Volume 61 - Number 3 - Fall 1995

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

61:30225 Abedin, Samad; Islam, M. Nurul. Implications of contraceptive practice on future fertility trends in Bangladesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 40, No. 3, Sep 1994. 37-41 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This article aims at estimating the TFR [total fertility rate in Bangladesh] for a given level of CPR [contraceptive prevalence rate], and estimating the CPR to achieve the targeted fertility...,without taking account of the trends in a few proximate determinants of fertility....There seems to be a change in marriage pattern in the country and also exists a norm of long durations of breastfeeding practice....A high degree of correlation between TFR and CPR bears the implication that it is possible to achieve a replacement level of fertility around the year 2000 if the present pace of progress in contraceptive practice is maintained. However, the estimation requires more sophisticated techniques."
Correspondence: S. Abedin, Rajshahi University, Department of Statistics, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30226 Arroyo, Cristino R. Economic approaches to modeling fertility determinants: a selective review. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. 1085, LC 93-165949. Feb 1993. 70 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
A review of critical models of fertility in which the fertility decision is regarded as the outcome of economic choice behavior is presented. Both static lifetime and dynamic stochastic models are examined. The drawbacks of using static lifetime choice models are described, and the author recommends the dynamic stochastic approach to modeling the fertility decision.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:30227 Avramov, Dragana; Callens, Marc; Cliquet, Robert. Population "climate" and population policy in Belgium. Stanovnistvo, Vol. 32, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 3-25 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng. with sum. in Scr.
"The authors give an overview of the socio-demographic background and discuss features of the childbearing context which may be contributing to maintaining fertility at below replacement level in Belgium. Special attention is given to the pattern of female labour force participation and child care coping strategies. Data from Survey on Population and Welfare conducted by Population and Family Study Centre (CBGS) of the Ministry of the Flemish Community are analyzed in view of assessing whether the population would approve attempts by the government to modify demographic trends and what the expectations for the social assistance in the family building process are."
Correspondence: D. Avramov, Institute of Social Sciences, Center for Demographic Research, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30228 Babb, Penny. Birth statistics 1993. Population Trends, No. 79, Spring 1995. 31-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the latest annual statistics for live births (1993) in England and Wales....Birth statistics are compiled every year from information collected at birth registration for entry into the live birth and stillbirth registers, and from additional information collected at the same time under the Population (Statistics) Acts of 1938 and 1960."
Correspondence: P. Babb, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30229 Bhat, P. N. Mari. End of demographic transition by 2003 AD? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 30, No. 5, Feb 4, 1995. 279-80 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
This is a comment on a recent exchange between K.C. Seal and P. P. Talwar on the one hand, and V. Gowariker on the other concerning the possibility of India achieving replacement level fertility by the year 2003. The author suggests that the prediction that fertility will fall to 21 per 1,000 by 2003 is overoptimistic.
For the articles by Seal and Talwar, and by Gowariker, published in 1994, see 61:10088 and 10094, respectively.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:30230 Bhattacharyya, A. K. Bias and sampling variability of some fertility measures under stratified random sampling. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1993. 235-40 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"We have been investigating the sampling variability of fertility and reproduction measures....In this paper, we investigate the bias of these measures under [a] stratified random sampling scheme. In particular, we attempt to estimate the bias and give revised estimators of these rates with MSEs [mean square errors]."
Correspondence: A. K. Bhattacharyya, Indian Statistical Institute, Population Studies Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30231 Biswas, Suddhendu; Jain, Rita. On a reliability approach to the analysis of interlive birth intervals and parity progression ratios. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1993. 225-34 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present paper [examines] the phenomenon of parity progression from [a] reliability or survival analysis point of view. This method has certain advantages over the traditional approaches in the sense that the parity progression ratios are estimable even without getting certain basic information such as parity-specific fertility rates...." The study uses data on fertility trends in India taken from a 1987 survey.
Correspondence: S. Biswas, University of Delhi, Department of Statistics, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30232 Botev, Nikolai. The story of a "maverick": Bulgaria's fertility decline. Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1995. 45-66 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to examine the demographic experience of Bulgaria in a more systematic fashion than has been done until now. The main argument underlying the analysis is that viewing Bulgaria's demographic experience as 'anomalous' reflects the universalistic (and fundamentally a-historical) approach adopted by many proponents of the demographic transition theory. Although the framework proposed here to account for the specificities of the fertility decline in Bulgaria follows some of the ideas of the early 'transition' theorists, and specifically Kingsley Davis' theory of 'change and repsonse'...,it emphasizes the historical context of the fertility decline, as opposed to the notion of a uniform developmental trajectory which underlies, explicitly or implicitly, the demographic transition theory."
Correspondence: N. Botev, UN Economic Commission for Europe, Division for Economic Analysis and Projections, Population Activites Unit, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30233 Brockerhoff, Martin. Fertility and family planning in African cities: the impact of female migration. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jul 1995. 347-58 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study uses data from thirteen Demographic and Health Surveys to examine effects of female migration on fertility in African cities. Contrary to expectations, migration from villages and towns in the 1980s and 1990s reduced total fertility rates in African cities by about one birth, from an estimated average of 5.55 in the absence of migration to 4.59. New arrivals experience much lower fertility in their first few years in cities than long term presidents of similar age and parity. This results from the initial unmarried status of most migrants, high levels of spousal separation among new arrivals who are married, dramatic increases in use of modern methods of contraception after 2 years in cities, and continuation of traditionally long durations of postpartum abstinence."
Correspondence: M. Brockerhoff, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30234 Brown, Sarah S.; Eisenberg, Leon. The best intentions: unintended pregnancy and the well-being of children and families. ISBN 0-309-05230-0. LC 95-12064. 1995. ix, 380 pp. National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Committee on Unintended Pregnancy: Washington, D.C.; National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report concerns unintended pregnancy and its consequences in the United States, and represents the collaborative efforts of several groups and individuals. It notes that an estimated 57% of all U.S. pregnancies are unintended, and that women of all ages, not just adolescents, are affected. The book "offers specific recommendations to put the United States on par with other developed nations in terms of unintended pregnancy rates; considers the effectiveness of over 20 pregnancy prevention programs; explores problematic definitions--'unintended' versus 'unwanted' versus 'mistimed'--and presents data on pregnancy rates and trends; summarizes the health and social consequences of unintended pregnancies, for both men and women, and for the children they bear; examines Americans' ambivalence about sexuality and the many other social, cultural, religious, and economic factors that affect our approach to contraception; [and] explores the complicated web of peer pressure, life aspirations, and notions of romance that shape an individual's decisions about sex, contraception, and pregnancy."
Correspondence: National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30235 Chimere-Dan, O. Fertility and family size preferences in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A study of the Transkei sub-region. Mar 1995. xvii, 128 pp. University of the Witwatersrand, Population Research Programme: Johannesburg, South Africa; Eastern Cape Province Department of Welfare and Pensions: Umtata, South Africa. In Eng.
This is the first in a planned series of reports on fertility and family size preferences in South Africa. This report concerns Transkei, in Eastern Cape Province. "The study collected information on fertility, family size preferences and a wide range of factors such as marriage, breast feeding, post-partum sexual abstinence, unwanted pregnancies, contraception, abortion, infant mortality and public knowledge of the Population Development Programme in Transkei. Field work was carried out from March to June 1994. During this period information was collected from a representative sample of 2,290 women in the 15-49 age range and 1,100 men aged 18-50 years. The present report is based on the data collected from women."
Correspondence: O. Chimere-Dan, University of Witwatersrand, Population Research Programme, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30236 Chrominska, Maria. The influence of the farm size on the parity of a farming family in Poland. Polish Population Review, No. 5, 1994. 116-45 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The paper aims at statistical identification of the relationship between the parity of farming families and the area of the farm and the role this variable plays among variables describing the model of families' parity....The analysis covered 1,291 rural farming couples [in Poland] who married in the years 1920-1984."
Correspondence: M. Chrominska, University of Economics, Ul. Niepodleglosci 10, 60-967 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30237 Cigno, Alessandro. Public pensions with endogenous fertility: comment on Nishimura and Zhang. Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 57, No. 1, May 1995. 169-73 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a critique of a recent study by Nishimura and Zhang (N-Z), which the author maintains "relies on an unstated assumption that, either individuals are able to coordinate their fertility decisions, or individual pensions are conditional on individual fertility. The present note criticizes this assumption, and shows what happens if it is dropped. Introducing a social security system with a rate of tax equal to the socially optimal transfer from the young to the old will have no effect on fertility, but will raise lifetime consumption and welfare (rather than reduce fertility and raise transfers as N-Z predict)."
For the article by Kazuo Nishimura and Junsen Zhang, published in 1992, see 59:40554.
Correspondence: A. Cigno, University of Pisa, Faculty of Political Sciences, Via Serafini 3, 56126 Pisa, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:30238 Courbage, Youssef. Declining fertility in the Arab peninsula. [Baisse de la fecondite dans la Peninsule arabique.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 415-45 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The Arab peninsula consists of a number of countries, which differ not only in the sizes of their populations, but also in fertility....Factors that are important in the demographic transition, e.g. delayed marriage and recourse to contraception, as well as infant mortality, urbanization, education, the proportion of women who work outside their homes etc., also differ in different countries. It is possible that high oil revenues may have masked the influence of improvements in the status of women on the decline in fertility. Falls in the world price of oil could affect fertility and lead to fertility decline throughout the peninsula."
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30239 De Silva, W. Indralal. Ahead of target: achievement of replacement level fertility in Sri Lanka before the year 2000. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1994. 3-22 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Compared with all other South Asian countries, Sri Lanka has had the highest rate of fertility decline; between 1960-1965 and 1985-1990, the total fertility rate declined by almost 50 per cent. This article discusses the country's fertility control policies, programmes, targets and other factors related to its rapid fertility decline. It describes how the replacement level of fertility was reached in 1993 despite a lower than expected contraceptive prevalence rate. A significantly large proportion of women seem to be relying on induced abortion to terminate unwanted pregnancies. It concludes by raising a number of questions for policy makers to address, especially the need to prepare for population changes in the next century brought about by low fertility."
Correspondence: W. I. De Silva, University of Colombo, Demographic Training and Research Unit, 94 Cumaratunga Munidasa Mawatha, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30240 El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil. Pre-united Germany family life cycle and fertility profile: 1947-88. In: American Statistical Association, 1993 Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1993]. 250-5 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The author uses new demographic models and techniques to analyze family life cycle and fertility data for the two German states from World War II to unification in 1990. Particular attention is given to the effects of various pronatalist policies adopted in the two countries.
Correspondence: M. N. El-Khorazaty, 14000 Cove Lane, #103, Rockville, MD 20851-1236. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30241 Ghana. Ghana Statistical Service (Accra, Ghana); Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton, Maryland). Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, 1993. Dec 1994. xxii, 246 pp. Accra, Ghana. In Eng.
Results from the second survey carried out in Ghana as part of the DHS program are presented. The survey, carried out in 1993-1994, included a nationally representative sample of 4,562 women aged 15-49 and 1,302 men aged 15-59. Following introductory chapters on survey methodology, there are chapters on fertility, fertility regulation, other proximate determinants of fertility, fertility preferences, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, maternal and child nutrition, and knowledge of AIDS.
Correspondence: Ghana Statistical Service, P.O. Box 1098, Accra, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30242 Hogberg, Ulf; Sandstrom, Anita; Nilsson, Nils G. Reproductive patterns among Swedish women born 1936-1960. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 71, 1992. 207-14 pp. Umea, Sweden. In Eng.
"An analysis was made of a cross-sectional survey of 4,299 women born in Sweden in the period 1936-1960, regarding their reproductive performance. Fecundability was only 12% lower for women in the 30-39 year age interval than for women up to 29 years of age. Cumulative pregnancy rates for individual years fell in the range 93-96%. No difference in fecundability could be discerned between women born in 1936-45 vis-a-vis 1946-60....Primary infertility, more prevalent among those born in 1946-60, was found to be related to a higher level of education, an urban life style and low age at first coitus. The risk of suffering a spontaneous abortion increased with advancing maternal age."
