Volume 62 - Number 1 - Spring 1996

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

62:10195 Abernethy, Virginia. The demographic transition revisited: lessons for foreign aid and U.S. immigration policy. Ecological Economics, Vol. 8, No. 3, Dec 1993. 235-52 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The completed demographic transitions in industrialized countries inspired a model which underlies many well-meant policies affecting the Third World. However, the model's postulate--modernization and prosperity will lower fertility rates--has exacerbated rather than helped control worldwide population growth and the associated environmental degradation. Here we show that perceived economic opportunity leads to raising family size targets and to discarding elements of traditional cultures which formerly held fertility rates in check. Conversely, fertility rates fall when limits are recognized. These observations imply that a liberal immigration policy and large-scale foreign aid are counterproductive for restoring balance between population size and carrying capacity."
Correspondence: V. Abernethy, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Nashville, TN 37232. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10196 Aghajanian, Abkar; Agha, Homa; Gross, Andrew B. Cumulative fertility in Iran. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1996. 59-72 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Utilizing data from surveys and censuses, this paper examines the trends and differential in cumulative fertility in Iran. The analysis of data suggests persistency of a high level of cumulative fertility, particularly for women in rural areas. However, multivariate analysis of the determinants of fertility reveals strong influences from size of the place of residence, women's education, age at first marriage, and husband's education on cumulative fertility." The authors conclude that the prospects for significant fertility decline in Iran in the near future are promising.
Correspondence: A. Aghajanian, Fayetteville State University, Department of Sociology, 1200 Murshison Road, Fayetteville, NC 28301. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10197 Allaby, Martin A. K. Risks of unintended pregnancy in England and Wales in 1989. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 3, Oct 1995. 93-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Data from a survey of 1,483 recent mothers and routine official data on abortions and maternities are used to calculate the age-related risks of unintended pregnancies among women in England and Wales in 1989. The results suggest that the risks of unintended pregnancy are high, particularly among younger women, and that women who were sexually active from the age of 15 could expect, on average, one unintended pregnancy before reaching the age of 25.
Correspondence: M. A. K. Allaby, Northamptonshire District Health Authority, Department of Public Health Medicine, Northamptonshire, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10198 Amin, Sajeda; Cleland, John; Phillips, James F.; Kamal, Gholam M. Socioeconomic change and the demand for children in rural Bangladesh. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 70, 1995. 47 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Recent survey research demonstrates that fertility in Bangladesh has declined from about seven births per woman at independence to about four by the end of the 1980s and to well below four by 1993. This paper examines social and economic trends in this period of rapid demographic change, with particular attention to circumstances in the years immediately preceding the fertility transition. Structural forces that may have altered reproductive motives are examined...."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10199 Aramburu, Carlos E.; Arias, Rosario. Approaches to low-income groups' sexuality: a comparative study of women in three low-income contexts in Peru. [Aproximaciones a la sexualidad popular: estudio comparativo de mujeres de tres contextos populares del Peru.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1994. 151-210, 269-70 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This work...examines the cultural dimension of sexuality and fertility of women from [low-income] sectors in Peru. It intends to explain the cultural processes that fall into the intermediate variables of fertility, such as marriage rate, contraception, breastfeeding and...abortion. These dimensions of sexual and reproductive life are analyzed according to two explanatory dimensions: generation and cultural context of socialization. The general hypothesis is that a cultural process of homogenization of the values and behaviors has been taking place over sexuality, in such a way that the younger generations will show similar standard behaviors and values no matter their context of socialization; in the meantime, in the older groups there will exist contextual differences in these dimensions."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10200 Atoh, Makoto. The recent fertility decline in Japan: changes in women's role and status and their policy implications. Institute of Population Problems Reprint Series, No. 23, Apr 1995. 22 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"In this chapter, demographic, social and economic causes for very low fertility in Japan will be discussed, focussing on changes in women's role and status, and policy responses to it....The reason fertility in Japan is rapidly declining now seems to be that women's social participation is a historically new phenomenon and the level of participation is as low as Germany and other surrounding countries and societal or policy responses to this new situation are premature."
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10201 Aziz, Azra. Proximate determinants of fertility in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1994. 727-42 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
In an attempt to decompose the total fertility rates and analyze the proximate determinants of fertility, the author uses the model developed by Bongaarts and data from a number of recent surveys undertaken in Pakistan. The results indicate that both breast-feeding and marital status are significant determinants of fertility, whereas contraception is not. Comments are included by Syed M. Ali (pp. 740-2).
Correspondence: A. Aziz, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10202 Bachu, Amara. Fertility of American women: June 1994. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 482, Sep 1995. xxii, 15, [15] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report provides detailed statistics on fertility and socioeconomic characteristics of American women 15 to 44 years old. The data were collected in the June 1994 Current Population Survey....Highlights of some of the most important characteristics about current fertility patterns and trends [are also presented]."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10203 Beidou, Abdoullahi; Issa, Abdoul-Rasaou. The socioeconomic and cultural determinants of fertility in Niger. [Les determinants socio-economiques et culturels de la fecondite au Niger.] Mar 1994. ix, 19 pp. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Fre.
This is one in a series of papers emanating from a regional workshop held in Bamako, Mali, from May to July, 1993. The workshop was the result of a cooperative effort between local researchers and technical personnel from the Demographic and Health Surveys staff to analyze in depth DHS data for various African countries. This paper concerns fertility determinants in Niger.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10204 Betts, Katharine; Diemer, Kristin; Hiller, Peter. Fertility levels in Australia: what can the 1991 census tell us? People and Place, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1995. 19-27 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"The information which can be gathered from the 1991 [Australian] Census on trends in fertility is limited. But an analysis of the one per cent users' sample tape indicates that women with advanced educational qualifications are now having families which are considerably smaller than those of women who have no post-school qualifications."
Correspondence: K. Betts, Swinburne University of Technology, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10205 Bhushan, Indu; Hill, Kenneth. The measurement and interpretation of desired fertility. Johns Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 95-1, [1995]. 13, [7] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors examine measures of fertility preference. They propose a new measure, the prospective desired total fertility rate (PDTFR), based on the fertility rate that would occur in the 12 months after the survey if women had the number of children they say they want. They demonstrate how the PDTFR can be computed using Demographic and Health Survey data from selected developing countries on the timing of wanted additional births.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10206 Bousfield, Marie V. Estimation of fertility rates for small areas in postcensal years. In: American Statistical Association 1994 Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1995?]. 106-11 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The author presents a new method for estimating the fertility rates of specific populations in small areas of the United States in the years following a census. The model derived is used to estimate the fertility of African Americans in the city of Chicago and its census tracts for the years 1980 through 1990.
Correspondence: M. V. Bousfield, Department of Planning, City Hall, Room 1003, Chicago, IL 60602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10207 Bradley, Candice. Women's empowerment and fertility decline in western Kenya. In: Situating fertility: anthropology and demographic inquiry, edited by Susan Greenhalgh. 1995. 157-78 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The focus of this chapter is the relationship between women's empowerment, domestic violence, and fertility. Using data from a Maragoli sublocation in a highland farming region of western Kenya, I demonstrate that, while fertility has declined and contraceptive use has increased, there are some important areas in which Maragoli women have lost ground. Domestic violence may be one of these areas. I also question the link between contraceptive use and education, demonstrating that women of different ages have access to different forms of empowerment and contracept at different rates, perhaps even for different reasons."
Correspondence: C. Bradley, Lawrence University, Department of Anthropology, Appleton, WI 54912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10208 Carter, Anthony T. Agency and fertility: for an ethnography of practice. In: Situating fertility: anthropology and demographic inquiry, edited by Susan Greenhalgh. 1995. 55-85 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This chapter has two aims. The first is to show that the concepts of agency that have been employed in theories of fertility change are unworkable. The second is to propose an alternative view of agency designed to free us from the sterile opposition between passive and active decision-making. The first section used Leibenstein's argument to review a variety of recent demographic studies....The second section of the paper turns to recent theoretical and ethnographic work...for clues to a more satisfactory approach to agency....Subsequent sections of the paper apply this approach to material from North India and California."
Correspondence: A. T. Carter, University of Rochester, Department of Anthropology, Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10209 Castro Martin, Teresa. Women's education and fertility: results from 26 Demographic and Health Surveys. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1995. 187-202 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents an updated overview of the relationship between women's education and fertility. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for 26 [developing] countries are examined. The analysis confirms that higher education is consistently associated with lower fertility. However, a considerable diversity exists in the magnitude of the gap between upper and lower educational strata and in the strength of the association. In some of the least-developed countries, education might have a positive impact on fertility at the lower end of the educational range. Yet, compared with patterns documented a decade ago, the fertility-enhancing impact of schooling has become increasingly rare. The study also examines the impact of female education on age at marriage, family-size preference, and contraceptive use. It confirms that education enhances women's ability to make reproductive choices."
Correspondence: T. Castro Martin, UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, Two United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10210 Central African Republic. Bureau Central du Recensement. (Bangui, Central African Republic). General population census, December 1988. Volume 2: analysis report. Part 3: fertility. [Recensement general de la population de decembre 1988. Volume 2: rapport d'analyse. Tome 3: fecondite.] Mar 1993. 59 pp. Bureau Central du Recensement: Bangui, Central African Republic. In Fre.
This is an analysis of the data on fertility from the 1988 census of the Central African Republic. The report has chapters on the methodology of data collection and analysis, fertility levels and trends, differential fertility, and infertility.
Correspondence: Bureau Central du Statistique, Division des Statistiques et des Etudes Economiques, Ministere de l'Economie, du Plan, des Statistiques et de la Cooperation Internationale, Bangui, Central African Republic. Location: University of Texas, Population Research Center Library, Austin, TX. Source: APLIC Census Network List, No. 152, Dec 1994.

62:10211 Courbage, Youssef. Fertility transition in Syria: from implicit population policy to explicit economic crisis. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1994. 142-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Despite rapid population growth, Syria's government has been reluctant to intervene directly, preferring to rely on economic development and the education and employment of women to reduce family size. During the 1970s, despite prosperity and great gains in women's education, the birthrate remained consistently high. Education of women did not lead to their widespread employment until the 1980s, when a stagnating economy made it necessary for families to seek a second income. Since the mid 1980s, the birthrate has fallen sharply, from 45 births per 1,000 population in 1985 to 33 per 1,000 in 1990."
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10212 Dabire, Bonayi; Debuisson, Marc; Dionkito, Ben-Djebet; Drame, Mamadou; Ekade, Ghalio; El Abidi, Abdelali; El Youbi, Ali; Kouwonou, Kodjovi; Laoukoura, Kaguerou; Toure, Lassina; Ngayimpenda, Evariste; Periquet, Sophie; Samh, Mohammed; Willems, Michel. The fertility of Moroccans in Belgium: an attempt at an explanation. [La fecondite des Marocains en Belgique: un essai d'explication.] Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 177, ISBN 2-87209-412-1. Mar 1995. 72 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
This study on Moroccan immigration in Belgium was carried out by the students participating in the Master of Demography course at Louvain-la-Neuve in May 1993. Part 1 reviews trends in immigration to Europe in general and to Belgium in particular. Part 2 discusses the relevant theories and literature. Part 3 examines the Moroccan population in Belgium using census data, and compares fertility levels in this population in both the country of origin and destination. Part 4 presents results of interviews with 20 Moroccan women in Brussels.
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10213 Das Gupta, Monica. Fertility decline in Punjab, India: parallels with historical Europe. Population Studies, Vol. 49, No. 3, Nov 1995. 481-500 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Two interesting features emerge from this study of fertility behaviour in Punjab. First, it brings out the common features of peasant life and demographic behaviour found in this developing-country setting and in historical Europe. As in much of Europe, marriage was regulated to adjust to the availability of land and other resources....Secondly, the findings suggest that we need to re-define what we understand to be the features of socio-economic development which are crucial for fertility decline....The onset of the decline was brought about by development interventions which stabilized fluctuations in crop yields and mortality, thus radically improving stability of people's expectations."
Correspondence: M. Das Gupta, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10214 Diamond, Ian; Rutenberg, Naomi. Recent trends in fertility in Botswana. Journal of International Development, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 145-61 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Fertility trends in Botswana have been the subject of much debate in recent years as a number of surveys in the mid to late 1980s suggested that a fertility decline was under way. This paper first reviews the demographic evidence for a fertility decline and argues that the magnitude of the decline was rather less than some commentators had suggested. The paper then places the trends in fertility in the social and economic context of Botswana in the 1980s. It is argued that there could have been a short-term decline in childbearing as a result of economic crises brought on by a major drought and helped by the government of Botswana's strategies to alleviate the effects of the drought on its people."
Correspondence: I. Diamond, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Highfield, Southampton S09 5NH, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10215 Fogel, Ramon; Pantelides, Alejandra. Principal determinants of fertility in rural areas of Paraguay: the case of Itapua. [Determinantes principales de la fecundidad en areas rurales del Paraguay: el caso de Itapua.] Apr 1994. 160 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centro de Estudios Rurales Interdisciplinarias [CERI]: Ascuncion, Paraguay. In Spa.
The authors study fertility determinants among the rural population of Paraguay, using the department of Itapua as an example. Data were mainly collected in 1991 and 1992.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10216 Freely, Maureen; Pyper, Celia. Pandora's clock: understanding our fertility. ISBN 0-434-27258-2. 1993. xiv, 274 pp. Heinemann: London, England. In Eng.
The authors "examine the issues and emotions surrounding family planning, pregnancy, parenthood, genetic screening, abortion and infertility and provide us with the information we need to understand how our biological clocks work and make the most of the choices available to us." The study is based on semi-structured interviews carried out in the United Kingdom and the United States. The focus is on the extent of actual, as opposed to implied, information that adults have about how their bodies work, particularly concerning fertility.
Correspondence: Heinemann, Michelin House, 81 Fulham Road, London SW3 6RB, England. Location: Indiana University Library, Bloomington, IN.

