Volume 62 - Number 1 - Spring 1996

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

62:10365 Afzal, Mohammad; Ali, S. Mubashir; Siyal, H. B. Consanguineous marriages in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1994. 663-76 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Data regarding the occurrence of marriages among close relatives including cousins, as well as between non-relatives, were collected from 6,611 ever married women, as a part of the 1990-91 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey....The survey has provided a statistical basis for this study to assess the prevalence of consanguineous marriages, and the differentials by age at marriage, fertility and child morbidity and mortality experiences of the women who were married to their cousins and others. The patterns of age at marriage, fertility and proportions of children dead, by urban/rural, will help to assess the validity of the often cited hypothesis that risks to child health due to genetic reasons, are higher among the children of the parents with close blood relations." Comments by Abdul Hakim are included (pp. 675-6).
Correspondence: M. Afzal, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10366 Andersson, Gunnar. Marriage trends in Sweden, 1971-1993. [Giftermalsutvecklingen i Sverige, 1971-1993.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 92, ISBN 91-7820-104-7. Jan 1995. 21 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Division: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
A dramatic drop in the number of marriages in Sweden starting in the early 1970s and continuing into the early 1990s is the topic of this report. Yearly official data on Swedish women's parity and marital status are presented. The author concludes that the reduction in marriages in Sweden is primarily due to a disinclination for marriage among never-married, childless women.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Division, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10367 Applbaum, Kalman D. Marriage with the proper stranger: arranged marriage in metropolitan Japan. Ethnology, Vol. 34, No. 1, Winter 1995. 37-51 pp. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The author describes the phenomenon of arranged marriage in Japan and notes that this form of finding a marriage partner continues to be used by between 25% and 30% of couples today. In particular, the author describes the development of the pro nakodokai, a modern form of arranged marriage service.
Correspondence: K. D. Applbaum, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10368 Bavner, Per; Hoem, Jan M. Divorce risks: is age at first birth a better indicator than marriage age of the importance of starting age? [Risker for skilsmassa: ar forstfodsloaldern ett battre matt pa startalderns betydelse an giftermalsaldern ar?] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 87, ISBN 91-7820-094-6. Nov 1994. 22 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Division: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
This study poses the question of how divorce risk is best measured. It examines whether starting age--an important factor in statistical measurements of divorce risk--should be set at a woman's actual marriage age or at the age at which a married woman first gives birth. The authors conclude that, between the two variables, marriage age is the best indicator of starting age.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Division, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10369 Betzig, Laura. Medieval monogamy. Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1995. 181-216 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The role of Christianity in influencing the trend away from polygyny toward monogamy in medieval Europe is explored. "Literary evidence on mating in the Middle Ages, as in other ages, amounts to no more than `gossip'....Sources available...are consistent with a polygynous bias. Higher status men, inside and outside their households, seem to have had sexual access to more women. Those women were often supposed to be young, unmarried and explicitly `pretty'; they and their children were often provided with good food, good protection and good care." The author concludes that both church men and laymen practiced polygynous mating, but approved of monogamous marriage.
Correspondence: L. Betzig, University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10370 Central African Republic. Bureau Central du Recensement. (Bangui, Central African Republic). General population census, December 1988. Volume 2: analysis report. Part 2: marital status and nuptiality. [Recensement general de la population de decembre 1988. Volume 2: rapport d'analyse. Tome 2: etat matrimonial nuptialite.] Mar 1993. 44 pp. Bureau Central du Recensement: Bangui, Central African Republic. In Fre.
This is an analysis of data from the 1988 census of the Central African Republic concerning marital status and nuptiality.
Correspondence: Bureau Central du Recensement, Division des Statistiques et des Etudes Economiques, Ministere de l'Economie, du Plan, des Statistiques et de la Cooperation Internationale, Bangui, Central African Republic. Location: University of Texas, Population Research Center Library, Austin, TX. Source: APLIC Census Network List, No. 152, Dec 1994.

62:10371 Cherlin, Andrew J.; Kiernan, Kathleen E.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay. Parental divorce in childhood and demographic outcomes in young adulthood. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 3, Aug 1995. 299-318 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We investigated the long-term effects of parental divorce in childhood on demographic outcomes in young adulthood, using a British longitudinal national survey of children. Our analyses control for pre-disruption characteristics of the child and the family, including emotional problems, cognitive achievement, and socioeconomic status. The results show that by age 23, those whose parents divorced were more likely to leave home because of friction, to cohabit, and to have a child outside marriage than were those whose parents did not divorce. Young adults whose parents divorced, however, were no more or less likely to marry or to have a child in a marriage. Moreover, even in the divorced group, the great majority did not leave home because of friction or have a child outside marriage."
Correspondence: A. J. Cherlin, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10372 Dharmalingam, A. Economics of marriage change in a south Indian village. Development and Change, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jul 1994. 569-90 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The Indian marriage system has undergone major changes in the last few decades. Studies have found an expansion and intensification of dowry and increase in age at marriage. Using information from a village in Tamil Nadu, south India, this article shows that recent marriage changes in the study village (increased number of love-marriages and stagnation or slight decline in marriage age) are caused by the economic independence and personal autonomy among the younger generation which are products of major changes in the socio-economic organization of the society."
Correspondence: A. Dharmalingam, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:10373 Diekmann, Andreas; Engelhardt, Henriette. Sex-specific effects in the intergenerational transmission of divorce risks. [Die soziale Vererbung des Scheidungsrisikos: eine empirische Untersuchung der Transmissionshypothese mit dem deutschen Familiensurvey.] Zeitschrift fur Soziologie, Vol. 24, No. 3, Jun 1995. 215-28 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"In an empirical analysis the article investigates the intergenerational transmission of divorce risk with multivariate event-history techniques using data on the 10,000 respondents of the German Family Survey. In both younger and older cohorts the transmission effect is confirmed. Surprisingly, however, there are huge sex differences in the impact of parents' divorces on their children. Sons of divorced parents have a much higher risk of divorce than girls....The transmission effect cannot be explained by the decreased standard of living typically observed in all types of single-parent families. The data suggest, however, that differences in intervening variables may partially explain the transmission effect."
Correspondence: A. Diekmann, Universitat Bern, Institut fur Soziologie, Lerchenweg 36, 3000 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10374 Domingo, Lita J. Marital timing decisions of Filipino and Thai women. Population Concerns and Public Policy Series Research Digest, No. 93-02, Oct 1993. 10 pp. University of the Philippines, College of Social Sciences and Philosophy, Population Institute: Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
A comparative analysis of the determinants of age at marriage in the Philippines and Thailand is presented using data from the 1984 Asian Marriage Survey and other more recent official sources. The economic contribution of daughters to their families in both countries is identified as a major factor associated with delays in entry into marriage. Another determining factor is the growing sense of independence of the young women concerned.
Correspondence: University of the Philippines, Population Institute, College of Social Sciences and Philosophy, Palma Hall, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10375 Fricke, Tom. History, marriage politics, and demographic events in the central Himalaya. In: Situating fertility: anthropology and demographic inquiry, edited by Susan Greenhalgh. 1995. 202-24 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the demographic consequences of culturally motivated political strategies implied by relationships created and maintained by marriage within a natural fertility society. It explores the creation and maintenance of stratified groups as an outcome of historical patterns of migration buttressed by the needs of authority during the consolidation of the Nepali state. Once these groups are defined, it demonstrates that their members manipulate culturally given possibilities of marriage with a view to orchestrating advantages in the flow of obligations and labor....A second exploration will focus on the relevance of marriage-linked political dimensions to the timing of childbearing....I first provide a narrative history of status-group formation in Timling. Subsequent sections explore the implications of these hierarchies for marriage strategies, age at marriage, and age at first birth."
