Volume 62 - Number 1 - Spring 1996

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

62:10053 Frey, William H. The new geography of population shifts: trends toward balkanization. In: State of the Union: America in the 1990s. Volume two: social trends, edited by Reynolds Farley. 1995. 271-336 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines recent trends in population redistribution in the United States, with a focus on uneven urban revival, regional race divisions, regional divisions by skill and poverty, the baby boom and elderly realignments, and suburban dominance and city isolation. "The portrait that has been painted in this review of post-1980 population shifts is clearly one of divisions--divisions across areas of growth and decline, divisions brought on by the segmented redistribution pattern of immigrants, minorities, whites, and even across age groups, and divisions between cities and suburbs as well as within the suburbs. The latter divisions, those within metropolitan areas, are most familiar because they have evolved over decades. What is new in the 1980 and 1990 trends is that redistribution patterns reinforce divisions across broad regions and metropolitan areas. A demographic balkanization is a likely outcome if these trends continue."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Institute for Social Research, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10054 Fuguitt, Glenn V. Population change in nonmetropolitan America. CDE Working Paper, No. 94-12, Aug 1994. 29, [13] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"After reviewing the concepts of rural and nonmetropolitan [population], we will consider metropolitan-nonmetropolitan population distribution and change [in the United States] since 1950, followed by trends in age structure, sex composition and the population by race and Hispanic status." Emphasis is placed on the significant variability that exists across rural America, reflected in rates of population growth or decline, age composition, and ethnic diversity.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

62:10055 Alperovich, Gershon; Deutsch, Joseph. Joint estimation of population density functions and the location of the central business district. Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 36, No. 3, Nov 1994. 239-48 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"In this paper we [propose] a new procedure for estimating population density functions under conditions that the exact location of the CBD [central business district] is unknown or uncertain. As such it can also be utilized as a method for identifying the location of the CBD....[We apply] this method to cross-sectional data from Tel-Aviv-Yafo [Israel] during 1961 through 1990...."
Correspondence: G. Alperovich, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics, 52900 Ramat-Gan, Israel. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10056 Becker, Charles M.; Morrison, Andrew R. The growth of African cities: theory and estimates. In: Economic and demographic change in Africa, edited by Archie Mafeje and Samir Radwan. 1995. 109-42 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
In the first section of this article, the factors affecting the growth of cities in a typical African country are examined, with particular reference to the impact of public policy on urban growth. "The next section considers some broad patterns of African urbanization and is followed by a discussion of the theoretical determinants of city growth. Empirical results are presented in the fourth section, while the following section focuses on the determinants of individual city growth in Zambia, the African nation with the most revealing census data. Finally, a concluding section summarizes key findings and assesses data weaknesses."
Correspondence: C. M. Becker, University of Colorado, Economics Institute, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10057 Cheshire, Paul. A new phase of urban development in Western Europe? The evidence for the 1980s. Urban Studies, Vol. 32, No. 7, Aug 1995. 1,045-63 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
Changes in urban spatial distribution during the 1980s in the 12 countries of the European Community are analyzed using data from the 1990 census round. The focus is on trends in decentralization and recentralization. "There is evidence of a substantial breakup of the previous regular pattern of decentralisation, which had been spreading from northern to southern European cities and from the largest to the medium-sized cities. During the 1980s there was a significant degree of recentralisation in many northern European cities, with nearly half of all core cities gaining population." Comparisons are made with the situation in the United States.
Correspondence: P. Cheshire, London School of Economics, Department of Geography, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:10058 De Iasio, Sergio; Siri, Enzo; Lucchetti, Enzo; Soliani, Lamberto. Biodemography: analyses on an actual urban population. [Biodemografia: analisi su una popolazione urbana attuale.] Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 20, 1994. 173-87 pp. Florence, Italy. In Ita.
The population dynamics of the Italian city of Parma are analyzed over the period 1989-1993 using data from the city's population records. Separate consideration is given to migration to and from the city, family characteristics, and family migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10059 Diwakar, Ashok. Processes and factors of metropolitanization in India. Population Geography, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1993. 41-6 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes causes and consequences of urbanization in India. Aspects considered include levels and trends in urbanization, uneven distribution of urban population, concentration of population in large cities, and causes of metropolitanization.
Correspondence: A. Diwakar, Dronacharya Government College, Gurgaon, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10060 Emery, K. O.; Emery, J. J. Relative populations of cities, states and nations. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 1, Sep 1995. 41-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"During a comparison of the growth of human populations Emery (1994) noted a curious uniformity in ratios of populations in largest cities versus populations in host nations. This present article is intended to explore the relationship a bit further to interest perhaps a few professional demographers in some of the relationships and their possible causes....Information was provided by relating populations of largest cities to those of host states in the United States and then populations of second largest and tenth largest cities of host states. For a longer view the city/state analysis was extended from 1990 to 1940...."
For the 1994 article by K. O. Emery, see 60:20612.
Correspondence: K. O. Emery, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA 02543. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10061 Frey, William H.; Fielding, Elaine L. Changing urban populations: regional restructuring, racial polarization, and poverty concentration. Cityscape, Vol. 1, No. 2, Jun 1995. 1-66 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study examines the changing profile of the urban United States, with particular reference to the impact of immigration, suburbanization, and growing diversity associated with increased racial and income polarization. "This overview provides a backdrop by focusing on the forces that shape key demographic trends across broad regions and in metropolitan areas and then shows how these trends have led to disparities in growth and decline, racial polarization, and poverty concentration."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10062 Garza, Gustavo; Rivera, Salvador. Economic development and urban spatial distribution in Mexico, 1960-1990. [Desarrollo economico y distribucion de la poblacion urbana en Mexico, 1960-1990.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 55, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1993. 177-212 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This study describes general links between economic development and urbanization in Mexico in the periods from 1960 to 1980 and 1980 to 1990. Changes observed in production structure are compared with the dynamics of urban development, according to the increase in the number of cities, modifications in urbanization levels and increases in absolute urban population size. During the [1980s], there seemed to be a change in Mexico's process of urbanization, characterized by a sudden deceleration and sharp fall in the power of the country's four main metropolitan areas to concentrate large populations as they had done up to 1980."
Correspondence: G. Garza, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10063 Ilyukha, O. P. Demographic problems of a new northern city (the example of Kostomuksha). [Demograficheskie problemy novogo severnogo goroda (na materialakh Kostomukshi).] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 7, 1994. 42-4 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The creation of a new city, Kostomuksha, in the Karelian region of western Russia is described, and reasons for its comparative failure to thrive are assessed. The author lays the primary responsibility for the failure on bad planning. It is noted that a major problem in the city is an unbalanced age composition, which has led to problems with teenage crime.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:10064 Paris, Chris. New patterns of urban and regional development in Australia: demographic restructuring and economic change. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec 1994. 555-72 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The first objective of this paper is to assess whether the dynamics of Australian urban and regional change are increasingly coming to resemble those of other advanced capitalist nations, as all are subject increasingly to global forces of change. One theme in Australian debates has been the notion that there has been an urban-rural turnaround, or counter-urbanization, which is changing the relative balance of the building blocks of the Australian urban and regional system. A second objective of this paper, therefore, has been to respond to the counter-urbanization thesis. The analysis of census data on population change is used as evidence for the argument that there are significant differences between processes of change in the Australian urban/regional system and experience in North America and Europe."
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

