Volume 61 - Number 3 - Fall 1995

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

61:30437 Ardittis, Solon. Information systems and needs on Mediterranean migration in the European Union. [Les circuits et les besoins d'information sur les migrations mediterraneennes dans l'Union Europeenne.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1995. 179-94 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre.
The major conclusions of six recent studies carried out by the European Community (EC) on migration in the Mediterranean region are presented. The focus is on implications for policies of economic cooperation between EC countries and the countries of North Africa designed to reduce the pressure of South-North migration.
Correspondence: S. Ardittis, Senior Research and Consulting, 13 avenue de Tervuren, 1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30438 Charbit, Yves; Robin, Nelly. African migration. [Migrations africaines.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1994. 214 pp. Universite de Poitiers: Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This special issue contains articles on migration in Africa. Topics include population growth, migration, and development; migration out of Africa; migration policy; migration, marriage, and family; and Africans in Europe.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Universite de Poitiers, MIGRINTER-CNRS, 95 avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30439 Duany, Jorge. Beyond the safety valve: recent trends in Caribbean migration. Social and Economic Studies, Vol. 43, No. 1, Mar 1994. 95-122 pp. Kingston, Jamaica. In Eng.
"This paper provides an overview of recent trends in Caribbean migration....To begin, the paper outlines the historical background of Caribbean emigrations since the late eighteenth century. Second, the paper identifies the main current in Caribbean migration in the 1980s: (1) emigration to the metropolis; (2) emigration to other Latin American countries; (3) migration within the region; and (4) return migration. Third, the essay analyses the socioeconomic composition of Caribbean migrants (by age, sex, region, education, and occupation) as well as their incorporation into the receiving labour markets....Fourth, the impacts of emigration on Caribbean politics, economics, culture, and society are briefly assessed. Finally, the ideology of migration as a safety valve is evaluated."
Correspondence: J. Duany, University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Social Sciences, San Juan, PR 00914-0383. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:30440 Fan, Lida. An appraisal of equilibrium and disequilibrium models of population migration. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995. 79-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article [discusses] the basic assumptions of the equilibrium and disequilibrium models and their pertinent discussion. In addition, the article examines the conditions under which the two types of models apply in different socioeconomic situations, while paying special attention to the assumptions selected for research of migration in developing countries especially at a time when they begin to move toward a market economy."
Correspondence: L. Fan, Jilin University, Population Research Institute, 83 Jie Fang Road, Changchun, Jilin Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30441 Lopez Trigal, Lorenzo; Arroteia, Jorge C.; Cepeda, Francisco J. T.; Cortizo Alvarez, Jose; Pardo Abad, Carlos J.; Prieto Sarro, Ignacio; Vidal Bendito, Tomas. Portuguese migration in Spain. [La migracion de Portugueses en Espana.] Monografias, No. 2, ISBN 84-606-1819-6. 1994. 191 pp. Universidad de Leon, Departamento de Geografia: Leon, Spain. In Spa.
This volume examines migration to and within Spain, primarily by migrants from Portugal. Sections cover such migration since the 1986 census, Portuguese residents in Madrid and Leon, and the impact of in- and out-migration on Portugal.
Correspondence: Universidad de Leon, Departamento de Geografia, Campus Universidad, 240071 Leon, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30442 Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO] (Mexico City, Mexico). Basic information on migration by state, 1990. [Informacion basica sobre migracion por entidad federativa 1990.] ISBN 970-628-057-X. Jan 1994. 158 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
Migratory trends, both internal and international, are examined for Mexico. The focus is on migration to Mexico's cities and to the United States. The data are presented by state and are from 1984 and 1987 surveys, as well as from censuses of population and housing for 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. A methodological appendix is included.
Correspondence: Consejo Nacional de Poblacion, Avenida Angel Urraza 1137, Col. del Valle, C.P. 03100 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30443 Mezdour, Salah. The economics of international migration: the case of emigration from the Maghrib. [Economie des migrations internationales: le cas de l'emigration maghrebine.] Revue Francaise des Affaires Sociales, Vol. 47, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1993. 179-92 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The economic factors affecting migration in Morocco are examined. Both rural-urban migration and emigration are analyzed, as well as remittances from migrants. The impact of emigration on the labor force in the country of origin is assessed.
Correspondence: S. Mezdour, Universite de Lille 1, CNRS, URA 363, Tiers Monde Afrique, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

61:30444 Munz, Rainer; Ulrich, Ralf. Migration to and from East Germany: the latest studies. [Migration von und nach Ostdeutschland: ergebnisse neurer Studien.] Berliner Journal fur Soziologie, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1993. 293-302 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
A review of the literature on migration affecting East Germany is presented. The focus is on recent studies on the period during and since reunification. The authors note that, although the overall trend since 1945 has been of large-scale out-migration, levels of in-migration from West Germany have increased since 1990.
Correspondence: R. Munz, Humbolt-Universitat, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:30445 Priester, Tom; Haug, Werner. Migration and marital status. The case of Switzerland. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Revue Suisse d'Economie Politique et de Statistique/Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 131, No. 2, Jun 1995. 179-202 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The present study describes...a part of the interrelation of living arrangements and migration: The connection between marital status and spatial mobility. Moreover, the significance of the reasons for family migration will be assessed. [Section] 2 covers the relationship between family or household structure and change of residence and refers to the findings of other studies. The third [section] presents the empirical findings which are to be seen against the background of changing household and family patterns in Switzerland over the last 20 to 30 years. With the aid of aggregated data from censuses and population registration offices, the differences in migratory behaviour by socio-demographic characteristics are first shown: by age, sex, marital status and nationality. In addition, a distinction is made between intercommune, intercantonal and international migration. The initial findings of the descriptive analysis are followed by multivariate statistics produced with the aid of microdata from the Swiss Labour Force Survey."
Correspondence: T. Priester, Bundesamt fur Statistik, Schwarztorstrasse 96, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:30446 Spain. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica [INE] (Madrid, Spain). Survey of the Economically Active Population. 1993 Migration Survey. [Encuesta de Poblacion Activa. Encuesta de Migraciones 1993.] ISBN 84-260-2856-X. 1994. xxvii, 92 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Results from the migration section of an annual survey of economic activity in Spain are presented for 1993. The data concern both internal and international migration. The focus is on migrant characteristics, and an analysis is included.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Paseo de la Castellana 183, 28071 Madrid 16, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30447 Traore, Sadio. Soninke and Poular models of migration from the valley of the Senegal River. [Les modeles migratoires soninke et poular de la valle du fleuve Senegal.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1994. 61-81 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Soninke and Poular migration from the valley of the Senegal River [has] historical pre-colonial roots. The colonial and post-colonial economies have confirmed and reinforced the migratory models of both ethnic groups. The data of [a] 1982 survey highlight similarities and differences in the demographic indicators of [these] migrations, which can be explained in relation to their respective pasts."
Correspondence: S. Traore, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur la Population pour le Developpement, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30448 Werner, Heinz. Regional economic integration and migration: the European case. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 534, Jul 1994. 147-64 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
The effect of growing economic and regional integration among the member countries of the European Community on labor migration is examined. "The development of the European Communities (EC) shows that regional integration can attenuate socioeconomic disparities that induce people to migrate. Increased trade and welfare has had a leveling effect among EC states that has dampened migration. Trade exchanges and competition within the EC occurred more within industrial or product groups than between economic sectors. Thus adjustment to freer trade did not lead to the loss of whole industries and mass redundancies." The implications of the EC experience for future migration trends in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) countries are considered.
Correspondence: H. Werner, Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