Correspondence: T. Fricke, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Department of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10376 Greene, Margaret E.; Rao, Vijayendra. The marriage squeeze and the rise in informal marriage in Brazil. Social Biology, Vol. 42, No. 1-2, Spring 1995. 65-82 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Around the world, populations have experienced shortages of one sex or the other at marriageable ages, as a result of mortality declines. The solutions to this problem vary with the cultural context. Declines in the spousal age difference and increases in dowry payments (India) and polygamy (Africa) are two adjustments to a disequilibrium in the marriage market. We hypothesize that in Brazil the marriage market finds its balance by `recycling' men through highly unstable informal unions. Using census and 1984 survey data, we establish the relationship between a marriage squeeze and the increase in informal marriage. Census data and a competing-risks analysis of marriage choice provide evidence that a marriage squeeze has affected both the chances of marrying at all and the type of marriage entered."
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. E. Greene, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10377 Hall, David R. Marriage as a pure relationship: exploring the link between premarital cohabitation and divorce in Canada. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1996. 1-12 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A recent substantive theory of Anthony Giddens develops concepts such as the `pure relationship' in order to explain the emergence of informal and unstable intimate unions in modern society. This paper describes and measures the `pure relationship' concept by using attitudes obtained in a major Canadian survey [carried out in 1984]. A model of divorce that specifies these attitudes entirely accounts for the association between premarital cohabitation and divorce. The paper's conclusion is that attitudes consistent with Giddens' pure relationship are strong predictors of divorce."
Correspondence: D. R. Hall, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10378 Haskey, John. Trends in marriage and cohabitation: the decline in marriage and the changing pattern of living in partnerships. Population Trends, No. 80, Summer 1995. 5-15 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the trends in marriage, cohabitation, and of living outside a partnership [in England and Wales], to provide some background information to the decline in marriage. Seven out of ten first marriages in the early 1990s were preceded by premarital cohabitation, compared with only one in ten in the early 1970s. Of the couples who lived together before marriage, the median duration of premarital cohabitation was about 2 years for those who first married in the early 1990s, compared with about 1 year for those who first married in the early 1970s. Over one in 5 non-married men and women where cohabiting in 1993, compared with under one in 7 in the mid 1980s. On the basis of these trends which have persisted for a number of years, as well as the growing tendency to live outside a partnership, the incidence of marriage, particularly at the younger ages, seems likely to decline further."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population and Hospital Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10379 Heaton, Tim B.; Call, Vaughn R. A. Modeling family dynamics with event history techniques. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 57, No. 4, Nov 1995. 1,078-90 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This article describes the essentials of event history analysis, illustrated with data on marital stability from two waves of the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households. First, the advantages of event history analysis are described. Second, issues regarding data collection methods are briefly reviewed. The final three sections explain statistical procedures including survival tables, continuous time models, and discrete time models. Results indicate that individual assessments of marital stability at Wave 1, especially from wives, have a substantial influence on the likelihood of separation. Even after individual assessments are taken into account, however, demographic factors such as age at marriage, marital duration, prior experience in a disrupted marriage, and birth of a child continue to have a significant relationship with marital stability."
Correspondence: T. B. Heaton, Brigham Young University, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies of the Family, 922 Spencer W. Kimball Tower, Provo, UT 84602-5547. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10380 Heaton, Tim B. Socioeconomic and familial status of women associated with age at first marriage in three Islamic societies. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1996. 41-58 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys, this paper examines age at marriage among women in Egypt, Jordan and Indonesia. Early marriage has declined substantially over the last few decades. Women who marry young tend to picture the ideal family as relatively large, they have more children, and are less likely to use contraceptives. Early marriage is also associated with lower educational attainment and lower rates of employment. Thus, changing patterns of marriage have important implications for the future familial and socioeconomic roles of women."
Correspondence: T. B. Heaton, Brigham Young University, Center for Studies of the Family, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10381 Ishikawa, Akira. A statistical comparison between legal and customary marriage in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 4, Jan 1995. 45-56 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This is a comparative study of different types of marriage in Japan for the period from the 1970s to 1990.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10382 Jacoby, Hanan G. The economics of polygyny in Sub-Saharan Africa: female productivity and the demand for wives in Cote d'Ivoire. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 103, No. 5, Oct 1995. 938-71 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper makes the first attempt to link African polygyny directly to the productivity of women in agriculture using micro data. I develop a structural model of the demand for wives that disentangles wealth and substitution effects. Using a large household survey from Cote d'Ivoire, I find that marked geographic diversity in cropping patterns leads to regional variation in female labor productivity. I also find that, conditional on wealth, men do have more wives when women are more productive, that is, cheaper. This substitution effect may explain why polygyny declined in rural areas of Cote d'Ivoire during agricultural development."
Correspondence: H. G. Jacoby, University of Rochester, Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:10383 Kaestner, Robert. The effects of cocaine and marijuana use on marriage and marital stability. NBER Working Paper, No. 5038, Feb 1995. 28, [9] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationship between illicit drug use and marital status [in the United States]. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experiences, the paper presents both cross sectional and longitudinal estimates of the effect of marijuana and cocaine use on marital status, time until first marriage, and duration of first marriage. The results indicate that in general, drug users are more likely to be unmarried due to a delay in the age at first marriage, and [to have] shorter marriage durations."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:10384 Landale, Nancy S.; Ogena, Nimfa B. Migration and union dissolution among Puerto Rican women. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, Fall 1995. 671-92 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the relationship between migration and union dissolution among Puerto Ricans, a Latino subgroup characterized by recurrent migration between Puerto Rico and the U.S. mainland. Based on pooled life-history data from comparable surveys undertaken in Puerto Rico and the United States, we find that: 1. Puerto Rican women who have lived on the U.S. mainland have markedly higher rates of union disruption than those with no U.S. experience; and 2. even net of a wide variety of possible explanatory factors, the relatively high rates of union instability among first and second generation U.S. residents and return migrants are strongly related to recent and lifetime migration experience. The results suggest that the weak social ties of migrants provide limited social support for their unions and few barriers to union disruption."
Correspondence: N. S. Landale, Pennsylvania State University, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10385 Lillard, Lee A.; Brien, Michael J.; Waite, Linda J. Premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital dissolution: a matter of self-selection? Demography, Vol. 32, No. 3, Aug 1995. 437-57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Married couples who began their relationship by cohabiting appear to face an increased risk of marital dissolution, which may be due to self-selection of more dissolution-prone individuals into cohabitation before marriage. This paper uses newly developed econometric methods to explicitly address the endogeneity of cohabitation before marriage in the hazard of marital disruption by allowing the unobserved heterogeneity components to be correlated across the decisions to cohabit and to end a marriage. These methods are applied to data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. We find significant heterogeneity in both cohabitation and marriage disruption, and discover evidence of self-selection into cohabitation."
Correspondence: L. A. Lillard, RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10386 Lillard, Lee A.; Waite, Linda J. 'Til death do us part: marital disruption and mortality. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 100, No. 5, Mar 1995. 1,131-56 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Both men and women appear to benefit from being married. This article uses data from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the extent to which three key factors--financial well-being, living arrangements, and marital history--account for this relationship. The authors model mortality using a flexible hazard model and find that both married men and women show substantially lower risks of dying than those who are not married. The study's results suggest that--for women but not for men--the improved financial well-being that often accompanies marriage accounts for much of its beneficial effect. For both husbands and wives the benefits from marriage appear to cumulate as the length of the union increases."
Correspondence: L. J. Waite, University of Chicago, Department of Sociology, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637-2799. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10387 Manting, D.; Post, W. J. The increase in cohabitation: changes in related demographic behavior. [De groei in het niet-gehuwd samenwonen: veranderingen in daarmee samenhangend demografisch gedrag.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 9, Sep 1995. 9-16 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The Dutch period- and age-specific hazard rates of marriages, cohabitation, [and] dissolution of cohabitation are studied. Also, family formation according to living arrangement of the mother is examined. The number of cohabiting persons has risen markedly....Rates of direct marriage have declined....The increased period of cohabitation is mainly linked with a delay in marriage among young cohabitors; it does, however, not coincide with a decreasing risk dissolution....Fertility rates of married women have risen across the birth cohorts, while fertility rates of cohabiting women and women living without partner have remained fairly stable."