Correspondence: U. Hogberg, Umea University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 901-87 Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30243 Holl, Karen D.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Paul R. The fertility plateau in Costa Rica: a review of causes and remedies. Environmental Conservation, Vol. 20, No. 4, Winter 1993. 317-23 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"In this paper, we summarize the recent demographic history of Costa Rica and review factors influencing its well-known fertility decline. We then discuss possible explanations for the ensuing fertility plateau and conclude by suggesting strategies for affecting a further decrease in fertility rates."
Correspondence: K. D. Holl, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biology, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30244 Inaba, Hisashi. Human population reproduction via first marriage. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1995. 123-44, 183 pp. Langhorne, Pennsylvania/Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper we consider a dynamical model for populations in which childbearing occurs within only first marriage. Instead of age-specific fertility rate, we use duration-specific marital fertility rate by age at marriage....Next we introduce the basic reproduction number...that measures the reproductivity of the population. We further give a new formula for total fertility rate, which is expressed by an integral of the product of the indices of marriage and marital fertility. Subsequently, we show illustrative calculations to see the effect of nuptiality on the reproductivity indices. Finally we discuss a possible interpretation for the recent Japanese fertility decline as an application of our first marriage model."
Correspondence: H. Inaba, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30245 Joffe, Michael; Villard, Laurence; Li, Zhimin; Plowman, Rosalind; Vessey, Martin. A time to pregnancy questionnaire designed for long term recall: validity in Oxford, England. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 49, No. 3, Jun 1995. 314-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "establish the degree of validity of data on time to pregnancy, derived retrospectively, [in Oxford, England,] using a short questionnaire....Questionnaires were mailed to 1,647 women who continue to be followed up by the Oxford Family Planning Association contraceptive study, and a further 424 were approached for personal interview....Matching was successful in 91% of pregnancies. Median recall time was 14 years (interquartile range, 11-16 years). At the group level, remarkably good agreement was found between the two sources of information, presented as cumulative percentage distributions of live births. The findings were at least as good with longer recall...as with shorter recall....At the individual level, some misclassification was evident, which has implications for statistical power."
Correspondence: M. Joffe, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Academic Department of Public Health, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30246 Kimenyi, Mwangi S.; Mbaku, John M. Female headship, feminization of poverty and welfare. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 62, No. 1, Jul 1995. 44-52 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"The present paper examines the relationship between generosity of welfare benefits and the rate of births to unmarried women focusing on a simple but crucial error that researchers have made in estimating the welfare-female headship relationship. We demonstrate that the lack of a significant relationship between the generosity of welfare benefits and female headship using aggregate data is due to the fact that researchers treat the population joining the pool of female heads at any given time as equivalent. Specifically, researchers have failed to take into account the fact that there are differences in the propensity to establish mother-only households that are not captured when using aggregate data. Women who have children out-of-wedlock when benefits are low have a higher propensity to establish mother-only households than those who become heads of families when benefits are high. Adjusting for differences in the propensity to establish mother-only households, we find that welfare benefits significantly influence female headship." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: M. S. Kimenyi, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06268. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:30247 Lalou, Richard. When women's schools were schools of mothers. The influence of education on the fertility of Quebec women (1850-1940). [Quand l'ecole des femmes etait une ecole des meres. Influence de l'instruction sur la fecondite des Quebecoises (1850-1940).] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 22, No. 2, Fall 1993. 229-62 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Theoretical studies on the demographic transition and empirical analyses generally conclude that schooling has the power to direct mentalities towards modernization and progress: it is because of the education obtained at school that young girls began to irreversibly break away from society's traditional values and started questioning their ancestral roles of wife and mother. However, because of its strongly religious nature, there is no doubt that the schooling received by Quebec women contributed only indirectly to the emancipation of their thoughts....In a society so attached to religion, the conservative character of educational teaching probably prevented the school from fully contributing to progress. Therefore, it is possible that schooling did not have, in Quebec, all of the impact which theories on declining birthrate credit it with."
Correspondence: R. Lalou, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30248 Leridon, Henri. Wanted children. [Les enfants du desir.] ISBN 2-260-01187-X. 1995. 278 pp. Editions Julliard: Paris, France. In Fre.
The changing factors affecting a couple's decision to have children in the modern world are explored. The author notes that having children has developed from being a relatively uncomplicated and natural process, to one in which the decision to have children is affected by a complex range of socioeconomic factors, and above all, by the existence of the means for couples to control their fertility. In the first part of the work, the author describes the demographic transition and subsequent trends in fertility in France from the eighteenth century to the present. In the second part, he describes the development of knowledge about reproduction and contraception. In the third and final part, he discusses the implications of these changes for both the individual and society.
Correspondence: Editions Julliard, 20 rue des Grands-Augustins, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30249 Lesthaeghe, R.; Jolly, C. The start of the Sub-Saharan fertility transition: some answers and many questions. Journal of International Development, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995. 25-45 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Factors associated with socioeconomic development such as increased education and urbanization were initially associated in sub-Saharan Africa with an increase in fertility. This was largely due to their eroding effects on durations of breastfeeding and postpartum abstinence, and in some regions also to lowered levels of infecundity. During the 1980s the second phase of the transition emerged in areas located in Eastern and Southern Africa. This phase is characterized by increasing proportions of users of modern contraception and by a decrease in desired family size. Such a decisive turn around did, however, not occur in situations with expanding economies, but rather during the crises of the last decade."
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:30250 Marshall, A. M. A model of numbers of births in three countries, with persistent forty-year cycles. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1995. 171-82, 183 pp. Langhorne, Pennsylvania/Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A non-linear model of fertility is described, which was derived from data for more than a century from England and Wales, New Zealand, and the U.S.A. The demographic transition is modelled with a logistic function, and age-specific fertility rates are estimated using lognormal distributions. The stepwise inclusion of a partner availability estimate in the model showed that it accounts for twenty-nine percent of otherwise unexplained variance. Projected future births stabilise in sustained or limit cycles with periods a little longer than 40 years, and amplitudes at least 7% of the mean. The necessary conditions for cycle persistence are outlined on a graph of maximum and minimum fertility parameters."
Correspondence: A. M. Marshall, University of Auckland, Department of Geography, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30251 Micheli, Giuseppe A. The society of the missing child: debates over the second demographic transition in Italy. [La societa del figlio assente: voci a confronto sulla seconda transizione demografica in Italia.] Collana il Punto, No. 19, ISBN 88-204-8928-7. 1995. 251 pp. FrancoAngeli: Milan, Italy. In Ita.
This is a collection of 12 studies that examine the reasons for the very low rate of fertility existing in contemporary Italy. The first part examines current trends in Italian fertility and makes comparisons to other European countries. The second part examines factors affecting fertility, such as occupations and income, generational changes, changes in women's lives, and the redefinition of social roles. The third part looks at changes over time, such as traditional attitudes toward children and birth control, the changing relationships between family values and work outside the home, the role of children in assuring continuation between generations, and the factors affecting the decision to have children.
Correspondence: FrancoAngeli, Viale Monza 106, 20127 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30252 Migra, S. N.; Ali, M. Nawab; Islam, Shahidul; Cross, Anne R.; Saha, Tulshi. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 1993-1994. Dec 1994. xxvi, 240 pp. Ministry of Health and Welfare, National Institute of Population Research and Training [NIPORT]: Dhaka, Bangladesh; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This report presents final results from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey of 1993-1994, which was carried out by Mitra and Associates. The survey involved a nationally representative sample of 9,174 households, and included 9,640 women and 3,284 husbands of those women. Following an introductory chapter on household and respondent characteristics, there are chapters on fertility, fertility regulation, other proximate determinants of fertility, fertility preferences, infant and child mortality, and maternal and child health. There are also chapters providing results of the survey of husbands, the availability of health and family planning services, and the implications for policy and program strategies. Appendixes look at survey methodology and data quality.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30253 Montgomery, Mark; Kouame, Aka; Oliver, Raylynn. The tradeoff between number of children and child schooling: evidence from Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper, No. 112, ISBN 0-8213-3123-X. LC 94-23764. 1995. vii, 98 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report contains two separate papers on the relationship between fertility and the investments made by parents in the schooling of their children. The first paper, by Montgomery and Kouame, examines the case of the Ivory Coast, using data from the three rounds of the Cote d'Ivoire Living Standards Measurement Survey conducted from 1985 to 1987, and suggests that there is evidence of a tradeoff of child quantity for quality in urban but not rural areas. The second paper, by Oliver, concerns Ghana, and applies the same methodology to analyze data from the Ghana Living Standards Survey for 1987-1989. The results indicate that "female schooling can be a potent instrument for lowering fertility and raising child school enrollments, and second, that increasing the cost of schooling would not have an important impact on fertility."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30254 Nath, Dilip C.; Land, Kenneth C. Sex preference and third-birth intervals in a traditional Indian society. In: American Statistical Association, 1993 Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1993]. 244-9 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine (i) the structure of third-birth intervals, and (ii) the effects of status--gender and survival--of the first two children, and a number of socio-demographic variables on the spacing of third-birth in a traditional Indian society. Life table techniques are employed to estimate median birth intervals for several subgroups of the study population. Hazards regression techniques are used to estimate the net effect of each explanatory variable." Data are from a survey carried out in Assam, India, in 1988-1989.
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Duke University, Department of Sociology, Box 90088, Durham, NC 27708-0088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30255 Ory, Catherine. A general study on fertility and conjugal unions. [Etude generale sur la fecondite et les unions.] 2nd ed. Mar 1992. 298 pp. Conseil General de la Reunion: Saint-Denis, Reunion. In Fre.
This is a revised edition of a report, originally published in December 1987, on changes in conjugal unions and fertility in Reunion. It is based on two surveys carried out in 1983 and 1986, involving a nationally representative sample of over 1,000 women in each survey round. Following a description of survey methodology, there are chapters on the various types of conjugal unions prevalent on the island, fertility, contraception and abortion, and illegitimacy.
Correspondence: Conseil General de la Reunion, Saint-Denis, Reunion. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30256 Petrovic, Mina. Everyday life in cities and parenthood. [Svakodnevni zivot u gradu i roditeljstvo.] ISBN 86-7093-053-6. 1994. 251, 16 pp. Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja: Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
This is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of low fertility in modern developed societies. It is based on research undertaken in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1991, involving 101 individuals. Particular attention is given to the impact of inadequate housing on the decisions to marry or to have children.
Correspondence: Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30257 Raftery, Adrian E.; Lewis, Steven M.; Aghajanian, Akbar. Demand or ideation? Evidence from the Iranian marital fertility decline. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 2, May 1995. 159-82 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Is the onset of fertility decline caused by structural socioeconomic changes or by the transmission of new ideas? The decline of marital fertility in Iran provides a quasi-experimental setting of addressing this question. Massive economic growth started in 1955; measurable ideational changes took place in 1967. We argue that the decline is described more precisely by demand theory than by ideation theory. It began around 1959, just after the onset of massive economic growth but well before the ideational changes. It paralleled the rapid growth of participation in primary education, and we found no evidence that the 1967 events had any effect on the decline. More than one-quarter of the decline can be attributed to the reduction in child mortality, a key mechanism of demand theory. Several other findings support this main conclusion."
Correspondence: A. E. Raftery, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30258 Rallu, Louis; Toulemon, Laurent. Period fertility measures: the construction of different indices and their application to France, 1946-89. Population: English Selection, Vol. 6, 1994. 59-130 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"To interpret period indices which summarize the performance of a hypothetical, or synthetic, cohort whose members would live each age of their lifetime in the fertility conditions of the specified year ('current conditions'), it is necessary to assume that fertility depends only on the conditions in that particular year, and not at all on past fertility. We shall first discuss this assumption, then apply it to the construction of five period fertility indices. Finally, these indices will be used to measure total fertility and its parity components in France since 1946." Comments are included by Gerard Calot (pp. 95-107), Jean-Paul Sardon (pp. 107-9), Guy Desplanques (pp. 109-11), Nico Keilman (pp. 111-5), Maire Ni Bhrolchain (pp. 116-20), Patrick Festy (pp. 120-2), together with a response to these comments by the authors (pp. 123-30).