62:10217 Fuchs, Rachel G.; Moch, Leslie P. Invisible cultures: poor women's networks and reproductive strategies in nineteenth-century Paris. In: Situating fertility: anthropology and demographic inquiry, edited by Susan Greenhalgh. 1995. 86-107 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This essay is an attempt to reconcile our institution-bound view of the poor with social theory and the realities of human connections; it does so by analyzing extant evidence of poor women's networks that informed, aided, and empowered them. We focus on the networks women relied upon in their reproductive strategies--especially to seek marriage partners, abortions, and aid with childcare--during the prewar years of the Third Republic [in France] (1871-1914)."
Correspondence: R. G. Fuchs, Arizona State University, Department of History, Tempe, AZ 85287. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10218 Fuster, V.; Jimenez, A.; Morales, B. Birth intervals regarding infant mortality and extramarital reproduction in a Spanish rural community. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 4, Oct 1995. 421-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Record linking provided information on the complete reproductive schedules of a sample of 1,102 couples with at least two children born alive from a rural Spanish community characterised by very high extramarital reproduction. Birth spacing was analysed considering final family size as well as the legitimate-illegitimate status and sex of the newborn, and survival of the preceding sibling."
Correspondence: V. Fuster, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, Department of Animal Biology, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10219 Greenhalgh, Susan. Anthropology theorizes reproduction: integrating practice, political economic, and feminist perspectives. In: Situating fertility: anthropology and demographic inquiry, edited by Susan Greenhalgh. 1995. 3-28 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author provides an overview of this volume on interdisciplinary perspectives on reproduction. The volume "offers a reconceptualization of the subject of interest, fertility or reproduction, terms we use synonymously, and new thinking on four aspects of reproductive dynamics: culture, history, gender, and power. This introductory chapter locates this project in the context of intellectual developments of the post-World War II period. The first section reviews the development of demographic theories of fertility, noting their limitations. The following section outlines an alternative, anthropologically informed culture and political-economy approach to fertility, while the final section highlights the contributions of this volume to its development."
Correspondence: S. Greenhalgh, University of California, Department of Anthropology, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10220 Greenhalgh, Susan. Situating fertility: anthropology and demographic inquiry. ISBN 0-521-47044-7. LC 94-28528. 1995. xv, 304 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In this collection of essays ten anthropologists and two historians develop new cultural and political approaches to human reproduction. Fertility has commonly been treated from a specialized demographic perspective, but today there is widespread dissatisfaction with conventional demographic approaches, which neglect the roles of culture, history and politics in reproductive life. For their part, anthropologists have only recently begun to apply their characteristic approaches to the study of reproduction. Drawing on new ethnographic and historical research and informed by contemporary anthropological theory, this book elaborates a culture and political economy of fertility that incorporates the place of culture and history, gender and power in reproductive life."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10221 Grindstaff, Carl F. Canadian fertility 1951 to 1993: from boom to bust to stability? Canadian Social Trends, No. 39, Winter 1995. 12-6 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Fertility trends in Canada are reviewed from 1951 to 1993. Changes in age-specific fertility over time are noted, and fertility differences among the larger provinces examined. Finally, the implications of continued low levels of fertility are discussed.
Correspondence: C. F. Grindstaff, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10222 Guevara, Jean P.; Villena, Sergio. Fertility in the state of Mexico: a municipal approximation. [Fecundidad en el Estado de Mexico: una aproximacion municipal.] ISBN 968-6341-49-8. 1994. 143 pp. El Colegio Mexiquense: Toluca, Mexico; Consejo Estatal de Poblacion [COESPO]: Toluca, Mexico. In Spa.
This is an analysis of fertility trends in the state of Mexico, which surrounds Mexico's Federal District and contains Mexico City. The focus is on fertility at the municipal level and on changes in that fertility over the last 50 years. Data are from the census, and are presented by municipality for four cohorts (those born in 1921-1925, 1926-1930, 1941-1945, and 1946-1950). Some comparisons are made with fertility trends in the country as a whole.
Correspondence: El Colegio Mexiquense, Apartado Postal 48-D, 50120 Toluca, Mexico State, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10223 Hirschman, Charles; Tan, JooEan; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Guest, Philip. The path to below replacement-level fertility in Thailand. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 3, Sep 1994. 82-7, 107 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"In one generation, from 1970 to 1990, average fertility in Thailand declined from six or seven births per woman to below replacement-level fertility. Even in an age of rapid fertility transitions, the Thai case is exceptional. A comparison of data from seven different censuses and surveys over this period shows a consistent pattern of fertility decline. The primary evidence that the Thais reached below-replacement fertility in the late 1980s comes from time-series estimates of fertility for the early and mid-1980s, calculated from the 1990 Census and supported by the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey. Most demographers underestimated the pace of Thailand's fertility decline and did not expect replacement fertility until late in the 1990s."
Correspondence: C. Hirschman, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, DK-40, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10224 Islam, S. M. Shafiqul; Khan, H. T. Abdullah. Influences of selected socioeconomic and demographic variables on fertility in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2, Jun 1995. 51-63 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The data used in this study are from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey (1989 BFS), which was conducted...by the National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT)....A two-stage probability sample design was used for the survey....It has been found that female age at marriage has a significant direct negative influence on fertility. Thus, raising the age at marriage by implementing a minimum-age marriage law is likely to lower fertility on a national scale. Duration of breast-feeding is also found to have a significant direct negative effect on fertility....Fetal loss appears to have a significant direct positive effect on fertility...which means that mothers who have experienced fetal loss are found to have higher fertility....Maternal mortality is also high in Bangladesh. Therefore, it is essential to provide primary health care, particularly maternal and child health care, for surviving children."
Correspondence: H. T. A. Kahn, Napier University, Department of Mathematics, Sighthill Court, Edinburgh EH11 4BN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10225 Jensen, An-Magritt. The status of women and the social context of reproduction. Journal of International Development, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 61-79 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Recent fertility decline in Kenya has taken place at an uneven pace. According to the demographic and health survey (DHS) in 1989, one of the highest levels has occurred in Coast Province, and almost no decline has taken place in Western Province. It is a puzzling aspect that use of modern contraceptives in both these provinces is lower than the national average. The aim of the article is to broaden the understanding of the uneven pace of fertility decline. Attention is given to the social value of children and the role of women. It is argued that the impact of child mortality and sterility is underplayed in analyses based upon the DHS. The data are based upon two case studies, from Kwale in Coast Province and Bungoma in Western Province."
Correspondence: A.-M. Jensen, Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, P.O. Box 44, Blindern, 0313 Oslo, Norway. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10226 Kantner, Andrew; Lerman, Charles; Yusuf, Mohammed. What can we say about fertility trends in Bangladesh? An evaluation of the 1991 population census. Asia-Pacific Population Research Reports, No. 5, Jun 1995. 16 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"Evidence from several sources indicates that fertility has fallen substantially in Bangladesh, but actual fertility levels remain uncertain. This report discusses fertility trends derived from the 1991 population census, officially released in December 1993, and other recent sources of information on the Bangladesh population. Several indices suggest that age reporting in the 1991 census was highly unreliable. A comparison with forward projections from the 1981 census, as well as other surveys, suggests that the 1991 census may have substantially overenumerated young children and underenumerated adolescent girls and young women."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10227 Kertzer, David I. Political-economic and cultural explanations of demographic behavior. In: Situating fertility: anthropology and demographic inquiry, edited by Susan Greenhalgh. 1995. 29-52 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"I here focus on...the role of culture in demographic explanation. In doing this, I examine the attempts to replace more traditional economic perspectives with cultural explanation in demographic studies....My focus is principally on the implications of work done in European historical demography, though some contemporary African studies are cited as well. I look, in turn, at attempts to explain three different--though related--patterns of demographic behavior: (1) fertility decline; (2) marital timing; and (3) household formation and composition. In each case I first examine some of the work by other scholars in the field, and then provide some data of my own to shed light on the competing theoretical approaches. My data come from a continuing study of the town of Casalecchio di Reno, near Bologna, in northern Italy for the period 1861-1921."
Correspondence: D. I. Kertzer, Brown University, Department of Anthropology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10228 Kravdal, Oystein. Sociodemographic studies of fertility and divorce in Norway with emphasis on the importance of economic factors. Sosiale og Okonomiske Studier/Social and Economic Studies, No. 90, ISBN 82-537-4088-3. 1994. 258 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Eng. with sum. in Nor.
This is a doctoral dissertation on aspects of fertility and divorce in Norway. "The eight separate studies that are included in the dissertation, are primarily devoted to the timing of first birth, the proportion of two-child mothers who have an additional child, and the stability of marital unions. Special attention is paid to the influence of economic factors, such as women's educational level and work experience, and husbands' income. It seems that economic considerations are quite important in certain aspects of reproductive decision-making. However, the results also suggest that some contemporary differences in the costs of childbearing may be inadequately described by economic-demographic theory. There is some support for the idea that secularization may have been a key driving force behind the weakening of the traditional marriage and the drop to below-replacement fertility. The studies also address the relationships between age at first birth, age at marriage, the progression to parity three, the total number of children, and the divorce rate. These relationships are partly of a causal nature, partly due to selection."
Correspondence: Statistisk Sentralbyra, Postboks 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10229 Krishnan, Vijaya. Effect of housing tenure on fertility. Sociological Spectrum, Vol. 15, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1995. 117-29 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article used the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey data to examine the effects of housing tenure and a number of sociodemographic and economic factors (e.g., education, religion, income) on both completed fertility and selected parity progression. Results showed a statistically significant positive effect of housing tenure on completed fertility....Age at marriage, education, religiosity, nativity, and region of residence were highly associated with completed fertility. Housing tenure effects on the parity progression were similar in pattern, although statistically significant effect occurred only in the progression from two to three children. Furthermore, religious attendance was found to increase the likelihood of higher order births among Canadian women."
Correspondence: V. Krishnan, 11247 79th Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G OP2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10230 Lockwood, Matthew. Demographic transition in Africa. Journal of International Development, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 180 pp. John Wiley and Sons: Chichester, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains eight papers on aspects of the demographic transition in Africa, with an emphasis on prospects for a decline in fertility.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: John Wiley and Sons, Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10231 Lockwood, Matthew. Development policy and the African demographic transition: issues and questions. Journal of International Development, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 1-23 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper gives an overview of the recent demographic history of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, especially the start of a fertility decline. After discussing the evidence for a decline, and the nature of changes in fertility behaviour, the paper moves on to look at possible causes, in relation to development policy. Mortality, cultural structure, the status of women, education and economic crisis are all considered as candidates. The conclusion is reached that available evidence raises as many questions about the causes of fertility decline as it resolves, particularly in our understanding of the process of change. Finally, the potential consequences of falls in fertility and population growth slowdown in sub-Saharan Africa are considered."
Correspondence: M. Lockwood, University of Sussex, School of African and Asian Studies, Falmer, Brighton, Sussex BN1 9QN, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10232 Meir, Avinoam; Ben-David, Yosef. From latent surplus to changing norms: fertility behavior of the Israeli Bedouin along the nomadism-sedentarism continuum. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3, Autumn 1995. 389-408 pp. Calgary, Canda. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this paper, we examine the fertility behavior of [Israeli] Bedouin society in light of the notion that the economic value of Bedouin children has declined drastically to generate a latent fertility surplus. Therefore, the main questions we investigate are whether Bedouin nuclear families are changing their ideal family size by adopting a Western fertility rationality, and whether the associated values are being translated into behavioral patterns? To answer these questions, we first attempt an understanding of the concepts of fertility behavior within the context of pastoral nomads undergoing a general cultural evolution. This discussion is followed by an analysis of the changes in fertility behavior to be seen in this Bedouin society."
Correspondence: A. Meir, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Negev Center for Regional Development, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 653, 84105 Beersheba, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10233 Mier y Teran, Marta; Rabell Romero, Cecilia. The beginning of the fertility transition in Mexico. The offspring of women born in the first half of the twentieth century. [Inicio de la transicion de la fecundidad en Mexico. Descendencias de mujeres nacidas en la primera mitad del siglo XX.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 55, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1993. 41-81 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The analysis of probable growth rates among families, based on census figures, proved that fertility rates in Mexico began to fall earlier and less selectively than suggested by previous studies. The first changes in reproductive patterns occurred prior to official family planning programs. A state-by-state probability analysis discovered the existence of three groups of states corresponding to the different stages of changing fertility rates."
Correspondence: M. Mier y Teran, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10234 Munoz Perez, Francisco. Reproduction and marriage in Spain (1970-1990). [Procreacion y matrimonio en Espana (1970-1990).] Revista Internacional de Sociologia, No. 11, May-Aug 1995. 199-237 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Recent fertility trends in Spain are analyzed using data from official sources. The author notes that "changes in sexual behavior among the young during the 1970s have given rise to a considerable increase in the number of births conceived [outside of] marriage. However, in the majority of cases, marriage took place before the actual birth. Between 1970 and 1980, the proportion of women pregnant at moment of marriage grew from 10% to 21%. Those changes are similar to those which occurred in other countries ten or fifteen years previously." The author also observes that an increase in the use of effective contraception and earlier age at marriage have reduced the nonmarital fertility rate among the young, but not among other age-groups. Regional differences are noted, which the author suggests are primarily due to socioeconomic differences.
Correspondence: F. Munoz Perez, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10235 Notkola, Irma-Leena. Cohort fertility changes and period fertility in 1960-1990 in Finland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 32, 1994-1995. 19-31 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"In Finland, like in most European countries, the total fertility rate declined from a level of 2.5 births per woman in the middle of the 1960s [to] below the replacement level of 2.1 births during the late sixties....This paper aims to describe the changes in cohort fertility during and after this transition. The cohorts whose fertility is examined include the cohorts of women born between 1923-24 and 1961-62. The cohort fertility data are from unpublished tables of Statistics Finland. Total fertility decreased from 2.6 births per woman in the cohort 1923-24 to the level of 1.8-1.9 births per woman in the cohorts 1943-44 and has stayed at this level in younger cohorts. The most prominent change in fertility behavior in recent years has been delaying births later in life."
Correspondence: I.-L. Notkola, University of Kuopio, Department of Community Health and General Practice, Kuopio, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10236 Orubuloye, I. O. The demographic situation in Nigeria and prospects for fertility transition. Journal of International Development, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 135-44 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Data sources from the 1980s are used to examine the main features of Nigeria's population patterns and trends. Fertility has remained relatively constant up until very recently, when there has been evidence for a decline in fertility in the south of the country. In the north, fertility remains high, contraceptive use remains low, and women continue to marry at young ages. The mortality declines of the oil boom years are threatening to reverse, as economic crisis hits health services. Although there is some evidence of rising contraceptive knowledge and use in the south, certain features of Nigerian family structures militate against fertility decline. This situation is likely to change only through education and the transformation of women's status."
Correspondence: I. O. Orubuloye, Ondo State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ondo State, Nigeria. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10237 Palmore, James A.; Mamas, Si G. M.; Arifiyanto, Yohandarwati. Fertility decline in Indonesia, 1971-1991. Journal of Population, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jun 1995. 45-66 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"This paper summarizes estimates resulting from the application of four indirect estimation techniques to seven Indonesian data sets. The own-children method, the last live birth method, the Palmore method, and the Rele method were applied to all seven data sets. Estimates were prepared for the whole country and its three major regions for 1971 through 1991....The results show that fertility in Indonesia fell by at least thirty-nine percent between 1971 and 1991, but the various methods do not agree on the levels of fertility, particularly for the earliest dates. By 1991, however, three estimates of the total fertility rate for Indonesia as a whole are...in a small range: from a low estimate of 3.22 to a high of 3.35. Fertility declined rapidly in all of the major regions of the country, although fertility started at higher levels outside of Java and Bali and hence remains at higher levels today despite rapid declines."
Correspondence: J. A. Palmore, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10238 Paydarfar, Ali A.; Moini, Reza. Modernization process and fertility change in pre- and post-Islamic Revolution of Iran: a cross-provincial analysis, 1966-1986. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1995. 71-90 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the possible causal links between modernization forces and fertility patterns of the Iranian provinces during three time periods, 1966, 1976 and 1986. A modernization scale was constructed using Iranian census data....The findings show that modernization has proceeded upward in an almost consistent pattern in all the provinces during 1966-1986. The Islamic Revolution and Iran-Iraq War not only did not disrupt the modernization trend, it seems that both events accelerated the rate of change. The modernization indicators, individually and collectively, were significantly and inversely correlated with fertility ratios. However, the fertility ratios of the provinces substantially increased in the decade of 1976 to 1986. Our thesis is that the elimination of the national family planning program which happened in the early part of the post-Islamic Revolution had significant effect on the fertility increase of the period 1976 to 1986. The current active family planning program of the Islamic Republic of Iran suggests that the fertility rate of Iran, very likely, will decline in the near future if the current modernization trend and fertility regulation policy continue."
Correspondence: A. A. Paydarfar, University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10239 Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala C. Feeling the pinch: child spacing and constraints on parental economic investments in children. Social Forces, Vol. 73, No. 4, Jun 1995. 1,465-86 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"In this study, we address the relationship between an often overlooked dimension of [U.S.] family structure--the spacing between children's births--and the degree to which parents bestow economic capital on their children. Our focus is on parental economic transfers to children at the point when such investments are not viewed as obligatory--that is, when their children approach young adulthood. Analysis of data from High School and Beyond documents a strong negative effect of close spacing on three indicators of parental economic investments. The use of alternative measures of spacing produces strikingly similar patterns. These results underscore the importance of examining spacing as it relates to parental investments and the utility of studying sheer economic exchanges, not just social ones, across generations."
Correspondence: L. C. Steelman, University of South Carolina, Department of Sociology, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10240 Raitis, Riikka. Fertility in the northwest region of Namibia. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 32, 1994-1995. 106-17 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to examine fertility in the Northwest Region of Namibia and the effects the principal proximate determinants have on fertility. The main data sources are the 1991 Population and Housing Census and the Namibia Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 1992....The level of fertility is higher in the Northwest Region than in other regions of the country. The first principal proximate determinant, the marriage pattern, seems to sustain high fertility in the Northwest Region compared to the South and Central Regions, but not in respect to the Northeast Region....The use of contraceptives is exceptionally low in the Northwest Region compared to the other regions. The ideal number of children is highest in the Northwest Region. The levels of infant and child mortality are relatively low in the Northwest Region and in Namibia on average."
Correspondence: R. Raitis, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10241 Rao, K. V. Employment and childbearing in Canada. In: American Statistical Association 1994 Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1995?]. 124-8 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The impact of active labor force participation on fertility in Canada is explored in this paper using data from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984 and the General Social Survey of 1990. Specifically, the author examines the factors that affect the progression from second to third birth. The results indicate that employed women are slightly more likely to progress from second to third birth than other women over the period 1984 to 1990.
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10242 Robinson, Warren C.; Harbison, Sarah F. The fertility decline in Kenya. Journal of International Development, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 81-92 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"The general outline of the demographic transition in western Europe is reviewed as a background for understanding demographic changes occurring in Asia and Africa. Although a number of scholars have held that Africa is somehow `different' and would not follow the path to demographic transition in the near future, recent evidence from Kenya indicates that contraceptive prevalence is rising and fertility is falling. Factors related to this change include relatively high levels of education, availability of health services, exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles, and a greatly strengthened family planning service delivery system."
Correspondence: W. C. Robinson, Pennsylvania State University, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10243 Sarrible, Graciela. Maternity and infertility: more mothers, fewer children. [Maternidad e infecundidad: mas madres, menos hijos.] Revista Internacional de Sociologia, No. 11, May-Aug 1995. 115-37 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author first notes that the study of infertility concerns not only the ability of a woman to have children, but also the issue of whether or not she wishes to have them. She finds that in some respects, such as the trend toward low fertility and small family size, the situation in Spain corresponds closely to that in the rest of Europe, while in others, such as acceptance of consensual unions and single mothers, it does not. During the period 1970-1985, the level of infertility among women who had completed their reproductive life was reduced. A reduction in the number of children born to individual women seems to have coincided with an increase in the overall number of women who wanted to have children.
Correspondence: G. Sarrible, Universidad de Barcelona, Gran Via de Les Cortes Catalanes 585, 08007 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10244 Schneider, Peter; Schneider, Jane. High fertility and poverty in Sicily: beyond the culture vs. rationality debate. In: Situating fertility: anthropology and demographic inquiry, edited by Susan Greenhalgh. 1995. 179-201 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The authors discuss historical fertility developments among the working classes (braccianti) in the rural town of Villamaura, Sicily. "Based on retrospective interviews and a survey of material culture, we portray the braccianti during the inter-war years as at least temporarily trapped in a fertility regime which added to the misery of both men and women, although for different reasons. Our interpretation of this process questions the proposition that large birth parities during this difficult time resulted from rational choice. But rather than attribute the large parities to a fatalist or traditional mindset, we specify the life-circumstances that obstructed a collective bracciante response to unwanted high fertility, at least until well after World War II."
Correspondence: P. Schneider, Fordham University, College at Lincoln Center, Division of Social Sciences, 113 West 60th Street, New York, NY 10023. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10245 Schultz, T. Paul; Zeng, Yi. Fertility of rural China: effects of local family planning and health programs. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 4, Nov 1995. 329-50 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The rationing of births in China after the 1979 announcement of the `one child family policy' has been held responsible for the rapid decrease in Chinese fertility, whereas other observers have noted that parallel fertility declines occurred with voluntary behavior in other East and Southeast Asian countries. This paper assesses the joint contribution of local family planning and health programs, individual characteristics of women, and the development of their communities, as explanatory variables for Chinese fertility in rural areas of three provinces in 1985. Given the explicit quantitative reproductive goals of the government, an ordered Probit model for cumulative fertility is estimated for women age 15-34 and 35-49."
Correspondence: T. P. Schultz, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, P.O. Box 208269, New Haven, CT 06520-8269. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10246 Souza, Guaraci A. A. de. Procreation and the succession of generations. [La procreacion y la sucesion de las generaciones.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1994. 29-51, 267 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article presents a complex conceptual and methodological proposal....The study proposes an analysis similar and complementary to the abstract models of formal demography. Specifically, the article considers the practices and strategies of procreation, as well as the subjectiveness of people as constitutive elements of a succession of generations, as observed on different analytical levels."
Correspondence: G. A. A. de Souza, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Departamento de Sociologia, Rua Padre Feijo, 29-4o Andar, 40.140 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10247 Tanda, Paola. Marital instability, reproductive behaviour and women's labour force participation decisions. Labour, Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer 1994. 279-301 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The subject of this paper is the relationship between female labour force participation, fertility decisions and marital instability and [it] pursues a two-fold objective: to explain the nature of the interdependences between participation and procreation decisions; and to look for, through empirical evidence, an explanation for women's labour force participation and fertility dynamics over the last 20 years. The empirical evidence, based on a panel of 19 countries over the period 1965-1989, shows that variables representing marital instability have an important role in women's labour supply and fertility dynamics during this period."
Correspondence: P. Tanda, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Department of Economics and Institutions, Via Orazio Raimondo, 00173 Rome, Italy. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10248 Tesfaghiorghis, Habtemariam. Fertility change and differentials in Kiribati. Working Papers in Demography, No. 55, 1995. 24, [3] pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The main objectives of this paper are to estimate the level of fertility and analyse fertility differentials in Kiribati using the 1990 census, and to study fertility change and its timing in Kiribati. Fertility change is examined by using fertility data from the series of censuses since 1968 and by analysing parity data for women of post-reproductive age."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10249 Tiwari, V. K.; Dwivedi, S. N. On some stochastic models of open birth interval. Sankhya: Indian Journal of Statistics, Series B, Vol. 56, No. 1, Apr 1994. 26-38 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
"In this paper, a set of two probability models have been derived to describe the variation in the length of open birth interval of women having given birth to a child during the last `T' years of their current reproductive age. The first model is derived by assuming the reproduction process as steady-state, the second is obtained by varying the fecundability parameter involved in the first model after the last birth. These models are applied to the three sets of data, one collected from [the Indian] Varanasi-survey, 1969-70 and the other two generated from the data on age-specific fertility rates using the life table technique. The biological parameters such as fecundability and secondary sterility have been estimated using some simple procedure of estimation."
Correspondence: V. K. Tiwari, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 070, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10250 Visaria, Leela; Visaria, Pravin. India's population in transition. Population Bulletin, Vol. 50, No. 3, Oct 1995. 51 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report examines the factors responsible for the fertility decline and considers signs that the demographic transition is gaining momentum in India. The report looks at the considerable fertility and mortality differences among states, religious and ethnic groups and between city and countryside, for clues about future trends."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10251 Wang, Feng; Lee, James; Campbell, Cameron. Marital fertility control among the Qing nobility: implications for two types of preventive check. Population Studies, Vol. 49, No. 3, Nov 1995. 383-400 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Demographers, as early as Malthus, have assumed that the preventive checks, delayed marriage and celibacy, were absent in traditional China. In this paper on the Qing (1644-1911) imperial lineage, we demonstrate that, instead, there may have been a different, more `modern' preventive check: fertility control within marriage. Marital fertility of lineage couples during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was low to moderate....Couples apparently regulated their fertility according to their economic resources and the sex of their surviving children. Moreover, they did so, we suggest, by regulating their coital frequency."
Correspondence: F. Wang, University of Hawaii, 1960 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10252 Witte, James C.; Wagner, Gert G. Declining fertility in East Germany after unification: a demographic response to socioeconomic change. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jun 1995. 387-97, 466, 468 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This investigation draws on detailed, longitudinal sample survey data to examine declining fertility in East Germany. Since the unification of Germany in 1990, the fertility rate in East Germany has been halved--falling well below that of West Germany, which was already among the lowest in the world. The authors assess the manner in which these changes in individual behavior can best be understood as responses to socioeconomic change. They advocate using a broad sociological perspective to view demographic trends--as well as other behavioral and attitudinal changes accompanying unification--as separate, but related, threads in an overall process of assimilation."
Correspondence: J. C. Witte, Northwestern University, Department of Sociology, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10253 Wortham, Robert. Prospects for fertility reduction and projections for future population growth in Kenya. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1995. 111-35 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Factors associated with conditions supportive of high fertility in Kenya are discussed, and progress toward attaining significant fertility reduction thresholds during the 1980s is assessed. Findings from recent fertility surveys are presented, and 1969-1989 national level family planning data are evaluated. Four population projections for 1985-2025 are presented and analyzed....Kenya's prospects for reducing the annual population growth rate to 1% within the next sixty years and a cost-sharing development policy are addressed briefly in the concluding section. Recent data suggest that Kenya will probably not complete the demographic transition before the year 2050, but Kenya should continue to move through the transition stage."
Correspondence: R. Wortham, North Carolina Central University, Department of Sociology and Social Work, P.O. Box 19766, Durham, NC 27707. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10254 Yang, Quanhe. Determinants of the decline in parity progression ratios in China, 1979-1984: a factor analysis of provincial data. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 3, Sep 1994. 101-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Provincial data for China are used to examine the interrelationships between socioeconomic development, family planning and changes in parity progression ratios between 1979 and 1984, using factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that at the provincial level, a decline in progression from first births to second births (indicating acceptance of the one-child family norm) depended largely on the province's level of socioeconomic development. In contrast, the family planning program exerted the most significant influence on the decline in progression from second births to third births (and probably to higher parities as well), independent of socioeconomic conditions."
Correspondence: Q. Yang, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10255 Zimbabwe. Central Statistical Office (Harare, Zimbabwe); Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton, Maryland). Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, 1994. Sep 1995. xxii, 307 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This is the main report from the second Demographic and Health Survey of Zimbabwe, which was undertaken in 1994 and involved a nationally representative sample of 6,128 women aged 15-49 and 2,141 men aged 15-54. Following chapters describing survey methodology, there are chapters on fertility, fertility regulation, other proximate determinants of fertility, fertility preferences, early childhood mortality, maternal and child health, maternal and child nutrition, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, and maternal mortality.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