Correspondence: W. J. Post, Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut, Postbus 11650 Lange Houtstraat 19, 2511 CV The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10388 Ogawa, Naohiro; Ermisch, John F. Women's career development and divorce risk in Japan. Labour, Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer 1994. 193-219 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"By applying a conventional economic model of labor force participation to micro-level data gathered from a nationally representative sample survey, this paper shows that Japanese married women who have contemplated divorcing their husbands are more likely to participate in the workforce as full-time paid employees. This finding suggests that an increasing risk of divorce has made a substantial contribution to the fast rise in Japanese women's participation in paid employment, particularly full-time work."
Correspondence: N. Ogawa, Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho, 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10389 Prinz, Christopher. Cohabiting, married, or single: portraying, analyzing, and modeling new living arrangements in the changing societies of Europe. ISBN 1-85972-187-7. LC 95-78510. 1995. xvi, 204 pp. Avebury: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
This study reviews and interprets current lifestyle patterns, particularly the trend toward cohabitation, in the various countries of Europe. Data are from two major sources: the international project Social Security, Family, and Households in Aging Societies undertaken by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis; and a study on consensual unions in Sweden undertaken by Ake Nilsson and Hakan Sellerfors. The author attempts to explain why cohabitation has become so popular, whether it threatens the institution of marriage, and what the implications of this trend are for social policy. He also examines methodological aspects of the different concepts involved in the study of living arrangements.
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10390 Prioux, France. Frequency of consensual unions in France. [La frequence de l'union libre en France.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 3, May-Jun 1995. 828-44 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Changes in consensual union in France between 1954 and 1990 are compared, using data from the censuses undertaken in those years. Differences by social class and region are analyzed.
Correspondence: F. Prioux, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10391 Quilodran, Julieta. Change and consistency in nuptiality in Mexico. [Cambios y permanencias de la nupcialidad en Mexico.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 55, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1993. 17-40 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author uses census data to analyze recent trends in nuptiality in Mexico. She notes that "the fact that census data include both married and common-law couples enables...[questions] to be answered at the same time as it allows one to trace the development of the main indexes of marriage rates from 1930 to 1990. Differences between the sexes are established to provide a fuller analysis and a distinction is made between changes experienced by common-law and married couples."
Correspondence: J. Quilodran, El Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10392 Samuel, Olivia; Lerner, Susana; Quesnel, Andre. Toward a demo-anthropological perspective on nuptiality and its relationship with new reproductive patterns: consideration of a study carried out in the area surrounding Zacatepec, Morelos. [Hacia un enfoque demoantropologico de la nupcialidad y su relacion con nuevos esquemas de procreacion: reflexiones a partir de un estudio realizado en la zona de influencia del ingenio de Zacatepec, Morelos.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1994. 71-103, 267-8 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The research is based on a study carried out between 1989 and 1991 in the three rural communities in the state of Morelos [Mexico] that included a socio-demographic survey and interviews. The methodological goal of the authors is to view nuptiality from demographic and anthropological standpoints....The authors seek to pinpoint the elements that account for changes that have taken place in nuptiality, as well as to identify the impact of these changes on [descendants]."
Correspondence: O. Samuel, Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, 213 rue La Fayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10393 Schultz, T. Paul. Marital status and fertility in the United States: welfare and labor market effects. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 29, No. 2, Spring 1994. 637-69 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper examines whether the probability that a woman is currently married and the number of children she has borne, as reported in the 1980 U.S. Census, are related to two identifiable factors: the variation in welfare programs across states (specifically, AFDC and Medicaid benefits and AFDC-UP expenditures) [and] the variation in the market wage opportunities available to women and to their potential husbands. AFDC and Medicaid benefit levels are associated with fewer women being currently married. Medicaid benefits are related to lower fertility levels for both black and white women, whereas AFDC benefits in cash and food are associated with lower fertility among white women ages 15-24. Those states that extend AFDC benefits to families with unemployed parents (in other words, fathers in intact poor families) do not have significantly more women married or higher fertility rates, contrary to what might be expected from economic incentives."
Correspondence: T. P. Schultz, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, P.O. Box 208269, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520-8269. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10394 Solivetti, Luigi M. Family, marriage and divorce in a Hausa community: a sociological model. Africa, Vol. 64, No. 2, 1994. 252-71 pp. Edinburgh, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The aim of this article is to show how a `traditional' society may produce a household system in which the structural tensions are no less intense than in the Western world. Muslim Hausa society (in northern Nigeria) has one of the highest rates of divorce (and remarriage) in the world. An explanation is sought here in terms of the economic and organisational requirements of a subsistence farming system that is always potentially short of labour. Divorce is a solution to otherwise unacceptable pressures, particularly on young women, in a society that requires them to be subordinate and marginal within the extended family. The data presented here were collected between 1979 and 1989 in the Niger valley of Sokoto State in northern Nigeria."
Correspondence: L. M. Solivetti, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, 00185 Rome, Italy. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:10395 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). 1990 population and housing census. Subject Report No. 4: nuptiality of Thai population. ISBN 974-236-139-8. [1995?]. [xiii], 53, 34 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This is an analysis of sample data on nuptiality from the 1990 census of Thailand. "The main purpose of this report is to present the patterns, the trends and changing patterns of marriage, and analyze the relationship between the demographic, socio-economic differentials in marriage as well as the relationship between nuptiality and fertility."
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10396 Thornton, Arland; Axinn, William G.; Teachman, Jay D. The influence of school enrollment and accumulation on cohabitation and marriage in early adulthood. American Sociological Review, Vol. 60, No. 5, Oct 1995. 762-74 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We explore the influence of education on cohabitation and marriage, formulating a theoretical framework that identifies ways in which the multiple dimensions of education influence both cohabitation and marriage. Our theoretical framework links education and union formation through the incompatibility of educational and marital and cohabiting roles, the opportunity costs of truncating education, and the accumulation of skills, knowledge, and credentials gained from school attendance. Using this theoretical framework, we formulate hypotheses about the influence of school enrollment and accumulation on marriage and cohabitation....We evaluate our hypotheses using event-history data from a panel study of young [U.S.] adults. Results indicate that school enrollment decreases the rate of union formation and has greater effects on marriage than on cohabitation. School accumulation increases marriage rates and decreases cohabitation--a pattern suggesting that less educated individuals tend to substitute cohabitation for marriage, while those with greater school accumulation are more likely to marry."
Correspondence: A. Thornton, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10397 Tucker, M. Belinda; Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia. The decline in marriage among African Americans: causes, consequences, and policy implications. ISBN 0-87154-887-9. LC 94-39624. 1995. xxiv, 397 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This collective work is a product of a meeting held in 1989 concerning marriage trends among African-Americans in the United States. The 11 contributions are divided into four sections, which examine the sociological and historical context, the sociological antecedents of current marital patterns, the consequences and correlates of marital decline, and public policy issues. The variety of approaches presented illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of the study.
Correspondence: Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10398 Tzeng, Jessie M.; Mare, Robert D. Labor market and socioeconomic effects on marital stability. Social Science Research, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1995. 329-51 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper reports [on] an investigation of the effects of socioeconomic and labor market factors on the dissolution of marriages [in the United States] since the mid 1960s....Using the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Men, Young Women, and Youth, we estimate the effects on marital stability of husbands' and wives' levels, differences and changes in educational attainment, income, and annual weeks worked. Our results suggest that average levels of couples' educational attainment and recent work experiences positively affect marital stability. The degree to which husbands and wives differ [in] educational attainment and income does not affect marital stability, but the more that wives work relative to their husbands, the greater the chances of disruption. Positive changes in wives' socioeconomic and labor force characteristics over the course of their marriages increase the odds of marital disruption."
Correspondence: J. M. Tzeng, McGill University, Department of Sociology, 855 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10399 Unalan, Turgay. Ideal ages for marriage and childbearing. [Ideal evlenme ve dogum yaslari.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 16, 1994. 65-73 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
"Using the 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey data, opinions of women about ideal age to get married, ideal ages for the first and last birth, and ideal time between two pregnancies were studied according to some socio-economic characteristics of the women. These ideals were further discussed to see whether they present a potential for fertility decline in the future....The findings point out that by increasing both the prevalence and effective use of modern family planning methods in Turkey, a potential exists for having further decreases in fertility levels."
