswick, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, Box 4348 University Hall, Chicago, IL 60607-7121. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10488 Corona Vazquez, Rodolfo. The migration of Mexicans to the United States: changes in the decade 1980-1990. [La migracion de Mexicanos a los Estados Unidos: cambios en la decada de 1980-1990.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 55, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1993. 213-33 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The study indicates certain differences in the amount and characteristics of Mexican migration to the United States in the period from 1964-1980 and from 1980-1990. Entry procedures to the United States, migrants' places of origin and destiny, their occupation in both Mexico and the United States, and the length of their stay there are analyzed. Migrants' age and relocation costs are also studied, although emphasis is placed on the need to systematize data from a conceptual and methodological point of view."
Correspondence: R. Corona Vazquez, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10489 Cortes, Genevieve. Rural emigration in the inter-Andean valleys of Bolivia. [L'emigration rurale dans les vallees inter-andines de Bolivie.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1995. 113-29 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Inscribed within an ancient national tradition, rural emigration in the interandean valleys of Bolivia is gaining importance. The country's contemporary crises and the immigration policies of the host countries maintain the flux trend towards Argentina while enabling new destination targets: the United States, and more recently Israel and Japan. In these Bolivian lands, the emigration derived income provides the driving force of family economies and triggers development of the local territory. At the same time, emigration induces a process of socio-economic differentiation in peasant communities which weakens the food-system and increases family nutritional risks in the populations marginal to this migration system. In addition to these mutations there is a strong sociocultural destructuring which affects community-cohesion in local societies."
Correspondence: G. Cortes, 11 rue de Terrare, 34000 Montpellier, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10490 Dumont, Gerard-Francois. International migration: the new logic of migration. [Les migrations internationales: les nouvelles logiques migratoires.] Mobilite Spatiale, ISBN 2-7181-9429-4. 1995. 223 pp. SEDES: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general review of international migration at the global level, and of the factors that affect migration trends. The author describes the various forms that international migration takes and gives examples of each type. He also analyzes various causes of migration, including political factors, recent geopolitical changes, economic factors, the revolution in transport and communications, and recent demographic changes. Finally, the author describes some of the contemporary migration trends that are affecting the demographic composition of various populations around the world.
Correspondence: Editions SEDES, 88 boulevard Saint-Germain, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10491 Enchautegui, Maria E. Impacts of immigrants on employment and wage growth: evidence of positive effects of U.S. immigration. In: American Statistical Association 1994 Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1995?]. 30-8 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
Evidence is presented from previous research that the impact of U.S. immigration on the wages of native workers is positive. The author suggests that immigrants create more jobs than natives in the areas where they locate, that wages of natives grow more in areas of high immigration, and that immigration improves the wages of Anglo women in particular.
Correspondence: M. E. Enchautegui, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10492 Escobar Latapi, Agustin. Restructuring in Mexico and the United States and international migration. [Reestructuracion en Mexico y Estados Unidos y migracion internacional.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1995. 73-95 pp. Poitiers, France. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article relates some of the new trends in Mexican migration to the United States to the various moments, forms and intensities of restructuring in both countries. It states that the new forms of precarious employment in Mexico have to do not just with the size of migrant flows and migrants' socioeconomic characteristics, but with the responses of host populations. It ends by stating that Mexican migrants will become more and more irritating to middle class Americans if the types of jobs being created in Mexico do not change."
Correspondence: A. Escobar Latapi, CIESAS, OCCIDENT, Amado Nervo 201, Lardron de Guevara C.P. 44650, Guadalajara, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10493 Espenshade, Thomas J. Unauthorized immigration to the United States. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 21, 1995. 195-216 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"This paper surveys research on the size of the undocumented immigrant population in the United States, the causes and consequences of illegal migrant flows, public attitudes toward unauthorized migrants, and the history of attempts to control the volume of undocumented migration. It concludes that there are powerful push and pull factors that create and sustain the volume of unauthorized migration, that there is little evidence that undocumented migrants have negative labor market consequences despite what the general public thinks, that U.S. policy has been largely powerless to make a permanent dent in undocumented immigration, and that the current level of clandestine U.S. immigration may not be far from what society might view as socially optimal."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

62:10494 Fix, Michael; Passel, Jeffrey S.; Enchautegui, Maria E.; Zimmermann, Wendy. Immigration and immigrants: setting the record straight. May 1994. vii, 104 pp. Urban Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a general introduction to issues concerning immigration in the United States. "Chapter I of the report provides an overview for readers exploring immigration issues. Chapter II summarizes the policy context by reviewing the principal substantive areas of immigration and immigrant policy. Chapter III profiles the immigrant population. Chapter IV reports what is known about the labor market effects of immigrants, summarizing the evidence on wage and displacement effects for the population as a whole and for important population groups (low-wage workers, African Americans, and recent immigrants). Chapter V explores the public sector impacts of immigrants. Chapter VI summarizes the themes laid out in the report and highlights several areas of concern for future immigrant integration and immigration policy."