62:10256 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. Ethnic differences in fertility and sex ratios at birth in China: evidence from Xinjiang. Population Studies, Vol. 49, No. 2, Jul 1995. 211-26 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study uses data from the 1990 Census of China for Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region to examine phenomena that, to date, have been examined primarily at the national level: fertility and sex ratios at birth of women who already have at least one surviving child. Comparing data for Uighurs, Kazakhs, Hui, and Han, it finds enormous differences in fertility between the nationalities in the presence of high levels of fertility control. Also, for all four nationalities the extent of fertility control is dependent on the sex of surviving children. Women who had no previous sons, or who had many daughters, were likely to continue to try to have children even at ages and parities past which they would normally have stopped childbearing. Finally, disproportionately feminine sex ratios at birth are found for couples who have had several sons and no daughters. Hence, researchers interested in the question of unusual sex ratios at birth in China need to account for `missing boys' as well as `missing girls'."
Correspondence: B. A. Anderson, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10257 Burke, B. Meredith. Mexican immigrants shape California's fertility future. Population Today, Vol. 23, No. 9, Sep 1995. 4-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines fertility trends among immigrants in California. "Women born in Mexico accounted for well over half (61 percent) of all Hispanic women giving birth and more than one-fourth (27 percent) of all California births in 1992." Implications for the future are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10258 Cooper, Leah G.; Leland, Nancy L.; Alexander, Greg. Effect of maternal age on birth outcomes among young adolescents. Social Biology, Vol. 42, No. 1-2, Spring 1995. 22-35 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This study examined the effect of maternal age on birth outcomes among young [U.S.] adolescents, ages 10 through 15. All records representing single births of primipara, Black or White adolescents, were selected for analysis from the 1983-1986 National Center for Health Statistics' Public Use Linked Live Birth-Infant Death Data File (n=127,668). Logistic regression analyses controlled for effects of maternal race, marital status, prenatal care, gravidity, education, and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan residency. Univariate analyses indicated that the youngest adolescents were at greatest risk for negative birth outcomes including very preterm and preterm delivery, low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), and neonatal mortality. Logistic analyses showed similar results, with the exception that differences in SGA were insignificant."
Correspondence: L. G. Cooper, Health Partners, Minneapolis, MN 55425. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10259 Hakim, Abdul. Factors affecting fertility in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1994. 685-709 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Using data from the Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey 1984-85...the purpose of this analysis is to determine whether there are any differentials in fertility levels by age at marriage, educational level, work status, region of residence (province), and place of residence (urban or rural). Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been undertaken to examine the effects of these demographic and socio-economic factors on the level of fertility." Comments by Naushin Mahmood are included (pp. 707-9).
Correspondence: A. Hakim, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10260 Hammel, E. A. Economics 1, culture 0: fertility change and differences in the northwest Balkans, 1700-1900. In: Situating fertility: anthropology and demographic inquiry, edited by Susan Greenhalgh. 1995. 225-58 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper brings data from ethnography, history, and family reconstitution to bear on the understanding of fertility differences and an early fertility decline under quasi-medieval institutions, in [the northwest Balkans, primarily Croatia]....Two points dominate the theoretical enterprise. The first shows the difficulty of using simple cultural or linguistic labeling as an explanatory device, but demonstrates the utility of economic explanation. The second shows that characteristics of political organization, working through control of economic resources, also had an effect on demographic behavior. Finally I propose that where ethnic labels are effective proxies, they are useful largely because elites have employed ethnic criteria to allocate sub-populations to positions in political and economic structures."
Correspondence: E. A. Hammel, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10261 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Mita, Fusami. Prefectural differentials in recent fertility. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 4, Jan 1995. 1-30 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of recent trends in differential fertility in Japan is presented by province. The emphasis is on marital fertility differences as measured by cumulative rather than age-specific fertility rates. Data are from the 1987 National Fertility Survey as well as the 1990 census. The main focus is on fertility in the capital city Tokyo.
Correspondence: K. Hirosima, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10262 Lynn, Richard. Dysgenic fertility for criminal behaviour. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 4, Oct 1995. 405-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A sample of 104 British parents with criminal convictions had an average fertility of 3.91 children as compared with 2.21 for the general population. The result suggests that fertility for criminal behaviour is dysgenic involving an increase in the genes underlying criminal behaviour in the population."
Correspondence: R. Lynn, University of Ulster, Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10263 Madrigal, L. Differential fertility of mothers of twins and mothers of singletons: study in Limon, Costa Rica. Human Biology, Vol. 67, No. 5, Oct 1995. 779-87 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"The reproductive performance of mothers of twins is of interest from an evolutionary perspective. Because mothers of twins have the potential of leaving a greater number of offspring, they could be favored by natural selection. At the same time, twin pregnancies are known to be associated with higher pre- and postnatal mortality. Thus mothers of twins at least have potentially higher fertility, a potential that may be hampered by greater mortality of twins....I examine the completed fertility of 149 females, 50 years of age and older, from Limon, Costa Rica. In particular, the number of surviving children of mothers of twins and mothers of singletons at the time of the interview is compared. In this sample mothers of twins have a higher fertility at the end of their reproductive career. Their selection coefficient indicates that natural selection favors them through differential fertility."
Correspondence: L. Madrigal, University of South Florida, Department of Anthropology, Tampa, FL 33620. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10264 Malhotra, Anju; Vanneman, Reeve; Kishor, Sunita. Fertility, dimensions of patriarchy, and development in India. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jun 1995. 281-305, 465, 467 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the macro-level linkages between the cultural position of women and fertility levels in India. A major aim is to see whether the various dimensions of patriarchy are separable and distinct in their relationship to regional variations in fertility levels. District-level data, compiled primarily from the 1981 census and some secondary sources, are used to test the argument that fertility is lower in the districts of South India, where kinship and economic patterns are favorable to women, than in North India, where such patterns are less favorable. Three specific dimensions of patriarchy are examined: the marriage system, means of active discrimination against women, and women's economic value. The results confirm a strong macro-level relationship between patriarchy and fertility levels in India, both with and without controls for development and social stratification. The fact that indicators of social development show a strong negative relationship with fertility provides support for policy initiatives directed at not only women's, but general, welfare."
Correspondence: A. Malhotra, University of Maryland, Department of Sociology, Center on Population, Gender and Social Inequality, College Park, MD 20742-1315. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10265 Moos, Walter S.; Randall, Walter. Patterns of human reproduction and geographic latitude. International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1995. 84-8 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The present paper offers data to suggest an effect of geographic latitude in regard to the frequency of conception in human populations. The birth statistics from eight countries in different parts of the world have been evaluated. A particularly strong minimum appears to occur in almost all regions but is shifted in time with changing latitude."
Correspondence: W. S. Moos, Biophysics Research, Waldrainstrasse 16, 3098 Koeniz, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10266 Nobi, A. K. M. Nurun. A note on the analytical methods of differential determinants of fertility in Bangladesh. Journal of Social Studies, No. 64, Apr 1994. 97-111 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"This paper aims at making a note on the problems inherent in the analytical methods of differential determinants of fertility in Bangladesh. Two approaches are there to illustrate the issues. One is to pick up studies that have been conducted by different researchers, and make note of the problems from those studies. Another one is to pick up a data set and perform the relevant analyses to point out the limitations inherent in the methods. The second approach has been opted for this exercise....The standard recode file (BD SRO3) of the Bangladesh Fertility Survey...has been used as the data source."
Correspondence: A. K. M. N. Nobi, Dhaka University, Department of Sociology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10267 O Grada, Cormac; Walsh, Brendan. Fertility and population in Ireland, north and south. Population Studies, Vol. 49, No. 2, Jul 1995. 259-79 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews and interprets recent demographic trends and prospects in the two Irelands, North and South. We discuss both the influence of religion on demographic behaviour, and the impact of demographic trends on the distribution by religion. In the Republic of Ireland, we show that the long-standing gap in marital fertility between Catholics and others had virtually disappeared by the 1980s. In Northern Ireland the gap is still there in the 1990s, though considerably reduced. However, estimates of its size hinge on how the significant proportion of non-respondents to the census question on religion are allocated. We identify some peculiarities of the non-respondent population which imply that it was more `Catholic' in 1991 than first reports suggested."
Correspondence: C. O Grada, University College Dublin, Department of Economics, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10268 Rakaseta, Vilimaina L. Women's work and fertility in Fiji. Pacific Health Dialog, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1995. 17-24 pp. Auckland, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This study examined the relationship between women's work and fertility among Fijians and Indians in Fiji. It showed that female labour force participation, particularly outside the home, is associated with lower fertility. However, Indian women have lower participation and lower fertility....The results demonstrate that the presence of very young children and larger family sizes contribute to the low level of labour force participation of Fijian and Indian women in Fiji. On the other hand, `career occupations' have a more depressing effect on fertility than less career-oriented occupations."
Correspondence: V. L. Rakaseta, South Pacific Commission, Demography/Population Programme, B.P. D5, 98848 Noumea, New Caledonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10269 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). State-specific pregnancy and birth rates among teenagers--United States, 1991-1992. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 44, No. 37, Sep 22, 1995. 677-84 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report presents estimates of pregnancy rates among women aged <19 years for each [U.S.] state and the District of Columbia...by age group, pregnancy rates for women aged 15-19 years by race, and birth rates for women aged 15-19 years by race and by Hispanic ethnicity for 1991-1992, and compares pregnancy rates for 1991 and 1992."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