Correspondence: T. Unalan, Hacettepe Universitesi, Nufus Etutleri Enstitusu, Arastirma Gorevlisi, Hacettepe Parki, 06100 Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10400 Valero Lobo, Angeles; Lence Perez, Carmen. Nuptiality, fertility, and the family. The paradox of nuptiality trends and fertility in Spain. [Nupcialidad, fecundidad y familia. La paradoja del comportamiento de la nupcialidad y la fecundidad en Espana.] Revista Internacional de Sociologia, No. 11, May-Aug 1995. 89-113 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to reexamine the present significance of nuptiality from a demographic standpoint and its influence on fertility and the formation of the family in Western society, and in Spain in particular." The authors suggest that the demographic trends occurring in economically advanced countries are without precedent and represent a clear break with previous demographic experience.
Correspondence: A. Valero Lobo, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Centro de Investigaciones Sociologicas, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10401 van Poppel, Frans. Widows, widowers and remarriage in nineteenth-century Netherlands. Population Studies, Vol. 49, No. 3, Nov 1995. 421-41 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the Dutch pattern of remarriage during the nineteenth century, using data from the vital registration system (marriages and deaths), and the population registers for the cities of Breda (South Netherlands) and Gouda (West Netherlands). A group of 6,500 widows and widowers were followed from the moment they were widowed until they either remarried or died whilst widowed....Proportional hazards analysis shows that the principal factor which determined the probability of remarriage was age at bereavement. The probability of remarriage was much greater for men than for women, and for the childless than for widowed persons with children. If a widowed person with a child or children wished to remarry, he or she was more likely to do so, if the child was young."
Correspondence: F. van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

62:10402 Al-Haj, Majid. Kinship and modernization in developing societies: the emergence of instrumentalized kinship. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3, Autumn 1995. 311-28 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"This paper deals with the impact of modernization on kinship structure in developing societies. The data are based on a synthesis of secondary sources and a field study conducted among the Arab population in Israel. Our analysis shows that the kinship structure has survived and, in some aspects, has even been reinforced in the wake of modernization. However, processes connected with individual modernization have changed the nature of kinship organization and the dynamics of the interaction between individuals and their kinship group. They have led to the emergence of `instrumentalized kinship', based on pragmatic needs rather than traditional ideological commitments."
Correspondence: M. Al-Haj, University of Haifa, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10403 Almeda, Elisabet; Flaquer, Lluis. One-parent families in Spain: a critical review. [Las familias monoparentales en Espana: un enfoque critico.] Revista Internacional de Sociologia, No. 11, May-Aug 1995. 21-45 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to work out a theoretical and analytical framework for the study of one-parent families in Spain and to make some recommendations concerning research strategies and family policy on the matter. The authors start examining various symbolic representations associated with different terms applied to this phenomenon and wondering to what extent it is useful and legitimate to group under the cover of the concept radically different social situations. They also review various typologies used to study one-parent families and comment on the dearth of information and data in Spain which prevents...a correct diagnosis of the situation of lone parenthood in the context of trends observed in the European Union."
Correspondence: E. Almeda, Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Placa de la Merce 12, 08002 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10404 Beaujot, Roderic; Gee, Ellen M.; Rajulton, Fernando; Ravanera, Zenaida R. Family over the life course. Current Demographic Analysis, Pub. Order No. 91-543E. ISBN 0-660-15565-6. Jul 1995. 173 pp. Statistics Canada, Demography Division: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
In this publication, four social demographers look at aspects of the family in contemporary Canada. There are chapters on the family life of young adults, family patterns at mid-life, families in later life, and changes over the course of the twentieth century. "The [authors used] the latest data available, such as the 1991 census and the 1990 General Social Survey....The changes found from one cohort to another and the trends they show should make obvious the radical changes which have taken place in the Canadian family, and which continue in the younger cohorts now reaching the stage of forming a family. Clearly it is no longer possible to speak of a `typical' family life course."
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10405 Bledsoe, Caroline. Marginal members: children of previous unions in Mende households in Sierra Leone. In: Situating fertility: anthropology and demographic inquiry, edited by Susan Greenhalgh. 1995. 130-53 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In Africa, as elsewhere, one of the key factors affecting children's access to resources is their mothers' conjugal status. Yet in the context of a massive rise in short-term or informal relationships across much of the continent...we know virtually nothing about what happens to the children of these unions as their mothers enter subsequent ones. This paper shows that because both women and men feel pressure to allocate resources disproportionately to children by unions they most value currently, the children of extant unions often fare better than do those of broken ones....The paper draws on ethnographic and demographic data from the Mende of Sierra Leone."
Correspondence: C. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10406 Boyd, Monica; Norris, Doug. Leaving the nest? The impact of family structure. Canadian Social Trends, No. 38, Autumn 1995. 14-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Official Canadian data are used to analyze factors affecting decisions by Canada's young people to leave the parental home. The results indicate that, although about two-thirds of men and women aged 20-24 currently live with a parent, this number is likely to decline as the number of children with divorced parents increases. The reason for this prospective decline is that young adults with divorced parents are less likely to live in the parental home.
Correspondence: M. Boyd, Florida State University, Department of Sociology, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10407 Bruce, Judith; Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Leonard, Ann; Engle, Patrice L.; Duffy, Niev. Families in focus: new perspectives on mothers, fathers, and children. ISBN 0-87834-084-X. LC 95-3862. 1995. ix, 116 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This book focuses on families with dependent children [in the United States]--specifically, on the roles of mothers, fathers, and children, and how these roles are evolving....Our primary emphasis...is on how fathers and mothers meet their parental responsibilities and, in turn, what children have a right to expect from their parents....Chapter 1 presents a demographic and economic analysis of how families throughout the world are changing in form and function....Chapter 2 documents the economics of motherhood, showing that most families depend--probably increasingly so--on mothers' paid and unpaid work in the home and labor market to survive. Chapter 3 shows that fathers' roles in nurturing and caring for children have been almost totally neglected as a subject of research, policy, and programs....Chapter 4 presents an empirical analysis of family life from the child's point-of-view...." Chapter 5 concerns family policy.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10408 Bumpass, Larry. The changing family contexts of children in the United States. [L'enfant et les transformations du milieu familial aux Etats-Unis.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1994. 27-52 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper reviews the roles of divorce, nonmarital childbearing, and cohabitation in the changing family contexts of children, and then provides new estimates of current family composition which incorporate cohabitation. The underlying process is viewed in terms of the declining significance of marriage linked to long-term trends in individuation. Half of all children in the U.S. will spend some time in a single-parent family, and nonmarital childbearing is an important factor creating these families. At the same time, increased cohabitation requires that family definitions which are based on marital status in the U.S. be replaced with those that include cohabitation. A sixth of traditionally defined `mother-only' families are cohabiting two-parent families, and the one-fourth of current stepfamilies that are cohabiting are missed by marriage-based definitions."
Correspondence: L. Bumpass, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10409 Bumpass, Larry L.; Raley, R. Kelly; Sweet, James A. The changing character of stepfamilies: implications of cohabitation and nonmarital childbearing. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 3, Aug 1995. 425-36 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Divorce, nonmarital childbearing, and cohabitation are reshaping family experience in the United States. Because of these changes, our traditional definitions of families decreasingly capture the social units of interest. We have noted how a significant proportion of officially defined single-parent families actually are two-parent unmarried families. The present paper expands on this perspective with respect to stepfamilies. We must broaden our definition of stepfamilies to include cohabitations involving a child of only one partner, and must recognize the large role of nonmarital childbearing in the creation of stepfamilies. We find that cohabitation and nonmarital childbearing have been important aspects of stepfamily experience for at least two decades, and that this is increasingly so. To define stepfamilies only in terms of marriage clearly underestimates both the level and the trend in stepfamily experience: when cohabitation is taken into account, about two-fifths of all women and 30% of all children are likely to spend some time in a stepfamily."