For the French version of this article, see 59:30214.
Correspondence: L. Rallu, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30259 Reddy, P. H.; Modell, B. Consanguinity and reproductive behaviour in a tribal population "the Baiga" in Madhya Pradesh, India. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 22, No. 3, May-Jun 1995. 235-46 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
Marriage patterns and reproductive behavior of the Baiga, a forest tribe in Madhya Pradesh, India, are analyzed using data on 617 families. The focus is on the influence of consanguineous marriage on fertility and mortality. The authors note that fertility was higher among consanguineous couples, probably in compensation for higher rates of reproductive losses through infant and child mortality.
Correspondence: P. H. Reddy, National Institutes of Health, National Center for Human Genome Research, Laboratory of Gene Transfer, Building 49, Room 3A23, 49 Convent Drive 4470, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30260 Reichman, Nancy E.; Kenney, Genevieve M. The effects of parent's place of birth and ethnicity on birth outcomes in New Jersey. OPR Working Paper, No. 95-3, Jan 1995. 39 pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This study uses data on single live in-state births to New Jersey residents in 1989 and 1990 to estimate the effects of both [parents' birthplace and ethnicity] on prenatal care usage and birthweight. Major emphasis will be placed on Latin American birthplaces and ethnicities."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30261 Rivera, Miguel N.; Espenshade, Thomas J. Peru's coming baby boomlet. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 5, May 1995. 399-414 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"There are grounds for reconsidering the United Nations' population projections for Peru. These projections assume that fertility will continue to decline after 1990 in a smooth and uninterrupted manner, but they ignore several factors related to recovery from the economic and political crises of the 1980s that could significantly alter the pace of decline. The alternative projections we present consider the possibility that Peru's fertility decline will temporarily slow. This alternative hypothesis is conservative in the sense that increases in birth rates are not anticipated, but substantial differences in population size and age structure materialize nonetheless. Moreover, these differences have important implications for future planning in terms of the number of children needing primary health care and education and the number of young adults seeking first-time employment."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30262 Rodriguez, German; Philipov, Dimiter. Fitting the Coale-Trussell model by maximum quasi-likelihood. OPR Working Paper, No. 95-1, Jan 1995. 14 pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"We describe a method for fitting the Coale-Trussell model to fertility rates or to counts of births and exposure by single years of age. The procedure maximizes a quasi-likelihood function and can easily be implemented using standard software. An extension to handle covariates is discussed....We illustrate the methodology using single-year data from Brazil, Hungary, Japan and Sweden."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30263 Roloff, Juliane. Family formation and the desire for children in Germany: socioeconomic determinants of reproductive behavior decisions. [Familienbildung und Kinderwunsch in Deutschland: sozio-okonomische Rahmenbedingungen generativer Verhaltensentscheidungen.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 82b, 1995. 112 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Socioeconomic factors influencing fertility decisions are analyzed using data from the 1992 Survey of Family Formation and the Desire for Children in Germany, which included a sample of over 10,000 men and women aged 20-39. Factors considered include employment status, income, and housing. Comparisons are made between the former East and West Germany, between men and women, and between different age groups.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30264 Romania. Institute for Mother and Child Health Care (Bucharest, Romania); United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. Division for Reproductive Health (Atlanta, Georgia). Romania Reproductive Health Survey, 1993: final report. Mar 1995. [xxiii], 168, [34] pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Eng.
The results of a survey on fertility, family planning, and reproductive health in Romania are presented. The survey, carried out in 1993, was household-based including 4,861 women age 15-44. Following chapters on survey methodology, chapters are included on fertility, induced abortion, contraception, women in need of family planning services, attitudes on abortion and contraception, maternal care, health behaviors, young adults, and knowledge of AIDS.
Correspondence: Ministry of Health, Institute for Mother and Child Care, Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30265 Roszkiewicz, Malgorzata. An attempt at evaluation of the economic and social factors [influencing] the Polish population's fertility formation. Polish Population Review, No. 5, 1994. 22-31 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The author of the paper undertakes an attempt at [evaluating] the degree to which economic relations described in the theories of economic determination of fertility and connected with the economic determinants of procreation behaviour influence the fertility process among the Polish population....The obtained results suggest that parents' procreation decisions are clearly negatively influenced by factors determining the family's income, while social and demographic factors have no such distinct impact."
Correspondence: M. Roszkiewicz, Warsaw School of Economics, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30266 Sakai, Hiromichi. The study of socio-demographic behavior relevant to "Hinoe-uma" in 1966. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, May 1995. 29-38 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Aspects of the fall in the number of births occurring in Japan in 1966 are explored. "The studies of 'Hinoe-uma' seem to have lacked...three perspectives; (1) the scope of demographic influence of 'Hinoe-uma', (2) demographic characteristics from the viewpoint of children who were born in the year 'Hinoe-uma', (3) socio-demographic influence of 'Hinoe-uma'. So we explored the various data regarding the three points in 1966 'Hinoe-uma'....We confirmed by macro data that both Koreans and Chinese in Japan, Japanese in foreign countries and parents who had [an] illegitimate child in 'Hinoe-uma' were also influenced by superstitions [about] 'Hinoe-uma'."
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

61:30267 Santow, Gigi. Coitus interruptus and the control of natural fertility. Population Studies, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 1995. 19-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this article I argue that pre-transitional natural fertility [in Europe] was sometimes controlled through birth-spacing, and that coitus interruptus was probably an important means of such control....I first sketch the evolution of the concept of natural fertility and its applications, stressing that populations whose members took steps to delay births, without attempting to limit their number, would still exhibit natural fertility. I move on to examine possible motivations for pre-transitional fertility control within marriage...and to marshal quantitative evidence that such control was sometimes exerted....In demonstrating continuity of knowledge, and probably use, of [coitus interruptus], I am led to reconsider broader issues of theories of fertility decline, of continuity with the past, and of the considerable diversity in patterns and mechanisms of human reproductive behaviour."
Correspondence: G. Santow, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30268 Sarker, Profulla C. Decline of traditional family system and reproductive behaviour in rural Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Social Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1993. 65-75 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The extent to which family type and structure affects human reproduction in Bangladesh is examined. The author concludes that "the socio-cultural conditions in nuclear families with an egalitarian authority structure favour lower fertility than those in supplementary nuclear, joint and extended families with a patriarchal or matriarchal authority structure. The lower fertility in nuclear families with an egalitarian authority structure is the result of the noninterference of the mother-in-law or any other elderly person in matters concerning the unilineal or bi-lineal decision about the household management in general and fertility control in particular."
Correspondence: P. C. Sarker, University of Rajshahi, Department of Social Work, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:30269 Szuman, Alicja. Mother's professional career versus reproductive behaviour in the family life cycle. Polish Population Review, No. 5, 1994. 73-92 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"In the study, we want to examine mothers' attitudes to the family reproductive process from a dynamic perspective, that is according to the cohort analysis of the family life sycle. The examination is based on the results of [a] national questionnaire study covering 2,753 families. The study has shown that married women's active professional career during the family development period is a significant factor differentiating mothers' behaviour concerning the reproduction process of the family."
Correspondence: A. Szuman, University of Economics, Ul. Niepodleglosci 10, 60-967 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30270 White, Michael J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Guo, Shenyang. The interrelation of fertility and geographic mobility in Peru: a hazards model analysis. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 2, Summer 1995. 492-514 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The effect of place of residence and migration on fertility and the effect of fertility on migration have been long-standing concerns in population studies. This article makes use of novel longitudinal data from the Peru Demographic and Health Survey and associated statistical techniques to estimate these interrelationships for women of childbearing age. In the case of fertility outcomes, our results are consistent with the findings of others that age and education are negatively associated with fertility. We also find that residence in a city (versus countryside) predicts lower fertility, but residence in an intermediate size town has no effect. Our results are somewhat less robust for migration outcomes, but they do indicate that education and having fewer children are positively associated with geographical mobility....When compared to previous research, our results demonstrate the value of detailed temporal measurement of the outcome event and its associated covariates."
This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. J. White, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30271 Yadava, R. C.; Srivastava, Meenakshi. On the distribution of births over time in an equilibrium birth process for a female giving specified number of children in a given period. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1993. 241-6 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present paper is to find out the distribution of births over time for a female giving specified number of children in an interval of length T in an equilibrium birth process, and also to examine the nature of such a distribution. In order to find this distribution, we have developed a simple technique in which we have divided the length of observational period T into a number of segments and have obtained the distribution of births in these segments by utilizing simple laws of probability."
Correspondence: R. C. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30272 Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ferguson, Linda R. The stopping and spacing of childbirths and their birth-history predictors: rational-choice theory and event-history analysis. American Sociological Review, Vol. 60, No. 2, Apr 1995. 272-98 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using data on women from the 1985 [U.S.] Current Population Survey, we analyze the distinct effects of covariates on birth stopping and birth spacing. We develop behavioral models of rational childbearing from which we derive two sets of hypotheses: one for the effects on birth stopping of the sex composition of children born and its interaction with education and cohort, and the other for the effects of maternal age at birth and the length of the preceding birth interval on birth stopping and birth spacing. To test these hypotheses, we analyze second and third births using event-history models that combine a regression on the probability of not having another birth in the lifetime and a regression on spacing to the next birth. We predict and confirm that: (1) women with different-sex children are more likely to stop childbearing than women with same-sex children; (2) this sex composition effect of children born is larger for highly educated women than for those with lower education attainment and for women in younger cohorts than for those in older cohorts; (3) the sex composition of children born has no effect on birth spacing."
Correspondence: K. Yamaguchi, University of Chicago, Department of Sociology, 1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, IL 60637-2799. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30273 Zafar, M. I.; Ford, N.; Ankomah, A. Significance of beliefs and values in predicting fertility and contraceptive behaviour in Pakistan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jul 1995. 301-18 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Comparative study of 1,100 women aged 25-45 years, users and non-users of modern methods of contraception, in the urban centres of Lahore and Faisalabad [Pakistan] was conducted in 1991. The objective of the study was to investigate reproductive behaviour and the extent to which social, cultural and attitudinal variables, such as beliefs and values about family life, religiosity and fatalism, influence the fertility decision-making process. Preferences for smaller families were found to be consistently associated with modern attitudes and behaviour towards family and religious values and obligations. Family income, husband's occupation and religiosity offered no explanation of reproductive behaviour. It is concluded that cultural setting and tradition exert an important influence on reproductive behaviour, independent of economic development."
Correspondence: M. I. Zafar, University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies, Hoopern House, 101 Pennsylvania Road, Exeter EX4 6DT, Devon, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

61:30274 Adolph, Carol; Ramos, Diana E.; Linton, Kathryn L. P.; Grimes, David A. Pregnancy among Hispanic teenagers: is good parental communication a deterrent? Contraception, Vol. 51, No. 5, May 1995. 303-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Effective communication between Hispanic parents and teens about sexual issues may deter adolescent pregnancy, yet little is known about the prevalence or impact of such communication. The study examined this potential relationship in a cohort of urban Hispanic adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to a non-random sample of pregnant and non-pregnant Hispanic women aged 12-18 years attending inner city schools in Los Angeles to obtain demographic, sexual activity and communication information....Good communication with one's mother was inversely related to pregnancy....Friends' love was also inversely related to pregnancy....In order of increasing strength, alcohol and drug use, favorable attitude toward premarital sex, receipt of welfare, older age at menarche, and older age were all significantly related to pregnancy."