62:10270 Ericksen, Karen; Brunette, Tracy. Patterns and predictors of infertility among African women: a cross-national survey of twenty-seven nations. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 2, Jan 1996. 209-20 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to provide a comparative framework within which the infertility rates across sub-Saharan Africa may be assessed. A measure of infertility is used that provides for reliable estimates of national prevalence rates in 27 African nations. The results indicate considerable variation in infertility rates between nations across the continent. Whatever the national rate, within each nation infertility is strongly associated with social, behavioral and cultural factors that are known to put women at risk for sexually transmitted diseases and other reproductive tract infections most closely associated with clinical infertility."
Correspondence: K. Ericksen, University of California, Department of Psychology, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10271 Larsen, Ulla. Differentials in infertility in Cameroon and Nigeria. Population Studies, Vol. 49, No. 2, Jul 1995. 329-46 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Data from the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Survey are used to analyze differences in infertility in Cameroon and Nigeria. It was assumed that specific patterns of behaviour are associated with higher infertility and that women's lives are greatly affected by their ability to reproduce. Both hypotheses are supported by multivariate analysis. Odds of being infertile were significantly higher for women who became sexually active in their teens, and those of having been married several times or of being currently unmarried are higher for infertile women. The patterns of infertility vary substantially within both Cameroon and Nigeria, but are very similar in the two countries. The most striking difference is that the incidence of infertility became less variable during the 1980s between different groups in Cameroon, but more diverse in Nigeria. Differences in the latter country are also more age-dependent than in the former."
Correspondence: U. Larsen, Harvard University, Department of Population and International Health, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10272 Macklin, Ruth. Reproductive technologies in developing countries. Bioethics, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, Jul 1995. 276-82 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author considers whether there are any concerns about reproductive technologies, primarily those concerning the treatment of infertility, that are specific to developing countries. "Three ethical concerns often mentioned specifically in regard to developing countries are (1) the `overpopulation argument'; (2) the limited resources argument; and (3) the ethical problem of poorly trained practitioners offering their services to unsuspecting and uninformed infertile individuals or couples. Each argument is explored in some detail, with the conclusion that ethical problems do, in fact, exist but are not unique to developing countries."
Correspondence: R. Macklin, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10467. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:10273 Santos, Agostinho de A. Demography and infertility--related factors? (with reference to a working group). [Demografia e esterilidade--realidades confluentes? (a proposito de um grupo de trabalho).] Estudos Demograficos, No. 31, 1993. 29-34 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por.
The author describes the 1992 establishment of an official working group in Portugal to examine the problems of family health, fertility, and human reproduction. The group paid particular attention to whether the decline in the natural increase of the population is related to an increase in involuntary infertility rather than to the deliberate choice of couples to control their fertility.
Correspondence: A. de A. Santos, Universidade de Coimbra, Faculdade de Medicina, Paco das Escolas, 3000 Coimbra, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

62:10274 Ahmed, Tauseef. Contraceptive methods choice in Pakistan: determined or predetermined. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1994. 773-800 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author attempts to identify "various factors that have bearing on the choice of [contraceptive] method selected in Pakistan. The analysis tries to address factors [affecting] ever and current use; illuminate the dynamics of continuity and shifting of methods or dropping out; and method selection. Family building stages stay central to our analysis...because of various expected shifts in the selection of specific methods." Comments by Ghulam Y. Soomro are included (pp. 798-800).
Correspondence: T. Ahmed, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10275 Ahrenson-Pandikow, Helena. Survey of attitudes towards the use of contraceptives in Namibia. NISER Research Report, No. 15, ISBN 99916-701-0-6. Mar 1992. 68 pp. University of Namibia, Namibian Institute For Social and Economic Research [NISER]: Windhoek, Namibia. In Eng.
Results are presented from a survey of contraceptive attitudes and usage in Namibia. The survey, carried out in 1991, involved a sample of 301 individuals from 11 different regions and 112 health care providers. "The results indicate that many of the misunderstandings, misconceptions and pitfalls of contraceptive usage stem from problems of communication between health care providers and clients. The work analyses factors such as lack of options for contraceptive choice, and unavailability of health staff for advice and counselling. These factors interact, causing feelings of distrust, low compliance and acceptability, and poor continuation rates. Fears of women about side effects and risks of contraceptive methods are shown to be connected to adverse publicity in the community and to conflicts with husbands and religion."
Correspondence: University of Namibia, Namibian Institute For Social and Economic Research, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10276 Al-Gallaf, Khalida; Al-Wazzan, Hanan; Al-Namash, Hind; Shah, Nasra M.; Behbehani, Jaafar. Ethnic differences in contraceptive use in Kuwait: a clinic-based study. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 7, Oct 1995. 1,023-31 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Based on a survey of six randomly selected clinics the present study compares [contraceptive] knowledge and use levels of two major ethnic groups [in Kuwait]--the Beduins and non-Beduins. It also analyses preference for various contraceptive methods and probable reasons for this....There is a significant difference between the levels of knowledge and use of contraception between the Beduin and non-Beduin women; current use being 42% and 65%, respectively. The differentials between the two groups are particularly marked among women of lower socioeconomic status, and tend to reduce notably once variables such as education and income are controlled....Despite the higher level of contraceptive use, the total fertility rate is still around 6 per woman."
Correspondence: N. M. Shah, Department of Community Medicine and Behavioral Sciences, P.O. Box 24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10277 Asbell, Bernard. The pill: a biography of the drug that changed the world. ISBN 0-679-43555-7. LC 94-23185. 1995. xvii, 411 pp. Random House: New York, New York. In Eng.
This book, written for the general reader, describes the history of the contraceptive pill from its invention in the 1950s to its current status as a major contraceptive method in use by millions of women around the world.
Correspondence: Random House, 201 East 50th Street, 31st Floor, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10278 Blom, Svein; Noack, Turid; Ostby, Lars. Marriage and children: better late than never? [Giftermal og barn: bedre sent enn aldri?] Sosiale og Okonomiske Studier/Social and Economic Studies, No. 81, ISBN 82-537-3808-0. LC 93-233865. 1993. 167 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor.
This monograph on family planning in Norway contains chapters on the following topics: fertility, childlessness, birth spacing, nonmarital births, single parenthood, cohabitation and marriage, contraception, abortion, the change in gender roles, and the relation between level of education and postponement of pregnancy.
Correspondence: Statistisk Sentralbyra, P.B. 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