Correspondence: L. L. Bumpass, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10410 Chan, Hoiman; Lee, Rance P. L. Hong Kong families: at the crossroads of modernism and traditionalism. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 1995. 83-99 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The cultural embeddedness of family structure and processes is a crucial point of departure in unravelling family life in Hong Kong. Two sets of cultural forces, that of Chinese traditionalism and Western modernism, provide the key ideological axes in the shaping of Hong Kong families. This ideological vantage point sheds important light on salient aspects of the family conditions, e.g., the prevalence of utilitarianistic familism, the rise of nuclear families, the changing authority pattern among family members, and the formation of gradated, extended familial ties. These variegated features are characterized in this essay in terms of the concept of modified nuclear family."
Correspondence: H. Chan, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Sociology, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10411 Chowdhury, Anwarullah. Families in Bangladesh. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1995. 27-41 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper deals with the growth of family studies and various other aspects of family in Bangladesh. The studies on family depict the picture about the changing family situation in Bangladesh over time. It is, therefore, an attempt to understand the dynamics of the rural society of Bangladesh with particular reference to the institution of family. The paper also provides a demographic profile with regard to family situation and it describes some other related issues including the pattern of rural social organization of Bangladesh."
Correspondence: A. Chowdhury, University of Dhaka, Department of Sociology, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10412 Curbelo, Jose L.; Martin, Victoria. Demographic change and housing demand in Spain: projections up to the year 2010. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 71, No. 1, Jun 1992. 31-44 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to determine the future aggregate pressure of demographic factors on housing demand. Both the number and age compositions of Spanish households from 1980 to the year 2010 are projected. To determine the actual net increase of the number of households, the analysis considers both the formation and destruction of households. The magnitude and profile of the projection shows that in the present decade the net yearly growth in the number of households will be slightly smaller than that of previous years. In the first decade of the next century, there will be a drastic reduction in the net growth of new households."
Correspondence: J. L. Curbelo, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Ciencias Sociales, Calle Pinar 25, 28006 Madrid, Spain. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10413 De Vos, Susan M. Household composition in Latin America. Plenum Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis, ISBN 0-306-44962-5. LC 95-22990. 1995. xiii, 251 pp. Plenum Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study "uses comparative family studies and life course perspectives to provide an in-depth demographic study of the household in six Latin American countries: Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Panama, and Peru. [The author] discusses the...area of household and family demography and various comparative household measures such as AH (adults per household), the U.N.-recommended household typology, and the Hammel/Laslett comparative household scheme. This detailed study discloses many...facts about the complex household; nonfamily household living; children's living arrangements; and the household arrangements of young adults, middle-aged people, and the elderly."
Correspondence: Plenum Press, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013-1578. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10414 Delaunay, Daniel. Mexican families in their homeland and in exile. [Familles mexicaines du pays et de l'exil.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1995. 47-72 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The present study takes advantage of the Mexican and American census simultaneity in Spring 1990 to compare the Mexican populations according to their migratory status. The analysis of their composition by age and by sex is completed by an estimation of the undercount of migrants omitted by these statistics....The fertility of the Mexican immigrants is compared to that of the country of origin and to that of Mexican Americans so as to specify changes induced by the exile. But one of the most interesting mutations deals with the recomposition of the migrant's family in the U.S.: units of residence gain in complexity by the extended integration of relatives or individuals that do not belong to the nuclear family."
Correspondence: D. Delaunay, Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, 21 calle Abelardo Rodriguez, 22320 Tijuana, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10415 Desai, Sonalde. When are children from large families disadvantaged? Evidence from cross-national analyses. Population Studies, Vol. 49, No. 2, Jul 1995. 195-210 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys for 16 less developed countries, this paper examines the impact of family size on children's physical growth. To explore the conditions under which children in large families are disadvantaged compared with those from smaller families, results from country-specific regressions of children's height-for-age on family size are interpreted in light of a variety of socio-economic indicators. This exercise suggests that the effect of family size on children's well-being depends on the extent to which parents--rather than the extended family or state--bear the cost of rearing children, and on the level of economic development....The burden of high fertility is more likely to be felt directly by parents and, as a result, by their children. Although this pressure may lead to a decline in fertility over the long run, in the short run it is likely to increase the vulnerability of children in large families."
Correspondence: S. Desai, London School of Economics, Population Investigation Committee, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10416 Downey, Douglas B. When bigger is not better: family size, parental resources, and children's educational performance. American Sociological Review, Vol. 60, No. 5, Oct 1995. 746-61 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Although the inverse relationship between the number of siblings and children's educational performance has been well established, explanations for this relationship remain primitive. One explanation, resource dilution, posits that parents have finite levels of resources (time, energy, money, etc.) and that these resources are diluted among children as sibship size increases. I provide a more rigorous investigation of the dilution model than previous studies, testing its implications with a sample of 24,599 eighth graders from the 1988 [U.S.] National Education Longitudinal Study. My analyses support the resource dilution model in three ways. First, the availability of parental resources decreases as the number of siblings increases, net of controls....Second, parental resources explain most or all of the inverse relationship between sibship size and educational outcomes. Finally, interactions between sibship size and parental resources support the dilution model as children benefit less from certain parental resources when they have many versus few siblings."
Correspondence: D. B. Downey, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10417 Elman, Cheryl; Uhlenberg, Peter. Co-residence in the early twentieth century: elderly women in the United States and their children. Population Studies, Vol. 49, No. 3, Nov 1995. 501-17 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A quiet demographic revolution has occurred during the twentieth century in the United States: the decline in intergenerational household sharing. Why were these living arrangements so common for older women early in the century? We examine the characteristics of adult kin who shared intergenerational households in 1910. Two nationally representative samples, of elderly mothers and their co-resident biological adult children were taken from the 1910 Census P.U.S. [public use sample] and linked to test general hypotheses relating to the determination of living arrangements. We find that kin availability influenced co-residence in two ways: by increasing the pool of children available and by facilitating strategic processes of kin selection based on quality of children. As kin availability increased, mothers chose security (especially the retention of headship) and a child's lack of competing obligations."
Correspondence: C. Elman, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10418 Ervasti, Heikki. Bringing the family back in? Attitudes towards the role of the family in caring for the elderly and children. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 32, 1994-1995. 80-95 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"In the last few years, demands [for] replacing the welfare state with family responsibility for the care of children and the elderly have become more and more insistent. Using data from a recent postal survey [in Finland] (N=1,737), the article's aim is to estimate the caring possibilities and caring potential of the family. The results show that compared to outside-home care and especially publicly provided outside-home care, family care is not supported by public opinion. However, the results provide no evidence of a decline in the caregiving potential of the family. Thus, the introduction of new family care-oriented policies and cuts in the public welfare services aimed at increasing family responsibility for the care of dependents could even be counterproductive, as families would soon be overloaded with caring tasks."
Correspondence: H. Ervasti, University of Turku, Department of Social Policy, Turku, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10419 European Communities. Statistical Office [EUROSTAT] (Luxembourg). Households and families in the European Economic Area. Statistics in Focus, No. 1995:5, Pub. Order No. CA-NK-95-005-EN-C. 1995. 10, [2] pp. Luxembourg. In Eng.
"Recent developments in marriage and divorce, and also in fertility and mortality, have led to significant changes in household composition; cohabiting unmarried couples and lone-parent families are more frequent, traditional family structures are in decline, and more and more people are living alone. In this report, the definitions used in the 1990/91 censuses carried out in the EEA [European Economic Area] are briefly discussed and a number of basic tables are presented."
Correspondence: European Communities, Eurostat, Batiment Jean Monnet, 2920 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10420 Festy, Patrick. The family environment of children in France and Canada. [L'environnement familial des enfants en France et au Canada.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1994. 11-25 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Two fundamental changes have influenced family demographics in both France and Canada over the past 25 years: the rise in the number of births to unmarried parents and the rapid growth in the proportion of children separated from one parent or another before they reach adulthood. The impact of these changes on the family life of children must, however, be seen in perspective. Parents not married at the time of the child's birth nevertheless tend to live together. As well, the separation of birth parents allows for the formation of new families, giving the child a stepmother or stepfather and step-siblings. International or interregional comparisons give a further dimension to these phenomena; for example, Quebec, France and the rest of Canada rank in that order for the frequency of births outside marriage, while Quebec and the rest of Canada come ahead of France with a higher frequency of separations."