Correspondence: Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10495 Gokdere, Ahmet. An evaluation of Turkey's recent migration flows and stocks. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 16, 1994. 29-56 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
The author examines recent migration trends in Turkey, with a focus on employment rates and economic development. Sections are included on annual migration rates, Turkish workers and nationals abroad, distribution by host country, new migration destinations, unemployment abroad, return migration, naturalization, remittances, and migration policy.
Correspondence: A. Gokdere, Ankara University, Law School, Tandogan, 06100 Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10496 Harner, John P. Continuity amidst change: undocumented Mexican migration to Arizona. Professional Geographer, Vol. 47, No. 4, Nov 1995. 399-411 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines geographic patterns of undocumented Mexican migration to Arizona, utilizing Immigration and Naturalization Service records of deportable Mexican aliens. The analysis uses a comparison with known patterns for other destination states, as well as with historical information on Mexican migration to Arizona. The results reveal the importance of Arizona's unique historical connections with Mexico in formulating networks, which build on regional ties with Sonora and the greater Mexican northwest. Results also support the emergence of new migration systems, particularly the link with internal migration within Mexico through redistributor cities and migrant origins from outside of traditional sending areas."
Correspondence: J. P. Harner, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287-0104. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

62:10497 Hatton, Timothy J. A model of U.K. emigration, 1870-1913. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 77, No. 3, Aug 1995. 407-15 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper develops a simple time series model of emigration and applies it to data for emigration from the United Kingdom, 1870-1913. The model is derived from a microeconomic analysis of the migration decision and provides a specific functional form and dynamic structure. It encompasses and explains many of the empirical findings of earlier research on the determinants of emigration over this historical period. The results support the model strongly in most respects. Both wage rates and employment rates in the sending and in the receiving countries influenced fluctuations in emigration. The short-run fluctuations were driven largely by variations in employment rates while the long-run level of emigration was determined largely by the relative wage."
Correspondence: T. J. Hatton, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:10498 Hatton, Timothy J.; Williamson, Jeffrey G. Migration and the international labor market, 1850-1939. ISBN 0-415-10768-7. LC 94-3975. 1994. xii, 295 pp. Routledge: London, England. In Eng.
"This volume concentrates on the two central aspects of international migration--the forces which cause it and its economic impact. The contributors are drawn from a wide range of countries representing both the Old and the New Worlds. Each of them examines and tests the validity of migration theories in the historical setting. In some cases migration is viewed from a comparative perspective--an approach which is facilitated by new data on internationally comparable real wages. The authors also look at the responsiveness of migration from different countries to international wage differentials and the degree of international labor market integration. A number of chapters go on to examine the impact of migration on real wage growth and economic convergence between original and destination countries."
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:10499 Huddle, Donald L. A critique of the Urban Institute's claims of cost free immigration: early findings confirmed. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 6, Jul 1995. 507-19 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This text addresses the critiques from the Urban Institute and other immigrant advocacy groups concerning the findings of an earlier study, `The Cost of Immigration' released in the summer of 1993. That study showed that the public costs associated with immigrants settling [in the United States] since 1970 amounted, in 1992, to $42.5 billion more in services and assistance than the $20.2 billion which immigrants paid in taxes (Huddle, 1993). The updated assessment takes into account previously unavailable figures and revises some methods and assumptions used in the earlier work. The updated bottom line is fully consistent with initial findings on immigrant costs for 1992."
Correspondence: D. L. Huddle, Rice University, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10500 Hugo, Graeme. International labor migration and the family: some observations from Indonesia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 1995. 273-301 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article addresses two dimensions of the complex interrelationship between the family and international labor migration in Indonesia: the role of the family in influencing labor movements out of Indonesia; and the consequences of this movement on family well-being, structure and functioning....Against a rapidly changing economic and social situation, two major overlapping systems of migration have developed. The official system is focused strongly on the Middle East (although other Asian destinations are increasing in significance) and is dominated by female migrants. The undocumented system is much larger in volume, is focused upon Malaysia, involves more males than females and is becoming permanent in some cases. The role, status and experiences of women migrants in relation to their families (decision making, networks, remittances) are discussed with recommendations for other areas needing further research attention."
Correspondence: G. Hugo, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10501 Humphrey, Michael. Migrants, workers and refugees: the political economy of population movements in the Middle East. Middle East Report, No. 181, Mar-Apr 1993. 2-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author investigates causes and consequences of migratory movements in the Middle East. "Two factors--integration into the world labor market and the fragility of integration within the separate states--largely explain why conflicts in the Middle East have in recent years produced the greatest refugee flows of any region in the world....The crisis of the secular nation-state in the Middle East will continue as states become either politically or economically more dependent on outside protection or assistance. The challenge by Islamist movements is also likely to undermine national cohesion by politicizing religious identity."
Correspondence: M. Humphrey, University of New South Wales, Department of Sociology, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

62:10502 Italy. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica [ISTAT] (Rome, Italy). Foreigners in Italy: statistical sources. [Gli stranieri in Italia: fonti statistiche.] Note e Relazioni, No. 4, 1993. 63 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This is a review of available offficial data sources concerning the foreign population currently residing in Italy. These sources are used to present estimates of the foreign population by region.