62:10279 DeLamater, John; Wagstaff, David A.; Havens, Kayt K. The impact of a health promotion intervention on condom use by black male adolescents. CDE Working Paper, No. 94-26, Feb 1995. 26, [3] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The present paper reports the immediate and short-term impact of a brief educational intervention on the condom use behavior of black adolescent males seeking care at a municipal social hygiene clinic [in the United States]." The results suggest that "programs presented face-to-face to African-American males by a health educator will have greater impact than culturally similar videos presenting the same messages."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10280 Detzer, Mark J.; Wendt, Sally J.; Solomon, Laura J.; Dorsch, Ellen; Geller, Berta M.; Friedman, Jay; Hauser, Hanna; Flynn, Brian S.; Dorwaldt, Anne L. Barriers to condom use among women attending Planned Parenthood clinics. Women and Health, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1995. 91-102 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
The authors "assessed condom use, barriers to condom use, oral contraceptive use, partnership status and STD [sexually transmitted diseases] history in 457 15-30-year-old women attending four [U.S.] family planning clinics. Subjects were classified into three condom use groups: Non Users (37%); Current Users (33%); and Past Users (30%). Factor analysis revealed five barriers to condom use: Partner's Perception, Peer's Perception, Pleasure/Intimacy, Communication, and Low Perceived Need. Multivariate analyses revealed significant group differences on only two barrier factors: Pleasure/Intimacy and Low Perceived Need....Women with low perceived need to use condoms were more likely to use oral contraceptives."
Correspondence: L. J. Solomon, University of Vermont, Department of Psychology, John Dewey Hall, Burlington, VT 05405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10281 Eldridge, Gloria D.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.; Little, Connie E.; Shelby, Millicent C.; Brasfield, Ted L. Barriers to condom use and barrier method preferences among low-income African-American women. Women and Health, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1995. 73-89 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"Low-income African-American women (N = 178) entering health clinics completed surveys assessing perceived barriers to condom use for themselves personally and for African-American women generally. Following the survey, each woman received a demonstration of five barrier contraceptive methods and then rated her preference among those methods. The women perceived relatively few personal barriers to use of the male condom but perceived significantly greater barriers for other African-American women....The male condom was first choice of the largest percentage of women (45%) and last choice of the smallest percentage of women (11%)....Only 23% of women ranked the female condom as first choice and 35% ranked the female condom as last choice."
Correspondence: J. S. St. Lawrence, Jackson State University, Community Health Program, P.O. Box 17005, Jackson, MS 39217-0105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10282 Ellertson, Charlotte; Winikoff, Beverly; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Camp, Sharon; Senanayake, Pramilla. Expanding access to emergency contraception in developing countries. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1995. 251-63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, the authors review the main methods of emergency contraception and describe experience with them to date. The prevalence and urgency of the need for making these methods available to women in developing countries are assessed. The necessary elements for creating such access are described. In several developing countries, conditions for introducing the methods may be more favorable than in industrialized countries. These advantages are reviewed. Finally, the authors describe the challenges anticipated for broadening the availability of postcoital methods in the developing world. They conclude with a brief series of recommendations for policymakers."
Correspondence: C. Ellertson, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10283 Figuerora Perea, Juan G. Notes for a multidisciplinary study of female sterilization. [Apuntes para un estudio multidisciplinario de la esterilizacion femenina.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1994. 105-28, 268 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article attempts to reconstruct part of a study on female sterilization [in Mexico]....The author attempts to bring together the features of several analytical perspectives for the study of female sterilization. He also argues that research needs to focus more on the social normativity of reproduction and sterilization, the way in which it is put into effect by institutional health programs and family planning services. The paper also suggests the need to study health aspects of the women [that] have chosen this birth control method...."
Correspondence: J. G. Figueroa Perea, Secretaria de Salud, Direccion General de Planificacion Familiar, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10284 Forste, Renata. Effects of lactation and contraceptive use on birth-spacing in Bolivia. Social Biology, Vol. 42, No. 1-2, Spring 1995. 108-23 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Based on the 1989 Demographic and Health Survey of Bolivia, analysis of the joint effects of breastfeeding and contraceptive use on birth-spacing showed the IUD to be the most effective contraceptive method used to delay conception. Breastfeeding significantly lengthened the birth interval, but only following second and higher parity births. In addition, conditions of poverty appeared to further inhibit the return of fecundity and delay conception."
Correspondence: R. Forste, Western Washington University, Department of Sociology, Bellingham, WA 98225. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10285 Friedlander, Dov; Okun, Barbara S. Pretransition marital fertility variation over time: was there deliberate control in England? Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1995. 139-58 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The authors first describe the debate that has taken place among demographers concerning the extent to which people practiced deliberate fertility control before the advent of the fertility transition. They conclude that "(1) there was significant, non-random variation in marital fertility over time, prior to the transition; (2) in many cases, this variation in marital fertility was large relative to contemporaneous variations in nuptiality; and (3) in a substantial minority of the cases, the variation over time in pretransition marital fertility was so large that it is suggestive of deliberate fertility control. Thus, our findings question the view of fertility transition as an innovation in deliberate marital fertility control. While most of our evidence is based on data from England and Wales, we find corroboration of our key results in other European data."
Correspondence: D. Friedlander, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10286 Gage, Anastasia J. Women's socioeconomic position and contraceptive behavior in Togo. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1995. 264-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1988 Togo Demographic and Health Survey, this article explores the linkages between various indicators of women's position and spousal communication about family planning and contraceptive use. The results highlight the importance to their contraceptive behavior of women's economic power and individual control over choice of partner. The likelihood of spousal communication about family planning and modern contraceptive use is significantly higher among women who exercised complete control over selection of partner than among those with arranged marriages. Women who work for cash are significantly more likely than those who do not to communicate with their spouses about family planning, particularly if they participate in rotating credit or savings schemes. Such participation also increases significantly the likelihood of ever using traditional and modern methods of contraception."
Correspondence: A. J. Gage, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10287 Gollub, Erica L.; Stein, Zena; El-Sadr, Wafaa. Short-term acceptability of the female condom among staff and patients at a New York City hospital. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1995. 155-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"An acceptability study of the female condom undertaken at New York's Harlem Hospital between August 1993 and February 1994 enrolled 52 women aged 18-57, 41 of whom (79%) used the female condom at least once. Of these, one-half used the female condom at least three times and 40% used it once; on average, women used it 2.4 times. Two-thirds of users liked the female condom either very much or somewhat, 20% were neutral and 15% stated that they did not like it. One-half of the women reported that their partner liked the device, while 17% said he felt neutral about it and approximately one-quarter said he disliked it. Seventy-three percent of respondents and 44% of their partners preferred the female condom to the male condom."
Correspondence: E. L. Gollub, Philadelphia Department of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10288 Harper, Cynthia; Ellerston, Charlotte. Knowledge and perceptions of emergency contraceptive pills among a college-age population: a qualitative approach. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1995. 149-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Results from focus-group discussions with a population of [U.S.] university students who have convenient access to emergency contraceptive pills show that basic awareness about this method is high, although specific knowledge on appropriate use, such as the time limit for use, the level of effectiveness and the possible side effects, is lacking. Approval of the method is widespread among both female and male students, although students did voice anxieties about irresponsible use and the lack of protection against the human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases. Many of their concerns stem from incomplete information about how the regimen works. Students noted how rarely emergency contraceptive pills are discussed, and were curious to know more. They asked for routine education on the method, as well as more general discussion."
Correspondence: C. Harper, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10289 Harvey, Philip D. The impact of condom prices on sales in social marketing programs. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 52-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report examines the correlation between consumer prices for condoms, expressed as a percentage of per-capita gross national product, and per-capita sales of condoms in 24 social marketing programs [in developing countries]. The correlation that emerges is strong and negative: Even when the data are controlled for age of program and other independent variables, there is a clear negative correlation between prices and contraceptive sales in these programs. The conclusion is clear that condom prices must be set very low--well below the equivalent of 1 percent of per-capita gross national product for a year's supply--in order to achieve satisfactory prevalence for condoms in either a family-planning or an AIDS-prevention context."
Correspondence: P. D. Harvey, DKT International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 610, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10290 Hassoun, D.; Jourdain, A. Contraception and abortion in the countries of Eastern Europe. [Contraception et avortement dans les pays d'Europe de l'Est.] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Demographie Medicales, Vol. 35, No. 2, Apr-Sep 1995. 99-123 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This article examines the reasons why abortion rather than contraception is the main means of controlling fertility in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe that were either part of the former Soviet Union or under its political influence. The need to improve the quality of abortion services in these countries is seen as a primary goal of health policy. The authors conclude that the substitution of contraception for abortion as the primary means of controlling fertility is unlikely to have a significant effect on reducing maternal mortality, but that this goal should be pursued for ethical reasons. They also conclude that, if implemented, it would take several decades for such a policy to become effective.
Correspondence: D. Hassoun, Hopital Delafontaine Saint-Denis, Centre d'Orthogenie, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10291 Jain, Kamini. Family planning in slum areas. ISBN 81-212-0449-6. LC 93-900304. 1993. xiv, 225 pp. Gyan Publishing House: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Family planning practice in the slum areas of Hoshangabad, a town near Bhopal in India, is examined in this study. Data are from a survey of 300 slum-dwellers undertaken by the author. The author concludes that slum residents are accepting of social change, are active participants in the family planning program, and are experiencing a trend toward lower fertility.
Correspondence: Gyan Publishing House, 5 Ansari Road, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10292 Janowitz, Barbara; Kanchanasinith, Kanchana; Auamkul, Nanta; Amornwichet, Pornsinee; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Hanenberg, Robert. Introducing the contraceptive implant in Thailand: impact on method use and costs. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1994. 131-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A pilot project to study the impact of providing the hormonal contraceptive implant as part of Thailand's National Family Planning Program compared 11 hospitals where nurses were trained to provide the implant with 11 control hospitals. At the former hospitals, nurses provided implants to an average of 38 acceptors per month per hospital during the six months after the training period, compared with a per-hospital average of only eight acceptors per month at control hospitals. However, interviews with 550 implant acceptors indicate that 96% would have used another modern method if the implant had not been available. Moreover, in most cases, the cost per couple-year of protection is higher for the implant than for the IUD or for hormonal injectables....Introducing the implant or significantly expanding its use in Thailand will cost more than expanding the use of the IUD or injectables. Although the implant has the potential to become an important method in Thailand, the national program will have to choose between spending an increasing proportion of its resources on the implant, charging users higher prices or rationing the implant through administrative means."
Correspondence: B. Janowitz, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10293 Kambo, Indra P.; Gupta, R. N.; Kundu, A. S.; Dhillon, B. S.; Saxena, H. M.; Saxena, Badri N. Use of traditional medical practitioners to deliver family planning services in Uttar Pradesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 32-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This pilot study conducted in Muzaffarnagar district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India, demonstrates the potential for using traditional medical practitioners in the delivery of family planning services after a brief training period. Practitioners participated continuously in the program for an intervention period of two years during which their services were accepted by the community. The impact of their involvement was reflected in increased knowledge of permanent as well as reversible contraceptive methods and in higher contraceptive use rates, especially of reversible methods adopted by women younger than 25 years (from 8 percent to 37 percent), in the intervention villages, as compared with increased knowledge and use (from 13 percent to 25 percent) of permanent methods alone in the control villages."
Correspondence: I. P. Kambo, Indian Council of Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10294 Kaufmann, Georgia. Family planning in urban Brazil: gaps between policy and practice. Institute of Development Studies Discussion Paper, No. 329, ISBN 1-85864-060-1. Sep 1993. 37 pp. University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies [IDS]: Brighton, England. In Eng.
"This paper explores the relationship between government thinking and policy on population growth, the formal provision of contraceptive techniques, and the technology actually used by poor women. The data used are derived from national survey samples and the micro-demographic survey and the complementary participant observation...conducted throughout 1988 in Alto Vera Cruz (AVC), a favela of some 80,000 people. There is no clear economic argument for or against population growth....Governments adopt population policies for a confusion of reasons and rationales: notably economic, but also ideological, military, nationalistic and religious. Brazil has been traditionally pro-natalist for a mixture of all these reasons."
Correspondence: University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton BN1 9RE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10295 Kishindo, Paul. Family planning and the Malawian male. Journal of Social Development in Africa, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1994. 61-9 pp. Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
Fertility trends in Malawi are reviewed and their negative impacts at both the national and family level are described. The author notes that contraceptive practice is low, and points out that "it is men who traditionally [make] key decisions in relation to family size and therefore any successful family planning scheme should be targeted at the male. The article emphasises that men need to be made aware of the value of family planning in order to encourage their wives to use contraceptive methods."
Correspondence: P. Kishindo, University of Malawi, Chancellor College, Department of Rural Sociology, Zomba, Malawi. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10296 Leal, Ondina F. Blood, fecundity, and contraceptive usage. [Sangre, fertilidad y practicas anticonceptivas.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1994. 237-54 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This study examines the extent to which women in three low-income population groups in Brazil understand the human reproductive process and know how to control their fertility by using contraception.
Correspondence: O. F. Leal, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa en Antropologia Social, Av. Paulo Goma 110, 90046-900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10297 Mahmud, Mamun; Islam, M. Mazharul. Adolescent contraceptive use and its determinants in Bangladesh: evidence from Bangladesh Fertility Survey 1989. Contraception, Vol. 52, No. 3, Sep 1995. 181-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study is concerned with contraceptive use among the currently married adolescents in Bangladesh utilizing the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS) data. The study analyzes the factors affecting the current use of contraception among the adolescents through bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The results indicate that although adolescents have almost universal knowledge about contraceptive methods, only 15 percent are currently using any method of contraception. The corresponding figures for the adults and for the nation as a whole are 34.4 percent and 31.4 percent, respectively. Among the individual methods currently used by the adolescents, the pill appears as the most popular method, followed by safe period. A substantial proportion of the adolescents were found to rely on the traditional methods of contraception."
Correspondence: M. M. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10298 Mehta, S. Contraception and women's health. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1994. 165-71 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The author reviews the relationship between contraception and women's health. Aspects considered include the impact on women's health, prevalence of contraceptive use, unmet needs, method choice, and contraceptive safety and efficacy.
Correspondence: S. Mehta, World Health Organization, Special Progamme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10299 Monteforte, C. A.; Nava, C.; Carnevale, G. P.; Bagliani, F.; D'Errico, G. Contraceptive choice in Vigevano, Italy, 1983-1993. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep 1995. 263-71 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The authors, after general consideration of family planning programs, present a study of 22,714 women, who, in the decade 1983-1993, required contraceptive protection from the Family Planning Centers in the region of Vigevano (Italy). The authors underline the importance of a protocol used before beginning treatment to help prevent women [from] receiving methods carrying too great a health risk. The results show a very high prevalence of oral contraception, increasing in recent years with the introduction of triphasic pills, while use of intrauterine contraception seems to be declining. Other conventional methods, such as barrier (diaphragm and condom) and `natural' methods, had a low incidence in the sample studied. The reasons for these behaviors are analyzed and the relative trends discussed."
Correspondence: C. A. Monteforte, Divisione di Ostetricia e Ginecologia, Ospedale Civile, Corso Milan 19, 27029 Vigevano, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10300 O Grada, Cormac; Duffy, Niall. Fertility control early in marriage in Ireland a century ago. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 4, Nov 1995. 423-31 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Data were extracted from the 1911 Irish manuscript census to study the regional variation in the extent and character of family limitation strategies in Ireland a century ago. Regression analysis of the data shows evidence of `spacing' in both urban and rural Ireland. Further analysis of the so-called child `replacement' problem also produces results consistent with `spacing'."
Correspondence: C. O Grada, University College Dublin, Department of Economics, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10301 Ordonez Gomez, Myriam. Contraceptive dynamics in Colombia: discontinuation of contraceptive methods, change, and failure rates. [La dinamica anticonceptiva en Colombia: discontinuacion del uso de metodos anticonceptivos, cambio y tasas de falla de los metodos.] Seminario sobre la Dinamica Anticonceptiva en America Latina, Jun 1994. viii, 26 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Spa.
The author analyzes discontinuation rates of contraceptive methods, reasons for discontinuation, changes observed in the month following discontinuation, and crude failure rates of methods, using the life table method. Data are from a 1990 survey of contraceptive prevalence, demography, and health in Colombia.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10302 Rajagukguk, Omas B. Contraceptive choice in Indonesia: 1987 and 1991. Journal of Population, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jun 1995. 1-19 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"This study investigates socioeconomic, cultural, demographic and programmatic factors influencing contraceptive choice in Indonesia using the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS) and 1991 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data....Higher number of living children and not wanting any more children are related to a greater choice of long-term methods and less choice of short-term; and traditional methods...compatible with a greater need for limiting childbirth rather than spacing. Religiousness is identified with greater preference for short-term methods as these methods can be used by the users themselves without having to see a male doctor. Access is related to preference for long-term methods. The preference in the rural areas for long-term methods in fact is higher than in the urban areas, resulting from the strong promotion and provision of these methods there."
Correspondence: O. B. Rajagukguk, University of Indonesia, Faculty of Economics, Demographic Institute, Jalan Salemba Raya 4, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10303 Rajaretnam, T.; Deshpande, R. V. The effect of sex preference on contraceptive use and fertility in rural South India. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 3, Sep 1994. 88-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
The authors use data "for the 1980s obtained from two sets of districts representing areas of high and low contraceptive prevalence in the South Indian state of Karnataka. Our specific objectives are to study patterns of sex preference in rural areas, to determine the influence of sex preference on contraceptive use in areas representing different levels of prevalence and to estimate the possible impact on fertility levels of the expected change in contraceptive use in the absence of sex preference." Results indicate that "many women in rural South India either postpone or avoid adopting family planning because of their preferences for the birth of a child of a particular sex....Overall, couples prefer families composed of at least one son and one daughter, but in areas where contraceptive prevalence rates are high, most couples have two sons, with or without a daughter, before they initiate contraceptive use; in low-prevalence areas, couples most often have two sons and one daughter before beginning to practice family planning. In the absence of sex preference, contraceptive prevalence rates could be expected to increase by about 12% in high-prevalence areas and by around 25% in low-prevalence areas; in both areas, levels of marital fertility could be expected to decline by about 20% from current levels."
Correspondence: T. Rajaretnam, J.S.S. Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10304 Ross, John. The question of access. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1995. 241-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author presents a critique of a recent article by John Bongaarts and Judith Bruce on access to contraceptive services, and suggests that "ample evidence exists to refute suggestions that access is currently satisfactory in much of the developing world." A reply by Bongaarts and Bruce is included (pp. 243-4).
For the article by Bongaarts and Bruce, also published in 1995, see 61:30293.
Correspondence: J. Ross, Futures Group International, 80 Glastonbury Boulevard, Glastonbury, CT 06033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10305 Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Poindexter, Alfred N.; Moseley, Deana C.; Bateman, Louise; Reid, Eladio D. Characteristics of injectable contraceptive users in a low-income population in Texas. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1995. 208-11, 225 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Among 600 women at 17 family planning clinics in Texas who expressed interest in using the hormonal injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), 536 (89%) actually received the injectable. Thirty percent of the DMPA recipients were younger than 21 and 77% were not married. The average numbers of pregnancies and births were 1.9 and 1.2 per woman; one-third of the women had had at least one abortion. The majority of women receiving DMPA (66%) were using it to space births. Their main sources of information about the method were friends (42%) and health care providers (37%), and the most commonly reported reason for its use was dissatisfaction with previous contraceptive methods."
Correspondence: H. Sangi-Haghpeykar, Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Houston, TX. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10306 Souza, Guaraci A. A. de. Diffusion of fertility control practices: moments, mechanisms, and determinants. [Difusion de practicas para limitar la procreacion: momentos, mecanismos y determinantes.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 23, No. 61, Jun 1995. 9-28 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In Brazil and in Bahia, distinct fertility control practices, performed through the so-called traditional techniques, have been socially diffused among the traditional elites and the more highly educated groups of the middle class since the end of the 19th century. These practices have produced a slow but systematic tendency to inter-generational decline in completed parity....These facts support the hypothesis that the ethical changes involved in the acceptance and legitimacy of those practices were themselves a consequence of their increased prevalence and the consolidation of norms regarding the patterns of fertility control in these social classes....Once anti-natality [had] been consolidated as a theoretical and practical reference system for the behaviour of the higher classes, the institutional apparatus of the society turned on the popular classes with lower levels of education and medical care, and diffused fertility control in these groups."
Correspondence: G. A. A. de Souza, Universidade Federal de Bahia, Rua Augusto Viana s/n, Canela, 41170-290 Salvador, BA, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10307 Stigum, Hein; Magnus, Per; Veierod, Marit; Bakketeig, Leiv S. Impact on sexually transmitted disease spread of increased condom use by young females, 1987-1992. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug 1995. 813-20 pp. New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Over a period (1987-1992) in which the HIV epidemic increased public awareness of safe sexual practices, we describe predictors of condom use, changes in condom use over time, and the estimated effects of these changes on the spread of STDs [sexually transmitted diseases]....Condom use reported by females aged 18-35 years with non-cohabiting partners was analysed using data from two cross-sectional postal surveys performed 5 years apart...on two separate representative samples of 10,000 subjects aged 18-60 years living in Norway....We found an increase in the prevalence of condom use in the latest intercourse from 14% to 20% with nonforeign partners and from 10% to 38% with foreign partners, from 1987 to 1992. In a logistic regression model, low frequency of intercourse, high education, one lifetime partner, and late sexual debut were predictors of condom use....Condom use among 18-35 year old women has increased over the period....The prevalences of STDs with high transmission rates are not reduced by inconsistent condom use, while the prevalences of STDs with low transmission rates are reduced by both consistent and inconsistent condom use."
Correspondence: H. Stigum, National Institute of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Geitmyrsveien 75, 0462 Oslo 4, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10308 van de Walle, Etienne; Muhsam, Helmut V. Fatal secrets and the French fertility transition. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jun 1995. 261-79, 465, 467 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Sixteenth- to eighteenth-century literary descriptions of French contraceptive behavior are examined for what they tell us about the means through which that country's fertility decline was achieved. A well-known 1778 text by Moheau on `fatal secrets,' and strikingly similar texts from the period, shed little light on the subject. Unambiguous evidence comes from libertine writers who address extramarital situations. They point to a variety of techniques, including mutual masturbation, sodomy, and coitus interruptus. The last does not seem to be the preferred contraceptive method out of wedlock. Withdrawal is usually presented as a learned technique rather than as one that can be reinvented by every couple, and it is reputedly unreliable. Few sources document the spread of withdrawal to marital situations."
Correspondence: E. van de Walle, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