Correspondence: P. Festy, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10421 Fu, Xuanning; Heaton, Tim B. A cross-national analysis of family and household structure. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 25, No. 2, Autumn 1995. 1-32 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Profound demographic change has taken place in the past few decades in many countries including decreases in fertility and household size, and increases in divorce and non-traditional living arrangements. This paper analyzes the cross-national variation in these trends by utilizing two data sets. Fertility, marriage/divorce and household structure are modeled as separate domains of family life and tested in a LISREL model. The correlations across these domains are examined along with indicators of socioeconomic development and cultural context. Findings indicate that the level of economic development has direct and negative associations with all three family domains. Culture has an independent effect on family demographics but it does not override the forces of development."
Correspondence: X. Fu, Brigham Young University, Department of Social Sciences, Hawaii Campus, Laie, HI 96762. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10422 Ge Rondi, Carla. Concerning the study of the transformation of the family using the Population Register. [Per lo studio delle trasformazioni della famiglia attraverso il Ruolo della Popolazione.] Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 20, 1994. 123-30 pp. Florence, Italy. In Ita.
Data from the local Population Register are used to examine changes in family characteristics in the Italian city of Pavia in the nineteenth century. The data cover the period from 1823 to 1848.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10423 Goldscheider, Frances; Goldscheider, Calvin. Family structure, parental support, and leaving home among young Americans in the twentieth century. [Composition familiale, soutien parental et depart du foyer des jeunes Americains au XXe siecle.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1994. 75-102 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper examines the effects of childhood family structure on patterns of home leaving (route and timing). The analysis uses data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households....Family disruption is linked with leaving home via all routes except college attendance....We interpret the results as indicating the ways the parental home provides the resources needed for a successful launching into adult independence or prompts leaving home either too early, or to new living arrangements likely to make establishing a stable independent adult role set more difficult."
Correspondence: F. Goldscheider, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10424 Goldscheider, Frances K. Interpolating demography with families and households. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 3, Aug 1995. 471-80 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper argues that the field of household and family demography serves a critical role in the development of our understanding of the determinants and consequences of population trends. Like the community, families and households are situated between the two levels at which demographic research is ordinarily conducted--the individual and the nation-state. The results of the papers in this issue are used to illustrate the critical ways that intergenerational and gender relationships shape demographic processes."
Correspondence: F. K. Goldscheider, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10425 Gunnlaugsson, Gisli A.; Garoarsdottir, Olof. Availability of offspring and the household position of elderly women: Iceland, 1901. Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1995. 159-79 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Retirement possibilities in nineteenth-century Iceland were largely restricted to residing within the household of an offspring. Using evidence extracted from the national census of 1901 we attempt to evaluate the importance which the availability of offspring played [in] the household position of elderly married women and widows. The results indicate that women who were forced to give up headship without the possibility of retirement within the household of an offspring had on average fewer children alive than those who managed to exchange headship for residence within the home of a married child. However, married women tended to retain headship long past the age of 60, whereas the loss of a spouse usually resulted in changes in household position."
Correspondence: G. A. Gunnlaugsson, University of Iceland, Institute of History, Sudurgata, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10426 Hogan, Dennis P.; Lichter, Daniel T. Children and youth: living arrangements and welfare. In: State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume two: social trends, edited by Reynolds Farley. 1995. 93-139 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The new realities of American family life, coupled with...changes in economic opportunities and housing...,have dramatically altered the experiences of childhood and young adulthood over the past decade. The family, in its myriad forms, provides a context for bearing and rearing children, attending to their physical and emotional needs, and ensuring the next generation of well-adjusted and productive citizens....But these traditional functions are now being challenged in significant ways by the current transformation of the family and shifts in the American social and economic structure. This chapter documents this process and analyzes the impact of these changes on the living arrangements, school and work activities, and economic well-being of American children and youth."
Correspondence: D. P. Hogan, Pennsylvania State University, Population Issues Research Center, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10427 Iglesias de Ussel, Julio. Work and family in Spain. [Trabajo y familia en Espana.] Revista Internacional de Sociologia, No. 11, May-Aug 1995. 171-98 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between family and labor force participation in Spain is examined. "First of all, the paper will emphasize the question's significance. And then, it will [study] the family and work in relation to nuptiality, birth rate and family dynamics. Finally, it will [consider]...unemployment's effect on...family life."
Correspondence: J. Iglesias de Ussel, Universidad de Granada, Hospital Real, Calle Cuesta del Hospicio s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10428 Jiang, Leiwen. Regional family projection in China. PDOD Paper, No. 32, Jul 1995. 22 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to understand the regional variation of family characteristics of China....The paper first provides the national situation with respect to these family characteristics, then describes and explains the variations between urban and rural areas, as well as the variations between different provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions."
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10429 Kling, Zainal. The Malay family: beliefs and realities. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1995. 43-66 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This study concerns Malay family demography in Malaysia. The following topics are discussed: "ideological background, the kinship systems, marriage and divorce, family size, the elderly, family life cycle, rural urban variation and the analysis of ideology and family system."
Correspondence: Z. Kling, University of Malaya, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur 59100, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10430 Kramarow, Ellen A. The elderly who live alone in the United States: historical perspectives on household change. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 3, Aug 1995. 335-52 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"One of the most dramatic changes in the life of the elderly in the United States in the twentieth century is the rise in the proportion of elderly widows living alone. This paper examines this transformation by comparing the determinants of elderly widows living alone at four points in time, in 1910, 1940, 1960, and 1990....This analysis suggests that no single factor is responsible for the rise in living alone among the elderly. Value changes, as represented by a variable for time, are shown to have strong and direct effects on the increased probability of living alone in old age in the late twentieth century, independent of the effect of rising income levels. These results are discussed in light of previous research on living arrangements of the elderly, which articulates demographic, economic, and cultural explanations for change."
Correspondence: E. A. Kramarow, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10431 Krishnaji, N. Family size and wealth--standing Chayanov on his head in the Indian context. Journal of Peasant Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jan 1995. 261-78 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The focus of this article is on the strong positive correlation between landholdings and household size observed in rural India. It may be recalled that Chayanov cites some Russian data exhibiting a similar correlation as evidence in support of his theory of the life cycle and its consequences among peasant families, arguing in particular that the causation behind the correlation runs from the family size and its composition to the size of landholdings. This paper argues that in the Indian case the correlation cannot possibly arise from the type of dynamics posited by Chayanovian theory. The explanation lies in the differential demographic structures, including the propensity for families to remain joint or undivided, among the peasant classes, the causation running in the direction opposite to that suggested by Chayanov."
Correspondence: N. Krishnaji, Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Begumpet Hyberabad 500 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10432 Kumagai, Fumie. Families in Asia: beliefs and realities. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1995. 163 pp. University of Calgary, Department of Sociology: Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This is a selection of eight papers on aspects of the family in Asia in the context of each country's dominant religion and ideological orientation. Each author was asked to use the following guidelines in preparing papers. "Part I: Religious and/or ideological characteristics and orientations of the country. Part II: Analysis of the family and demography today. Examples of topics to be discussed in this section include: the family structure/system; family size; fertility behavior; marriage; divorce; the elderly; the family life cycle; women in the labor force; and urban-rural variations. Part III: Interrelationships between religion and the family."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: University of Calgary, Department of Sociology, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10433 Kumagai, Fumie. Families in Japan: beliefs and realities. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1995. 135-63 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In examining changing patterns of the Japanese family and household there emerged three major findings; namely, emergence of modern characteristics in external spheres, persistence of traditional elements in internal aspects, and existence of distinctive regional variations in rural-urban settings. These findings are taken as evidence to support the dual nature of contemporary Japanese family in which traditional and modern elements coexist simultaneously. In other words, Japanese society today is tolerant of diversification of family alternatives while at the same time protective of its tradition, which may come from the very nature of the multi-religious culture itself."