Correspondence: C. Adolph, LAC-USC Women's and Children's Hospital, L.C.S.W., Department of Clinical Social Work, Building 10, 1240 N. Mission Road, Los Angeles, CA 90033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30275 Babb, Penny. Fertility of the over forties. Population Trends, No. 79, Spring 1995. 34-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article focuses on women aged forty and over in England and Wales. It identifies changes in fertility patterns in the late childbearing ages, including trends in multiple maternities, conceptions terminated by an abortion, and the effects of delayed childbearing on births outside marriage and on the birth order distribution of births within marriage."
Correspondence: P. Babb, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30276 Babu, B. V.; Naidu, J. M. Individual fertility rate among minor tribal populations from Andhra Pradesh, India. Social Biology, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1994. 274-7 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The present paper reports the intensity of current fertility...among five Andhra [Pradesh, India] tribal populations, namely, Bod Mali, Manzai Mali, Mulia, Dulia, and Konda Dora....A high degree of consanguineous marriages has been reported among these tribes, and hence an attempt is made to check whether there is any significant variation in IFR [individual fertility rate] between consanguineous and affinal couples."
Correspondence: B. V. Babu, Andhra University, Department of Anthropology, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30277 Desplanques, Guy. Measuring fertility differentials from census information alone. Population: English Selection, Vol. 6, 1994. 23-33 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author compares and evaluates two methods for estimating fertility from census data: the own-children method and the relating of birth registration data to numbers of women enumerated in censuses. The methods are used to estimate fertility differentials by region of residence and nationality in France.
For the French version of this article, see 60:30257.
Correspondence: G. Desplanques, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe-Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30278 Goodkind, Daniel M. The significance of demographic triviality: minority status and zodiacal fertility timing among Chinese Malaysians. Population Studies, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 1995. 45-55 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The hypothesis that minority status creates social tensions that affect fertility behaviour attracted much attention during the late 1960s and 1970s, but then disappeared after 1980. This sudden exit was due to a combination of methodological...and other difficulties. This paper examines a natural experiment that serendipitously by-passes more of these problems than has been heretofore possible--the attempt by Chinese in Malaysia to time births into the auspicious Year of the Dragon. A multivariate model shows that this unique fertility behaviour was more common in Malaysian districts with smaller proportions of Chinese, which suggests that minority status can directly affect ethnic identity."
Correspondence: D. M. Goodkind, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30279 Jackson, Natalie O.; Pool, Ian; Cheung, Man Chit. Maori and non-Maori fertility. Convergence, divergence, or parallel trends? New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 20, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1994. 31-57 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"Since the late 1980s the TFRs of Maori and non-Maori [in New Zealand] have all but converged, and both populations have experienced an upward shift in maternal age resulting from declines in fertility at the younger ages and increases at the older. The latter shifts have been interpreted as indicating that age-specific patterns of fertility and family formation may also be converging. The paper examines this issue, which is of both scientific and policy significance. Using cohort data, it demonstrates that the shifts have been of a parallel rather than converging nature, and that earlier ethnic differences in age-specific patterns of childbearing have in fact consolidated rather than decreased."
Correspondence: N. O. Jackson, University of Waikato, Population Studies Centre, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30280 Khan, H. T. Abdullah; Raeside, Robert. Urban and rural fertility in Bangladesh: a causal approach. Social Biology, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1994. 240-51 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Fertility models are constructed from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS) employing path analysis. These models are developed and interpreted for urban and rural situations. As a proxy for fertility, the number of children ever born is used, and age, religion, age at marriage, parental childhood residence, and education are considered as explanatory variables. The contribution that these variables give to explaining the 1989 Bangladeshi fertility is compared to the explanatory variables that Ahmed (1981) found suitable for Bangladeshi fertility in 1975. We find that in 1989, compared to 1975, childhood background and education of the mother and age at marriage exert a greater influence on urban fertility, and religion no longer has a significant effect. In the rural case, the effect of religion on fertility has increased since 1975, as has education and age at marriage."
For the study by B. Ahmed, see 48:40366.
Correspondence: H. T. A. Khan, Napier University, Department of Mathematics, Edinburgh EH11 4BN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30281 Ladier, Marie. Fertility of the major ethnic groups in Iran. [La fecondite des ethnies principales d'Iran.] Cahiers d'Etudes sur la Mediterranee Orientale et le Monde Turco-Iranien, No. 16, 1993. 315-34 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Differential fertility among the major ethnic groups making up the population of Iran is analyzed using data from the 1986 census. Fertility differentials between rural and urban areas are also assessed, as well as the relationship between literacy and fertility.
Correspondence: M. Ladier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

61:30282 Males, Mike A. Adult involvement in teenage childbearing and STD. Lancet, Vol. 346, No. 8967, Jul 8, 1995. 64-5 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author comments on findings that "a large majority of the partners of adolescents involved in pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases are not themselves teenagers. A tabulation by the California Center for Health Statistics of 46,511 marital and unwed births among school-age girls in 1993...showed that only 29% were fathered by school-age peer boys aged 10-18; 71%, or over 33,000, were fathered by adult post-high-school men whose mean age was 22.6 years, an average of 5 years older than the mothers." The repercussions for pregnancy prevention programs are discussed.
Correspondence: M. A. Males, University of California, School of Social Ecology, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:30283 Ohsfeldt, Robert L.; Gohmann, Stephan F. Do parental involvement laws reduce adolescent abortion rates? Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 12, No. 2, Apr 1994. 65-76 pp. Huntington Beach, California. In Eng.
"This study assesses the impact of parental involvement laws on adolescent abortion rates and pregnancy rates [in the United States]....The results indicate that parental involvement laws reduced adolescent abortion rates, and may...reduce adolescent pregnancy rates." The data are from studies published in the Alan Guttmacher Institute and are for 1984, 1985, and 1988.
Correspondence: R. L. Ohsfeldt, University of Alabama, Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, Birmingham, AL 35294. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:30284 Symeonidou, Hariclia; Magdalinos, Michael. Fertility and female labor in Greece: a micro-economic model. [Fecondite et travail feminin en Grece: un modele micro-economique.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 22, No. 2, Fall 1993. 285-312 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors examine the relationship between fertility and women's employment in Greece "using a sample of 3,193 married women of which 1,532 lived in urban areas other than Athens and 1,661 women lived in rural areas....The...results confirm earlier findings: employment influences fertility both directly as well as through women's sex-role attitudes. While no significant direct influence of fertility on employment was found, a significant indirect influence was found in the rural areas, as a result of attitudes towards sexual roles. As expected, significant differences exist in the fertility and employment equations between the urban and rural areas."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30285 Tolnay, Stewart E. Class, race, and fertility in the rural South, 1910 and 1940. Rural Sociology, Vol. 60, No. 1, Spring 1995. 108-28 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"Rural residents of the American South were among the last in the nation to complete the transition from high to low fertility. Recently created public use samples of the 1910 and 1940 U.S. censuses are used to achieve two objectives. First, class and race differentials in marital fertility among residents of the rural South are described during the era of transition. Second, the change in rural fertility between 1910 and 1940 is examined to assess class-specific involvement in the rural transition. Significant variation in fertility by social class is observed for blacks in 1910 and 1940. By 1940, significant class differentials emerge for whites, while those for blacks intensify. For both races, farm laborers report the lowest fertility. The analysis of fertility change between 1910 and 1940 reveals participation by all social classes, with farm laborers experiencing the steepest decline."
Correspondence: S. E. Tolnay, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30286 Tolnay, Stewart E. The spatial diffusion of fertility: a cross-sectional analysis of counties in the American South, 1940. American Sociological Review, Vol. 60, No. 2, Apr 1995. 299-308 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"I employ a spatial-diffusion model to assess the effect of diffusion in shaping fertility variation across 1,052 counties in the American South in 1940. Variation in fertility levels and the 'fertility potential' for each county are measured....A two-stage least squares technique...is used to assess the effect of fertility potential on observed fertility levels. A significant diffusion effect is inferred....I conclude that inter-county variation in fertility in the South was shaped by a mix of social forces, especially structural and diffusion processes."
Correspondence: S. E. Tolnay, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30287 Tremblay, Marc; Heyer, Evelyne. Regional reproduction differentials of women born between 1860 and 1870 in Saguenay. [Reproduction regionale differentielle des femmes nees entre 1860 et 1870 au Saguenay.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 22, No. 2, Fall 1993. 263-83 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article presents the results of a study done on the reproductive history of women who were born and married in the Saguenay region [of Canada] at the end of the 19th century. The data used comes from the BALSAC Population Register, which was developed at the SOREP Research Center in Chicoutimi. The study focuses on the variability and efficiency of reproduction within a determined group of women. The results show that, from one generation to another, demographic replacement and genetic transmission take place in a highly uneven fashion. It also appears that there is a certain sub-regional reproductive differential based on the place of residence at the time of marriage."
Correspondence: M. Tremblay, Universite du Quebec, Centre Interuniversitaire des Recherches sur les Populations, 555 Boulevard de l'Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30288 Wroblewska, Wiktoria. Adolescent maternity in Poland: analysis using the outcome of the young mother questionnaire and procedure HOMALS. Polish Population Review, No. 5, 1994. 146-86 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"This paper presents a short statistical analysis of the intensity and trends of births among female teenagers in Poland and some results obtained from the survey Young Mother Questionnaire (YMQ) which covered teenagers that had delivered babies in 1988. A socio-demographic [profile] of young mothers is presented with emphasis put on the local conditions of adolescent maternity and significance of families of origin....To analyse results obtained from the YMQ survey, a computer programme available in the package SPSS/PC-PLUS was used as the procedure Homogeneity Analysis (HOMALS)."
Correspondence: W. Wroblewska, Warsaw School of Economics, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

No citations in this issue.

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

61:30289 Asari, V. Gopalakrishnan. Determinants of contraceptive use in Kerala: the case of son/daughter preference. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 40, No. 3, Sep 1994. 19-25 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The present paper intends to examine the preference for sons or daughters among couples in Kerala [India], which could have influenced their fertility....The data used in the study were drawn from a survey of [502] teacher couples in Kerala, conducted in 1991....Son preference as a determining factor in contraceptive acceptance and birth control is fast changing, especially in regions where fertility is on the decline....Our findings suggest that family size preference is apparently more important than gender preference in determining contraceptive use...."
Correspondence: V. G. Asari, University of Kerala, Population Research Centre, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30290 Baccaini, Brigitte. Geographical differences in contraceptive behavior. [Les contrastes geographiques des comportements de contraception.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 291-329 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Differences in contraceptive behaviour [in France] can be found at the micro-level of housing, as well as at regional level. They are the result, at least in part, of different socio-demographic structures. However, at both levels there exist direct links [to] the geographical environment, which can reflect unequal access to medical care. But these factors cannot explain differences in behaviour found in low-cost housing in large cities, in which use of contraception began belatedly and increased very slowly. The effect of environmental differences will also vary with the socio-demographic situation of women in a given geographical context."
Correspondence: B. Baccaini, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30291 Barnett, Barbara. Life stages affect method use. Network, Vol. 13, No. 3, Mar 1995. 14-7 pp. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Eng.