61:30449 Ager, D. E. Immigration and language policy in France. Journal of Intercultural Studies, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1994. 35-52 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
French language policies concerning immigrants are described and evaluated. The author notes that such policies are confused by the fact that it is unclear whether they are designed to facilitate the integration of immigrants and their children into French society, or to preserve the language and culture of the immigrant's country of origin in order to facilitate an eventual return.
Correspondence: D. E. Ager, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30450 Akgunduz, Ahmet. Labor migration from Turkey to Western Europe. An analytical review from its commencement (early 60s) to the recruitment halt (1973-74). Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1995. 153-77 pp. Poitiers, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"By joining the migratory labor movement to Western Europe in the early 1960s, Turkey, for the first time in its history, began showing signs of becoming a country of large scale economic emigration. It is here argued that the growth of the number of Turkish workers in Europe during the recruitment period, and their becoming the largest of the foreign labor contingents in Germany and the Netherlands, was due to the exhaustion of the other suppliers' labor reserves. Taking into account other viewpoints, the emergence of conditions for external migration and the specific 'push' factors are explored on the basis of Turkey's socio-economic structure; the characteristics of Turkish immigrants are also addressed in this way."
Correspondence: A. Akgunduz, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Centre for Race and Ethnic Studies, Prinsengracht 227, 1015 DT Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30451 Birrell, Bob. Spouse migration to Australia. People and Place, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1995. 9-16 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"Spouse migration [to Australia] makes up 40 per cent of the current migration program and appears likely to expand further. The rules governing sponsorships, especially those made off-shore, need to be tightened if the settlement problems associated with this migration category are to reduced."
Correspondence: B. Birrell, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30452 Bohning, W. R. Helping migrants to stay at home. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 534, Jul 1994. 165-77 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
Ways to reduce the pressure to emigrate in developing countries are reviewed. "The three main international instruments for helping emigration countries to generate employment and income faster than in the past are...reviewed--trade expansion, foreign direct investment, and official development assistance. Trade is shown to have bypassed most emigration countries; growing protectionism does not augur well for the future. Foreign direct investment, similarly, has mostly taken the form of an exchange between rich countries or of inflows into Pacific Rim countries. Official development assistance is increasingly looked at as an option to be exploited for the purpose of reducing migration pressure."
Correspondence: W. R. Bohning, International Labour Office, Employment and Development Department, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30453 Brown, Richard P. C.; Cornell, John. Migration and remittances in the South Pacific. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1995. 194 pp. Scalabrini Migration Center: Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
This special issue contains nine studies on aspects of emigration from the smaller island states of the Pacific to the metropolitan fringe states, mainly the United States, New Zealand, and Australia. The focus is on remittances from emigrants and their impact on island economies.
Correspondence: Scalabrini Migration Center, P.O. Box 10541 Broadway Centrum, 1113 Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30454 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. History and future of population movements. [Histoire et avenir des mouvements de populations.] Politique Etrangere, Vol. 59, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 635-59 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is a general historical review of global migration trends in the modern era. "The emigration to the New Worlds was in large part due to the demographic pressure within the European continent from the eighteenth century onwards. Up until the thirties a 'Europeanisation' of the planet took place. From this time onwards, migratory movements have tended to reverse, and Europe, as well as East Asian countries with low birth rates, have in turn become territories of immigration."
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:30455 Claude, Gerard. Italian migration in rural environments at the beginning of the century, 1890-1930. An approach to the problem. [La mobilite des Italiens en milieu rural au debut du siecle: 1890-1930. Approche du phenomene.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1995. 195-210 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre.
Some introductory findings are presented from a dissertation on rural migration in Italy from 1890 to 1930. The focus is on migration from Italy to southern France.
Correspondence: G. Claude, 114 boulevard Longchamp, 13001 Marseilles, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30456 Cohn, Raymond L. Occupational evidence on the causes of immigration to the United States, 1836-1853. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 32, No. 3, Jul 1995. 383-408 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"The recent view that European immigrants to the United States before the Civil War were not fleeing economic distress is investigated. This literature uses information on male occupations to infer the causes of immigration. The method by which other researchers generate their samples of data on occupations is critiqued in this paper. New estimates are presented and used to show that most English and Irish immigrants were fleeing distress--though many others were not--while few German immigrants were fleeing distress."
Correspondence: R. L. Cohn, Illinois State University, Department of Economics, Normal, IL 61761-6901. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:30457 Coleman, D. A. International migration: demographic and socioeconomic consequences in the United Kingdom and Europe. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 1995. 155-206 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article evaluates the consequences of international migration since World War II, with particular reference to Great Britain. It emphasizes the substantial differences between the origins and responses to immigration in the United Kingdom and that of the rest of Western Europe." It is found that "people of non-European origin from Commonwealth countries have predominated in postwar immigration to the United Kingdom. That migration neutralized the previously dominant pattern of emigration and increased U.K. population by about 3 million people through immigration and higher fertility, with only slight effects upon the age distribution."
Correspondence: D. A. Coleman, University of Oxford, Wellington Square, Oxford 0X1 2JD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30458 Coleman, D. A. Spouse migration from the Indian sub-continent to the U.K.: a permanent migration stream? People and Place, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1995. 1-8 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper will describe trends in spouse migration [from the Indian subcontinent] using the U.K. example, which is believed to be reasonably representative of other European countries. To do so, it will have to consider both the re-unification of pre-existing families of immigrants, and the migration of new spouses both of immigrants and of members of ethnic minority populations who were themselves born in the receiving country. These two streams are not entirely conceptually separate, and there is no unambiguous way of separating them in the published U.K. statistics. However, it is clear that the former stream of pre-existing family members dominated up to the 1980s and that it is now being augmented and replaced by the latter stream of new spouses."
Correspondence: D. A. Coleman, University of Oxford, Department of Applied Social Studies and Social Research, Barnett House, Wellington Square, Oxford 0X1 2ER, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30459 Cortizo Alvarez, Jose. Typology of international migration. [Tipologia de las migraciones internacionales.] Poligonos, No. 3, 1993. 9-23 pp. Leon, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This study constitutes a selective bibliographic revision of the conceptual and typological data so far collected in connection with [international migration]....This study briefly describes neomarxist and functionalist ideologies, among others, which seem to offer the most realistic explanation of the situation. The proposed typology used five classifying criteria; the duration of the time spent abroad, the distance travelled, reasons for emigration, the degree of liberty in the decision to migrate and the importance of profession in migration."
Correspondence: J. Cortizo Alvarez, Universidad de Leon, Departamento de Geografia, Campus de Vegazana, 24071 Leon, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30460 Croes, M. M. Asylum seekers: policy and some demographic aspects. [Asielzoekers: het beleid en enkele demografische aspecten.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 6, Jun 1995. 6-16 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The Dutch policy regarding asylum seekers requires a stay of a few months in special centres where they have to remain pending the result of the asylum request....Taking into account that the huge inflow of asylum seekers in the special centres in 1994 (more than 45 thousand) will also have an impact on the number of immigrants in 1995, the number of immigrants who requested asylum can be estimated. In this article a simple method of short-term prediction is presented. Assuming that the outflow of asylum seekers to municipalities in 1995 will show the same pattern as in 1994 and that the total inflow of asylum seekers in the special centres will not surpass 30 thousand, a total of about 19 thousand asylum seekers will become immigrants in 1995."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30461 de Beer, J. How many people with a foreign background live in the Netherlands? [Hoeveel allochtonen zijn er in Nederland?] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 7, Jul 1995. 9-12 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The number of people with a foreign background living in the Netherlands can be assessed on the basis of country of birth and the parents' country of birth. If every person born abroad and every person of whom at least one parent is born abroad is included, the number of foreigners amounted to 2.4 million on 1 January 1992 (wide definition)....If only people born abroad with a least one parent born abroad and people born in the Netherlands with both parents born abroad are included, the number of foreigners reduces to 1.4 million (narrow definition). If, moreover, people with a background of one of the rich OECD-countries are not included, the number reduces further to 1.2 million."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30462 De Jong, Gordon F.; Blair, Marilou C. L. Changing occupational characteristics of U.S. immigrants. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1994. 567-88 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The purpose of this research is to: (1) describe changes in the occupational characteristics of immigrants to the United States between 1972 and 1986; (2) analyze immigration statistics to see how policy admission categories, source country, and individual demographic factors help determine the entry patterns of professional and technical immigrant workers in 1972 and 1986; and (3) evaluate the immigrant stream recomposition argument that the changing levels of professional and technical occupational immigration [are] due to shifts in class and visa categories, region of origin, and demographic characteristics of workers admitted to the United States. In the conclusions we discuss how changes in immigration policies during this period may have contributed to the statistical patterns on occupational skills of immigrants."
Correspondence: G. F. De Jong, Pennsylvania State University, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30463 Di Comite, Luigi. Demographic transition and migratory phenomena. [Transizione demografica e fenomeni migratori.] Poligonos, No. 3, 1993. 43-57 pp. Leon, Spain. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Spa.
Migration in the Mediterranean is analyzed from a demographic perspective, and particularly taking the demographic transition into account. From this viewpoint, migration flows have in the past, and will continue to tend to redistribute populations in the light of demographic differences between regions. Thus, the migration pressures will continue to exert themselves from the South to the North until the countries of the South experience a transition to low fertility and slower rates of population growth.
Correspondence: L. Di Comite, Viale J. F. Kennedy 85, 70124 Bari (Poggiofranco), Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30464 Di Comite, Luigi; Moretti, Eros. Demography and migration trends in the Mediterranean Basin. [Demografia e flussi migratori nel Bacino mediterraneo.] Studi Superiori NIS, No. 130, LC 93-16436. May 1992. 129 pp. La Nuova Italia Scientifica: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This is a study of demographic issues and problems in the countries bordering the Mediterranean. The authors first define the geographical area of study. They then look at past trends and the demographic balance in the region up to the mid-twentieth century. They then examine some contemporary demographic trends and their implications, and consider future prospect for population developments. The implications for South-North migration pressures are discussed. The authors conclude that resolution of the problems posed by the widening socioeconomic and demographic gap between countries north and south of the Mediterranean can only be resolved if migration policies are developed in coordination with policies of economic and cultural cooperation that help accelerate the process of socioeconomic development in the third-world countries concerned.
Correspondence: La Nuova Italia Scientifica, via Sardegna 50, 00187, Rome, Italy. Location: New York University, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, New York, NY.