Correspondence: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Via Cesare Balbo 11a, 00184 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10503 Khaled, Louhichi. Migration and women's status: the Jordan case. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1995. 235-50 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The objective of this study is to investigate repercussions of the husband's migration on the status of the wife left behind. Aspects covered include the wife's participation in decision-making, especially decisions that were previously the husband's responsibility such as management of the family's finances and authority; family structure and space independence; inter-family relationships including the wife's perceptions about her relationship with her husband, children and other family members; and the nature and extent of women's economic roles in and out of the home. Some attention is also given to the schooling of children....The results...relate to a survey conducted on a nationally representative sample in Jordan, followed by direct observations on a limited number of migrant households."
Correspondence: L. Khaled, League of Arab States, Population Research Unit, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10504 Kim, Won Bae. Regional interdependence and migration in Asia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 1995. 347-65 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The 1980s witnessed increasing regional interdependence in Asia through trade and investment. Increasing flows of labor within the region, however, raise questions about three important issues: (1) the assumption that trade, investment and aid will eventually mitigate migration pressure in source countries and the effectiveness of migration policies based on that assumption; (2) whether increasing regional interdependence stimulates or deters migration; [and] (3) the effect of rising interdependence on the political and international relations aspects of migration. As a partial attempt to address these questions, this article examines the regional pattern of economic interdependence by utilizing information concerning trade, investment and migration flows. The concept of interdependence/dependence is discussed within a political context, focusing on migration and policy responses to it. Observations are made on the implications for regional stability and development."
Correspondence: W. B. Kim, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10505 Kirisci, Kemal. Post Second World War immigration from Balkan countries to Turkey. New Perspectives on Turkey, No. 12, Spring 1995. 61-77 pp. Istanbul, Turkey. In Eng.
"Although there are some works, both in English and Turkish, that have studied migration into the Ottoman empire from the Balkans during the 19th century...it is difficult to find any systematic and comprehensive literature that examines the period since the establishment of the Turkish Republic....This article aims at filling some of this gap....[The article offers] an analysis of the size and causes of migration from the Balkans to Turkey since the end of the Second World War. The statistics for tables used in this article, unless stated otherwise, have been obtained from the General Directorate of Village Works in Ankara, which is responsible for keeping the statistical records on immigrants arriving in Turkey."
Correspondence: K. Kirisci, Bogazici University, Department of Political Science, 80815 Babek, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10506 Koslowski, Rey. Intra-EU migration, citizenship and political union. Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 32, No. 3, Sep 1994. 369-402 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Of the 14.1 million resident aliens living in the European Union (EU), 4.9 million are nationals of EU Member States residing in other Member States....These resident alien EU nationals present a problem for maintaining democratic inclusiveness while EU Member States undergo integration....I explore this paradox of political integration by focusing on intra-EU migration and the Maastricht Treaty's attempted solution of European citizenship."
Correspondence: R. Koslowski, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10507 Latuch, Mikolaj. Permanent determinants of international migration of the Polish population. [Trwale determinanty migracji zagranicznych ludnosci Polski.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 37, No. 3-4, 1994. 75-87 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines historical trends and determinants of international migration in Poland. "The leading role is ascribed by the author to sociodemographic conditions....There are presented types of temporary and permanent migration and educational level of migrants, with a special stress on a `brain-drain' phenomenon as a result of existing international migratory processes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10508 Li, F. L. N.; Jowett, A. J.; Findlay, A. M.; Skeldon, R. Discourse on migration and ethnic identity: interviews with professionals in Hong Kong. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1995. 342-56 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper has revealed a complex set of relationships between migration, place and ethnic identity [in Hong Kong]. On the one hand, ethnic identity is shaped by the places where people have lived, particularly the places where they have spent the early years of their life; on the other [hand], places--being the context for socialization--provide the milieux where people learn who and what they are and how to act...." The authors note that "while legislation clearly regulates levels of immigration, international migration is also self-regulated by potential migrants in relation to interpretations of their ethnic identities and their perceptions of `other' places."
Correspondence: F. L. N. Li, University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10509 Low, Linda. Population movement in the Asia Pacific region: Singapore perspective. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, Fall 1995. 745-64 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article [is] structured to give some brief overview of the trends and characteristics of population movement in the Asia Pacific region. Wherever relevant, the implications of these regional and global trends for Singapore will be highlighted to offer a better appreciation of its case study. This will touch on Singapore's own experiences of outflow and inflow of people and its policies and philosophy on such movement. Noted are implications on labor policy arising from Singapore's strategy to become a capital exporter and anchor itself in economies like China."
Correspondence: L. Low, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10510 Maguid, Alicia. Immigration from bordering countries into Argentina in the 1990s, myths and realities. [L'immigration des pays limitrophes dans l'Argentine des annees 90, mythes et realites.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1995. 167-88 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The population growth that occurred in Argentina, between 1870 and the middle of this century, was due to the massive immigration current, mainly coming from Europe....Due to recent increases in unemployment indices, poverty and other social problems, some sectors put the neighbouring countries' immigration as the cause of these phenomena, and some xenophobic manifestations started to appear....This paper [aims] to show the distance between reality and the attitude of those who perceive these recent immigrants as a menace to job opportunities for the native population."