Correspondence: F. Kumagai, Kyorin University, Department of Foreign Studies, 476 Miyashita-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10434 Lee, Mei-Lin; Sun, Te-Hsiung. The family and demography in contemporary Taiwan. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1995. 101-15 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper analyzes changes in the family [in] Taiwan in the context of demographic change and ideological characteristics. The analysis is mainly based on a series of KAP surveys from 1965 to 1985, which interviewed representative samples of the households with married women of ages 20-39 in Taiwan. The results indicate that although the traditional Chinese family system persists, it is being eroded by the rapid social and demographic changes. Following the resolution of extended families, the proportions of nuclear family increased significantly, and the size of family reduced. Although most women eventually get married, the age at marriage increased and the divorce rate also increased. The family structure varies significantly by region and traditional beliefs."
Correspondence: M.-L. Lee, National Chung-cheng University, Institute of Social Welfare, 160 San-Hsing, Ming-Hsiung, Chia-yi, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10435 Lesthaeghe, Ron; Moors, Guy. Living arrangements, socio-economic position, and values among young adults: a pattern description for Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and West-Germany, 1990. In: Population and family in the low countries 1994: selected current issues, edited by Hans van den Brekel and Fred Deven. 1995. 1-56 pp. Kluwer Academic: Norwell, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The article studies the associations between the various types of living arrangements of young adults (living with parents, living alone, cohabiting, marriage) and a large set of value orientations pertaining to religiosity, politics, civil morality, gender roles, and education values. Socio-economic characteristics and age are control variables. The selection processes (values codetermine choices in living arrangements) and affirmation (living arrangement codetermines values) are discussed, together with the need to collect panel data instead of proceeding with repeated surveys." The geographical focus is on Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and West Germany.
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10436 Liefbroer, Aart C.; de Jong Gierveld, Jenny. Standardization and individualization: the transition from youth to adulthood among cohorts born between 1903 and 1965. In: Population and family in the low countries 1994: selected current issues, edited by Hans van den Brekel and Fred Deven. 1995. 57-79 pp. Kluwer Academic: Norwell, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article examines changes in the timing and patterning of several main transitions during young adulthood: leaving the parental home, unmarried cohabitation, marriage, and first childbirth. Using data from three large-scale surveys [in the Netherlands] containing retrospective questions, trends in these transitions are studied for cohorts born between 1903 and 1965. For cohorts born up to the 1940s, a trend towards standardization of the life course is found, whereas for younger cohorts an opposite trend towards destandardization is observed. Furthermore, recent birth cohorts tend to postpone marriage and childbearing, indicating an increased preference for flexibility in the life course. No decline in sex and social class differences was observed, which questions the alleged general tendency towards individualization of the life course."
Correspondence: A. C. Liefbroer, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10437 Limanonda, Bhassorn. Families in Thailand: beliefs and realities. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1995. 67-82 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The main objective of this paper is to analyze families in Thailand in light of the country's dominant religion, Buddhism. The analysis is based mainly on a review of the literature and research findings on family and religion documented previously. The focus is on changes in demographic structure and fertility behavior in relation to changes in household structure and size. Certain aspects of families are investigated, including the family system, the family life cycle, marriage and divorce, women in [the] labor force, and the elderly."
Correspondence: B. Limanonda, Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10438 Lindgren, Jarl. Family formation and structure in Finland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 32, 1994-1995. 5-18 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The article is an overview of the changes in family formation and structure in Finland during the last few decades. The period examined extends from the 1950s until the beginning of the 1990s with the emphasis on the current situation. The article starts with a look [at] the changes in union establishment and shows that, on the whole, the age at starting the union has been unchanged if one takes into consideration that a union today starts with premarital cohabitation. There are more divorces than earlier. The dissolution frequency is higher among consensual unions than in marriages. The most common type of family is a family consisting of married parents with children....The most apparent trend during the following decades will be the rapidly growing number of families without children."
Correspondence: J. Lindgren, Population Research Institute of Vaestoliitto, Family Federation of Finland, Kalevankatu 16, 00100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10439 Logan, John R.; Spitze, Glenna D. Self-interest and altruism in intergenerational relations. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 3, Aug 1995. 353-64 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Self-interest and altruism in the relationships between generations can be manifested both within the family and in the public arena. The present study compares levels of support between age groups 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and 80+ [in the United States] on a series of attitudes about `appropriate' parent-child relations and governmental programs for older people. On both kinds of measures, older people tend consistently to be least likely to adopt the `pro-elderly' position. This association is maintained when controls are introduced in multivariate analyses. Altruism, not self-interest, seems to govern the attitudes of the older generation in this sample. This finding should mitigate potential conflicts over issues of intergenerational equity and fairness, both within the family and in public policy."
Correspondence: J. R. Logan, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10440 Lundh, Christer. Households and families in pre-industrial Sweden. Continuity and Change, Vol. 10, No. 1, May 1995. 33-68 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The objective of this study is to utilize the life cycle perspective to discuss the size and structure of families and households in pre-industrial Sweden. This article gives an overview of the state of research in Sweden and presents some results of an investigation into the situation in nine parishes in western Scania. The possibility of increasing our knowledge of pre-industrial family and household patterns through the use of alternative methods and sources is also discussed."
Correspondence: C. Lundh, University of Lund, Department of Economic History, P.O. Box 7083, 220 07 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10441 Marcil-Gratton, Nicole; Le Bourdais, Celine. Childhood. [L'enfance.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1994. 150 pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This special issue contains a selection of articles on the demographic aspects of childhood. Following an introduction by Nathan Keyfitz, there are four articles which analyze the characteristics of families with children in France, Canada, and the United States.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10442 McLanahan, Sara; Casper, Lynne. Growing diversity and inequality in the American family. In: State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume two: social trends, edited by Reynolds Farley. 1995. 1-45 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this chapter we examine the changes that have made the prototypical...[nuclear] family increasingly rare [in the United States] in the latter half of the twentieth century. We begin by focusing on four major demographic trends: the decline in marriage, the rise in marital disruption, the changes in marital and nonmarital childbearing, and the increase in mothers' labor force participation....We also examine demographic changes in other Western industrialized countries in order to place the U.S. experience in the broadest possible context....In the second part of the chapter, we examine family diversity and its implications for the economic well-being of American women....The final part of the chapter directly addresses the question of why marriage has declined during the past two decades. Here we present new evidence based on our own empirical analysis of marriage market characteristics in different metropolitan areas of the United States....Our results do not support the argument that increases in welfare benefits or declines in men's employment opportunities have led to large declines in marriage."
Correspondence: S. McLanahan, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10443 Miret, Pau. Living together in Great Britain--displaying household structure through demographic pyramids. Population Trends, No. 81, Autumn 1995. 37-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Population pyramids...can be used to represent the age and sex structure of a population. This article illustrates how the technique can be used to represent the age and sex distribution of coresident members of households. The pyramids use data from the 1% household file of the Samples of Anonymised Records from the 1991 Census of Great Britain. Some comparisons are made with Spanish households."
Correspondence: P. Miret, University of Manchester, Cathie Marsh Centre for Census and Survey Research, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10444 Moffitt, Robert A.; Rendall, Michael S. Cohort trends in the lifetime distribution of female family headship in the United States, 1968-1985. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 3, Aug 1995. 407-24 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We use the [U.S.] PSID Relationship File to estimate cohort trends in the lifetime incidence and duration of female family headship. Hazard (event-history) techniques are used to estimate movements into and out of headship, accounting for duration dependence and left-censored spells. The mean number of years spent in headship between ages 14 and 59 rose dramatically over the period [1968-1985]. The increase arose from an increased number of headship spells, including an increase in the number of women ever experiencing headship, but not at all from an increase in durations of headship spells; those decreased slightly."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. A. Moffitt, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10445 Mukherjee, Chandan; Krishnaji, N. Dynamics of family size and composition: a computer simulation study with reference to rural India. Journal of Peasant Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jan 1995. 279-99 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study attempts to understand the dynamics that produce the persistent observation of a strong positive correlation between family size and extent of landholdings in predominantly agrarian economies [in India]. Such a correlation can arise from different types of demographic configurations including the rules of family formation. For example, big landholdings may be associated with large families, despite the lack of differentials across holdings of different size in fertility and mortality, simply because these families may remain undivided for long periods. In the absence of conclusive data to analyse this relationship in the Indian case, this study sets up a computer simulation model for studying the results of alternative demographic configurations."