61:30465 Di Comite, Luigi; Ferrieri, Gaetano. The foreign presence in Italy. [La presenza straniera in Italia.] Poligonos, No. 3, 1993. 25-41 pp. Leon, Spain. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Spa.
"During the seventies Italy experienced a significant change in its previous migratory patterns....Italy had previously suffered the effects of emigration but began to receive a notable influx of workers from developing countries. This study analyzes the various sources of the process and its characteristics as regards...time-space viewpoints. Comments are also made on the various problems connected with the control of the migratory flow in Italy and the rest of [the] countries of the European Community which receive inmigrants."
Correspondence: L. Di Comite, Viale J. F. Kennedy 85, 70124 Bari (Poggiofranco), Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30466 Durham, David F.; Miller, Monique; Lytwak, Ed; Chumbler, Christine. The immigration briefing book. Sep 1994. [633] pp. Carrying Capacity Network: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This publication, in loose-leaf binder format, concerns immigration to the United States. It is an attempt to bring together "the full spectrum of data, analysis and opinion on immigration...in one comprehensive reference work accessible to the layman, the policymaker, the activist, the academic and the journalist. This cornucopia of perspectives and facts regarding immigration fills the vacuum of information so that those concerned with our nation's future can come to their own informed conclusions." It has sections on basic facts, history, U.S. population growth, environment, resources, economy/employment, costs/benefits, social/cultural effects, effects abroad, ethics, perspectives, policy analysis, and solutions. There is an appendix on organizations and a bibliography of literature.
Correspondence: Carrying Capacity Network, 2000 P Street NW, Suite 240, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30467 Espenshade, Thomas J. Using INS border apprehension data to measure the flow of undocumented migrants crossing the U.S.-Mexico frontier. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 2, Summer 1995. 545-65 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines how data on INS [Immigration and Naturalization Service] border apprehensions are related to the flow of undocumented migrants crossing the southern U.S. border. Its centerpiece is a demographic model of the process of unauthorized migration across the Mexico-U.S. frontier. This model is both a conceptual framework that allows us to see theoretical linkages between apprehensions and illegal migrant flows, and a methodological device that yields estimates of the gross number of undocumented migrants. One implication of the model is that, for the first time, the relation between apprehensions and illegal flows can be examined empirically. We show that the ratio in each period between apprehensions and the undocumented flow is simply the odds of being located and arrested on any given attempt to enter the United States clandestinely."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30468 European Communities. Statistical Office [EUROSTAT] (Luxembourg). International migration in the EU member states--1992. EUROSTAT Statistics in Focus: Population and Social Conditions, No. 1995-3, Pub. Order No. CA-NK-95-003-EN-C. 1995. 12 pp. Luxembourg. In Eng.
International migration flows affecting the 15 member states of the European Community in 1992 are reviewed. The data are presented separately by country.
Correspondence: European Communities, Statistical Office, Batiment Jean Monnet, 2920 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30469 Galor, Oded; Stark, Oded. Migration, human capital formation, and long-run output. In: Migration: a challenge for Europe. Symposium 1993, edited by Horst Siebert. [1995?]. 59-68 pp. Universitat Kiel, Institut fur Weltwirtschaft: Kiel, Germany. In Eng.
"Interest in the effects of labor migration on the receiving economy has not produced ample insights regarding its long-run consequences....The analysis of the transition and steady-state repercussions of migration that arise even if migration has no effect at all on standard labor market variables such as wages and employment is yet to be pursued. This paper takes a step in this direction. We focus on one particular characteristic of migrants, viz., the level of human capital, and explore its repercussions."
Correspondence: O. Stark, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1072, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30470 Goss, Jon D.; Lindquist, Bruce. Conceptualizing international labor migration: a structuration perspective. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 2, Summer 1995. 317-51 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article applies the theory of structuration to international labor migration using case study material from the Philippines. It first provides a brief review of the functional and structural approaches to understanding labor migration and the theoretical impasse that has been created between them. It then reviews several attempts to resolve this impasse, including systems and networks approaches; these solutions are rejected on theoretical and empirical grounds. We suggest that migrant institutions may be a more appropriate mid-level concept than households or social networks to articulate various levels of analysis. We develop this concept in the context of the structuration theory of Anthony Giddens and attempt to apply this to the Philippines, concluding that this framework is eminently suited for further research on international labor migration."
Correspondence: J. D. Goss, University of Hawaii, 2444 Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30471 Gozalvez Perez, Vicente. Maghrib immigration in Europe. The case of Spain. [La inmigracion magrebi en Europa. El caso de Espana.] Poligonos, No. 3, 1993. 59-87 pp. Leon, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The growing numbers of Arabs [in Western Europe] is the result of an inmigratory process with three stages: The first is related to the colonization of Morocco; the second, from 1956-62 to 1973 takes place following the independence of the Arabian countries; and the third, after the crisis of 1973, is characterized by the importance of clandestine emigration and the reunion of families....This study [looks] at the inmigration of Arabs into Spain (regular and irregular) and analyzes the reaction of the Spanish population to the phenomenon and to the current inmigration policy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30472 Iredale, Robin. Patterns of spouse/fiance sponsorship to Australia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1994. 547-66 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article is based on research conducted in 1992 for the [Australian] Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs. The aim was to investigate both repeat and serial sponsorship...for all groups of women, though the majority are from Asia. Interviews with women who had been sponsored, community and health workers, refuge workers and others revealed that repeat sponsorship was a common phenomenon. Further, repeat sponsors demonstrated a high level of perpetration of various forms of domestic violence."
Correspondence: R. Iredale, University of Wollongong, P.O. Box 1144, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30473 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Immigrants from USSR, 1990-1992: demographic characteristics, by last republic of residence. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 45, No. 4, Suppl., Apr 1994. 207-40 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
"The purpose of the publication is to present data, for each immigration year separately, on the difference or similarity between Soviet immigrants from different regions. The publication seeks to answer the question of whether there are differences in the demographic and social composition of immigrants from the republics as follows: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, the Baltic States and the Asian Republics." The period covered is 1990-1992.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30474 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Immigration to Israel, January-June 1993. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 44, No. 9, Suppl., Sep 1993. 1-18 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
"This publication presents data on the immigration to Israel in the first half of 1993. In the period under review the number of immigrants to Israel amounted to 36,000--[seven] percent more than in the first half of 1992 (33,800)." Information is included on country of origin.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30475 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Indicators of the number of Israeli residents abroad, 1992. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 45, No. 6, Suppl., Jun 1994. 111-38 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
"The aim of this publication is to provide up-to-date information on the number of Israeli residents who leave the country to live abroad for prolonged periods and to explain the meaning and limitations of these data."
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30476 Jasso, Guillermina; Rosenzweig, Mark R. Do immigrants screened for skills do better than family reunification immigrants? International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 1995. 85-111 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"It is sometimes thought that immigrants [to the United States] who are screened for occupational skills are likely to become more productive Americans than immigrants who gain admission on the basis of family ties to native-born U.S. citizens or to previous immigrants. However, the expected differential may be small or nonexistent because: 1) kinship immigrants have access to family networks; 2) whereas employers may screen for short-term productivity, family members may screen for long-term productivity; and 3) native-born U.S citizens who sponsor spouses may be particularly adept at screening for long-term success. Longitudinal data on the 1977 immigrant cohort is used to compare initial and longer-term occupational outcomes among employment and kinship immigrants. Results indicate a narrowing of the differential, due both to higher rates of occupational downgrading among employment immigrants and of occupational upgrading among kinship immigrants."
Correspondence: G. Jasso, New York University, Washington Square, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30477 Kadioglu, Ayse. The impact of migration on gender roles: findings of field research in Turkey. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 4, 1994. 533-60 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article suggests an alternative approach to unravel the impact of migration experiences on gender roles of women [in Turkey]....Analysis of the pre-migration settings of women included in this study involves an attempt to delineate background characteristics, including types of marriage and family arrangements, levels of education and work experiences outside the household in order to assess relative impact on their post-migration characteristics....Differences among the women in terms of their exposure to migration have also been taken into account as part of their migration experiences....The main focus of the research is changing gender roles of women rather than their emancipation."
Correspondence: A. Kadioglu, Bilkent University, Department of Political Science and Public Administration, 06533 Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30478 Kalube, Manfred. Emigration and migration in both German districts of western Siberia. [Emigration und Migration in den beiden deutsche Landkreisen Westsibiriens.] Osteuropa, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jan 1994. 74-89 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger.
Emigration from the German districts of Halbstadt and Azovo in western Siberia is examined, and its causes and consequences are discussed. Changes in ethnic composition resulting from this emigration and from the migration of Russian and mixed families are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30479 Kanjanapan, Wilawan; Rosenzweig, Mark R. Diversity and comparability: international migrants in host countries on four continents. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 1995. 304 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The articles contained in this special issue are a subset of papers presented at a conference held at the Institute of European and American Studies, Academia Sinica in Taipei, Taiwan on June 4-6, 1993. The purpose of the conference was to bring a multidisciplinary perspective to the examination of international migration, with particular emphasis on its relationship to the immigration policies, economic structures and cultural characteristics of major host countries all over the world....The papers, to various degrees, focus on the differing origins and sex of immigrants as well as differences in immigration route, visa category and legal status."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30480 Kanjanapan, Wilawan. The immigration of Asian professionals to the United States: 1988-1990. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 1995. 7-32 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines recent flows of Asian professionals to the United States based on the Immigration and Naturalization Service data for the fiscal years 1988-1990. Three specific dimensions of the Asian migration stream were investigated, namely, size, composition and mode of entry. The results show that Asians emerge as a dominant group in the immigration of all professionals. An examination of mode of entry indicates an existing demand for foreign professionals of certain occupational backgrounds in the U.S. labor market....The argument that the outflow of the highly trained Asians is simply a matter of migration and education is not fully supported by the data."
Correspondence: W. Kanjanapan, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30481 Knowles, Anne K. Immigrant trajectories through the rural-industrial transition in Wales and the United States, 1795-1850. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 85, No. 2, Jun 1995. 246-66 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This essay offers [a] detailed geographical analysis of Welsh emigration and settlement in the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century....[The author's] analysis of this period is based upon the biographical information contained in immigrant obituaries....The obituaries provide sufficient locational and temporal detail to reconstruct much of the historical geography of Welsh emigration and settlement from 1795 through 1850....This essay also addresses the question of whether Welsh emigration passed through a rural-industrial transition in the early nineteenth century and, if so, how the transition was expressed spatially and socially."
Correspondence: A. K. Knowles, University of Wales, Institute of Earth Studies, Llandinam Building, Aberystwyth, Dyfed SY23 3DB, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30482 Kocianova, Helena. Main causes and problems of migration in contemporary world. [Hlavni priciny a problemy migrace v soucasnem svete.] Politicka Ekonomie, Vol. 41, No. 4, 1993. 497-505 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze.
This is a general review of international migration trends around the world, with a focus on economic aspects of migration.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:30483 Kodmani-Darwish, Bassma. Migration. [Mouvements de population.] Politique Etrangere, Vol. 59, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 631-781 pp. Institut Francais des Relations Internationales: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This special issue is devoted to international migration. The primary geographical focus of the nine papers is on the implications of immigration to the more developed countries of the world.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Institut Francais des Relations Internationales, Armand Colin, 103 boulevard St. Michel, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:30484 Kupiszewski, Marek. Migration from Eastern Europe to European Community: current trends and future developments. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 94/4, Feb 1994. 40 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this [paper] is firstly to discuss to what extent countries of Eastern Europe and former USSR have contributed to the increasing migration to Western Europe [defined as the European Community] and secondly to examine the future of East-West migration. This cannot be done without first a brief look at the availability and quality of the data."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30485 Leimgruber, W. Impact of migration in the receiving countries: Switzerland. ISBN 92-9068-037-7. 1992. 96 pp. International Organization for Migration [IOM]: Geneva, Switzerland; Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