Correspondence: A. Maguid, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10511 Massenet, Michel. Uncontrolled immigration. [Sauvage immigration.] Investigations, ISBN 2-268-01831-8. 1994. 225 pp. Editions du Rocher: Monaco. In Fre.
This study examines immigration trends and their consequences in France over the past 20 years. The author, who was national director in charge of population and migration in France from 1958 to 1971, focuses on what he views as the falsehoods that permeate the migration issue, including a manipulation of statistics, an abuse of migration regulations, and the dishonesty of many of those who appointed themselves leaders and spokespersons of the immigrant population. The author concludes that current government policy toward immigrants is correctly biased, and that many problems inherent in the current situation will be difficult to resolve.
Correspondence: Editions du Rocher, 28 rue Comte-Felix-Gastaldi, B.P. 521, 98015 Monaco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10512 Meier, Volker. Long-run migration incentives and migration effects: the case of different fertility rates. Jahrbucher fur Nationalokonomie und Statistik, Vol. 213, No. 3, May 1994. 321-38 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"In this paper the direction of the long-run migration incentive in the presence of closed borders and the long-run welfare effects of a regime change from `autarky' to `free permanent migration' are studied. A difference in birth-country specific fertility rates is treated as the final cause for the creation of migration incentives in a two-country model where the standard overlapping-generations framework is used....Opening the borders for permanent migration can always lead to the equalization of labour force growth rates. A continuum of such equilibria with migration does exist, but the application of the concept of migration-stability, introduced in this paper, gives reason to the suspicion that free migration can also lead to a collapse of the emigration country's economy."
Correspondence: V. Meier, University of Halle, Department of Economics, Grosse Steinstrasse 73, 06108 Halle (Salle), Germany. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10513 Mercer, John. Canadian cities and their immigrants: new realities. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 538, Mar 1995. 169-84 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Following new federal regulations and procedures introduced in the 1960s, the nature of immigrant flows to Canada has changed radically....The new immigrants exhibit greater cultural and racialized diversity than ever before. Most immigrants settle in Canada's cities, principally the leading metropolitan centers. Certain metropolitan areas--especially Toronto--attract large numbers; others participate relatively little in the settlement process. This, together with new social geographies at the municipal and neighborhood scales, has important implications for public debates over immigration and intergovernmental policymaking."
Correspondence: J. Mercer, Syracuse University, Maxwell School, Public Affairs Program, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10514 Moore, E. J.; Smith, J. W. Climatic change and migration from Oceania: implications for Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 2, Nov 1995. 105-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to assess possible migration flows which may occur, in response to climatic shifts over the next thirty years, from small island states in the south-west Pacific ocean region to the United States, Australia and New Zealand. It is argued that the small island states appear vulnerable to climatic change, with low coral atolls being most at risk. Adverse impacts of climatic change will be one extra pressure on small island states, many of which are already struggling to cope with sustainable management of their natural resources and with the demands of their rapidly growing populations for education, housing and employment. The migration strategy is likely to entail significant medium-term health, psychological and social costs for some Pacific island migrants as they try to move or cope with life in western industrialised societies."
Correspondence: J. W. Smith, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, Adelaide 5005, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10515 Nayyar, Deepak. Migration, remittances and capital flows: the Indian experience. ISBN 0-19-563345-8. 1994. x, 134 pp. Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The object of this study is to construct a profile of international labour migration from India, to analyse the macro-economic impact of the labour flows and the associated financial flows on the national economy, and to examine the issues or problems that arise in a wider macro-economic context with reference to the Indian experience." The focus is on migration from India to the industrialized countries of the West and to the Middle East; the study is based on a variety of sources, both published and unpublished.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road, New Delhi 110 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:10516 O'Rourke, Kevin. Emigration and living standards in Ireland since the Famine. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 4, Nov 1995. 407-21 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Ireland experienced dramatic levels of emigration in the century following the Famine of 1845-1849. The paper surveys the recent cliometric literature on post-Famine emigration and its effects on Irish living standards. The conclusions are that the Famine played a significant role in unleashing the subsequent emigration; and that emigration was crucial for the impressive increase in Irish living standards which took place during the next 100 years."
Correspondence: K. O'Rourke, University College Dublin, Department of Economics, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10517 Oucho, John O. International migration and sustainable human development in eastern and southern Africa. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1995. 31-53 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper has provided broad outlines of international migration and sustainable shared human development in the Eastern-Southern African [ESA] region. It highlights salient features and consequences of different types of international migration which have affected ESA countries. Yet despite being members of national cooperations, ESA countries have not maintained a united stand on how to handle international migration, even though it is an important element of regional integration."