The author discusses various factors that may influence women's choice of contraception. Aspects considered include age, marital status, desired family size, health concerns, and exposure to sexually transmitted diseases. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: B. Barnett, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30292 Beegle, Kathleen. The quality and availability of family planning services and contraceptive use in Tanzania. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper, No. 114, ISBN 0-8213-3198-1. LC 95-13435. 1995. xi, 52 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using the [1992] Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data, this study analyzes the impact of health facility characteristics and pharmacies as determinants of contraceptive use and fertility. The analysis finds that higher levels of female schooling consistently raise the probability of use and lower cumulative fertility levels. Access to health facilities (measured in terms of distance) and type of nearest facility (hospital, health center, or dispensary) do appear to constrain use of family planning. Government facilities, which supply family planning for free, are not identified with higher levels of use. Availability of the pill and injections is associated with higher use, while other methods are not; there is room to expand the availability of both methods at health facilities, as many facilities do not offer either method."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30293 Bongaarts, John; Bruce, Judith. The causes of unmet need for contraception and the social content of services. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 57-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Since the 1960s, survey data have indicated that substantial proportions of women who have wanted to stop or delay childbearing have not practiced contraception. This discrepancy is referred to as the 'unmet need' for contraception. The traditional interpretation, that these women lack access to contraceptive supplies and services, has led in turn to an emphasis on expanding family planning programs. This study analyzes survey data and related anthropological studies on the causes of unmet need and concludes that the conventional explanation is inadequate. Although for many environments geographic access to services remains a problem, the principal reasons for nonuse are lack of knowledge, fear of side effects, and social and familial disapproval." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30294 Bulut, Aysen; Turan, Janet M. Postpartum family planning and health needs of women of low income in Istanbul. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 88-100 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study was designed to learn what types of postpartum health and family planning services are most appropriate for couples with low incomes living in Istanbul, Turkey....By five months postpartum, 86 percent of the women surveyed were using some method of family planning. Many couples used withdrawal, starting immediately upon resumption of intercourse after childbirth, intending to use a medical method after menses resumed. However, only 34 percent of users had begun to use a medical method by five months after childbirth....Most women prefer that postpartum services address the needs of the whole family, not only those of the baby or the mother. Recommendations for the timing, mode, and content of postpartum health and family planning services are made based on the study's findings."
Correspondence: A. Bulut, Istanbul University, Children's Hospital, Institute of Child Health, Family Health Division, Millet Cad., 34390 Capa, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30295 Chiezah, M. A.; Adamchak, D. J. Unmet need for family planning in Jamaica. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jul 1995. 319-24 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study updates and extends estimates for unmet need and total demand for family planning for Jamaican women in the reproductive age group, 15-49. The findings suggest that...unmet need for family planning was 22.7%, compared to 16% previously estimated." Data are from the 1989 Jamaican Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Correspondence: M. A. Chiezah, Kansas State University, Department of Sociology, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30296 Fajans, Peter; Ford, Kathleen; Wirawan, Dewa N. AIDS knowledge and risk behaviors among domestic clients of female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 3, Aug 1995. 409-17 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study investigated AIDS and STD knowledge, risk behaviors and condom use among clients of female commercial sex workers in Bali, Indonesia. Although these clients were varied in their socioeconomic status, they all tended to have low levels of knowledge concerning HIV and STD transmission and prevention, multiple sexual partners, low frequencies of condom use with these partners, and experienced frequent STDs."
Correspondence: P. Fajans, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30297 Forste, Renata; Tanfer, Koray; Tedrow, Lucky. Sterilization among currently married men in the United States, 1991. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 3, May-Jun 1995. 100-7, 122 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the 1991 [U.S.] National Survey of Men indicate that about 12% of married men aged 20-39 have had a vasectomy and about 13% are married to a woman who is sterilized. Multivariate analyses indicate that the likelihood of sterilization rises with husband's age, wife's age, duration of marriage and number of children. Black couples are significantly less likely than white couples to rely on sterilization, and interracial couples are less likely than same-race couples to be sterilized. The likelihood of reliance on vasectomy rather than tubal ligation also rises with husband's age, while black men are significantly less likely than white men to elect male over female sterilization. Use of male sterilization is strongly associated with having had a recent contraceptive failure while using a male method."
Correspondence: R. Forste, Western Washington University, Department of Sociology, Bellingham, WA 98225. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30298 Islam, M. Mazharul; Mahmud, Mamun. Contraception among adolescents in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, Mar 1995. 21-38 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article highlights various aspects relating to the contraceptive behaviour of married adolescents. Using data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey, it finds that, although knowledge of contraceptive methods is almost universal among this group, there is a wide gap between knowledge and use as only 26.3 per cent of adolescents have ever used any method. The reasons for this situation are discussed and the article draws out several implications for policy purposes, concluding with several recommendations for increasing contraceptive use among married adolescents."
Correspondence: M. M. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30299 Kamal, Nashid. Role of government family planning workers and health centres as determinants of contraceptive use in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1994. 59-65 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The author discusses the extent to which government family planning workers and health centers affect contraceptive use in Bangladesh. "This analysis considers 7,764 women resident in rural areas; the data were obtained from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS)."
Correspondence: N. Kamal, Rd. 3 House 19, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30300 Keller, Sarah. When to begin postpartum methods. Network, Vol. 13, No. 3, Mar 1995. 18-23 pp. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Eng.
The author discusses the use and timing of postpartum contraception, with a focus on the appropriateness of particular methods at different postpartum stages. "Contraceptive use differs among three categories of postpartum women: those who are breastfeeding their infant, those who are not, and women who terminated or lost a pregnancy."
Correspondence: S. Keller, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30301 Kouaouci, Ali. A study of contraceptive practice in Algeria, 1967-87. Population. English Selection, Vol. 6, 1994. 1-22 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author "traces...the emergence and spread of birth control in [Algeria from 1967 to 1987], and shows how couples did not entirely follow the religious and political directives on this matter....The present study has three objectives. First, to provide a body of data on contraceptive practice at the time of the [1986 Algerian National Fertility Survey], which will allow comparison with other countries. Second, to reconstruct contraceptive trends in Algeria from the retrospective data collected at this survey. Third, to explore the notions of birth spacing and family limitation."
For the French version of this article, see 60:10299.
Correspondence: A. Kouaouci, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Tunis, Tunisia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30302 Li, Xiaoping. An empirical study of the transactional price of an expected child and its significance to further birth control. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995. 13-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes the impact on birth control of the transactional price of an expected child. "The core idea is that for a couple at child-bearing age, a desired but unborn child (i.e., an expected child) has a price. In other words, in an expected child transaction, many couples at child-bearing age are willing to accept an offer (i.e., monetary compensation) in exchange for giving up the opportunity to have the child." The geographical focus is on rural areas of China.
Correspondence: X. Li, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30303 Messersmith, Lisa J.; Kane, Thomas T.; Odebiyi, Adetanwa I.; Adewuyi, Alfred A. Patterns of sexual behaviour and condom use in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: implications for AIDS/STD prevention and control. Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, Suppl., 1994. 197-216 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper presents results from a two-stage stratified random sample survey of sexual behaviour and reproductive health of 1,149 adult men and women living in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Detailed information was collected on sexual behaviour, condom use, knowledge of and experience with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), knowledge of AIDS, including knowledge of modes of transmission and means of prevention, and socio-demographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression for the sample of men was used to assess the simultaneous effects of socio-demographic and sexual behaviour variables on ever use of condoms to prevent an STD, and on the likelihood of ever contracting an STD. Results indicate that educational level, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the experience of an STD are significantly and positively associated with the use of condoms to prevent STDs."
Correspondence: L. J. Messersmith, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of International Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30304 Morris, Leo; Sedivy, Valerie; Friedman, Jay S.; McFarlane, Carmen P. 1993 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, Jamaica. Volume IV: sexual behaviour and contraceptive use among young adults. Mar 1995. viii, 23, [64] pp. National Family Planning Board: Kingston, Jamaica; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This is the fourth in a planned series of five volumes presenting results from the 1993 Jamaica Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. It contains results concerning sexual behavior and contraceptive usage among young adults aged 15-24.
For Volumes I, II, and III, see 61:10309, 10357, and 10797.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30305 Moskowitz, Ellen H.; Jennings, Bruce; Callahan, Daniel. Long-acting contraception: moral choices, policy dilemmas. Hastings Center Report, Vol. 25, No. 1, Suppl., Jan-Feb 1995. 32 pp. Hastings Center: Briarcliff Manor, New York. In Eng.
"This Special Supplement is one outcome of a two-year project on the ethics of long-acting contraceptives conducted by The Hastings Center....It aims to provide guidance and a deeper understanding of dilemmas posed by these technologies." Brief articles are included on long-acting contraceptives and ethical issues, historical aspects, contraceptive development, coercion, the criminal justice system, reproductive responsibility, and feminism and social policy. The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Hastings Center, 255 Elm Road, Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30306 Mutharayappa, R. A study of acceptors and non-acceptors of family planning methods among three tribal communities. Man in India, Vol. 75, No. 1, Mar 1995. 11-24 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of this study has been to understand the implementation of family planning programmes in the tribal areas among three different tribal groups in Dakshina Kannada district. The study has examined apart from socio-economic characteristics of tribal women, the extent of family planning services provided, knowledge, motivation and their satisfaction after acceptance among them. The study also highlighted the number of non-acceptors and reasons for their non-acceptance of family planning methods among tribal women. This has been attempted by making use of primary data collected from 399 currently married tribal women in Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka, [India]."
Correspondence: R. Mutharayappa, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Nagarabhavi, Bangalore 560 072, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30307 Okun, Barbara S. Distinguishing stopping behavior from spacing behavior with indirect methods. Historical Methods, Vol. 28, No. 2, Spring 1995. 85-96 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We use simulation methods to address the recent exchange between Knodel (1987), Anderton (1989), and McDonald and Knodel (1989) over the sensitivity of mean age at last birth to the two different forms of fertility control and over the ability of a related technique, McDonald's (1984) index, to distinguish accurately between stopping behavior and spacing behavior in the early stages of fertility transitions. We simulate the reproductive lives of women who practice various fertility-control behaviors, and we determine how well the indirect techniques can identify the simulated behavior....We then present results from the simulation study of mean age at last birth and McDonald's index. Later, we test the ability of more refined measures, namely birth intervals stratified by birth order and final parity, to distinguish between the two forms of fertility control."
Correspondence: B. S. Okun, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30308 Pachauri, Saroj. Relationship between AIDS and family planning programmes: a rationale for developing integrated reproductive health services. Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, Suppl., 1994. 321-47 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines the potential links between family planning and maternal and child health programmes and the emerging needs of the global AIDS epidemic; and assesses the feasibility of organizing comprehensive reproductive health programmes in developing countries to include the prevention and control of reproductive tract infections including sexually transmitted infections as well as HIV/AIDS. The paper discusses arguments opposing the integration of programmes against sexually transmitted infections within family planning and MCH programmes, as well as programmatic and epidemiological reasons for considering such integration."
Correspondence: S. Pachauri, Ford Foundation, 55 Lodi Estate, New Delhi 110 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30309 Pearson, V. A. H.; Owen, M. R.; Phillips, D. R.; Gray, D. J. P.; Marshall, M. N. Pregnant teenagers' knowledge and use of emergency contraception. British Medical Journal, Vol. 310, No. 6995, Jun 24, 1995. 1,644 pp. London, England. In Eng.
In this one-page article, the authors "report a descriptive study of pregnant teenagers in Devon [England] that examined awareness and use of emergency contraception and its potential for preventing unwanted teenage pregnancy."
Correspondence: V. A. H. Pearson, Exeter and North Devon Health Authority, Southernhay East, Exeter EX1 1PQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:30310 Pillai, Vijayan K.; Kelley, Ann C. Men and family planning: toward a policy of male involvement. Polish Population Review, No. 5, 1994. 293-304 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the male role in family planning in developing countries. The first section focuses in the extent of use of male methods of contraception....The second section presents case studies of successful strategies for increasing male involvement in family planning. The final section examines the feasibility of developing a policy for male involvement in family planning in developing countries."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-3826. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30311 Remennick, Larissa I.; Amir, Delila; Elimelech, Yuval; Novikov, Yliya. Family planning practices and attitudes among former Soviet new immigrant women in Israel. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 4, Aug 1995. 569-77 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The results of a survey of 100 young immigrant women from the former USSR now living in Israel are presented concerning fertility and birth control knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. The results indicate that these women used a combination of contraception and abortion to control fertility, and that they were likely to be receptive to measures designed to replace abortion with modern contraceptive methods.
Correspondence: L. I. Remennick, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30312 Ringheim, Karin. Evidence for the acceptability of an injectable hormonal method for men. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 3, May-Jun 1995. 123-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents information gleaned from focus group discussions and questionnaires completed by men who volunteered for [clinical trials of a male hormonal contraceptive]....Thus far, 154 participants have [returned questionnaires,] 81 from China, 41 from Australia, 13 from the United Kingdom, 13 from the United States, three from Singapore and three from Thailand."