This is one in a series of monographs prepared as part of a research project sponsored jointly by CICRED and IOM on the impact of international migration on receiving countries. This report, which concerns Switzerland, analyzes immigration trends and policies since World War II, as well as the demographic, sociocultural, economic, and political impact of immigration.
Correspondence: International Organization for Migration, P.O. Box 71, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30486 Mahmood, Raisul A. Adaptation to a new world: experience of Bangladeshis in Japan. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 4, 1994. 513-32 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author explores aspects of Bangladeshi migration to Japan. "The information base for the study is two major sources: sections on the level and trend of migration, socio-economic characteristics of migrants and their job experiences in Japan are based on a survey of Bangladeshi returned migrants from Japan. Information on their socio-economic adjustment was obtained from personal interviews with migrants who had lived and worked in Japan."
Correspondence: R. A. Mahmood, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, E-17 Agargaon, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30487 Marsden, Anna. World demographic trends and the development of immigration to Europe. [L'andamento demografico mondiale e lo sviluppo dell'immigrazione in Europa.] Universo, Vol. 74, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 77-92 pp. Florence, Italy. In Ita.
This is a general review of global population trends and of the growing differences between the demography of the developed and developing regions of the world. A specific focus is on the implications for the potential for immigration to Europe.
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:30488 Massey, Douglas S.; Singer, Audrey. New estimates of undocumented Mexican migration and the probability of apprehension. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 2, May 1995. 203-13 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using a new source of data, we estimate the probability of apprehension among Mexican migrants attempting to cross into the United States without documents. Over the period 1965-1989 we found an average apprehension probability of .35, confirming earlier estimates. We then applied annual probabilities to estimate the gross volume of undocumented Mexican migration and adjusted these figures to derive estimates of the net undocumented inflow."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30489 McAllister, Ian. Occupational mobility among immigrants: the impact of migration on economic success in Australia. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 2, Summer 1995. 441-68 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"By analyzing national survey data collected among immigrants to Australia, this article examines immigrant occupational mobility. For immigrants, the results show economic disadvantages are caused by the act of migration itself rather than by economic experiences in their new country. Occupational status is depressed at the beginning of the immigrants' Australian working career, and this in turn diminishes occupational status throughout the working lives of the immigrants and accounts for the economic disadvantages they face."
Correspondence: I. McAllister, University of New South Wales, P.O. Box 1, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30490 Mezdour, Salah. Emigration from North Africa to Europe (past, present, and future). [L'emigration maghrebine en Europe (passe, present et avenir).] Revue du Marche Commun, No. 366, Mar 1993. 237-41 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general review of past, present, and possible future trends in international migration from North Africa to Europe. The author notes that the lack of qualifications of migrants has generally precluded their upward mobility in receiving countries and reduced the benefits of emigration for the societies of origin. The economic crises affecting Europe as a whole since the mid-1970s, coupled with lack of job opportunities in countries of origin, have contributed both to high unemployment among emigrants, as well as a trend toward naturalization and family reunification rather than to return migration. The author notes that foreigners are not eligible for the system of free circulation of labor evolving within the European Community.
Correspondence: S. Mezdour, Universite de Lille I, Faculte des Sciences Economiques et Sociales, CNRS URA 363 Tiers-Monde Afrique, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:30491 Nicolaas, H. More and more Dutch nationals to South Africa. [Steeds meer Nederlanders naar Zuid-Afrika.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 7, Jul 1995. 6-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"From 1950-1994 almost 62 thousand Dutch nationals left for South Africa. Almost half of them left the Netherlands in the fifties. In the same period, more than 43 thousand Dutch nationals returned to the Netherlands. Fluctuations in external migration with South Africa can be related to political events there....From the end of 1994, emigration of Dutch nationals to South Africa is now higher than immigration from that country."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30492 Ouedraogo, Dieudonne. Population, migration, and development. [Population, migrations et developpement.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1994. 7-15 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Rapid demographic growth in Africa has not been accompanied by economic development. It has generated important flows to the North. Family planning programs will not be sufficient to solve the problems caused by...demographic growth and they will most likely increase in the future. Controls of these [outflows] are unlikely to effective. Under these conditions, only the economic development of the South will allow the limitation of outmigration."
Correspondence: D. Ouedraogo, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur la Population pour le Developpement, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30493 Paganoni, Tony; Todisco, Enrico. Skilled migrations. Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 32, No. 117, Mar 1995. 223 pp. Centro Studi Emigrazione: Rome, Italy. In Eng; Fre.
This volume contains many of the papers presented at an international conference titled 'Skilled and Highly Skilled Migration', held in 1993 in Latina, Italy. "The aim of the seminar was...to review the state of the art in studies of international migration of highly skilled people. The focus was predominantly European, but with an Asian and American regional input as well....Two underlying themes throughout the seminar were inextricably linked: definition of the interest group (the skilled and highly skilled) and development of a body of theory to explain its migration patterns." Papers are grouped into sections on national and regional case studies; East-West migration of skilled persons; and students, professionals, and their training in foreign systems.
Correspondence: Centro Studi Emigrazione, Via Dandolo 58, 00153 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30494 Papademetriou, Demetrios G. The effects of international migration on the receiving countries, the countries of origin, and immigrants. [Les effets des migrations internationales sur les pays d'accueil, les pays d'origine et les immigrants.] Politique Etrangere, Vol. 59, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 671-88 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article points out that the societies who lack labour force and those who have a surplus, share common interests which may lead to organised or spontaneous migratory flows. Today, emigration is incapable of correcting the weaknesses of the socioeconomic structures of the host societies or of being a means of developing the societies of origin. The latter have in reality only benefited from 'passive' gains. In the future, countries providing labour force must endeavour to improve their understanding of the advantages of emigration for their development and take initiatives in order to improve the integration of population transfers in their economic and social development."
Correspondence: G. Papademetriou, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 11 Dupont Circle, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:30495 Petit, Veronique. "Ana-Yana", those who go away from the Dogon region (Mali). ["Ana-Yana", ceux qui partent loin du pays Dogon (Mali).] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1994. 111-35 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Our purpose is to study the migrations of a Malian population, the Dogon (district of Sangha, Bandiagara's cliff). We distinguish three patterns of emigration: emigration through West African frontiers (mainly Ivory Coast, Ghana), internal movements and a deplacement towards the plain of Seno Gondo. Each pattern of migration has its own [characteristics] with regards to age, gender, nuptiality and geographical origin of migrant people....We conclude by a sociological analysis of the causes and consequences of emigration in the Dogon society."
Correspondence: V. Petit, Universite Rene Descartes Paris V, 12 rue Cujas, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30496 Pizzorusso, Giovanni; Sanfilippo, Matteo. An inventory of the Vatican sources on the history of emigration and on ethnic groups in North America: Canada (1878-1922). [Inventario delle fonti vaticane per lo storia dell'emigrazione e dei gruppi etnici nel Nord America: il Canada (1878-1922).] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 31, No. 116, Dec 1994. 606-749 pp. Centro Studi Emigrazione: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This is an inventory of the information in the Vatican archives concerning emigration from Europe to North America, and specifically to Canada from 1878 to 1922. Most of the archive entries are in French, with some in English and Italian.
Correspondence: Centro Studi Emigrazione, Via Dandolo 58, 00153 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30497 Portes, Alejandro; Grosfoguel, Ramon. Caribbean diasporas: migration and ethnic communities. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, No. 533, May 1994. 48-69 pp. Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
"Emphasis is on the five major insular migrations arriving in the United States during this century: Cubans, Dominicans, Haitians, Jamaicans, and Puerto Ricans. We briefly examine the historical origins of these outflows, focusing on the role of shifting external hegemony over the region and the resulting changes in economic structure....Contrary to common stereotypes, immigrants from the island-nations of the region are not solely unskilled workers but comprise a diversified lot that includes entrepreneurs, professionals, technicians, and skilled workers as well."
Correspondence: A. Portes, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Sociology, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30498 Poulain, Michel. Migratory flows in the Mediterranean Basin. [Les flux migratoires dans le bassin mediterraneen.] Politique Etrangere, Vol. 59, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 689-705 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in international migration in the Mediterranean region are analyzed, with the focus on South-North migration to Europe. "This migration towards Western Europe has taken various forms, from labour force migration, in a first phase, to family reunification, and more recently, asylum requests and irregular immigration. These migratory flows must be understood within the context of a severe imbalance--demographic and economic--between the Southern and Northern banks of the Mediterranean. Europe and especially the European Union is directly confronted by this persistent migratory pressure coming from the other Mediterranean countries. Its future can only be conceived of through new and innovative forms of cooperation with its Mediterranean partners."
Correspondence: M. Poulain, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:30499 Powers, Mary G.; Macisco, John J. The immigration experience in the United States: policy implications. ISBN 0-934733-84-8. LC 94-22724. 1994. ix, 116 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the International Migration Conference, held at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York, in March 1991. The five papers included concern the causes and consequences of immigration to the United States and the development of U.S. immigration policy. "The papers focus on the immigrant population in cities, particularly New York, during the past 50 years. Particular attention is paid to the labor market experience of immigrants and to the role played by other social institutions such as the Roman Catholic Church, in integrating them into the host society. Immigration policy initiatives required for the next century are also explored."
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30500 Raijman, Rebeca; Semyonov, Moshe. Modes of labor market incorporation and occupational cost among new immigrants to Israel. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 2, Summer 1995. 375-94 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The present study contributes to the literature on international migration by examining social, demographic and contextual factors that influence modes of labor market incorporation and occupational cost among new immigrants during their first years after migration. The data for the analysis were obtained from the 1983 Census of Population conducted by Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics. The analysis focuses on men who immigrated to Israel between 1979 to 1983....The data reveal that the likelihood of finding employment, the mode of labor market incorporation, and the size of the occupational cost are significantly affected by geocultural origin, occupation in the country of origin, and individual-level demographic and human capital resources. The meaning of the differentiated effects are discussed in detail. The findings point toward two central aspects that should be examined in the study of labor market incorporation of new immigrants: employment status and occupational cost."
Correspondence: R. Raijman, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30501 Renaud, Viviane; Costa, Rosalinda. Immigrants in Quebec. Canadian Social Trends, No. 37, Summer 1995. 9-14 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
An analysis of recent trends in immigration to the province of Quebec is presented. The authors note that immigration trends to this province differ from those affecting Canada as a whole, as the province has a significant level of control over immigration in order to help preserve its Francophone culture.
Correspondence: V. Renaud, Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, 7th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30502 Robatel, Nathalie. These migrants coming from the East. [Ces migrants venus de l'Est.] Regards sur l'Actualite, No. 199, Mar 1994. 44-57 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends and implications of the migration from Eastern to Western Europe that has occurred since the collapse of the Communist regimes in the East in the early 1990s are explored. Data for the study come primarily from a survey carried out in 1992 by the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Internationales.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:30503 Robin, Nelly. A new geography between competition and spatial redeployment: West African migration into the European Community. [Une nouvelle geographie entre concurrences et redeploiement spatial: les migrations ouest-africaines au sein de la CEE.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1994. 17-31 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author investigates trends and determinants of migration from Western Africa to European Community countries.
Correspondence: N. Robin, Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, Programme Migrations Internationales, B.P. 1556, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30504 Rule, Stephen P. A second-phase diaspora: South African migration to Australia. Geoforum, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1994. 33-9 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"South Africa has experienced a significant continuous outflow of professional and technical skills in recent decades. The international marketability of such skills has encouraged a 'brain drain' phenomenon of the type which is common from other developing countries....The most popular destinations are the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States. This paper examines aspects of the phenomenon, with particular reference to the South African community now domiciled in Australia."
Correspondence: S. P. Rule, Vista University, Department of Geographical Sciences, Soweto Campus, Private Bag X09, Bertsham 2013, South Africa. Location: State University of New York Library at Albany, NY.