Correspondence: J. O. Oucho, University of Nairobi, Population Studies and Research Institute, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10518 Papail, Jean; Arroyo, Jesus. The new configuration of migratory exchanges between Mexico and the United States: the case of mid-sized cities in the state of Jalisco. [La nouvelle configuration des echanges migratoires entre le Mexique et les Etats-Unis: le cas des villes moyennes de l'Etat de Jalisco.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1995. 97-112 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Migration between the urban areas of the State of Jalisco and the United States has undergone profound transformations in the last twenty years. These are apparent in the recent decrease of the flow of first time migrants and the migration balance; the growing participation of women in this flow; and in the diversity of activities carried out by the migrants, both in their place of origin and in the United States....Migration is translated by an important transfer of currency, mostly used for the support of the families of the migrants; by a shift in the activities of the migrants, from wages towards different forms of self-employment; and by the sway of the primary and secondary sectors of economy towards the tertiary sector, once the migrants reinstall themselves in their cities of origin."
Correspondence: J. Papail, Universidad de Guadalajara, Lope de Vega 25B, Col Los Arcos, P-44100 Guadalajara, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10519 Peixoto, Joao. Portuguese emigration since 1980: some statistical data and trends. [A emigracao portuguesa a partir de 1980: factos estatisticos e modalidades de evolucao.] Estudos Demograficos, No. 31, 1993. 35-74 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por.
Trends in international migration to and from Portugal from 1980 to 1990 are analyzed using official data. The data are presented by year and country of origin and destination. The author also describes changes in the methods of data collection occurring during this period.
Correspondence: J. Peixoto, Instituto Nacional de Estatistica, Gabinete de Estudos Demograficos, Avenida Antonio Jose de Almeida 5, 1078 Lisbon Codex, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10520 Pellegrino, Adela. The tendency of youths to emigrate: the Uruguayan case. [La propension des jeunes a emigrer: le cas de l'Uruguay.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1995. 131-43 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper presents the case of Uruguay, seen as an emigration country on the basis of the information contained in the Youth National Survey....The results show that one fourth of the persons in the cohorts defined as young plan to live abroad even though not permanently....[We propose] paying more attention to cultural and social mobility aspects in the analysis of international migration, as well as general prospects of life styles that are offered as possibilities to young people in a country like Uruguay in the frame of the economic and cultural globalisation in which the references are those of the developed countries."
Correspondence: A. Pellegrino, Universidad de la Republica, Programa de Poblacion de le Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Minas 1483, piso 3, Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10521 Ramos, Antonia. Immigration in Western Europe: development, situation, outlook. Dec 1993. 209 pp. European Trade Union Institute [ETUI]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
This report examines aspects of current immigration in the European Community. The first two chapters examine the Community's immigration policy and current immigration flows. The third chapter looks at the immigrant population in each of the 12 member countries individually. The fourth chapter examines issues of racism in the context of immigration, and a final chapter looks at resolutions by the European Trade Union Institute on this issue.
Correspondence: European Trade Union Institute, Boulevard Emile Jacqmain 155, 1210 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Cornell University Library, NYSSILR Extension, New York, NY.

62:10522 Simon, Julian L. A comment on Rothman and Espenshade. Population Index, Vol. 61, No. 3, Fall 1995. 353-6 pp. Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author comments on a recent article by Eric S. Rothman and Thomas J. Espenshade concerning the fiscal impacts of immigration to the United States. A reply by Espenshade is also included (pp. 354-6).
For the article by Rothman and Espenshade, published in 1992, see 59:10503.
Correspondence: J. L. Simon, University of Maryland, College of Business and Management, Tydings Hall, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10523 Skeldon, Ronald. Australia, Hong Kong and 1997: the population connection. People and Place, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1995. 9-15 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"What is the likely impact for migration to Australia of Hong Kong's incorporation into the People's Republic of China in 1997? Recent movements of people to and from Australia and Hong Kong suggest it may not be as great as some imagine." Aspects considered include the economic situation in Hong Kong and emigration; emigration tendencies; policy and return movements; migration and trade; and future prospects.
Correspondence: R. Skeldon, University of Hong Kong, Department of Geography and Geology, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10524 Stahl, Charles W. Theories of international labor migration: an overview. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 1995. 211-32 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Emigration pressures are primarily the result of increasing inequalities between countries which, in turn, are the result of factors internal to less developed countries and their relations with developed countries. Both micro (neoclassical) and macrostructural theories of migration are reviewed. It is argued that the neoclassical theory of migration is often unjustly criticized and is sufficiently robust to incorporate those structural considerations which are at the core of macrostructural theories. Moreover, the neoclassical theory, with slight modification, can incorporate the `new economics of migration.' The major empirical problem confronting models of international labor migration is that migration flows are constrained by immigration policy. This policy, in turn, is influenced by various special interest groups. The direction and form of migration flows is conditioned by contemporary and historical relationships between source and destination countries."