Correspondence: C. Mukherjee, Centre for Develpment Studies, Prasanth Nagar Road, Ulloor, Trivandrum 695 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10446 Mullatti, Leela. Families in India: beliefs and realities. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1995. 11-25 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Religious and cultural factors affecting the family in India are described. The author notes that the family in India is expected to fulfill religious obligations from birth to death, and that inequalities of gender, occupation, and life cycle are inherent in the Hindu religion. The author also points out that "there is a negative correlation between population growth and literacy rate. The Indian family is patriarchal....Marriage is a union of two families arranged by others." The negative impact of the dowry system on the family is also discussed.
Correspondence: L. Mullatti, University of Karnatak, Department of Sociology, Belgaum Campus, Belgaum 590 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10447 Niemeyer, Frank; Voit, Hermann. Ways of life of the population, 1993. [Lebensformen der Bevolkerung 1993.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 6, Jun 1995. 437-45 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Data from the April 1993 microcensus are used to analyze living arrangements in Germany. Information is included on private households by household size and type; the population aged 18 and over by age group and living arrangements; married and unmarried couples; one-parent families; and the presence of children.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:10448 Nishioka, Hachiro; Ikenoue, Masako; Saitsu, Yoshiaki; Horiuchi, Mayumi; Takahashi, Shigesato. Major findings of the first national survey on the family in Japan, 1993. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 51, No. 1, Apr 1995. 1-22 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The authors report the principal results of a 1993 Japanese survey on the family, based on an analysis of data collected from 6,083 women. Information is provided on family living arrangements in rural and urban areas; support received from family members, by age and rural or urban area; husband's participation in housework and childcare; wife's expectations of husband; gender roles; economic burdens for the aged population; and family roles and relationships.
Correspondence: H. Nishioka, Kanamori 1793-526, Machida City, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10449 O'Connell, Martin. Where's papa? Fathers' role in child care. Population Trends and Public Policy, No. 20, Sep 1993. 20 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report presents "the latest findings on child care arrangements of mothers who work outside the home and explores the trend in father-provided child care since the late 1970s [in the United States]." A general trend toward more father-provided child care is identified.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10450 Park, Insook Han; Cho, Lee-Jay. Confucianism and the Korean family. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1995. 117-34 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper examines [South] Korea's contemporary family system and demography in the context of the Confucian tradition and recent socioeconomic changes mediated by western influence. In portraying changes [in] the composition, function and structure of the family of today, the discussion contrasts it not only with the recent past but also with the traditional family in the process of industrialization, urbanization and demographic transition in Korean society."
Correspondence: I. H. Park, Konkuk University, Department of Political Science, 93-1 Mojin-Dong, Sungdong-Ku, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10451 Piscova, Magdalena; Dodder, Richard A. Demographic trends impacting the family during the economic and political transitions in Slovakia: 1988-1993. Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1, Fall 1995. 45-56 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Prior to 1989 family care, employment, and most other facets of social welfare were guaranteed by the state. The ongoing dynamic transformations since then have impacted the status of families. Demographic data and personal experiences are utilized in this paper to examine trends relating to family welfare in Slovakia between 1988-1993. The data reveal dramatic increases in social dependency cases and unemployment with a slight decline in marriages, increase in divorces, and decline in population."
Correspondence: M. Piscova, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Sociologicky Ustav, Obruncov Mieru 49, 814138 Bratislava, Slovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10452 Rawlings, Steve; Saluter, Arlene. Household and family characteristics: March 1994. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 483, Sep 1995. xx, 175, [31] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This annual report provides detailed, national, demographic data on households and families [in the United States] for March 1994. It compares the most current data with that for households and families for earlier years, and examines some of the major changes in their characteristics and composition. The estimates are based on the Annual Demographic Supplement to the Current Population Survey."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10453 Requena, Miguel. Complex family structures: the formation of multiple family households in Spain. [Estructuras familiares complejas: la formacion de familias multiples en Espana.] Revista Internacional de Sociologia, No. 10, Jan-Apr 1995. 59-86 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article analyses the social factors that promote the formation of complex family structures--with several [nuclear families]...living in the same household, in Spanish society. Although it could be thought that these complex family structures are associated [with] the household structure typical of traditional peasant communities, it is true that they also exist in...modern urban households." Data are primarily taken from the 1990 Active Population Survey.
Correspondence: M. Requena, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10454 Ruhm, Christopher J.; Teague, Jackqueline L. Parental leave policies in Europe and North America. NBER Working Paper, No. 5065, Mar 1995. 24, [9] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors describe and compare family leave policies in Europe and North America. "First, we provide a brief history of family leave legislation in Europe and North America and summarize arguments relating to the efficiency and incidence of mandated leave. Second, we have constructed a longitudinal data set detailing durations of job-protected leave in 17 countries, during the 1960-89 period, and use this information to examine recent trends in the regulations....Third, we provide an exploratory investigation of the relationship between mandated leave policies and macroeconomic outcomes."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:10455 van Dongen, Mirjam C. P.; Frinking, Gerard A. B.; Jacobs, Menno J. G. Changing fatherhood: a multidisciplinary perspective. ISBN 90-5170-341-4. 1995. xv, 246 pp. Thesis Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This volume is the result of an interdisciplinary conference on changing fatherhood, held at Tilburg University, Netherlands, in May 1994. "The aim of the conference was an exchange of knowledge about backgrounds and implications of changing fatherhood in a multidisciplinary and international perspective. Besides a scientific evaluation of research on fatherhood, attention was given to the policy implications of its changing nature." The 19 papers are accompanied by author and subject indexes. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Thesis Publishers, P.O. Box 14791, 1001 LG Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10456 Wakabayashi, Keiko. Population problems and women in China: an approach from the perspective of family and lineage. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 51, No. 1, Apr 1995. 23-44 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
The author discusses women's status in China with reference to family characteristics and lineage customs. Aspects considered include changes in the size and makeup of the traditional family; increases in divorce and female suicide; population statistics on women; the inheritance system and support of aged men; eugenics and human rights; and the UN World Conference on Women.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10457 Yamamoto, Chizuko. Components of the growth of the number of persons living outside of the family: 1970-1980 and 1980-1990. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 51, No. 1, Apr 1995. 45-51 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Data by age are presented on individuals in one-person households in Japan in the two decades 1970-1980 and 1980-1990.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10458 Zhao, Zhongwei. Demographic transition and changes in Chinese kinship networks. Institute of Population Research Working Paper, No. 19, Apr 1995. 27, [7] pp. Peking University, Institute of Population Research: Beijing, China. In Eng.
"Starting with a brief review of the demographic transition which occurred in China over [the] last few decades, this paper is particularly focused on demographic changes and their impact on the number and type of kin available to each individual and the characteristics of local kinship networks in some rural communities. These issues are examined by both computer microsimulation and empirical research." The focus is on the period since 1930, with some historical data included for comparison.
Correspondence: Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10459 Zuniga, Elena; Hernandez, Daniel. The importance of children for the elderly and changes in reproductive behavior (a study of three rural communities in Mexico). [Importancia de los hijos en la vejez y cambios en el comportamiento reproductivo (estudio en tres comunidades rurales de Mexico).] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1994. 211-36, 270-1 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This study analyzes the importance of children in the care of elderly populations in rural communities [in Mexico]....In particular, the perception of elders about the value of their children is analyzed, especially the role children play in their economic contribution to the household or their instrumental value to it at different stages of their lives....With respect [to] the condition in which children support their parents in their old age the economic assistance given was studied too. Finally, the preference regarding family size of those 60 years or older [is] given, as well as the view points of women on the need to control fertility and reduce family size. Three different types of cost are studied: the economic cost of supporting and caring for children, the emotional cost of their upbringing and the health cost of multiple pregnancies and births."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.