61:30505 Salt, John; Singleton, Ann; Hogarth, Jennifer. Europe's international migrants: data sources, patterns and trends. ISBN 0-11-341092-1. 1994. 223 pp. Her Majesty's Stationery Office: London, England. In Eng.
This publication is a result of a project designed to establish an information system on international migration in Europe. It consists of "(a) an inventory of sources of international migration data for most European countries which lists the sources available on stocks and flows of foreign nationals and immigrants, together with the concepts and definitions employed, and an assessment of their accuracy; (b) a collection of the main statistical data from the most useful national statistical sources, to allow stock and flow numbers and characteristics for each country to be identified. This statistical base is supplemented by an extensive bibliography of recent works on European international migration. The information system has been used to produce a report (Section Two) which identifies current patterns and trends of stocks and flows of international migrants in Europe, and indicates the processes that are creating them."
Correspondence: HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, England. Location: University of California Library, Berkeley, CA.

61:30506 Samuel, T. John; Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Vazquez, Gabriela. International migration between Canada and Mexico: retrospect and prospects. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1995. 49-65 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper briefly surveys the historical background of the movement of people between Canada and Mexico with special focus on the last couple of decades. The volume and characteristics of permanent international migrants between the two countries are analysed. Available data on temporary migrants, students and visitors are examined. The reasons why immigration from Mexico to Canada has been low is explored. On the basis of available evidence, the probable future of migration between Mexico and Canada is discussed."
Correspondence: T. J. Samuel, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30507 Sekhar, T. V. Migration selectivity from rural areas: evidences from Kerala. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1993. 191-202 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author investigates migrant selectivity from rural areas of Kerala, India, to the Middle East. "The paper argues that the emigrants are more likely to be from the lower and middle class, rather than the poorest or the very affluent section of the society....The paper further argues that kinship connections and previous migration experiences of the families have a decisive role in migration selectivity...."
Correspondence: T. V. Sekhar, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Nagarbhavi, Bangalore 560 072, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30508 Simon, Gildas. The geo-dynamics of global international migration. [Geodynamique des migrations internationales dans le monde.] Politique d'Aujourd'Hui, ISBN 2-13-046977-9. 1995. 429 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author presents an overview of current global trends in international migration. He identifies four major migration systems around which such migration is organized, which are North America, Western Europe, the Middle East, and the Asia-Pacific region, and analyzes each of these four subsystems separately. Three case studies of the Philippines, South Korea, and Japan are also provided. Other topics covered include the adequacy of data on migration, the various types of migration, economic aspects, refugees, illegal migration, and links between migrants and their countries of origin.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de France, 108 boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30509 Slany, Krystyna. Emigration from Central and Eastern Europe since the early fifties till the late eighties. Polish Sociological Review, Vol. 4, No. 104, 1993. 355-86 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
This is an analysis of trends in emigration from Central and Eastern Europe from the 1950s to the late 1980s. The author notes that 76% of people leaving the region went to West Germany first before moving on to a final destination. The impact of changing political conditions in sending countries on emigration, particularly refugee migration, over time is noted.
Correspondence: K. Slany, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut Socjologii, Grodzca 52, 31-044 Krakow, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30510 Slany, Krystyna. Migratory movements in Central and Eastern Europe from the early 1950s till the late 1980s. [Ruchy migracyjne w krajach Europy Srodkowo-Wschodniej od poczatku lat 1950-tych do drugiej polowy lat 1980-tych.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1-2, 1994. 27-76 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
"The major aim of the present paper is to disclose the magnitude of immigration from Central-Eastern Europe, to selected European and overseas countries of immigration and the changes those flows underwent over the period 1950-1989. The analysis focuses on the late 1980s....It follows from the analysis that there were no regular and uniform trends, and the intensity of immigration depended on [the] political cycle in particular countries of Central-Eastern Europe...."
Correspondence: K. Slany, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut Socjologii, Grodzka 52, 31-044 Krakow, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30511 Slater, Wendy. The problem of immigration in Russia. [Le probleme de l'immigration en Russie.] Politique Etrangere, Vol. 59, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 749-59 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The article examines the threefold immigration problem currently facing Russia: the influx of refugees from the developing world who hope eventually to reach the West, and the large numbers of non-Russians and ethnic Russians entering the country from the other former Soviet republics. The institutions established recently to tackle immigration are insufficiently funded and often find themselves in conflict with other agencies, both Russian and international. Legislation on the status of immigrants is also confused. The most pressing issue, however, is that of Russian immigration into Russia. This has implications for domestic policies: the immigrants are regarded as a potential solution to the problem of rural depopulation and are prevented from entering densely populated regions. The exodus of ethnic Russians from the other former Soviet republic may also affect Russia's relations with these countries, which it has accused of discriminating against their Russian populations."
Correspondence: W. Slater, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:30512 Sprangers, A. H. Family reunification and family formation migration strongly decreased. [Gezinsherenigende en gezinsvormende immigratie sterk afgenomen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 6, Jun 1995. 24-6 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Statistics on international migration in the Netherlands do not make a distinction by reason of migration, e.g. family reunification and family formation. Because of the need for information on these types of migration, estimates were made based on demographic characteristics. The estimates show that the number of family reunionists was stable between 1987 and 1991....Recently, the Dutch policy on immigration has become more restrictive. Although information with respect to more recent years is largely lacking, tentative estimates suggest that the 1994 number of family reunionists and family forming immigrants combined has shown a strong decrease compared to 1991."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30513 Stark, Oded. Frontier issues in international migration. In: Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics, 1994. 1995. 361-86 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article delineates a number of frontier issues in international labor migration. Why do migrants return even though the wage differential does not reverse? Who returns? Why do migrants who remain and enjoy higher wages share their earnings with others at home, even in the absence of altruism or of a need to establish an exchange relationship? And why do the earnings of migrants often dominate those of native-born workers even when differences in human capital are controlled for? By the very nature of these issues, the analysis is preliminary and suggestive, the link with empirics is partial and often indirect, and the policy repercussions are tentative....The analysis delineates a number of concrete, testable implications and several distinct policies."
Correspondence: O. Stark, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1072, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30514 Stark, Oded. Return and dynamics: the path of labor migration when workers differ in their skills and information is asymmetric. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. 97, No. 1, 1995. 55-71 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"An implementation of the theory of labor migration under asymmetric information shows that return migration arises from the reinstatement of informational symmetry which induces low-skill workers, who are no longer pooled with high-skill workers, to return. When workers in an occupation constitute more than two skill levels, say four (without loss of generality), the following patterns emerge: Migration is sequential, that is, it proceeds in waves. Each wave breaks into workers who return and workers who stay; within waves the returning migrants are the low-skill workers. The average skill level of migrants is rising in the order of their wave."
Correspondence: O. Stark, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0316 Oslo 3, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:30515 Thomas-Hope, Elizabeth M. Impact of migration in the receiving countries: the United Kingdom. ISBN 92-9068-037-7. 1994. iv, 109 pp. International Organization for Migration [IOM]: Geneva, Switzerland; Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
This is one in a series of monographs prepared as part of a research project sponsored jointly by CICRED and IOM on the impact of international migration on receiving countries. This report, which concerns the United Kingdom, analyzes immigration trends and policies since World War II, as well as the demographic, sociocultural, economic, and political impact of immigration.
Correspondence: International Organization for Migration, P.O. Box 71, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30516 Tienda, Marta; Singer, Audrey. Wage mobility of undocumented workers in the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 1995. 112-38 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This study addresses two fundamental questions about the economic assimilation of undocumented immigrants in the United States: 1) how different recently legalized immigrants are from all foreign-born persons and native-born whites; 2) whether wages of undocumented immigrants improve as they acquire greater amounts of U.S. experience and, if so, how these improvements are comparable to those of immigrants in general. We analyze the Legalized Population Survey and the Current Population Survey to assess the returns to U.S. experience and find positive returns to U.S. experience for both undocumented migrants and all foreign-born men. Returns to U.S. experience depend on region of origin. Undocumented immigrants from Mexico received the lowest wage returns and men from non-Spanish-speaking countries received the highest returns to U.S. experience."
Correspondence: M. Tienda, University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, Il 60637-2799. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30517 Tribalat, Michele. Immigrants and their children. [Les immigres et leurs enfants.] Population et Societes, No. 300, Apr 1995. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Some findings from the recent survey on geographic mobility and social assimilation carried out in France are summarized. They concern changes in data on immigrants since 1974, immigrant ethnic groups, marriage, Islam in France, and young women of Algerian origin.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30518 Tyner, James A. The social construction of gendered migration from the Philippines. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1994. 589-617 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article examines how the social construction of gender influences the migration of Filipina overseas workers and contributes to the increased vulnerability and exploitation of women migrants. In particular, direct and indirect socialization processes, as well as gendered and racial stereotypes, are manifest within the labor recruitment process, helping to channel women migrants into the domestic services and entertainment sectors...."
Correspondence: J. A. Tyner, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30519 Tzeng, Rueyling. International labor migration through multinational enterprises. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 1995. 139-54 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This research studies international migration of company transferees. The main purposes are to address how their individual characteristics have influences on their overseas assignment and what kinds of migration patterns are created by the multinational business enterprises. U.S. firms in Taiwan are the primary study focus. By using both quantitative and qualitative data, the results show that although an overseas appointment is mainly based on individual competence, nationality, ethnicity and gender also play crucial roles. And multinationals are important channels for sustainable, return and circular migration."
Correspondence: R. Tzeng, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30520 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division (New York, New York). International migration policies and the status of female migrants. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/126, Pub. Order No. E.95.XIII.10. ISBN 92-1-151281-6. 1995. xiii, 300 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the UN Expert Group Meeting on International Migration Policies and the Status of Female Migrants, held in San Miniato, Italy, March 28-31, 1990. The report and recommendations of the meeting are presented first. A selection of the papers presented is then provided, organized into three sections. Part 2 examines the extent of female international migration and its impact on female status. Part 3 looks at the situation of female migrants in developed countries. Part 4 examines the situation in developing countries.
Correspondence: UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30521 United States. General Accounting Office [GAO]. Health, Education, and Human Services Division (Washington, D.C.). Illegal aliens. National net cost estimates vary widely. No. B-252730, Pub. Order No. GAO/HEHS-95-133. Jul 1995. 64 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report examines current estimates of overall costs of providing benefits and services to illegal aliens in the United States to all levels of government, taking into account the revenues the aliens generate. "This report (1) assesses existing estimates of the national net cost of illegal aliens to all levels of government, (2) examines the items that account for much of the variation in these estimates, and (3) identifies areas in which the estimates could be improved."
Correspondence: U.S. General Accounting Office, Health, Education, and Human Services Division, Washington, D.C. 20548-0001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30522 Vidal Bendito, Tomas. The geo-demographic dimension of migration. Prospects in Western Europe. [La dimension geodemografica de las migraciones. Expectativas en Europa occidental.] Poligonos, No. 3, 1993. 105-32 pp. Leon, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This work looks at the subject of migration within Europe with a view to correcting the misgivings of the alarming picture painted by the media, as well as the tendency among geographers and demographers to concentrate on the internal workings of demosystems....A theory is offered on the study of migratory processes which incorporates the variables of 'push' and 'benefit'. The first part of the study includes a theoretical and methodological reflection on migration. The second part analyzes the sociodemographic conditions of two areas: the E.C. [European Community] and the Arabian countries between which there is a migratory flow. The demographic and migratory characterization of a precise time-space field is also looked at...: that of the Balearics during the seventies. The study concludes with comments on the possibilities of extrapolation between the situation observed in the Balearics and the E.C."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30523 Weiner, Myron. International migration and security. ISBN 0-8133-8774-4. 1993. xix, 333 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of studies on international migration and security, which is defined to include "the ability of a state to protect its territory and population against external threats to the stability of the regime and to societal well-being....This volume examines the perceived threats associated with large-scale population movements....The essays in Part I analyze the migration flows that either make societies ethnically more homogeneous or more diverse, and examine the consequences of these movements for the security and political stability of states and regimes." The papers concern the Soviet successor states, Yugoslavia, Australia, and Western Europe. "The essays in Part II explore the security implications of international migration for the Third World. Four papers, on South Asia, Southeast Asia, Sub-Sahara Africa and Central America, examine the variety of conditions that generate population movements, the consequences for sending and receiving countries, and the policy responses....The essays in Part III analyze the political role of the new transnationals, the millions of people who now live in a country other than the one in which they were born."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30524 Weller, Bob; Serow, William J.; Sly, David F. Impact of migration in the receiving countries: United States. ISBN 92-9068-037-7. 1994. xi, 144 pp. International Organization for Migration [IOM]: Geneva, Switzerland; Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
This is one in a series of monographs prepared as part of a research project sponsored jointly by CICRED and IOM on the impact of international migration on receiving countries. This report, which concerns the United States, analyzes immigration trends and policies since World War II, as well as the demographic, sociocultural, economic, and political impact of immigration.
Correspondence: International Organization for Migration, P.O. Box 71, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30525 Younis, Adele L.; Kayal, Philip M. The coming of the Arabic-speaking people to the United States. ISBN 0-934733-39-2. LC 94-39876. 1995. xviii, 350 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
This study concerns the causes, conditions, and nature of the long-term interaction between Arabic-speaking peoples and North America. The focus is both on the impact of the American presence in Syria in the late nineteenth century and on migration from Syria and Lebanon to the New World. The primary author's "approach is to place the contact points, settlement patterns, and problems of these immigrants and sojourners in a sociohistorical context. By so doing, she sheds light on the mutual process of community development and eventual community assimilation as experienced by smaller and often ignored ethnic groups."
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30526 Zabin, Carol; Hughes, Sallie. Economic integration and labor flows: stage migration in farm labor markets in Mexico and the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 2, Summer 1995. 395-422 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the probable effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on migration from Mexico to the United States, disputing the view that expansion of jobs in Mexico could rapidly reduce undocumented migration. To the extent that NAFTA causes Mexican export agriculture to expand, migration to the United States will increase rather than decrease in the short run. Data collected in both California and the Mexican State of Baja California show that indigenous migrants from southern Mexico typically first undertake internal migration, which lowers the costs and risks of U.S. migration. Two features of employment in export agriculture were found to be specially significant in lowering the costs of U.S. migration: first, working in export agriculture exposes migrants to more diverse social networks and information about U.S. migration; second, agro-export employment in northern Mexico provides stable employment, albeit low-wage employment, for some members of the family close to the border (especially women and children) while allowing other members of the family to assume the risks of U.S. migration."
Correspondence: C. Zabin, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30527 Zlotnik, Hania. The South-to-North migration of women. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 1995. 229-54 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article challenges the conventional wisdom that, since the circa 1974 discontinuation of policies encouraging temporary labor migration, female migration has significantly outnumbered male migration. Drawing on data from Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States, the article shows that the proportion of women in gross immigration is lower when the flows originate in developing rather than in developed countries. Women outnumber men only in terms of net migration. Each receiving country has its own variations on these generalizations, with the chief variables being the receiving countries' admission policies and the stage in migration history of the expatriate population."
Correspondence: H. Zlotnik, UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30528 Zodgekar, Arvind V. Emigration experiences of recent British migrants. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 20, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1994. 102-9 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
The author discusses the experiences of British migrants to New Zealand. Aspects considered include pervious mobility within Britain; overseas travel and work experience; and reactions of parents, relatives, and friends.
Correspondence: A. V. Zodgekar, Victoria University of Wellington, Department of Sociology and Social Policy, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