Correspondence: C. W. Stahl, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10525 Suzuki, Masao. Success story? Japanese immigrant economic achievement and return migration, 1920-1930. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 55, No. 4, Dec 1995. 889-96 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This article examines the extent of and the reasons for the success and economic achievement of Japanese immigrants in the United States. In particular, the author considers the role that return migration of immigrants may have played. "My finding that the selective return migration of Japanese immigrants could account for much of their improvement in occupational position in the period before World War II contributes to the debate over the economic achievement of Japanese and other Asian Americans as well as the broader debates over the economic achievement of immigrants and different racial groups in the United States."
Correspondence: M. Suzuki, Mills College, 5000 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, CA 94613. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:10526 Teitelbaum, Michael S.; Weiner, Myron. Threatened peoples, threatened borders: world migration and U.S. policy. ISBN 0-393-03777-0. LC 95-4160. 1995. 336 pp. W. W. Norton: New York, New York/London, England; American Assembly: New York, New York. In Eng.
"International migration has risen rapidly to the top of the agenda for both foreign and domestic U.S. policy. As a foreign policy challenge, migration has joined a list of critical global issues that includes the environment, population, and the international economy....This volume was commissioned to help identify policy guidelines for these urgent and growing challenges. The chapters were first used as background for an American Assembly program held at Arden House, Harriman, New York, November 10-13, 1994...." This book includes chapters on migration patterns of U.S. foreign policy interest; migrants and refugees; the shift from invitation to interdiction; relationships between U.S. foreign policies and U.S. immigration policies; the impact of U.S. refugee policies on U.S. foreign policy; the effects of international migration on U.S. foreign policy; concepts, norms, and realities concerning refugees, and the question of what the United States should do; the problem of how the international system copes with involuntary migration; and a final report of the Eighty-Sixth American Assembly.
Correspondence: W. W. Norton, 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10527 United States. General Accounting Office [GAO] (Washington, D.C.). Illegal immigration: INS overstay estimation methods need improvement. Pub. Order No. GAO/PEMD-95-20. Sep 1995. 68 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We examine the basis for the [U.S.] Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) estimates of overstays--that is, persons who entered the United States legally as visitors but did not leave under the terms of their admission....In reviewing the agency's methodology, we examined published documents that describe INS procedures and interviewed staff about their methods of overstay estimation, the kinds of data that are available, and the potential for devising improved overstay estimates. We focused primarily on tourist air arrivals since they represent the majority of the foreign visitors in the INS data system. We developed new estimation procedures and applied them to tourist visitors arriving by air in the United States from nine countries from October 1990 to March 1991."
Correspondence: U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. 20548. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10528 Wingen, Max. Immigration to the Federal Republic of Germany as a demographic and social problem. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, Fall 1995. 710-21 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Addressing the question of immigration to Western Europe and especially to Germany from east and southeast Europe and from developing countries of the South, this article considers whether such immigration can compensate for reductions in population in developed countries. It is argued that the demographic deficits of an aging population can only be corrected to a limited extent through immigration. Any solution, in order to be effective, must include a simultaneous increase in the birthrates of Germany and other European Community countries. With particular regard to future social development in Germany and the EC, it would be advisable for governments to effect measures that will provide both for controlled admissions of immigrants from outside the EC and an increase in local reproductive capabilities."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10529 Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf. Motivation for migration and economic success. Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1994. 269-84 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Motives for migration should play a major role in the development of achievement motivation of migrants, which, in turn, should influence economic success. For a sample of guest-workers in Austria it is shown that the simple distinction of economic and non-economic, i.e. family or political motives, does not yield convincing results for the explanation of wages. Economic motivation has to be further differentiated into `search for success' and `fear of failure' types. Immigrants with optimistic economic motivation are able to command wages more than 10% higher than individuals migrating for political reasons."
Correspondence: R. Winter-Ebmer, Johannes Kepler Universitat, Institut fur Volkswirtschaftslehre, 4040 Linz-Auhof, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:10530 Zimmermann, Klaus F. Tackling the European migration problem. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 9, No. 2, Spring 1995. 45-62 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper will begin by examining the historical pattern of migration and the empirical dimension of western Europe's migration problem. A next step examines the labor market issues and impacts on natives as western Europe perceives them. The paper concludes with a discussion of policy issues and options."
Correspondence: K. F. Zimmermann, University of Munich, Department of Economics, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 Munich 22, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:10531 Zlotnik, Hania. Migration and the family: the female perspective. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 1995. 253-71 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article shows that a family perspective is especially important for the analysis of female migration because: (1) women are major participants in `family migration' as defined by governments and, although they benefit from family reunification provisions, they are also constrained by them; (2) migrant women are important economic actors and their participation in economic activity is closely related to the needs of their families, so that the choices that migrant women make regarding work cannot be understood without taking into account the situation of their families and women's roles within them; (3) women are increasingly becoming migrant workers in order to improve the economic status of their families; and (4) women rely on their families to provide various types of support that both make migration possible and condition its outcome. A review of the literature provides evidence supporting each of these observations."