62:10309 Balarezo, Gunther. Characteristics of Norplant users in Lima, Peru. [Caracteristicas de las usuarias del Norplant en Lima-Peru.] Revista Peruana de Poblacion, No. 4, 1994. 137-54 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"With the purpose of evaluating the acceptability of Norplant in Peru where the access to family planning services is limited, a clinical introductory study was developed between November 1988 and February 1991. The sample covers 832 women....At the end of the study, the continuation rate for the total group was 88.75 per 100 women. The results are quite encouraging, taking into account a high level of acceptance among Norplant users in a country where the limited access to family planning determines women having more children than they want and/or [having] an abortion."
Correspondence: G. Balarezo, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Instituto de Estudios de Poblacion, Apdo. 4314, Lima 100, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10310 Civic, Diane; Wilson, David. Dry sex in Zimbabwe and implications for condom use. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 1, Jan 1996. 91-8 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the impact of `dry sex' on condom use and effectiveness. Focus group interviews were held with female HIV/AIDS peer educators in Zimbabwe who had a history of commercial sex work. Participants reported that drying agents had physical and psychological consequences....Although vaginal dryness was not found to deter the use of condoms, some women were reluctant to use condoms for fear of blocking the `magic' of drying agents. There was agreement among participants that condoms frequently broke when used in conjunction with drying agents. Participants primarily attributed condom breakage to excessive vaginal tightness. Lubricants were not routinely used during sex or with condoms. However, participants preferred the use of lubricated condoms when they used condoms. Implications of the `dry sex' practice for AIDS prevention programs...are discussed."
Correspondence: D. Civic, University of Washington, School of Social Work, 4101 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10311 Goldzieher, Joseph W.; Zamah, Nezaam M. Oral contraceptive side effects: where's the beef? Contraception, Vol. 52, No. 6, Dec 1995. 327-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"It is our intent to review the evidence regarding a number of important adverse reactions attributed to oral contraceptive use, to identify the original claim and subsequent documentation, and to form a current opinion regarding the validity of the attribution." The authors conclude that "in many instances a cause-and-effect relationship appears to be incorrect or highly improbable. In other instances the side effects are clinically insignificant or so rare as to be of minimal importance. Yet they continue to be listed by various authorities as validated side effects or relative contraindications to oral contraceptive use. This, in turn, limits the access of many women to a highly effective form of contraception. This re-examination of past history is intended to modernize our concepts of the safety of this modality."
Correspondence: J. W. Goldzieher, 626 Metropolitan Professional Building, San Antonio, TX 78212. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10312 Lande, Robert E. New era for injectables. Population Reports, Series K: Injectables and Implants, No. 5, Aug 1995. 31 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The author provides information on the use of injectable contraceptives throughout the world. Aspects considered include research and development, extent of use, effectiveness and reversibility, side effects and complications, risk of cancer, knowledge and attitude, and maximizing access and quality.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10313 Li, Yong Ping; Bourne, Katherine L.; Rowe, Patrick J.; Zhang, De Wei; Wang, Shao Xian; Zhen, Hiao Yin; Wu, Zhen. The demographic impact of conversion from steel to copper IUDs in China. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1994. 124-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"In this article, we estimate the demographic implications of continued widespread use of the steel ring compared with conversion to copper IUD use [in China] at a rapid, moderate or slow pace." The country's family planning program "relies heavily on the IUD, which accounts for 80% of reversible contraception. The most widely used IUD is the stainless steel ring, which has a failure rate in the first year of use that is six times that of the Copper T. The higher cost of the Copper T is often cited as a barrier to its more widespread use. However, if beginning in 1993, all IUD insertions had been Copper Ts, the effect would have been to avert 41 million pregnancies (some 26 million abortions and 14 million live births) over the next 10 years--pregnancies that would result from method failures with the less effective steel ring. Changing over to copper IUD use at rates that are moderate (within four years) or slow (within seven years) could avert nearly 32 million pregnancies and 24 million pregnancies, respectively."
Correspondence: Y. P. Li, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10314 Pies, Cheri; Potts, Malcolm; Young, Bethany. Quinacrine pellets: an examination of nonsurgical sterilization. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1994. 137-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"In this article, we give a brief overview of the development of the quinacrine method [of nonsurgical female sterilization], review issues of safety and efficacy raised by field studies, discuss several key concerns with regard to ensuring that women are able to make free and informed contraceptive and reproductive choices, evaluate the potential for misuse and abuse of the quinacrine method, and review the need for further research. Above all, we want to stimulate further dialogue--on the one hand, on the issue of quinacrine, but on the other hand, on the larger issue of the ethical development and testing of new contraceptive technologies."
Correspondence: C. Pies, San Jose State University, Department of Health Science, San Jose, CA 95192. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10315 Shrestha, Mahodadhi; Hurst, Caroline; Farr, Gaston; Amatya, Ramesh; Tucker, Beverly; McMaham, James. A comparative study of the TCu 380A versus TCu 200 IUDs in Nepal. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2, Jun 1995. 15-26 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The clinical performance of the Copper T 380A IUD (TCU 380A) and the Copper T 200 IUD (TCU 200) intrauterine devices (IUDs) was evaluated for 24 months in a group of volunteers [in Nepal] who were randomly assigned to have one of the two types of IUD inserted. No pregnancies were reported among users of the TCu 380A IUD compared with two among users of the TCu 200 IUD at the end of 24 months. Among TCu 380A IUD users, there were significantly lower rates of IUD removal for personal reasons and they had a lower or equal incidence of side-effects such as intermenstrual bleeding or pain, inflamations or infections, or insertion-related events compared with the TCu 200 IUD group."
Correspondence: M. Shrestha, Maternity Hospital, Thapathali, Katmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10316 Stanback, John; Smith, Jason B.; Janowitz, Barbara; Diadhiou, Fadel. Safe provision of oral contraceptives: the effectiveness of systematic laboratory testing in Senegal. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1994. 147-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"A 1988-1989 prospective study of mandatory laboratory testing to obtain the pill in Senegal found that less than 3% of 410 women who had requested oral contraceptives for the first time had medical contraindications to their use. The laboratory tests were used to detect cervical cancer, diabetes, high cholesterol, anemia and liver function problems. Upon initial testing, 20 women were found to have contraindications to using the pill. Among nine who returned for retesting, only one woman was confirmed as having a contraindication to the pill. The other eight women who were retested all had negative results. The cost to the client of the required laboratory tests was estimated at U.S. $55-$216, as much as five times the monthly per capita income in Senegal."
Correspondence: J. Stanback, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