Correspondence: K. Ringheim, USAID, Office of Population, Research Division, Washington, D.C. 20523. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30313 Ristic, Jasna. Medical staff and family planning. [Zdravstveni radnici i planiranje porodice.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 32, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 27-52 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this research is to determine the degree of influence of various profiles of medical staff employed in public health centres on the formation of attitudes and education of population in respect of birth control [in Yugoslavia]....The research was...conducted in 11 public health institutes throughout Belgrade....The results show that the attitudes of specialists in gynecology and obstetrics are markedly different from those of all other medical staff....Gynecologists and specialists in industrial medicine have shown the most positive attitude towards the issue, although as much as one third of doctors did not consider contraception as necessary."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30314 Rodrigues, Jose; Moji, Kazuhiko. Factors affecting choice of sterilisation among low income women in Paraiba, Brazil. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jul 1995. 339-45 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Despite the absence of a family planning programme, the prevalence of sterilisation in Brazil has increased substantially, such that it is used by relatively young women in poor areas of the country. Sterilisation is influenced more by the characteristics of the health service than by socioeconomic characteristics of the population."
Correspondence: J. Rodrigues, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Department of Administration, Campus Universitario, 58059-900 Joao Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30315 Rogow, Deborah; Horowitz, Sonya. Withdrawal: a review of the literature and an agenda for research. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 3, May-Jun 1995. 140-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A review to evaluate available literature about withdrawal (coitus interruptus) reveals a dearth of research on the current prevalence, acceptability, use-effectiveness, service-delivery issues, and safety of this ancient and widely used temporary contraceptive method. Population and family planning professionals are shown to have neglected withdrawal in favor of modern, female-controlled methods. This neglect is founded largely upon the popular belief that fertile levels of viable sperm are present in pre-ejaculatory fluid, despite data to the contrary. The validity of existing data on the prevalence of withdrawal is questioned because of the methodological bias inherent in most studies. The use-effectiveness of the practice and its relationship to sexually transmitted diseases have not been adequately investigated. A detailed research agenda on numerous topics concerning withdrawal is proposed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30316 Santelli, John S.; Davis, Mary; Celentano, David D.; Crump, Aria D.; Burwell, LaWanda G. Combined use of condoms with other contraceptive methods among inner-city Baltimore women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 74-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present study examines the use of a condom (for STD prevention) in conjunction with another contraceptive to determine the prevalence of combined method use, and the demographic, attitudinal and behavioral correlates of combined use." The data, which were collected from "717 women aged 17-35 in two inner-city Baltimore communities in 1991-1992 indicate that 17% of the entire sample, 38% of women using the pill and 11% of users of methods other than the pill used a condom in addition to another method the last time they had intercourse. Although adolescents reported the highest rate of combined condom and pill use (22% of 17-19-year-olds), condom use was significantly associated with pill use among adult women (odds ratio of 1.57) but not among adolescents (odds ratio of 1.03)....Logistic regression analyses show that positive attitudes toward safer sex, ever having refused sex without a condom and believing in condom efficacy all significantly predicted use of the condom with another method."
Correspondence: J. S. Santelli, Baltimore City Health Department, Baltimore, MD. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30317 Savona-Ventura, C. Family planning in a Roman Catholic community. Planned Parenthood in Europe, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1995. 20-2 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author investigates the impact on family planning of the Roman Catholic Church in Malta, with a focus on historical determinants.
Correspondence: C. Savona-Ventura, Department of Health, Valletta, Malta. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30318 Schrater, Angeline F. Immunization to regulate fertility: biological and cultural frameworks. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 5, Sep 1995. 657-71 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Immunization to regulate fertility differs in several ways from immunization to control disease. Those differences can be discussed within the following biological and cultural frameworks: the intent of vaccination; the recipient population; the biological basis and subsequent immunological targets of vaccines; the perspectives of developers, providers, and users; and the interests of the state versus rights of the individual. The paper will emphasize anti-fertility vaccines, drawing on anti-disease vaccines to provide useful and familiar points for contrast and comparison."
Correspondence: A. F. Schrater, Smith College, Project on Women and Social Change, Northampton, MA 01063. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30319 Sobrinho, Delcio da F. The state and population: a history of family planning in Brazil. [Estado e populacao: uma historia do planejamento familiar no Brasil.] ISBN 85-85363-69-X. LC 93-832954. 1993. 203 pp. Editora Rosa dos Tempos: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Distributed by Distribuidora Record de Servicos de Imprensa, Rua Argentina 171, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-380, Brazil. In Por.
This is a history of the development of family planning in Brazil. Following an introductory chapter on methodology, the second chapter examines the development of pronatalism in Brazil from the nineteenth century up to 1964. Chapter 3 describes the debate between pronatalists and advocates of fertility control that occurred from 1964 to 1974. Chapter 4 describes the growing acceptance and growth of family planning from 1974 to 1983, and the development of family planning programs in both the private and public sectors.
Correspondence: Editora Rosa dos Tempos, Rua da Candelaria 9, grupo 407, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20091-020, Brazil. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

61:30320 Toulemon, Laurent; Leridon, Henri. Condom distribution: contraception and prevention. [La diffusion des preservatifs: contraception et prevention.] Population et Societes, No. 301, May 1995. [4] pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors examine recent changes in condom usage in France, with particular reference to the effect of publicity concerning condom usage as an AIDS preventative measure. Significant increases in condom usage are noted among individuals not living with a partner and during the first sexual relationship.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30321 Verma, Ravi K.; Baburajan, P. K. Determinants of contraceptive choice in India. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 40, No. 3, Sep 1994. 1-8 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The present study is a retrospective one and attempts to operationalise the theoretical framework suggested by Bulatao to study contraceptive method choice [in India]....It utilises recent advances in the technique of analysing contraceptive method choice by considering various contraceptive methods simultaneously. Thus, it aims at assessing the factors which influence the choice of one contraceptive method over another in a population which is characterised by a wide choice of methods."
Correspondence: R. K. Verma, International Institute for Population Sciences, Department of Population Policies and Programmes, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30322 Wang, Duolao; Diamond, Ian. The impact on fertility of contraceptive failure in China in the 1980s. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jul 1995. 277-84 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Contraceptive failure was an important determinant of fertility in China in the 1980s. Based on the data from the China Two-per-Thousand Fertility Survey, this study shows that about 7% of the general fertility rate of currently married women aged 15-49 for a 12 month period is attributed to contraceptive failure, mainly due to the high failure rate associated with IUD use. A number of demographic characteristics are associated with contraceptive use, and with contraceptive failure and its outcome. Relevant socioeconomic differentials are also identified."
Correspondence: D. Wang, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Highfield, Southampton S09 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30323 Westoff, Charles F.; Bankole, Akinrinola. Unmet need: 1990-1994. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 16, Jun 1995. vi, 49 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
The unmet need and demand for family planning for currently married women is estimated for 27 developing countries (14 in Sub-Saharan Africa) in which Demographic and Health Surveys were conducted between 1990 and 1994. "In addition to the analysis for married women, the authors developed procedures to assess unmet need for never-married and formerly married women. These subpopulations are then aggregated for selected countries to obtain estimates of unmet need for all women regardless of marital status. For reasons of availability or quality of data for never-married women, these additional calculations are limited to sub-Saharan countries." The results indicate that there is still a substantial need for more family planning, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where only 32 percent of potential demand is currently being met. Satisfying this unmet need would reduce the gap between current and replacement-level fertility rates by 25 percent in Sub-Saharan countries and by more than 50 percent in some other countries.
For a previous report of this kind by Westoff and Ochoa, published in 1991, see 57:40307.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30324 Yang, Quanhe. Provincial patterns of contraceptive use in China. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1994. 23-42 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study focuses on the relationship between regional socio-economic development, decentralized family planning programmes and the patterns of contraceptive use in different provinces [in China]. It finds that the programme should focus on providing more method choices, giving more information to clients, strengthening the technical competence of service providers, improving interpersonal relations and appropriating constellation services." Data are from the 1988 Two-per-Thousand Fertility and Birth Control Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30325 Young, Margot E. Reproductive technologies and the law: Norplant and the bad mother. Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 21, No. 3-4, 1995. 259-81 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
This article examines the development of contraceptive implants, such as Norplant, and issues involving the mandatory use of Norplant by problem mothers as part of legal sentencing in the United States. The focus is on the development of reproductive technology and the issue of reproductive regulation for certain women whose reproductive behavior is judged to be bad for both their children and society in general.
Correspondence: M. E. Young, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

61:30326 de Leizaola-Cordonnier, A. Natural family planning effectiveness in Belgium. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 11, No. 2, Jun 1995. 165-72 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The aim of this study is to check, in a European environment, the practical efficiency and the acceptability of a recent natural family planning (NFP) method. This method includes a double check to detect the beginning as well as the end of the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle....A pilot study of NFP was carried out in the French-speaking part of Belgium....It appears, after more than one hundred years of use, that a precise (double check) symptothermal method, strictly taught, when used by motivated couples shows a practical efficacy...quite comparable to that of current contraceptive methods being used in Western Europe today."
Correspondence: A. de Leizaola-Cordonnier, Federation Francophone pour le Planning Familial Naturel, 17 avenue Colonel Daumerie, 1150 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30327 Gu, Sujuan; Sivin, Irving; Du, Mingkum; Zhang, Linde; Ying, Lirong; Meng, Fan; Wu, Songling; Wang, Peizhu; Gao, Yunli; He, Xin; Qi, Lifang; Chen, Changrong; Liu, Yiping; Wang, Dan. Effectiveness of Norplant implants through seven years: a large-scale study in China. Contraception, Vol. 52, No. 2, Aug 1995. 99-103 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The effectiveness of Norplant implants over a seven year period of continuous use was studied in a multicenter trial [in China]. Pregnancy rates were 0.4 per 100 in both year six and year seven. More than 3,600 women completed 6 years and more than 2,400 women completed 7 years. Pregnancy rates increased with weight...and decreased with age, but in years 6 and 7 combined, the pregnancy rate neither reached nor exceeded 1 per 100 woman years in any 5 year age group or in 10 kg weight group."
Correspondence: I. Sivin, Population Council, Center for Biomedical Communication, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 11201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30328 Kennedy, Kathy I.; Gross, Barbara A.; Parenteau-Carreau, Suzanne; Flynn, Anna M.; Brown, James B.; Visness, Cynthia M. Breastfeeding and the symptothermal method. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 107-15 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This prospective study was conducted among experienced users of periodic abstinence methods in Sydney [Australia], Montreal [Canada], and Birmingham (England) in order to describe the relationship between a laboratory measurement of ovulation and the natural symptoms of fertility during breastfeeding....A standard set of Symptothermal Method (STM) rules was applied to daily STM records to assess the correspondence of the natural symptoms of fertility to the underlying hormonal profile. The STM symptoms and rules accurately identified 77-94 percent of the women's potentially fertile days, but abstinence was also recommended on about half of the days when the women were not fertile."
Correspondence: K. I. Kennedy, Family Health International, Contraceptive Use and Epidemiology Division, One Triangle Drive, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30329 Rahman, M. Mujibur; Islam, M. Nurul; Haque, M. Azizul; Kamal, G. M. Problems and prospects of implants as a contraceptive method in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1994. 43-58 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study attempts to document the provision of Norplant in Bangladesh, particularly at seven centres located in various parts of the country. It brings out problems...with the introduction of this contraceptive and the prospects for its further dissemination on a nationwide scale. It finds that the method is an acceptable one in Bangladesh. The study finds that, while clients are generally satisfied with the information and services they have received, there have been problems associated with the programme, particularly as they concern the removal of the implants."