61:30529 Baccaini, Brigitte. Individual migratory behavior in France. [Comportements migratoires individuels dans l'espace francais.] Espace Geographique, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1993. 133-45 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in internal migration in France are analyzed over the course of an individual's lifetime using data from a 1981 INED survey entitled Triple Biographie. "The behaviour of individuals in terms of distance and degree of mobility is influenced by the distinctive characteristics of territory and consequently related to their regional origins. Another important factor is the process of urbanisation under way and the evolution of the urban network over the past fifty years."
Correspondence: B. Baccaini, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Pennsylvania State University Library, University Park, PA.

61:30530 Bell, Martin. Internal migration in Australia 1986-1991: overview report. Pub. Order No. 95 0015 4. ISBN 0-644-42867-8. 1995. xxii, 230 pp. Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: South Carlton, Australia. In Eng.
Data from the 1991 Australian census are used to analyze internal migration from 1986 to 1991. The author examines "trends in population mobility; the links between the demographic characteristics of age, sex, marital status, birthplace and labour force and mobility; how the pattern of interstate migration has changed during the 1986-91 intercensal period; [and] other patterns of population redistribution, including the composition of net population gains and losses in different areas."
For a previous report, concerning the period 1981-1986, see 58:20516.
Correspondence: Australian Government Publishing Service, Commonwealth Information Services, G.P.O. Box 84, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30531 Bell, Martin; Cooper, Jim. Internal migration in Australia 1986-1991: the overseas-born. Pub. Order No. 95 0228 9. ISBN 0-644-43137-7. 1995. xx, 160 pp. Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: South Carlton, Australia. In Eng.
This report uses 1991 census data to analyze internal migration patterns of the overseas-born in Australia for the period 1986-1991. Separate consideration is given to interstate, regional, and repeat and return migration. Differences in migration patterns by migrant birthplace are also analyzed, and comparisons are made with the native-born.
Correspondence: Australian Government Publishing Service, Commonwealth Information Services, G.P.O. Box 84, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30532 Bergob, Michael J. Destination preferences and motives of senior and non-senior inter-provincial migrants in Canada. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1995. 31-47 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Northcott's (1984) hypothesis that senior and non-senior out-migrants share a preference for the same provincial destinations is examined using data from the 1991 [Canadian] Census. The results indicate that senior and non-senior migration preferences are similar to those found in previous migration intervals, with the exception of the 1981-86 period....Using data from the 1990 General Social Survey (Cycle 5), this paper also examines the hypothesis that seniors migrate to be closer to their families....The hypothesis is supported and may account for some of the similarity in destination preferences between senior and non-senior inter-provincial migrants."
Correspondence: M. J. Bergob, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30533 Corsini, Carlo A. Internal and middle-distance migration in Italy, 1500-1900. [Le migrazioni interne e a media distanza in Italia: 1500-1900.] Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 19, 1993. 9-27 pp. Florence, Italy. In Ita.
This is a general review of trends in migration in Italy from 1500 to 1900. The author examines questions concerning the definition of migration, problems with data sources, the characteristics of internal migration, and the factors influencing emigration.
Correspondence: C. A. Corisini, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Viale Morgagni 59, 50134 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30534 Frey, William H. Immigration and internal migration for U.S. states: 1990 census findings by poverty status and race. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 94-320, Sep 1994. 6, [26] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper presents an analysis of 1990 census migration data for U.S. States (including the District of Columbia). Its text and Appendix tables provide detailed statistics on immigration and internal migration components of 1985-90 population change for individual States, cross tabulated by race, Latino status, poverty status, and, in some cases, education attainment....This paper addresses the questions: (1) How do the magnitudes of poverty population out-migration from High Immigration States compare with those of other States? (2) Is this out-migration selective on particular social and demographic groups? and (3) Is immigration a significant determinant of internal migration of the poverty population?"
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30535 Frey, William H. White and black "flight" from high immigration metro areas: evidence from the 1990 census. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 94-319, Sep 1994. 8, [15] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes 1990 census migration data for U.S. metropolitan areas. Its tables provide detailed statistics on immigration and internal migration components of 1985-90 population change for individual metropolitan areas, cross tabulated for whites and blacks by poverty status, education attainment, and age....The paper addresses the following questions: (1) Has recent immigration exerted a similar internal migration response for blacks as it has for whites, in terms of its magnitude and socio-demographic selectivity? and (2) Are the spatial patterns of immigration-influenced black out-migration similar to those for whites?"
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30536 Gabriel, Paul E.; Schmitz, Susanne. Favorable self-selection and the internal migration of young white males in the United States. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 30, No. 3, Summer 1995. 460-71 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This study offers an alternative empirical technique to test whether the favorable self-selection hypothesis applies to internal migrants in the United States. Our empirical specification attempts to determine if prospective migrants possess unobserved traits such as higher ability or motivation which influence their earnings potential relative to nonmigrants. Using NLSY [National Longitudinal Survey of Youth] data for 1985 through 1991, we find some support for the favorable self-selection hypothesis for white males who move from one SMSA to another. Prior to their move, prospective migrants enjoy a consistent advantage in annual wage and salary income relative to nonmigrants with similar earnings-related characteristics."
Correspondence: P. E. Gabriel, Loyola University, Department of Economics, 820 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

61:30537 Gedik, Ayse. Changes in the migratory patterns of Japan in 1955-90: with emphasis on the core region in 1980-90 period. In: European challenges and Hungarian responses in regional policy, edited by Zoltan Hajdu and Gyula Horvath. 1994. 395-409 pp. Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Regional Studies: Pecs, Hungary. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to describe recent changes in the internal migration in Japan, especially after 1980....The study is heavily based on the existing studies carried out by the Japanese scholars. The emphasis is on the understanding of the Japanese case, and to draw implications for the other countries." The focus is on migration affecting the core urban regions of Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya.
Correspondence: A. Gedik, Orta Dogu Teknik Universitesi, Mimarlik Fakultesi, Ismet Inonu Bulvari, Ankara 06531, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30538 Gonzales, Georges. Migration, marriage, and family in the valley of the Senegal River. [Migrations, nuptialite et famille dans la valle du fleuve Senegal.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1994. 83-109 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In 1993, out migration from five villages in the upper valley of the Senegal river appears to be as intensive as it was ten years ago, but with the difference that new social groups are now concerned: children, women, and older men. Migration of family groups is essentially characteristic of international migrants, although all the members of the family do not always move to the same place. Besides pendular and incomplete migrations, settlement in Dakar can be observed, probably corresponding to a progressive [severance] from the village of origin. Exogamy and nonresidential polygamy also contribute to a multilocalization of the family and of the community of origin, thus strengthening the flows of migrants, especially to Dakar."
Correspondence: G. Gonzales, Universite Rene Descartes Paris V, 12 rue Cujas, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30539 Guest, Philip; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Archavanitkul, Kritaya; Piriyathamwong, Nittaya; Richter, Kerry. Internal migration in Thailand. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1994. 531-45 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Internal migration of the population of Thailand involves a number of distinct forms of movement. Three forms are identified in this research: single-move, seasonal and repeat. The first can be treated as long-term migration while the latter two are more temporary. All forms are characterized by different geographical flows and different selectivity patterns. Long-term migration is highly selective of young adults, females and the more highly educated. It is most likely to occur between urban areas or from rural to urban areas. Temporary migration mainly involves movement back and forth between urban and rural places and is most likely to be engaged in by those with a medium level of education."
Correspondence: P. Guest, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Putthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30540 Hemmasi, Mohammad. Gender and spatial population mobility in Iran. Geoforum, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1994. 213-26 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the spatial redistribution of the population of Iran during 1976-1986, focusing on women's migration patterns within the context of the Islamic patriarchal cultural system. Specifically, it attempts to answer the following questions: (a) are Iranian men more mobile than Iranian women? (b) Do Iranian men move longer distances than Iranian women? (c) What was the impact of the Iran-Iraq War on the volume and direction of migration streams? (d) What are the causes and consequences of women's migration in Iran?...The analysis reveals that the migration rates vary according to rural or urban destinations, migrants' genders, and the spatial scale of their moves."
Correspondence: M. Hemmasi, University of North Dakota, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 9020, Grand Forks, ND 58202. Location: State University of New York Library at Albany, NY.