62:10317 Bauman, Karl E.; Viadro, Claire I.; Tsui, Amy O. Use of true experimental designs for family planning program evaluation: merits, problems and solutions. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 3, Sep 1994. 108-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this comment, we identify and critically examine the problems attributed to the use of true experimental designs for family planning program evaluation. In doing so, we address the question of why true experimental designs are not used more often and consider ways to promote their use when indicated....We proceed by identifying the unique characteristics and strengths of true experimental designs. We then list the problems that others have attributed to their use and suggest how such problems might be resolved."
Correspondence: K. E. Bauman, University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Department of Health Behavior, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10318 Bongaarts, John. The role of family planning programs in contemporary fertility transitions. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, Vol. 71, 1995. 34 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The implementation of family planning programs has been the principal population policy instrument in the developing world in the past few decades. This paper reviews the controversy over the role these programs have played in reducing fertility. Opposing views on a number of contentious issues (for example, the significance of unmet need and unwanted fertility) are summarized and a consensus position is presented."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10319 Bulatao, Rodolfo A. Key indicators for family planning projects. World Bank Technical Paper, No. 297, ISBN 0-8213-3372-0. LC 95-35189. Sep 1995. vii, 32 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This note describes indicators that can be used for World Bank projects involving family planning [in developing countries]....We [discuss] what functions indicators serve and what criteria should be used to select the most appropriate. Then a simple model will be proposed, the indicators discussed in the context of the model, and their application within projects covered." The indicators considered include demographic, behavioral, and program inputs and outputs.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10320 Frost, Jennifer J.; Forrest, Jacqueline D. Understanding the impact of effective teenage pregnancy prevention programs. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1995. 188-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A review of five rigorously evaluated [U.S.] adolescent pregnancy prevention programs shows that all five incorporate an emphasis on abstinence or delay of sexual initiation, training in decision-making and negotiation skills, and education on sexuality and contraception. Four of the five directly or indirectly provide access to contraceptive services. Comparisons between treatment and control groups show that all four programs that measured changes in rates of sexual initiation among adolescents had a significant effect on that outcome...; the programs were most successful when they targeted younger adolescents. Three of these four programs also significantly increased rates of contraceptive use among participants relative to controls; the most successful programs...provided access to contraceptive services and targeted adolescents who were younger and those who were not yet sexually experienced. Two programs significantly decreased the proportion of adolescents who became pregnant; these programs were the two that were most active in providing access to contraceptive services."
Correspondence: J. J. Frost, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10321 Gendreau, Francis; Nzita Kikhela, Denis; Guerin, Valerie. The evaluation of population programs and policies. [L'evaluation des politiques et programmes de population.] Universites Francophones: Actualite Scientifique, ISBN 2-7420-0073-9. 1994. viii, 285 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France. In Fre.
This collective work is a product of a meeting held in Bangui, Central African Republic, in June 1993. The conference was devoted to the evaluation of population policies and programs, and the geographical focus was on francophone Africa. The contributions range from general methodological pieces to specific case studies. Apart from family planning, they cover a wide range of subject areas, such as health programs; migration and urbanization; information, education, and communications programs; and population and development planning.
Correspondence: Editions John Libbey Eurotext, 127 avenue de la Republique, 92120 Montrouge, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10322 Hardy, Ross; Dahal, Raju; Rory, Jean J. Key informant perceptions of family planning education in Vanuatu. Pacific Health Dialog, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1995. 45-56 pp. Auckland, New Zealand. In Eng.
"Family planning education in Vanuatu needed to be improved to enhance the new national awareness of increasing population pressures. Eight key informants, from government and non-government organisations, were asked to respond to a series of questions....The key informants suggested that: more training for family planning workers; increased community participation; involvement of men and youth; and better education materials [are] the main factors needing attention."
Correspondence: R. Hardy, Save the Children Fund--Australia, P.O. Box 283, Port Vila, Vanuatu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10323 Lee, Kelley; Walt, Gill; Lush, Louisiana; Cleland, John. Population policies and programmes: determinants and consequences in eight developing countries. [1995?]. viii, 95 pp. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study discusses the factors that make family planning programs effective in developing countries. "This study has two aims: 1. to achieve a clearer understanding of why and how some developing countries create appropriate and effective population policies while other, rather similar, countries do not (policy analysis): and 2. to assess the demographic consequences of these divergencies in the population policies and programmes in four pairs of countries (demographic analysis). The criteria for selecting the pairs of countries [were] to minimise differences in economic, social and cultural factors within each pair, and to maximise differences in population policies and programmes. The four pairs of countries were Bangladesh/Pakistan, Zimbabwe/Zambia, Thailand/Philippines, and Tunisia/Algeria." The results suggest that policy elites, rather than existing popular demand, have played a key role in initiating family planning policies and programs. Despite cultural, religious, and historical differences among countries, the study results strongly support the view that government policies and programs can make a major difference with regard to the timing of the fertility decline. In countries with weak or delayed family planning programs, the demographic consequences concerning population size and rates of growth are significant.
Correspondence: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10324 Manzoor, Khaleda. Cost-effectiveness of the family planning programme in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1994. 711-26 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author investigates "the most cost-effective way of providing family planning service [in Pakistan] from a whole range of service delivery modes and methods....The primary concern...is to estimate the demographic impact of family planning and the costs of family planning....The specific objectives of the present study are as follows: 1. Compare the per unit costs of different type of service outlets; 2. compare the per unit costs of different contraceptive methods; and 3. highlight the methodological issues related to costing studies."
Correspondence: K. Manzoor, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10325 Mauldin, W. Parker; Ross, John A.; Kekovole, John; Barkat-e-Khuda; Barkat, Abul. Direct and judgmental measures of family planning program inputs. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1995. 287-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report compares two different approaches to measuring the strength of family planning programs in Bangladesh and Kenya. The first approach, the judgmental approach, has been used in a number of studies during the past two decades; scores on the characteristics of family planning programs are derived from the responses knowledgeable persons give to a series of questions. The second approach is to obtain direct measures of each item being considered. In Bangladesh, the total score varied trivially between the direct and the judgmental approaches. In Kenya, the total direct score was substantially higher than the judgmental score. The primary advantage of the judgmental approach is that comparative scores can be obtained for a larger number of countries for the same time period at a much lower cost than would be required by the direct approach."
Correspondence: W. P. Mauldin, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10326 Mensch, Barbara; Fisher, Andrew; Askew, Ian; Ajayi, Ayorinde. Using situation analysis data to assess the functioning of family planning clinics in Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 18-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article describes the subsystems that provide the structure for family planning activities in three African countries--Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe....The subsystems in the three countries are compared, and the question of whether certain indicators of subsystem functioning cluster together is explored. The article also examines the pattern of clinic use, as measured by the number of new family planning acceptors served during the year prior to the study (1991 for Nigeria and Tanzania and 1990 for Zimbabwe). Whether variation in the functioning of the subsystems has an effect on clinic utilization is then investigated."
Correspondence: B. Mensch, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10327 Phillips, James F.; Hossain, Mian B.; Arends-Kuenning, Mary. The long-term demographic role of community-based family planning in rural Bangladesh. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 73, 1995. 51 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the long-term rationale for household family planning in Bangladesh--where growing use of contraceptives, rapid fertility decline, and normative change in reproductive preferences are in progress--bringing into question the rationale for large-scale deployment of paid outreach workers. Longitudinal data are analyzed that record outreach encounters and contraceptive-use dynamics in a large rural population. Findings demonstrate that outreach has a continuing impact on program effectiveness, even after a decade of household visitation."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10328 Schulte, Margaret M.; Sonenstein, Freya L. Men at family planning clinics: the new patients? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1995. 212-6, 225 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This special report describes research that addresses the lack of knowledge on how to meet men's reproductive health needs [in the United States]. Using a national clinic survey, we identified family planning clinics that had made substantial efforts to serve men, and then documented how these clinics recruit male clients, deliver services to them and pay for these services. We hoped to uncover promising models of service delivery that could be adopted by other clinics interested in expanding their services to men."
Correspondence: M. M. Schulte, Urban Institute, Population Studies Center, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10329 Simmons, Ruth; Elias, Christopher. The study of client-provider interactions: a review of methodological issues. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 1-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, the relevant methods and experience related to studying client-provider interactions within family planning programs in southern countries are reviewed. The policy relevance of this work is highlighted first by stressing the operational usefulness of examining what happens when people engage with service-delivery systems that offer family planning or reproductive health services. Subsequently, the content areas encompassed by program-client interactions are clarified by identifying manifest and latent dimensions and by distinguishing the variables that define these interactions from variables related to their determinants and consequences. Finally, a critical review of existing methods is presented, with examples of research and a discussion of ethical issues."
Correspondence: R. Simmons, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

62:10330 Bankole, Akinrinola. Desired fertility and fertility behaviour among the Yoruba of Nigeria: a study of couple preferences and subsequent fertility. Population Studies, Vol. 49, No. 2, Jul 1995. 317-28 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of the fertility desires of marital partners on subsequent fertility [in Nigeria]. In particular, we attempt to identify the role played by disagreement between the spouses in predicting the couple's fertility outcome. The results indicate that when husband and wife disagree about whether or not they want another child, the fertility desires of both partners are equally important in determining whether the couple actually have an additional birth. The dominance of men in sub-Saharan African societies tends to operate in the present study only in the initial stages of a couple's reproductive lives (associated with four or fewer children). This tendency is offset by the stronger influence of the wife's desire in the later stages. Thus, we conclude that fertility research in sub-Saharan Africa should solicit information from men and women, and any programme or policy that aims to promote fertility decline in the region must involve both sexes."
Correspondence: A. Bankole, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10331 Farooqui, M. Naseem I. Interpersonal communication in family planning in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1994. 677-84 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Because of the importance of husband-wife communication in the adoption of family planning methods it becomes imperative to examine the correlates of husband-wife communication in Pakistan. These correlates may include the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, their residential status, husband's attitude towards family planning and respondents' exposure to family planning messages through the electronic media. Last but not least husband's own favourable attitude towards family planning could exert a positive impact on the development of effective husband-wife communication in family planning in regard to the adoption of family planning programmes as well as the desire of a certain number of children in the family."
Correspondence: M. N. I. Farooqui, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10332 Fotso, Medard; Libite, Paul R. The attitude of women in Cameroon toward family planning: unmet needs and future intentions concerning use of family planning. [Attitude de la femme camerounaise vis-a-vis de la planification familiale: les besoins non-satisfaits et l'intention d'utiliser la planification familiale.] Mar 1994. v, 24 pp. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Fre.
This is one in a series of papers emanating from a regional workshop held in Bamako, Mali, from May to July 1993. It involved a cooperative effort between local researchers and technical personnel from the Demographic and Health Surveys staff to provide in-depth analyses of DHS data for various African countries. This paper concerns attitudes toward family planning in Cameroon, including an examination of unmet needs and future intentions with regard to family planning practice.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10333 Miller, Warren B. Childbearing motivation and its measurement. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 4, Oct 1995. 473-87 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper conceptualises the motive force behind human childbearing as originating in two broad traits which have biological bases, are shaped by experiences during early life and are expressed through their effect on desires and intentions. An instrument for measuring childbearing motivation, the Childbearing Questionnaire (CBQ), is presented. Using a sample of 401 married couples [in Santa Clara county, California], two main scales, nine subscales, and several independent items are described. Evidence for the reliability and validity of this instrument is presented. The versatility of the CBQ as a research instrument and the usefulness of the conceptualisation from which it is derived as a way of integrating social, behavioural, and biological science approaches to childbearing motivation are discussed."
Correspondence: W. B. Miller, Transnational Family Research Institute, 355 West Olive Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10334 Obermeyer, Carla M. Reproductive choice in Islam: gender and state in Iran and Tunisia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 41-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report examines the extent to which reproductive choice is compatible with Islamic principles. It presents the argument that the impact of Islam on reproductive choice is largely a function of the political context in which gender issues are defined. Indicators of reproductive health in countries of the Middle East are reviewed and the way these relate to constraints on reproductive choice is assessed. The examples of Tunisia and Iran are used to illustrate the way in which Islam is invoked to legitimate conflicting positions concerning women and their reproductive options."
Correspondence: C. M. Obermeyer, Harvard University School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10335 Pantelides, Edith A.; Geldstein, Rosa N.; Dominguez, Graciela I. Conceptions of gender and reproductive behavior in adolescence. [Imagenes de genero y conducta reproductiva en la adolescencia.] Cuaderno del CENEP, No. 51, Aug 1995. 143 pp. Centro de Estudios de Poblacion [CENEP]: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
The relationship between attitudes toward the respective roles of the sexes and reproductive behavior among adolescents in Argentina is explored. The data are from a survey undertaken in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area and from in-depth interviews with 48 adolescents from the same area. The survey included information on knowledge, attitude, and practice concerning contraception.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios de Poblacion, Seccion Publicaciones, Casilla 4397, Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10336 Pohl, Katharina. Desired number of children and family planning in East and West Germany. [Kinderwunsch und Familienplanung in Ost- und Westdeutschland.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1995. 67-100 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The Federal Institute for Population Research (BIB) initiated in the summer of 1992 the interviewing of about 10,000 German men and women between 20 and 39 years old in East and West Germany....This contribution presents first results of this survey....After a general overview on the major differences between men and women living in East and West Germany, the results of questions on the existing and/or desired number of children and on the use of methods of family planning are presented."
Correspondence: K. Pohl, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10337 Rosero Bixby, Luis; Casterline, John B. Diffusion through social interaction and fertility transition: quantitative and qualitative evidence from Costa Rica. [Difusion por interaccion social y transicion de la fecundidad: evidencia cuantitativa y cualitativa de Costa Rica.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 23, No. 61, Jun 1995. 29-78 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Explanations of the fertility transition in Costa Rica, as elsewhere in developing societies, have stressed the impacts of socioeconomic changes on the demand for children and of [the] increased supply of family planning services. This paper goes beyond this demand-supply paradigm and examines the additional causal contribution of the `contagion' of birth control practices by social interaction. Aiming at conceptual precision, a simple dynamic model is used to simulate a fertility transition process with interaction diffusion effects. An inspection of the data about the Costa Rican transition shows several characteristics suggesting interaction diffusion effects, notably its pervasiveness toward all socioeconomic strata and the lack of evidence of a downward shift in fertility preferences. Maps of the timing of fertility transition indicate an ordered spatial pattern suggestive of contagion between neighboring areas."
Correspondence: L. Rosero Bixby, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10338 Schneewind, Klaus A.; Vaskovics, Laszlo A.; Backmund, Veronika; Gotzler, Petra; Rost, Harald; Salih, Amina; Sierwald, Wolfgang; Vierzigmann, Gabriele. Lifestyle options and desired number of children among recently married couples: a second project report. [Optionen der Lebensgestaltung junger Ehen und Kinderwunsch: zweiter Projektbericht.] Schriftenreihe des Bundesministeriums fur Familie und Senioren, Vol. 9, No. 1, ISBN 3-17-013128-1. 1994. 148 pp. W. Kohlhammer: Stuttgart, Germany; Bundesministerium fur Familie und Senioren: Bonn, Germany. In Ger.
This report examines attitudes to family size and realization of desired number of children among recently married couples in Germany. Through questioning of 1,528 couples, the authors investigate the influence that various sociological factors might have or have had on decisions about whether or not to have children; these factors include socioeconomic status, living conditions, governmental family policy, social and personal expectations, and gender roles. Trends found in the general analysis are given further psychological perspective in a subsequent section based on in-depth questioning of 180 couples. The volume documents the changing and evolving attitudes and ideals of the couples over a period of four years from 1988.
Correspondence: Bundesministerium fur Familie und Senioren, Godesberger Allee 140, 53 175 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10339 Valente, Thomas W.; Kim, Young Mi; Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Glass, William; Dibba, Yankuba. Radio promotion of family planning in the Gambia. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 3, Sep 1994. 96-100 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Approximately 400 randomly chosen men and women living in a selected area of the Gambia were surveyed in 1991 to determine the effects of a radio drama about family planning issues. Those who heard the serial drama could name significantly more contraceptive methods than those who had not (5.5 vs. 4.2), and they had significantly more positive attitudes about family planning (11.3 vs. 10.3). Those who heard the program were also more likely to use a modern method than those who did not (35% vs. 16%). The effect was greatest among uneducated individuals: program exposure was associated with an increase in knowledge, from 3.8 methods to 5.2 methods; an increase in positive attitudes, from 9.9 to 11.3; and an increase in contraceptive users, from 10% to 27%."
Correspondence: T. W. Valente, Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