Correspondence: M. M. Rahman, University of Chittagong, Department of Statistics, University Post Office, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30330 Skjeldestad, Finn E. Using induced abortion to measure contraceptive efficacy. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 71-3, 96 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from a 1989-1990 case-control study of contraceptive efficacy in Norway compare contraceptive use among women who requested an abortion (1,386 cases) with women who responded to a general fertility survey (2,627 controls). In a logistic regression analysis measuring contraceptive efficacy as the odds of avoiding a pregnancy that terminated in an induced abortion compared with the odds for nonuse, consistent condom use was found to lower fecundity by 88.9%, diaphragm use by 89.3%, the pill by 97.8%, the IUD by 97.6%, vasectomy by 99.5%, and female sterilization by 99.8%. The relative contraceptive efficacy of the condom, the IUD and the pill did not vary by marital status or parity but did vary with age; the proportion by which each of these methods reduced fecundity declined among successively older age-groups."
Correspondence: F. E. Skjeldestad, University Hospital of Trondheim, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Trondheim, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30331 Tu, Ping. IUD discontinuation patterns and correlates in four counties in North China. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 3, May-Jun 1995. 169-79 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study presents an in-depth analysis of IUD discontinuation patterns and correlates in four counties in North China for the years following the introduction of provincial family planning regulations and the family planning target responsibility system. It is based on contraceptive-use data from 8,630 rural married women younger than 35. The gross IUD discontinuation rate was low among women with one child. The pattern of discontinuation was determined mainly by individual demographic profile and institutional variables. IUD users with two or more children tended to undergo sterilization after the introduction of the regulations of the late 1980s. These counties appear to have been successful in shaping couples' contraceptive behavior, but at the expense of individual choice. The effect of introducing copper IUDs may be smaller than expected unless providers' training is substantially improved and couples' fertility preferences altered."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: P. Tu, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

61:30332 Aghajanian, Akbar. A new direction in population policy and family planning in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, Mar 1995. 3-20 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"After an almost complete halt in family planning for about eight years, the Government of...Iran so strongly revitalized family planning that the programme has recently been suggested as a model for other Muslim countries to follow. This article traces the history of that programme and, using data from the 1977 Iran Fertility Survey and the 1992 National Survey of Contraceptive Prevalence, assesses the current situation. It finds that contraceptive use is increasing and the crude birth rate declining. Female age at first marriage is also rising, which contributes to fertility decline."
Correspondence: A. Aghajanian, Fayetteville State University, Department of Sociology, 1200 Murshison Road, Fayetteville, NC 28301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30333 Allaby, Martin A. K. Contraceptive services for teenagers: do we need family planning clinics? British Medical Journal, Vol. 310, No. 6995, Jun 24, 1995. 1,641-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The purpose of this study is "to determine whether the effectiveness of contraceptive services for teenagers is related to the balance of service provision between general practitioners and specialist family planning services....Eight health districts in the former Oxford [England] region [were studied]." The author concludes that "contraceptive services for teenagers may be more effective in districts where clinics play a large part in delivering the service, particularly for girls aged under 16."
Correspondence: M. A. K. Allaby, Northamptonshire Health Authority, Department of Public Health Medicine, Northampton NN1 5DN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:30334 Binka, Fred N.; Nazzar, Alex; Phillips, James F. The Navrongo community health and family planning project. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 3, May-Jun 1995. 121-39 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In 1994, an experiment was launched by the Navrongo Health Research Centre that will test the demographic impact of community health and family planning services in a rural, traditional area of northern Ghana. While exhaustive social research has been directed to clarifying societal constraints to reproductive change, relatively little is known about how African cultural characteristics can be a resource to family planning programs. This study will clarify ways in which cultural resources of a traditional African society can be used in efforts to foster reproductive change. This article reviews characteristics of the study population, the design of the Navrongo experiment, and the research plan."
Correspondence: F. N. Binka, Navrongo Health Research Centre, P.O. Box 114, Navrongo, Upper East Region, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30335 Brown, Lisanne; Tyane, Mostafa; Bertrand, Jane; Lauro, Don; Abou-ouakil, Mohamed; deMaria, Lisa. Quality of care in family planning services in Morocco. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 3, May-Jun 1995. 154-68 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study was conducted to heighten awareness of quality of care as a programmatic issue in the Moroccan governmental family planning program and to test modified Situation Analysis instruments for measuring quality of care. Data were collected from 50 service-delivery points in five provinces to measure six elements of quality in accordance with the Bruce/Jain framework. A procedure for calculating quality-indicator scores is presented. Although facilities varied by province and within provinces, most had the equipment and supplies needed to deliver services; service personnel were trained and regularly supervised; the service-delivery points scored well on mechanisms to ensure continuity of use. Notable shortcomings included a dearth of materials for counseling and a widespread unavailability of the Ovrette pill. This study raises issues regarding the complexity of measuring quality, the ownership of results, and the appropriateness of a centralized study of quality in a decentralized program."
Correspondence: L. Brown, Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, EVALUATION Project, 1440 Canal Street, Suite 2000, New Orleans, LA 70112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30336 Cochrane, Susan H.; Guilkey, David K. The effects of fertility intentions and access to services on contraceptive use in Tunisia. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 43, No. 4, Jul 1995. 779-804 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to use a structural model to determine the effects of access to social services on contraceptive use in Tunisia. The model examines the effects of the number of currently surviving children on the decision to have additional children and on their spacing. Fertility intentions are then used as right-hand-side endogenous variables in equations that explain current contraceptive method choice." Data are from the 1988 Tunisian Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: S. H. Cochrane, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Source: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

61:30337 Hughes, Mary E.; Furstenberg, Frank F.; Teitler, Julien O. The impact of an increase in family planning services on the teenage population of Philadelphia. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 60-5, 78 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In an assessment conducted 30 months after a Philadelphia-area project increased the resources that community family planning agencies devoted to teenage services, teenagers in targeted communities showed no generalized improvement in rates of pregnancy and childbearing, in knowledge or use of clinic services, or in attitudes toward contraception compared with those of teenagers in the entire city. Samples of adolescents aged 14-18 from the clinics' catchment areas and from the entire city were interviewed in mid-1988, when the project's activities began, and 2.5 years later. The results suggest that while community family planning clinics may provide effective services to the teenagers who seek them out, they may not be the most effective strategy for decreasing rates of pregnancy and childbearing in the overall teenage population."
Correspondence: M. E. Hughes, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30338 Pratinidhi, A. K.; Kakrani, V. A.; Talwalkar, M. V.; Gupte, A. M. Evaluation of district family welfare activity by 30 cluster sampling method. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 16, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 96-103 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
The 30-cluster sampling method "was adopted in the present study for the assessment of family planning performance [in India] at the district level. Out of thirty clusters selected from Pune district, 12 (40%) clusters were urban and 18 (60%) clusters were rural. There were 688 women identified....The findings of the study revealed that there was no significant difference in proportion of women adopting permanent family planning methods in urban and rural areas."
Correspondence: A. K. Pratinidhi, B. J. Medical College, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Pune 1, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30339 Rasevic, Mirjana. Health aspects of the family planning program. [Zdravstveni aspekti programa za planiranje porodice.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 32, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 53-64 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses health aspects of family planning programs in both high- and low-fertility areas. Topics considered include child health, maternal health, indirect health effects of programs, and contraceptive use.
Correspondence: M. Rasevic, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30340 Smith, Jack C.; Franchino, Barbara; Henneberry, Joan F. Surveillance of family planning services at Title X clinics and characteristics of women receiving these services, 1991. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 44, No. SS-2, May 5, 1995. 1-21 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"[U.S.] public health surveillance data describing family planning services at Title X clinics and characteristics of women receiving these services during 1991 are contained in this report. These data update previously published information concerning characteristics of women and services at such clinics during 1981....The number and characteristics of family planning patients receiving services at Title X clinics during 1991 were similar to the number and characteristics during 1981. Furthermore, these results underscore the need to improve the quality and timeliness of family planning data and to facilitate program planning and operations at the grantee level."
Correspondence: J. C. Smith, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Mailstop K35, 4470 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30341 Tsui, A. O.; Hermalin, A. I.; Bertrand, J. T.; Knowles, J.; Stover, J.; Stewart, K. J. Evaluating family planning program impact: need initiatives on a persisting question. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1993. 133-54 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to identify needed initiatives to address the means by which the family planning program impact question can be answered more fully and completely. The paper begins by providing the historical context surrounding the question of family planning program impact and the variability of answers. It then identifies and discusses several major conceptual and technical development needs. It ends with a metaphoric illustration of family planning evaluation as a set of interconnected activities that must draw upon many data sources and utilize a range of indicators and analytic strategies."
Correspondence: A. O. Tsui, University of North Carolina, P.O. Box 2688, Chapel Hill, NC 27515-2688. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30342 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). A report on the analysis of the program and on strategy development: Morocco. [Rapport d'analyse du programme et d'elaboration de la strategie: Maroc.] No. 20, Pub. Order No. F/500/1993. ISBN 0-89714-168-7. 1993. vii, 52 pp. New York, New York. In Fre.
This report was carried out jointly by UNFPA's Technical Evaluation Division and the government of Morocco. It analyzes the country's population program, including current status and needs, past achievements, and recommendations for future action.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30343 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). A report on the mission to analyze the program and on strategy development: Tunisia. [Rapport de la mission d'analyse du programme et d'elaboration de la strategie: Tunisie.] No. 5, ISBN 0-89714-104-0. [1993?]. v, 35 pp. New York, New York. In Fre.
This report was carried out jointly by UNFPA's Technical Evaluation Division and the government of Tunisia. It analyzes the country's population program, including current status and needs, past achievements, and recommendations for future action.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30344 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Programme review and strategy development report: Egypt. No. 32, Pub. Order No. E/750/1994. ISBN 0-89714-213-6. 1994. viii, 59 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report presents results of an analysis for Egypt of "the current status and needs, assesses achievements of past population activities and recommends future action in terms of an overall national population strategy." It is one of a series of reports prepared in collaboration between UNFPA's Technical Evaluation Division and the government of Egypt.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30345 Vijayanunni, M. Policies, programmes and population change in India. ISBN 81-7018-826-1. 1995. vi, 204 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study attempts to identify the policies and programs that have had the most impact on the parameters of population change in India. "The main hypothesis of the study was that welfare programmes that are aimed at the development of the individual directly have a greater impact on population growth than other programmes that emphasize economic progress. The study compared the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the 14 major States which together account for more than 90 per cent of India's population. The study breaks with the traditional theory of demographic transition...[and] demonstrates that demographic transition is less a consequence of overall economic development than of welfare-oriented development providing basic modern amenities to the common man."
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing, D. K. Publishers Distributors (P), A-6 NIMRI Community Centre, Near Bharat Nagar, Delhi 110 052, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

61:30346 Al-Mubarak, Khalid A. A.; Adamchak, Donald J. Fertility attitudes and behavior of Saudi Arabian students enrolled in U.S. universities. Social Biology, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1994. 267-73 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This research examines the structural determinants (indirect indicators) of fertility attitudes and behavior among Saudi Arabian students studying in American universities. Specifically, this study examined the relationship between fertility attitudes and behavior, and background characteristics which included age, religiosity, education, income, length of stay in the U.S., and wife's age and wife's education. Results indicate a highly significant effect of religiosity as a major positive determinant of fertility attitudes. However, the major determinant of fertility behavior, the number of children respondents had, was wife's education which was negatively related with family size."
Correspondence: K. A. A. Al-Mubarak, Al-Imam Mohammed bin Saud Islamic University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30347 Hitesh, Jaimala. Traditional birth attendants: family planning awareness, attitudes and advocacy. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 40, No. 3, Sep 1994. 32-6 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"Traditional birth attendants in Rajasthan [India] were studied in order to determine their awareness of and attitudes to various methods of family planning, and the implications in relation to the family planning programme....Our study reveals that the knowledge of traditional birth attendants about male contraception...was quite low. Their attitude to family planning in general...was quite unfavourable....An unspoken fact for not favouring family planning could be the economical loss associated with advocating it."