61:30541 Hugo, Graeme. The turnaround in Australia: some first observations from the 1991 census. Australian Geographer, Vol. 25, No. 1, May 1994. 1-17 pp. Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to utilise recently released census results to examine patterns of population change in non-metropolitan Australia during the 1986-91 period, focusing particularly upon the net migration component of that change. The paper presents an overview of recent trends in population change in non-metropolitan areas and then moves to an analysis of net migration patterns in non-metropolitan local government areas during the late 1980s using a Life Table Survival Ratio technique to estimate net migration. It appears that the trends observed in the early 1980s have continued into the late 1980s and early 1990s, and that overall the 'turnaround' is slowing down and becoming more diversified, more complex, and much less predictable in the 1990s."
Correspondence: G. Hugo, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, G.P.O. Box 498, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

61:30542 Kaplan, David H. Differences in migration determinants for linguistic groups in Canada. Professional Geographer, Vol. 47, No. 2, May 1995. 115-25 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study utilizes linguistically disaggregated region-to-region migration data between 1981 and 1986 to demonstrate that French and English speaking Canadians react differently to place attributes. A series of log transformed linear regression models suggest that the two populations differ very little in their responses to traditional labor market variables but that they diverge dramatically in their response to the linguistic composition of each region. Each group prefers regions with a greater percentage of their own co-linguists, but Francophones are less sensitive than Anglophones to linguistic composition."
Correspondence: D. H. Kaplan, University of St. Thomas, Department of Geography, Saint Paul, MN 55105. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

61:30543 Kontuly, Thomas; Smith, Ken R.; Heaton, Tim B. Culture as a determinant of reasons for migration. Social Science Journal, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1995. 179-93 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This article evaluates the importance of cultural factors in the destination selection process for migrants moving into and returning to the state of Utah." Data are from a representative, state-wide survey of 525 Utah households undertaken in 1986. The results show that "although economic reasons for selecting Utah as a destination predominate, culture and family play an important secondary role. Mormons are more likely to report cultural and family reasons for moving to Utah, while non-Mormons are more likely to move for employment and education reasons. Distance from the state and time since arrival are the most important determinants of reasons for migration to Utah."
Correspondence: T. Kontuly, University of Utah, Department of Geography, 270 Orson Spencer Hall, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30544 Li, Debin. Characteristics of and reasons for the floating population in contemporary China. Social Sciences in China, Vol. 15, No. 4, Winter 1994. 65-72 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the floating population in China, defined as "those people who travel beyond a certain limit, leave their registered permanent residence temporarily, and travel to and from their homes on an irregular basis. It includes temporary residents (including those who have temporary residency permits for six months or longer), those who travel to and fro on the same day, and those who change trains on the way." The author notes that the main concentration of these migrants is in the major cities.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Shehuxue Yanjiu, No. 4, 1993.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

61:30545 Mehta, B. C.; Kohli, A. Spatial mobility of population: an inter-district study of Rajasthan. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1993. 247-66 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present study attempts to determine the forces that affect inter-district migration in Rajasthan [India] using 1971 and 1981 decadal census data as a basic source....Despite its main shortcomings the economic approach to migration employed in this study broadly corroborates the view that migration is a rational economic phenomenon. However, as yet, the influence of geo-physical and traditional factors like distance and stock of migrants is dominant in determining the quantum and direction of migration. The importance of level of development of infrastructure is increasing but that of economic development is still very weak."
Correspondence: B. C. Mehta, Sukhadia University, Department of Economics, Pratap Nagar, Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30546 Miller, Glenn H. Dynamics of the U.S. interstate migration system, 1975-1992. Growth and Change, Vol. 26, No. 1, Winter 1995. 139-60 pp. Lexington, Kentucky. In Eng.
This note further develops an analysis of the U.S. interstate migration system by K.E. McHugh and P. Gober. Specifically, it uses annual state-to-state migration flow data from Internal Revenue Service for the period 1975-1992 to analyze migration trends. Some modifications to earlier conclusions are suggested. "First the note concludes that the emergence of a new pattern of population redistribution in the U.S. in the 1980s, as reported by McHugh and Gober, was indeed significant, but that it was transitory. Second, the note's analysis does not support McHugh and Gober's conclusion of a fairly strong inverse relationship between migration effectiveness and economic expansions and contractions."
For the study by McHugh and Gober, published in 1992, see 59:10535.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:30547 Moore, E. G.; Rosenberg, M. W. Modelling migration flows of immigrant groups in Canada. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 27, No. 5, May 1995. 699-714 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, the authors briefly review the findings of an earlier study on the patterns of both regional and metropolitan redistribution of immigrant groups in Canada. Against this backdrop, a hierarchical model of migration for immigrant groups for the period 1981-86 is developed and estimated. The internal redistribution of immigrants through postarrival migration has continued to be focused on metropolitan areas in general and on Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal in particular. The distribution of previous immigrants plays a significant role over and above that of economic circumstances both in retaining immigrants in a particular city and in attracting members of immigrant groups from other cities."
Correspondence: E. G. Moore, Queen's University, Department of Geography, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:30548 Nicolaas, H. Increase in the number of moves within the Netherlands continues in 1993. [Stijging aantal verhuizingen binnen Nederland zet zich voort in 1993.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 3, Mar 1995. 6-15 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The number of persons moving home within the Netherlands increased from 1.570 million in 1992 to 1.629 million in 1993....During 1993, 733 thousand persons changed address in family context, whereas 857 thousand persons moved individually....For six provinces internal migration in 1993 resulted in net arrivals....The other provinces showed net departures...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30549 Selvaraj, K. G.; Rao, P. S. S. Household migration--urbanization and consequences. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1993. 203-10 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present paper describes the migration patterns and relationships to specific socio-demographic factors based on longitudinal studies, carried out in North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu, Southern India....The...study confirms higher rural to urban emigration as compared to urban to rural immigration throughout the years studied."
Correspondence: K. G. Selvaraj, Christian Medical College, Department of Biostatistics, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30550 Sinisi, Agnese. Internal migration and rural society in southern Italy (sixteenth to nineteenth centuries). [Migrazioni interne e societa rurale nell'Italia meridionale (secoli XVI-XIX).] Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 19, 1993. 41-70 pp. Florence, Italy. In Ita.
The author examines migration in rural populations in southern Italy from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. Migrations specific to rural populations, such as transhumance and seasonal migration are examined, as well as labor migration and rural-urban migration. Particular attention is given to migration trends in the nineteenth century.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30551 Stillwell, John; Duke-Williams, Oliver; Rees, Philip. The spatial patterns of British migration in 1991 in the context of 1975-92 trends. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 93/19, [1993]. 19 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
The database system TIMMIG is first introduced, which provides access to time-series data on internal migration within the United Kingdom using data from the National Health Service Central Register (NHSCR). Next, the kind of information that can be extracted from the database is described. Finally, two migration datasets for 1990-1991, one using census data and the other using NHSCR data, are compared.
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30552 Swanson, David A.; Kintner, Hallie J.; McGehee, Mary. Mean square error confidence intervals for measuring uncertainty in intercensal net migration estimates: a case study of Arkansas, 1980-1990. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1995. 85-126 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Estimates of net migration are virtually always constructed from the standpoint that the mortality underlying a survived population is not stochastic and the census counts framing the intercensal period are error free. There is compelling evidence, however, that mortality should be viewed as a random variable and census counts contain systematic errors. This evidence suggests that net migration accuracy is affected both by random error and bias. We explore the estimation of net migration accuracy by placing 'Mean Square Error' (MSE) confidence intervals around 1980-1990 net migration estimates for Arkansas made using the Forward Life Table Survival Method....We argue that the MSE intervals provide an accurate description of the uncertainty in net migration estimates...."
Correspondence: D. A. Swanson, University of Arkansas, Arkansas Institute for Economic Advancement, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204-1099. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