62:10065 Rodriguez-Torres, Deyssi. Nairobi: a tale of shantytown and city. [Nairobi: le bidonville face a la ville.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 24, ISBN 2-87209-359-1. May 1995. 83 pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by Academia-Erasme, Grand Rue 25/115, 1348 Louvain-la Neuve, Belgium, and in France by L'Harmattan, 7 rue de l'Ecole-Polytechnique, 75005 Paris. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Dut; Spa.
The development of shantytowns surrounding Kenya's capital city, Nairobi, is described. The author notes that shantytowns are no longer a staging post between rural areas and urban residence, but now have a permanent population. The increasingly important role that such towns, and the leaders that arise in them, play in the political arena is examined.
Correspondence: Academia-Erasme, Grand Rue 25/115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:10066 Rowland, Richard H. Declining towns in Russia, 1989-1993. Post-Soviet Geography, Vol. 36, No. 7, Sep 1995. 436-45 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
This "article based on data for the last census of the former USSR and population estimates for 1993 for urban places of over 15,000 population in the Russian Federation surveys the regional distribution, economic functions, and size characteristics of urban settlements in Russia with declining population over the period 1989-93. Interesting comparisons are drawn with patterns prevailing during previous periods, revealing recent increases in the number of such towns in major manufacturing regions and the North and an increase in the number of large cities. Towns experiencing the very greatest percentage declines (-10.0 percent or more) also are investigated."
Correspondence: R. H. Rowland, California State University, Department of Geography, 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA 92407-2397. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

62:10067 Ortiz Martinez, Jorge del C. Population dynamics in the rural area of Cuzco. [Dinamica demografica en el area rural del Cusco.] Revista Peruana de Poblacion, No. 4, 1994. 41-103 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the demographic situation in rural areas of Cuzco, Peru, and compares it with that of the rest of the department. Information is presented on age and sex structure; education, health, and the economy; fertility, intermediate variables, and contraceptive knowledge and use; mortality; and migration.
Correspondence: J. del C. Ortiz Martinez, Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Departamento de Matematicas y Estadistica, Avenida de la Cultura, s/n Apartado 367, Cuzco, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.