Correspondence: H. Zlotnik, UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

62:10532 Buchel, Felix; Schwarze, Johannes. Migration from East to West Germany: intention and realization. A sequential probit model with unobserved heterogeneity controls. [Die migration von Ost- nach Westdeutschland: Absicht und Realisierung. Ein sequentielles Probitmodell mit Kontrolle unbeobachteter Heterogenitat.] Mitteilungen aus der Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1994. 43-52, 61 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Rus.
"This study investigated migrations from eastern to western Germany. Using a sequential decision model we first examined which persons expressed the intention of wanting to move from eastern to western Germany. Then, using unobserved heterogeneity controls we determined at the same time which persons of those willing to move actually did so later....Once the intention to move has been declared...those who are well-qualified, short-time workers and persons who feel threatened by unemployment as well as persons with relatives in western Germany more often than average do in fact realise this intention. Commuters also have a very high rate of realisation."
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10533 Bures, Regina M. Pre-elderly migration: the retirement transition. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 95-02, Jun 1995. 26 pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on pre-elderly (ages 55-64) net migration in the United States for the period 1980-90 to explore the hypothesis that there exists a `retirement transition' that characterizes pre-elderly migration....This research compares county-level net migration patterns for young (25-54), pre-elderly (55-64), and elderly (65+) age groups. Pre-elderly migration patterns emerge as different from both young and elderly."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10534 Elliott, James R. Metropolitan development and internal migration in the United States, 1965-1980: a developmental perspective. CDE Working Paper, No. 94-08, May 1994. 35 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
This study concerns turnaround migration in the United States during the 1970s. Specifically, the author links intra-metropolitan movements with broader patterns of internal migration in order to get a better picture of population redistribution patterns as a whole. A European model of metropolitanization is used to analyze U.S. migration data for the periods 1965-1970 and 1975-1980.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10535 Flowerdew, R.; Boyle, P. J. Migration models incorporating interdependence of movers. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 27, No. 9, Sep 1995. 1,493-502 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we describe a development of the Poisson model in which households are assumed to migrate independently, but the expected number of migrants is given by a Poisson distribution generalized by an empirically given household-size distribution....The model is fitted to data on short-distance migration within the English county of Hereford and Worcester....The data set used comes from the Special Migration Statistics (series II) produced as part of the 1981 British Census." The sparse nature of the data raises problems in assessing goodness of fit, because the deviance value is unusually low. This is tackled using simulation methodology.
Correspondence: R. Flowerdew, Lancaster University, Department of Geography, Lancaster LA1 4YB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:10536 Glasgow, Nina. Retirement migration and the use of services in nonmetropolitan counties. Rural Sociology, Vol. 60, No. 2, Summer 1995. 224-43 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"A conceptual framework of need, enabling, and predisposing determinants of services utilization is employed in an analysis of the use of public services among recent inmigrants (N = 306) and longer-term residents (N = 323) age 60 and older in retirement-destination counties of the Middle-Atlantic region of the United States. Logistic regression is used to examine whether migration status affects use of an array of public services or whether migration transmits the effects of other selectivity factors such as age, gender, income, and health status as indicators of need, enabling, and predisposing characteristics. Being an inmigrant predisposes use of recreation-oriented public services regardless of selectivity, but other characteristics of older individuals rather than migration per se predict use of other public services."
Correspondence: N. Glasgow, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10537 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). Tables of interprefectural migrations in Japan, 1954-1994. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 285, Jul 31, 1995. 113 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Detailed statistical data are presented on internal migration in Japan between 1954 and 1994.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10538 McCarthy, George. The role of unemployment in triggering internal labor migration. Jerome Levy Economics Institute Working Paper, No. 75, Jun 1992. 52 pp. Bard College, Jerome Levy Economics Institute: Annandale-on-Hudson, New York. In Eng.
"Migration of labor in response to structural changes in the U.S. economy is explored. An empirical study of the migration decision and wage determination is used to evaluate: (1) whether unemployment plays a larger role in motivating the decision to migrate than spatial wage differences and (2) whether the population can be characterized as homogeneous regarding migration and wage determination. The results are used to evaluate other studies involving the effects of migration on wages."
Correspondence: Bard College, Jerome Levy Economics Institute, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504-5000. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10539 McHugh, Kevin E.; Hogan, Timothy D.; Happel, Stephen K. Multiple residence and cyclical migration: a life course perspective. Professional Geographer, Vol. 47, No. 3, 1995. 251-67 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study is about the temporal and cyclical aspects of migration in the United States. The authors "discuss limitations of the conventional definition of migration and develop a life course framework of multiple residence and cyclical migration. Results of an Arizona-based case study reveal that multiple residence is common and more diverse than the annual influx of elderly snowbirds. Coming to grips with multiple residence and recurrent mobility in the United States represents a fundamental challenge in population and migration studies."
Correspondence: K. E. McHugh, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287-0104. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

62:10540 Zenteno Quintero, Rene M. Migration to the northern border of Mexico: Tijuana, Baja California. [Migracion hacia la frontera norte de Mexico: Tijuana, Baja California.] Cuadernos, No. 2, ISBN 968-6075-50-X. 1993. 75 pp. El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Departamento de Estudios de Poblacion: Tijuana, Mexico. In Spa.