61:30553 Angenendt, Stephen. Asylum and immigration in Germany. [L'asile et l'immigration en Allemagne.] Politique Etrangere, Vol. 59, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 731-48 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Germany, which used to be one of the most tolerant countries in matters concerning asylum, has, since the eighties, been confronted by very large migratory flows. Immigration to [West Germany] consisted every year of hundreds of thousands of asylum-seekers, a similar number of...Germans from Russia, Kazakhstan, Romania and Poland, as well as a large number of East Germans. On May 26th 1993, the Bundestag adopted a new law making asylum and immigration to Germany increasingly difficult. The problem of immigration has not been resolved, however, as is shown by the situation in the East European countries, Germany's neighbours, who are suffering the consequences of the new asylum policy...."
Correspondence: S. Angenendt, Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Auswartige Politik, Adenauerallee 131, 53113 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:30554 Ayiemba, Elias H. O.; Oucho, John O. The refugee crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa: what are the solutions. African Population Paper, No. 4, Apr 1995. 31 pp. African Population and Environment Institute [APEI]: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This article examines the refugee crisis in SSA [Sub-Saharan Africa] and proposes policy intervention strategies for combating this global shame on humanity in a continent bedeviled by numerous economic, political and social problems." The paper includes estimates of the current refugee situation by country.
Correspondence: African Population and Environment Institute, P.O. Box 14405, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30555 Hillgenberg, Hartmut. Refugees as a challenge for Europe: starting points for a policy to protect refugees of war and civil war. [Fluchtlinge als Herausforderung fur Europa: Ansatze fur eine Politik der Schutzgewahrung an Kriegs- und Burgerkriegsfluchtlinge.] Europa Archiv, Vol. 49, No. 18, Sep 25, 1994. 537-44 pp. Bonn, Germany. In Ger.
The extent of refugee movements in Europe is reviewed, and the need for policies to protect war refugees and civil war refugees is discussed.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:30556 Kane, Hal. Leaving home. Society, Vol. 32, No. 4, May-Jun 1995. 16-25 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author reviews the global refugee situation and notes that "the world's refugee population has risen to 23 million people living outside their countries of origin. In 1989, the figure was 15 million, and as recently as the mid-seventies only about 2.5 million people could claim refugee status--about the same number as in the fifties and sixties." He argues that the development of democracy and basic socioeconomic development in countries of origin can reduce the pressures that cause people to become refugees.
Correspondence: H. Kane, Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30557 Legoux, Luc. The crises concerning political asylum in France. [La crise de l'asile politique en France.] Les Etudes du CEPED, No. 8, ISBN 2-87762-072-7. Jul 1995. xxv, 344 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in the migration to France of those seeking political asylum are analyzed. The author notes that the number of applications for political asylum grew significantly over the course of the 1980s, peaking in 1989. The 1989 adoption of regulations governing such refugee migrants has diminished the flow of this migration both by lengthening the process of approval and increasing the rate of rejection. However, the author notes that the number of legitimate requests for political asylum continues to increase on a worldwide basis.
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30558 Loescher, Gil. Refugee movements in the post-Cold War era. [Les mouvements de refugies dans l'apres-guerre froide.] Politique Etrangere, Vol. 59, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 707-17 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article briefly describes the scope and dimensions of contemporary refugee movements by analyzing some of the forces which shape these flows. Democratization, problems of nationality and minority rights, and structural, political, economic, environmental and social changes in the post-Cold War world (especially in large parts of the developing world and in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), are likely to result in growing numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons in the years ahead. Refugees and asylum seekers are increasingly regarded not only as a major humanitarian challenge but as a political problem and a threat to the national security of Western states. Refugee policy involves much more than defining or adjudicating claims for asylum, safe haven and refugee status for those who seek to enter or stay in the West. It is now apparent that an effective response to these issues will have to involve major Western foreign policy and international actions."
Correspondence: G. Loescher, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:30559 Nicolaas, H. Over 50,000 requests for asylum in 1994. [Meer dan 50 duizend asielverzoeken in 1994.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 5, May 1995. 6-15 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"According to data of the [Netherlands] Ministry of Justice the number of asylum requests amounted to 52.6 thousand in 1994, 17.2 thousand or almost 50% more than in 1993....A quarter of the total number of asylum seekers in 1994 had a nationality of one of the former Yugoslav republics, followed by persons from Iran (12%), Somalia (10%) and the former Soviet Union (9%)....In 1994 the number of expelled non-Dutch nationals amounted to 31.2 thousand, 11 thousand more than the 1993 level. From this group, 13.3 thousand persons were asylum seekers...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30560 Skeldon, Ronald. Hong Kong's response to the Indochinese influx, 1975-1993. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 534, Jul 1994. 91-105 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
"The changing nature of the population flows from Vietnam to Hong Kong between 1975 and mid-1993 is examined in this article. Hong Kong's population is largely a product of refugee movements from China. Over the period under discussion, official policy toward all arrivals, whether from China or from Vietnam, became much more restrictive. The first wave of Vietnamese to Hong Kong mostly consisted of ethnic Chinese. These were relatively quickly recognized as refugees and resettled. The later waves of ethnic Vietnamese have been held in closed camps; those arriving after 1988 have been subject to screening to determine their refugee status. Those screened out are repatriated either voluntarily or forcibly to Vietnam."
Correspondence: R. Skeldon, University of Hong Kong, Department of Geography and Geology, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30561 Slany, Krystyna. Contemporary emigration from East Central Europe to other continental and overseas countries of settlement. [Wspolczesne emigracje z Krajow Europy Srodkowo-Wschodniej do Glownych Krajow imigracji kontynentalnej i zamorskiej.] Przeglad Polonijny, No. 3 and 4, 1993. 23-47; 51-81 pp. Cracow, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
In this two-part article, the author analyzes trends in emigration from East Central Europe since World War II. Part 1 is concerned with migrations which took place during the war and from the 1950s to the 1980s, focusing on refugee migration and the migration policies of sending countries. Part 2 focuses on "a) presenting the size of emigration, on the one hand consisting of the displaced persons who do not agree to repatriation to their home countries...,and on the other hand of those, who constitute a new wave of emigrants leaving their motherland, b) presenting their relocation in the recipient countries, mainly overseas, c) discussing the problem of repatriation. The issues were discussed according to the countries of emigration (among others Germany, Austria, Great Britain, France, Sweden, overseas countries) and according to the nationality of emigrants (e.g. Poles, Balts, Ukrainians, Russians, Jugoslavians, Hungarians)."
Correspondence: K. Slany, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut Socjologii, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044, Cracow, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30562 Van Hear, Nicholas. The impact of this involuntary mass "return" to Jordan in the wake of the Gulf crisis. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 2, Summer 1995. 352-74 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article investigates the impact of the involuntary movement to Jordan of about 300,000 Palestinians in the wake of the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. It explores the character of the population that arrived en masse in Jordan and whether their arrival burdened or benefitted that country....The involuntary migration compounded other effects of the Gulf crisis on Jordan and exacerbated the country's already serious economic problems. Integration of the returnees was painful. But contrary to initial expectations, the mass arrival did not result in unmitigated disaster and may have contributed to an economic recovery in Jordan, suggesting that there may be potentially beneficial windfall effects of sudden population influxes, even when they are involuntary and disorderly."
Correspondence: N. Van Hear, University of Oxford, Wellington Square, Oxford 0X1 2JD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30563 Wihtol de Wenden, Catherine. The French response to the asylum seeker influx, 1980-1993. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 534, Jul 1994. 81-90 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
"This article analyzes the evolution of the asylum situation in France, the untoward effects of rigor, and the humanitarian price paid for French efforts to curb possible abuse of asylum. French asylum policy reforms in recent years have significantly reduced asylum applications, attesting to a certain, if limited, governmental capacity to prevent unwanted migration."
Correspondence: C. Wihtol de Wenden, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

61:30564 Estrella Valenzuela, Gabriel. Legal international migration across the northern frontier of Mexico. [Migracion internacional legal desde la frontera norte de Mexico.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1993. 559-600, 770 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of the Simpson-Rodino Law of 1986, which increased legal commuting labor migration across the Mexican-U.S. border, is examined using data from surveys undertaken in 1986 and 1990. "Using these data and LOGIT regression models which include variables related to individuals as well as their household members and their context, statistical evidence is generated in support of the propositions that, i) an expansion occurred of the spectrum of social strata incurring in this type of migration; ii) the selectivity characteristics of new entrants into this migration group show a reproduction strategy oriented toward upward mobility; and iii) contextual factors led to a geographic redistribution of the commuter migrant group in the state of Baja California."
Correspondence: G. Estrella Valenzuela, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, Apdo Postal 459, Avenida Alvaro Obregon y Julian Carrillo s/n, 21100 Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30565 Gaillard, Anne M. Migration return: a bibliographical overview. CMS Occasional Paper, No. 12, ISBN 0-934733-77-5. 1994. 153 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
This work, translated from the original French, presents a bibliography of the literature on the voluntary return of migrants to their country of origin. The bibliography, which is unannotated, consists of 1,017 published and unpublished sources in various languages. A general review of the literature is included in the introductory three chapters, which also consider policy issues. The primary geographic focus is on migration to and back from Europe. Geographical and subject indexes are included.
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30566 Lidgard, Jacqueline M. Return migration of New Zealanders: a profile of 1990 returnees. New Zealand Journal of Geography, No. 97, Apr 1994. 3-13 pp. Christchurch, New Zealand. In Eng.
"In the 1990s the population [of New Zealand] is experiencing higher levels of mobility than at any time in its history. However, with regards to European migration to New Zealand, the settler flows of the past have been overtaken in importance by reverse flows of temporary migrants. Now flows of new settlers come predominantly from Asia and the Pacific....This paper is about return migration--a process that has been largely ignored in the literature on international migration to New Zealand."
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:30567 Pascual de Sans, Angels. Return migration in Europe: the social construction of a myth. [La migracion de retorno en Europa: la construccion social de un mito.] Poligonos, No. 3, 1993. 89-104 pp. Leon, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This study aims to form a series of conceptual theories on migration in general and in particular on returning. Also looked at is the validity of the characterizations of returning and the bipolar effect....Consideration is also given to the subject of how one takes on the study of returning, a typology being proposed to that effect....The social implications of returning are also analyzed. The study ends with a brief reflection on the phenomenon of the returning migrants in modern Europe."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30568 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia [ESCWA]. Secretariat (Amman, Jordan). International and return migration: the experience of Yemen. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 41-42, 1993-1994. 107-51 pp. Amman, Jordan. In Eng.
"This study deals with the impact of...return migrants (or returnees) on the social and economic development of the Republic of Yemen in both the short and long terms, and assesses the possibility of their integration into the society and economy of the new Republic. The first section offers a brief history of Yemeni migration and description of the demographic and economic characteristics of the returnees compared with those of the non-migrant population. It also discusses the volume of remittances....The second section...discusses the problems encountered in integrating [returnees] into the socio-economic fabric of the new State, the absorptive capacity of the various economic sectors, and the prospects for their employment in the short and medium run."
Correspondence: U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, Secretariat, Amman, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30569 Waldorf, Brigitte. Determinants of international return migration intentions. Professional Geographer, Vol. 47, No. 2, May 1995. 125-36 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the determinants of international return migration intentions using survey data on guestworkers in Germany, 1970-1989. It is hypothesized that return migration intentions are influenced by personal attributes, residential and job satisfaction, and three time-dependent variables: a temporal trend, a duration effect, and years prior to retirement. The hypotheses are tested using logit models of the intention to return. The results indicate that return intention probabilities are strongly affected by satisfaction and time-dependent variables while the influence of personal attributes is of little importance."
Correspondence: B. Waldorf, Indiana University, Department of Geography, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

61:30570 Dupont, Veronique; Guilmoto, Christophe Z. Spatial mobilities and urbanization: Asia, Africa, America. [Mobilites spatiales et urbanisation: Asie, Afrique, Amerique.] Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, Vol. 29, No. 2-3, 1993. 279-581 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation [ORSTOM]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This special issue is devoted to migration and urbanization in the developing world. Following a general introduction by the editors, the 13 papers are divided into three parts. The first part contains studies on the general issues arising from the study of migration and urbanization, using examples from Brazil, Egypt, India, and the Ivory Coast. The second part focuses on the mechanisms of migration, with studies on Africa in general, Cameroon, Ecuador, and India. The third part has four studies that look at the impact of migration on the towns and cities involved, including examples from India, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mexico, and Niger.
Correspondence: Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, 213 rue La Fayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30571 Shefer, Daniel; Steinvortz, Luis. Rural-to-urban and urban-to-urban migration patterns in Colombia. Habitat International, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1993. 133-50 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The object of this study was to identify the factors that may explain, and help to predict, the direction and intensity of migration flows from rural to urban and from urban to urban areas in Colombia. For this purpose, statistical models were used with a view to obtaining a better insight into the push-and-pull causes of the migration patterns and a better understanding of their consequences."
Correspondence: D. Shefer, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Center for Urban and Regional Studies, 32 000 Haifa, Israel. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:30572 Stasiak, Andrzej; Mirowski, Wlodzimierz. The processes of depopulation of rural areas in Central and Eastern Europe. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Conference Papers, No. 8, 1990. 322 pp. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization: Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of an international seminar on rural depopulation held in Szybark, Poland, in September 1989. There are sections on rural depopulation in Poland; selected republics of the former USSR, including Russia, the Ukraine, and Latvia; Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Serbia; and England and Wales and Finland.
Correspondence: Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30573 Stevanovic, Radoslav. Contribution of migration to urban population growth in Serbia in the period 1981-1991. [Doprinos migracija populacionom rastu gradova Srbije u periodu 1981-1991.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 32, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 87-101 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"A traditional view on the contribution of migration to urban development is that migration is a basic component of such growth....An analysis was made of the relative censuses and vital statistic data for each urban conglomeration in Serbia pertaining to the last inter-censal period (1981-1991)....It is found...that the migration balance of urban population is positive....We...conclude that the urban population growth in Serbia, in the period 1981-1991, is rather the result of natural than of the migratory movement of its population."
Correspondence: R. Stevanovic, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1995-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.