62:10340 Blayo, Chantal. Trends in abortion in France since 1976. [L'evolution du recours a l'avortement en France depuis 1976.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 3, May-Jun 1995. 779-810 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in induced abortion in France since 1976 are reviewed. Consideration is given to trends over time in total abortions, type of facility performing abortions, and geographic differences in abortion rates. The discussion focuses on characteristics of abortion seekers, including age and marital status, parity, socio-professional status, and nationality; repeat abortions; and abortion techniques used.
Correspondence: C. Blayo, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10341 Ferrando, Delicia. Peru: reproductive health, abortion, and family planning. [Peru: salud reproductiva, aborto y planificacion familiar.] Revista Peruana de Poblacion, No. 4, 1994. 123-36 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"How does an unexpected/unwanted pregnancy affect women? Do they carry on with pregnancy and end up with unwanted children? Or do they find ways to interrupt such pregnancies through abortions? How many women take this last decision? Seeking to respond to these questions, a group of researchers from the Alan Guttmacher Institute and from six countries in Latin America designed a project for more than [a] year and a half to develop better and more reliable estimates on clandestine abortion levels in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and [the] Dominican Republic. In [this] paper, the author describes the main findings, particularly for the Peruvian case."
Correspondence: D. Ferrando, Pathfinder International, 9 Galen Street, Watertown, MA 02172-4501. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10342 Harvey, S. Marie; Beckman, Linda J.; Castle, Mary A.; Coeytaux, Francine. Knowledge and perceptions of medical abortion among potential users. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1995. 203-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we report on findings from focus-group research that had the following objectives: to make preliminary inquiries regarding the depth of knowledge among U.S. women about mifepristone and the sources of that knowledge; to examine perceived advantages and disadvantages compared with surgical abortion; to investigate whether women would be likely to choose mifepristone if it were available; and to explore what types of additional information on the method women might want or need." Results indicate that "nearly two-thirds of 73 women aged 18-34 who participated in focus groups on medical abortion conducted in three cities had heard about this new abortion method, but only a few could describe it accurately. Once the method was described to them, they cited its potential advantages over vacuum aspiration as being fewer major complications, the absence of surgery, a greater `naturalness,' and its use earlier in pregnancy."
Correspondence: S. M. Harvey, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10343 Jelen, Ted G. Perspectives on the politics of abortion. ISBN 0-275-95225-8. LC 95-6937. 1995. vi, 208 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This collective work on the politics of abortion stems from a conference held at the Illinois Benedictine College in 1993. "The chapters in this volume explore past choices made in support of and in opposition to abortion, current societal and political attitudes toward abortion, and new ways to conceptualize abortion and direct the debate over its legal status." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10344 Levine, Phillip B.; Trainor, Amy B.; Zimmerman, David J. The effect of Medicaid abortion funding restrictions on abortions, pregnancies, and births. NBER Working Paper, No. 5066, Mar 1995. 28, [12] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper considers whether state Medicaid abortion funding restrictions affect the likelihood of getting pregnant, having an abortion, and bearing a child [in the United States]. Aggregate, state-level data and microdata from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) are applied....Multivariate models controlling for state and, in the NLSY, personal characteristics are also estimated using alternative fixed effect specifications. We find that Medicaid funding restrictions are associated with a reduction in both the number of abortions and pregnancies, resulting in either no change or a reduction in births."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:10345 Liu, Gordon G. An economic analysis of pregnancy resolution in Virginia: specific as to race and residence. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 3, Aug 1995. 253-64 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This study analyses an economic model of pregnancy resolution; that is, a model of the choice by a pregnant woman to abort her fetus or carry it to term. This analysis, using an analytical model derived from the household utility framework, adds to previous research by presenting race and residence specific estimates of how individual characteristics, history of abortion, and the community-based factors determine women's choices of giving birth vs. abortion. The main data for estimating the model were drawn from the 1984 vital statistics of all induced abortions and live births in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The major findings indicate that low parental education, high maternal age, previous early abortions, and the availability of abortion providers all significantly reduce the probability of choosing the live birth option. Married status and the availability of family planning clinics significantly increase the probability of the live birth option. The findings also suggest that women's choices between abortion and live birth vary substantially with race (white vs. black) and residential (urban vs. rural) location."
Correspondence: G. G. Liu, University of Southern California, Department of Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, 1540 East Alcazar Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10346 Rosenfield, A. Abortion and women's reproductive health. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1994. 173-9 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The author argues that the abortion debate should focus more on the question of safety than legality. He then reviews the abortion situation separately for the developed and the developing worlds, and considers the role of the obstetrician. He concludes that whenever abortion is legal, it is one of the safest surgical procedures. However, when it is illegal, "complications of a botched abortion are estimated to result in the deaths of more than 100,000 women each year" in developing countries.
Correspondence: A. Rosenfield, Columbia School of Public Health, 600 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10347 Spinelli, Angela; Grandolfo, Michele E.; Pediconi, Marina; Donati, Serena; Medda, Emanuela; Timperi, Ferdinando; Andreozzi, Silvia. Legal abortion in Italy: 1991-1992. [L'interruzione volontaria di gravidanza in Italia: 1991-1992.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 95/22, 1995. iv, 208 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanita [ISTISAN]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"In Italy 160,532 legally induced abortions were notified in 1991 and 155,172 in 1992 (a 34% reduction as against 1982). The abortion rate was 11.0 in 1991 and 10.7 in 1992, while the abortion ratio has been estimated to have declined. Women who sought legal abortion were mainly 25-34 years old, married, with children. 28% of the abortions in 1992 were obtained by women who had a previous abortion: this value is less than that estimated mathematically (41%). 51% of the abortions were performed within 8 weeks of gestation, 87% in hospital, 84% by vacuum aspiration, 80% under general anaesthesia and 74% without overnight stay."
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10348 Tu, Ping; Smith, Herbert L. Determinants of induced abortion and their policy implications in four counties in North China. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1995. 278-86 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A retrospective survey conducted in four counties in North China in 1991-92 shows that the probability of aborting a pregnancy is strongly related to parity. No induced abortions are found prior to the first live birth, and almost universal abortion is shown after the second. Women had a high risk of undergoing abortion after their first live birth because most (82 percent) had become pregnant again without meeting official requirements for late second births with long spacing between births. The likelihood that a pregnancy will be aborted is strongly determined by official family planning policy and regulations....Great variation in the prevalence of induced abortion exists at the county and village levels. In recent years, the incidence of induced abortion has increased among women with one living child. Even a two-child policy, with late childbearing and spacing, can have high social and health costs in a country where childbearing is universal and begins relatively early."
Correspondence: P. Tu, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10349 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division (New York, New York). Abortion policies: a global review. Volume III: Oman to Zimbabwe. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/129/Add.2, Pub. Order No. E.95.XIII.24. ISBN 92-1-151296-4. 1995. viii, 236 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the third of three volumes presenting a country-by-country examination of national policies regarding abortion. This volume concerns countries in alphabetical order from Oman to Zimbabwe. The information is on abortion policy, the fertility and mortality context in which abortion policy has been developed, and selected statistics on induced abortion.
For related volumes, see 58:40428 and 60:10358.
Correspondence: UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10350 Westfall, John M.; Kallail, Ken J. Repeat abortion and use of primary care health services. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1995. 162-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"One-third (34%) of 2,001 women who sought an abortion in 1991-1992 in Wichita, Kansas, were repeat-abortion patients. Compared with first-time abortion patients, repeat-abortion patients were significantly older, more often black, and younger at their first pregnancy....The two groups did not vary significantly by income or age at first intercourse. However, repeat-abortion patients were significantly more likely than first-time patients to have been using a contraceptive method at the time of conception (65% compared with 59%) and more likely to say they always or almost always used a method (63% and 53%, respectively). More than 40% of women in each group reported they had no personal physician. Further, 34% of repeat-abortion patients said they had no follow-up examination after their previous abortion, and 28% said they received no contraceptive counseling. Only half of women whose pregnancy was confirmed by their personal physician obtained an abortion referral from that physician."
Correspondence: J. M. Westfall, University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Department of Family Medicine, Denver, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10351 Wetstein, Matthew E. The abortion rate paradox: the impact of national policy change on abortion rates. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 76, No. 3, Sep 1995. 607-18 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
This study examines the possible reasons why the Roe vs. Wade decision in 1973 had no measurable impact on trends in abortion rates in the United States. Data from official sources and from the Alan Guttmacher Institute are used to analyze the relative impact of Roe vs. Wade, the elimination of Medicaid funds for abortion, the election of Republican presidents, and the Webster ruling on abortion rates. The results show that none of these four policy changes produced a statistically significant change in the trend of abortion rates. The author suggests that the impact of abortion policy change is best studied at the state level.
Correspondence: M. E. Wetstein, 1425 Elmwood Avenue, Stockton, CA 95204. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10352 Winikoff, Beverly. Acceptability of medical abortion in early pregnancy. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1995. 142-8, 185 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A review of 12 published studies on patient attitudes and reactions to early first-trimester pregnancy termination by medical methods shows consistent patterns, despite important differences in study design, measurement and outcome. In most trials that offered participants a choice between surgical and medical abortion, 60-70% of patients chose the medical method. The most common reasons cited for choosing the medical method were greater privacy and autonomy, less invasiveness and greater naturalness than surgery. Frequently mentioned drawbacks included pain, the duration of bleeding, the number of visits, and the waiting time to know if the treatment [was] successful. Most women who had a medical abortion said they were satisfied with the method, would recommend it to friends and would use it again if they needed another abortion."
Correspondence: B. Winikoff, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

62:10353 Djamba, Yanyi K. Premarital sexual experience of married women in Kinshasa, Zaire. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 4, Oct 1995. 457-66 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Using responses from questions about age at first sexual intercourse and age at first marriage, this paper offers a method of studying premarital sexual behaviour in societies where the subject is a taboo topic. More than half of the currently married women in Kinshasa [Zaire] engaged in sexual intercourse before marriage. The likelihood of having premarital intercourse increases among younger women, those with higher education, and those whose ethnic groups have liberal attitudes towards sexual conduct. The results also suggest that sexual activity accounts for late marriage."
Correspondence: Y. K. Djamba, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, 126 Stubbs Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10354 Ellison, P. T. Advances in human reproductive ecology. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 23, 1994. 255-75 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"Human reproductive ecology is the study of reproduction as an aspect of human biology that is responsive to ecological context....This review focuses on a few recent advances in our understanding of human female reproductive ecology, particularly the importance of age and energetics in modulating female fecundity (the biological capacity to bear live offspring)."
Correspondence: P. T. Ellison, Harvard University, Department of Anthropology, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (DR).

62:10355 Laska-Mierzejewska, Teresa. Age at menarche as an indicator of the socioeconomic situation of rural girls in Poland in 1967, 1977, and 1987. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 7, No. 5, 1995. 651-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Village girls, 9.5-18.5 years of age, inhabiting various regions of Poland, were surveyed in 1967 (n=7,886), 1977 (n=7,771), and 1987 (n=11,479). Based on the source of income of the families, three groups were identified: farmers, farmer-workers, and nonfarmers. The girls were also divided on the basis of the number of children in the family and education of their fathers. In all three surveys, the earliest age at menarche was observed in girls from the nonfarmer group and the latest in girls from the farmer group....The later menarcheal ages observed in the last decade occur mainly among girls from families with four and five children."
Correspondence: T. Laska-Mierzejewska, Academy of Physical Education, Department of Anthropology, 01-813 Warsaw 34, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10356 Pillai, Vijayan K. Age at menarche among adolescent females in Zambia: implication for family formation. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 25, No. 2, Autumn 1995. 33-8 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This study examines the relationships between age at menarche and two fertility related variables, expected age at marriage and expected number of children. The random sample consists of 525 secondary schoolgoing females in the age range 13-21 years from the Copperbelt and Lusaka Central Provinces in Zambia. It was found that the age at menarche ranged from 10 to 18 years with a mean of 14.2 + 1.4 (mean + S.D.) years. The association between age at menarche and expected age at marriage was found to be weak but positive. Furthermore, the association of age at menarche with expected number of children was found to be weak but in the negative direction."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of North Texas, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Denton, TX 76203-3826. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10357 Pinto Aguirre, Guido. The determinants of postpartum amenorrhea in rural Guatemala: a life table approach. CDE Working Paper, No. 94-22, Mar 1995. 23, [13] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to investigate the association between breastfeeding, infant mortality, women's nutritional status and various socioeconomic factors, on the one hand, and the duration of postpartum amenorrhea, on the other. These relations are explored by using exclusively univariate life tables and product-limit techniques on the monthly prospective resumption-of-menses data from rural Guatemalan women." Data are from a longitudinal study carried out over an eight-year period from 1969 to 1977, involving some 600 low-income women living in four rural villages.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10358 Wilcox, Allen J.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Baird, Donna D. Timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation. Effects on the probability of conception, survival of the pregnancy, and sex of the baby. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 333, No. 23, Dec 7, 1995. 1,517-21 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Data from 221 healthy women who were trying to become pregnant were collected in a prospective cohort study, the North Carolina Early Pregnancy Study, and used to analyze the effect of timing and frequency of sexual intercourse on the chance of conception and on the sex of the baby. The results indicate that "among healthy women trying to conceive, nearly all pregnancies can be attributed to intercourse during a six-day period ending on the day of ovulation. For practical purposes, the timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation has no influence on the sex of the baby."
Correspondence: A. J. Wilcox, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Epidemiology Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

62:10359 Abade, Augusto; Bertranpetit, Jaume. Birth, marriage and death in illegitimacy: a study in northern Portugal. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 4, Oct 1995. 443-55 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In populations in which the frequency of illegitimacy is high, illegitimates and legitimates may be subjected to different demographic and social pressures, with social and genetic consequences. A rural population from north-east Portugal is studied and variables from birth, marriage and death records are compared according to the legitimacy of the individuals. The analysis shows important differential demographic patterns in infant and child mortality and in migration prior to and related to marriage, especially in women. Some changes over time and gender differences are also evident."
Correspondence: A. Abade, Universidade de Coimbra, Paco das Escolas, 3000 Coimbra, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10360 Babb, Penny; Bethune, Ann. Trends in births outside marriage. Population Trends, No. 81, Autumn 1995. 17-22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The sharp rise in births outside marriage has been one of the most striking trends in fertility in recent years. Statistics from OPCS birth statistics and the Longitudinal Study are used in this article to summarise the main trends in births outside marriage in England and Wales. The differences in extra-marital fertility between social classes are then examined, as well as patterns of low birthweight."
Correspondence: P. Babb, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population and Health Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10361 de Jong, A. H. A significant increase in the number of never-married couples with children. [Sterke groei in het aantal ongehuwde paren met kinderen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 8, Aug 1995. 9-10 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author reports on the number of never-married couples with children in the Netherlands. "There are 2.4 million families with children, of which about 2 million [are] married couples. According to the 1994 National Household Forecasts these numbers will be nearly constant between 1995 and 2010....It is expected that in the future the percentage of cohabiting couples that will marry when they want to have children will decrease. This is why the number of never married couples with children living at home will grow by 75% between 1995 and 2010."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10362 Denis, Hubert; Desjardins, Bertrand; Legare, Jacques; Marcil-Gratton, Nicole. Children in single-parent families, yesterday and today. [Les enfants de la monoparentalite, hier et aujourd'hui.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1994. 53-74 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This study, conducted from the point of view of the children, compares cohorts from the time of New France [Quebec] with those of Canada today, showing that single parenthood is not a new phenomenon. The types of single parenthood, however, are quite different. The colonial model of the traditional family has given way to a variety of family situations. As well, while death was the only cause of single parenthood during the colonial era, separations today are essentially based on some sort of decision. The psychological repercussions of losing a parent are thus completely different."
Correspondence: H. Denis, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, Groupe de Recherche sur la Demographie Quebecoise, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10363 Kiernan, Kathleen; Lelievre, Eva. Extramarital parenthood in France and Great Britain: some aspects of a special status. [Devenir parent hors mariage en France et en Grande-Bretagne: les differentes facettes d'un statut particulier.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 3, May-Jun 1995. 821-7 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in fertility outside marriage in France and the United Kingdom are compared.
Correspondence: K. Kiernan, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10364 Launay, Robert. The power of names: illegitimacy in a Muslim community in Cote d'Ivoire. In: Situating fertility: anthropology and demographic inquiry, edited by Susan Greenhalgh. 1995. 108-29 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author discusses approaches to the study of illegitimacy, with a focus on definition of the concept and norms in different cultures. "One might contrast `African' systems of illegitimacy, where marriage is a process and where the status of offspring is consequently ambiguous and open to negotiation; and `Eruasian' systems where marriage is an event and the status of offspring depends uniquely on the occurrence or non-occurrence of this event. Although such a distinction may well be cogent, I wish to discuss a specific African case where marriage is in fact an `event' and not a `process,' but where, nonetheless, an approach based simply on `norms,' `deviance,' and `sexual behavior' is inadequate and misleading. [The example concerns] the Dyula of northern Cote d'Ivoire...."
Correspondence: R. Launay, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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