This is a study of migration from the rest of Mexico to the region adjacent to the United States, and particularly to Tijuana. Data are primarily from a survey undertaken in Baja California in 1986. The study examines the role that in-migration has played in the demographic growth of Tijuana, and analyzes the characteristics of migrants to that city.
Correspondence: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Boulevard Abelardo L. Rodriguez 21, Zona del Rio, 22320 Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

62:10541 Koita, Tidiane. The nomads of Kaedi in Mauritania: urban integration in question. [Le nomade a Kaedi (Mauritanie): l'integration urbaine en question.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 23, ISBN 2-87209-360-5. Apr 1995. 123 pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by Academia-Erasme, Grand Rue 25/115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, and in France by L'Harmattan, 7 rue de l'Ecole-Polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Dut; Spa; Ara.
Problems associated with the settlement of former nomads in urban areas of southern Mauritania, such as Kaedi, are discussed. The author notes the lack of urban infrastructure, such as adequate schools, as well as the failure by urban authorities to plan for this settlement. To date, this population continues to live in conditions of relative poverty.
Correspondence: Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10542 Westing, Arthur H. Population, desertification, and migration. Environmental Conservation, Vol. 2, No. 12, Summer 1994. 110-4, 109 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author examines the growing problem of involuntary migration around the world. He notes that in addition to refugees from political persecution, there is an increasing number of environmental refugees; this is due to the development of an imbalance between population numbers and the carrying capacity of the land. The social and political consequences of environmental migration are discussed, with particular reference to the situation in Africa. The need to control the rate of population growth and resolve political issues that lead to involuntary migration is stressed.
Correspondence: A. H. Westing, Westing Associates in Environment, Security, and Education, RFD 2, Box 330H, Putney, VT 05346. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

62:10543 Stevenson, Thomas B. Yemeni workers come home: reabsorbing one million migrants. Middle East Report, No. 181, Mar-Apr 1993. 15-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author describes trends in return migration to Yemen as a result of political events in surrounding countries. The impact on Yemen is discussed, with a focus on economic factors and space limitations.
Correspondence: T. B. Stevenson, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

62:10544 Ahmed, Ather M.; Sirageldin, Ismail. Internal migration, earnings, and the importance of self-selection. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 33, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 211-27 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"An effort has been made in this paper to estimate Mincerian earnings functions for rural-to-urban migrants and non-migrants in Pakistan. In order to correct for self-selection bias, a two-step estimation procedure was utilised....On the basis of [the] results, it is safe to conclude that human capital variables are important determinants of the earnings of migrants as well as non-migrants. Among these, education could be isolated as the major contributing factor. It was observed that substantial gains could be accomplished by investing in the human capital. However, as with any other type of investment, gains from migration also take time to materialise."
Correspondence: A. M. Ahmed, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10545 Fitchen, Janet M. Spatial redistribution of poverty through migration of poor people to depressed rural communities. Rural Sociology, Vol. 60, No. 2, Summer 1995. 181-201 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"This article presents a case study of one depressed [rural] community in New York that became a migration destination for urban poor people, causing dramatic increases in poverty rate, welfare rolls, and service needs. On-site research showed that the community's attraction was inexpensive rental housing that had become available after loss of manufacturing jobs prompted a middle-class exodus. The lack of jobs was not a deterrent for low-income immigrants, though, because many of them had limited job skills and other employment barriers [and] would have had difficulty getting or holding a job anyway. Similar processes of economic decline, population loss, and poverty inmigration appear to be occurring elsewhere also. The article identifies community-level impacts and policy implications; it concludes with suggestions for further research needs."
Correspondence: J. M. Fitchen, Ithaca College, Department of Anthropology, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10546 Halfacree, Keith H. The importance of "the rural" in the constitution of counterurbanization: evidence from England in the 1980s. Sociologia Ruralis, Vol. 34, No. 2-3, 1994. 164-89 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper...argues that a reconciliation between...different explanations of counterurbanization can possibly be achieved, but will require the pursuit of a more nuanced analysis of the detailed unfolding of the migration process. Such an analysis involves examining the migration from the migrant's perspective. In particular, we need to recognize the variety of both spatial scales and experiential environments that may be involved in any one act of migration." The geographic focus is on England.
Correspondence: K. H. Halfacree, University College of Swansea, Department of Geography, Migration Unit, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10547 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). The rural exodus in Morocco: trends, profiles, and the impact on regions of origin. [Exode rural au Maroc: traits d'evolution, profils et rapport avec les milieux d'origine.] Etudes Demographiques, 1995. 255 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This is a general study on aspects of the rural exodus in Morocco. The first part examines the phenomenon in the context of migration in the country as a whole and describes changes over time and space. The next section examines the importance of rural-urban migration and its impact on urbanization, particularly its impact on small and medium-sized towns. The characteristics of rural out-migrants are then analyzed. A final section concentrates on the rural out-migration of women and its socioeconomic characteristics.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Rue Mohamed Belhassan, El Ouazzani-Haut-Agdal, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.