Correspondence: J. Hitesh, Indian Institute of Health Management Research, 1 Prabhu Dayal Marg, Sanganer Airport, Jaipur 302 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30348 Hummer, Robert A.; Schmertmann, Carl P.; Eberstein, Isaac W.; Kelly, Susan. Retrospective reports of pregnancy wantedness and birth outcomes in the United States. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 76, No. 2, Jun 1995. 402-18 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"The purpose of this research is to examine the association between retrospectively reported pregnancy wantedness and three measures of birth outcome [in the United States]." Data are from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. "The analysis raises questions about the utility of using retrospectively reported pregnancy wantedness when analyzing determinants of infant mortality. More importantly, the analysis suggests that both sociodemographic factors and attitudes and behaviors are important for low birth weight and, indeed, that background characteristics may be of even greater significance than more proximate maternal attitudes and behaviors. Thus, it is important that the attitudes people have and the behavioral choices they make not eclipse a recognition of the constraints that they face."
Correspondence: R. A. Hummer, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, 126 Stubbs Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5411. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30349 Marleau, Jacques D.; Saucier, Jean-Francois. First child sex preferences of nonpregnant Canadian and Quebec women. [Preference des femmes canadiennes et quebecoises non enceintes quant au sexe du premier enfant.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 22, No. 2, Fall 1993. 363-72 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"All American research to date concerning the preferences of non-pregnant women indicate that the majority desire a boy as their first child. In Canada, the preference of non-pregnant women was derived with the help of the statistics found in the Inquiry into Fertility (1984). It appears that a larger proportion of women desire a child of the masculine sex as first-born (22% compared to 16% for a girl). However, 62% of all respondents declared having no preference."
Correspondence: J. D. Marleau, Universite de Montreal, Faculte de Medecine, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30350 Riedlberger, Irmela. Attitude of men toward family planning and possibilities of their increased participation in family planning programs. [Einstellung von Mannern zur Familienplanung und Moglichkeiten ihrer starkeren Einbeziehung in Familienplanungsprogramme.] BMZ Forschungsberichte des Bundesministeriums fur Wirtschaftliche Zusannenarbeit und Entwicklung, Vol. 108, ISBN 3-8039-0412-9. 1993. ix, 181 pp. Weltforum Verlag: Cologne, Germany. In Ger.
This study focuses on family planning attitudes and behavior of men in various cultures. Topics discussed include socioeconomic and cultural factors influencing fertility decisions, the availability of male contraceptive methods, approaches for motivating changes in behavior, and measures for increasing men's participation in the responsibility for family planning.
Correspondence: Weltforum Verlag, Marienburger Strasse 22, 50968 Cologne, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30351 Yu, Ping. Chinese youth favor one-child families. Population Today, Vol. 23, No. 4, Apr 1995. 4-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reports on a 1988 survey of 6,000 secondary school students in Sichuan Province, China, who were asked about their attitudes toward marriage age, family size, sexuality and family planning, and contraception. "High school students in China have apparently largely embraced the concept of the one-child family, want to delay marriage, and are eager to pursue higher education. Surprisingly, there was not much difference in attitudes between rural and urban teens. Most students expect to use birth control when they marry, but their current knowledge about sexuality and contraceptive methods tends to be low."
Correspondence: P. Yu, CSR Incorporated, 1400 Eye Street NW, Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30352 Zick, Kathleen D.; Xiang, Nina. Assessing the correlates of desired family size in Shaanxi, China. Social Biology, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1994. 150-67 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This exploratory analysis of factors associated with Chinese women's fertility desires uses data on married women between the ages of 18 and 35 who live in Shaanxi Province, China. Analyses using an economic framework found that both rural and urban couples who intended to sign, or who had already signed, the one-child certificate reported wanting significantly fewer children. However, in rural areas (where 80 per cent of the provincial population lives), educational level, living arrangements, participation in an arranged marriage, attitudes regarding the ideal age for marriage, and knowledge of the reasons for the government's fertility policies appear to play a relatively larger role in shaping fertility preferences."
Correspondence: K. D. Zick, University of Utah, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, 228AEB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

61:30353 Colon, Alice; Davila, Ana L.; Fernos, Maria D.; Lopez, Iris; Vicente, Esther. Abortion in Puerto Rico: a bibliographic review and an annotated bibliography. [El aborto en Puerto Rico: ensayo bibliografico y bibliografia anotada.] 1994. ix, 130 pp. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Centro de Investigaciones Sociales: Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico. In Spa.
This is a review of the current induced abortion situation in Puerto Rico. It includes a selection of bibliographic references to 67 relevant studies in English or Spanish, all of which have Spanish abstracts.
Correspondence: Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Rio Piedras, P.O. Box 23300, UPR Station, San Juan, PR 00931-3300. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30354 Cozic, Charles P.; Petrikin, Jonathan. The abortion controversy. Current Controversies Series, ISBN 1-56510-229-0. LC 94-28196. 1995. 284 pp. Greenhaven Press: San Diego, California. In Eng.
This book contains a selection of articles and excerpts from books on the abortion issue. The emphasis is on providing a wide range of opinions on a number of abortion-related issues. These include the morality of abortion, whether abortion rights should be protected or restricted, whether women should have greater access to abortion, the targeting of abortion clinics by protestors, and the use of aborted fetuses for medical research. The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Greenhaven Press, P.O. Box 289009, San Diego, CA 92198-9009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30355 Frejka, Tomas; Atkin, Lucille C. Induced abortion as a cause of maternal mortality in Latin America. [El aborto inducido como causa de mortalidad materna en America Latina.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 22, No. 60, Dec 1994. 255-68 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Due to the restrictive abortion legislation which operates in almost all Latin American countries, knowledge about the incidence of induced abortions, their associated complications and related mortality is unreliable and approximate....Based on Royston's method called the 'maternal mortality route', the authors estimate that the actual number of abortion-related deaths in Latin America is between 5 and 10 thousand per year. Thus, compared to the estimated 4 to 6 million annual induced abortions, the abortion-related mortality rate would range from 83 to 250 deaths per 100,000 abortions."
Correspondence: T. Frejka, UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30356 Guilbert, Edith; Marcoux, Sylvie; Rioux, Jacques E. Factors associated with the obtaining of a second-trimester induced abortion. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, Vol. 85, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 402-6 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study investigated the factors associated with the obtaining of a second-trimester induced abortion in women consulting the Family Planning Clinic of Le Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval in Quebec City, between September 6, 1988 and May 11, 1990. During the study period, 2,771 women obtained abortions at between six and 16 weeks of gestation in a multidisciplinary setting. Of 18 independent variables entered in a stepwise multiple regression analysis....ten variables explained 9.4% of the total variance in gestational age: being young; having a low level of education; living far from the clinic; having other children; having a sexually transmitted disease before the abortion; not using contraception or using oral contraceptives at the time of conception, or being sterilized or having a sexual partner who has had a vasectomy; having had few sexual partners in the year preceding the abortion; not having a significant relationship with a regular sexual partner; being ambivalent about the decision to abort; and having a delay between the first consultation with the clinic and the abortion."
Correspondence: E. Guilbert, Universite Laval, Centre Hospitalier, Clinique de Planification des Naissances, 2705 boulevard Laurier, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Quebec G1V 4G2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30357 Henshaw, Stanley K. Factors hindering access to abortion services. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 54-9, 87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article uses data from the Alan Guttmacher Institute's (AGI) 1993 Abortion Provider Survey to provide information on the percentage of [U.S.] women who travel long distances to obtain abortion services, the availability of abortion providers for women who need services during the second trimester of pregnancy, the need to make more than one trip to the abortion facility and the amount abortion providers charge for services. In addition, it presents a measure of antiabortion harassment of abortion providers, which also affects women seeking an abortion, and providers' views of the problems that cause them the most difficulty in offering their services." Findings indicate that "although abortion services are readily available in large urban areas to those able to pay...access to service is still problematic for many women because of barriers related to distance, gestation limits, costs and harassment. Among women who have nonhospital abortions, an estimated 24% travel at least 50 miles from their home to the abortion facility."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30358 Henshaw, Stanley K. The impact of requirements for parental consent on minors' abortions in Mississippi. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 3, May-Jun 1995. 120-2 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Mississippi data for 1993 indicate that the state's new parental consent requirement had little effect on the abortion rate among minors. In a comparison of Mississippi residents who had abortions during the five months before and the six months after the law went into effect, the ratio of minors to adults who sought abortions in the state declined by 13%, a decrease offset by a 32% increase in the ratio of minors to adults who obtained abortions out of state. There was also a 28% drop in the ratio of minors to adults from other states who had abortions in Mississippi. The parental consent requirement increased by 19% the ratio of minors to adults who obtained their procedure after 12 weeks of gestation."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30359 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Demographic characteristics of women applying for interruption of pregnancy in Israel, 1991. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 44, No. 11, Suppl., Nov 1993. 1-30 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
"This publication presents demographic data on women who applied for an interruption of pregnancy (induced abortion) in 1991 [in Israel], according to the penal law of 1977....The data are based on standard Ministry of Health and Central Bureau of Statistics forms which were filed in 1991 by women who applied to one of the committees for approval of pregnancy interruption."
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30360 Koonin, Lisa M.; Smith, Jack C.; Ramick, Merrell. Abortion surveillance--United States, 1991. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 44, No. SS-2, May 5, 1995. 23-53 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report summarizes and reviews information reported to CDC regarding legal induced abortions obtained in the United States during 1991....Since 1980, the number and rate of abortions have remained relatively stable, with only small year-to-year fluctuations....However, since 1987, the abortion-to-live-birth ratio has declined; in 1991, the abortion ratio was the lowest recorded since 1977. An increasing rate of childbearing may partially account for this decline."
Correspondence: L. M. Koonin, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Mailstop K35, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30361 Kulakov, V. I. Abortion and infertility in Russia. Planned Parenthood in Europe, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1995. 10-2 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the problem of increased abortion in Russia, with a focus on complications resulting from the procedure.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30362 Lema, Valentino M.; Kabeberi-Macharia, Janet W. A review of abortion in Kenya. LC 92-982862. Mar 1992. viii, 118 pp. Centre for the Study of Adolescence: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
Current knowledge on induced abortion in Kenya is reviewed using results from 59 recent studies, many of which are unpublished. "The authors review the current understanding of the subject from social, medical and legal perspectives, and then provide a detailed annotated bibliography of their sources. They conclude that the magnitude of the problem requires that urgent action be taken and recommend new lines of research and areas for policy and legal reform."
Correspondence: Centre for the Study of Adolescence, P.O. Box 19329, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:30363 MacKay, H. Trent; MacKay, Andrea P. Abortion training in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs in the United States, 1991-1992. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 3, May-Jun 1995. 112-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"According to a 1991-1992 survey of program directors of obstetrics and gynecology residency programs in the United States, the overall percentage of programs providing any training in first-trimester (70%) or second-trimester abortion (66%) has changed very little since 1985. However, the proportion of programs providing routine training in first-trimester abortion decreased from 23% in 1985 to 12% in 1991-1992, and the proportion providing routine training in second-trimester abortion declined from 21% to 7%. The majority of the programs that dropped routine abortion training continued to offer optional training, but residents in programs with optional training were less likely to receive training. More than 80% of programs in private, non-Catholic hospitals and public hospitals provided some form of abortion training in 1991-1992, but only 6% of programs in Catholic hospitals and no military programs did so. In 45% of programs offering abortion training, residents performed one or fewer abortions per week."
Correspondence: H. T. MacKay, University of California, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30364 Prasad, R. N. V.; Ratnam, S. S. Abortion--the Singapore perspective. Singapore Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul 1994. 185-92 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"Abortion was successfully legalized in Singapore in 1970. Although there was some expected initial resistance to the law, it was generally well accepted leading to its complete liberalization in 1975. This abortion on demand policy has been instrumental in helping the government achieve quickly the demographic goals it set for itself in its population control effort. Singapore's success is unique and may not be applicable to other developing countries where rural conditions and low literacy levels may hamper wide implementation of population policies."
Correspondence: R. N. V. Prasad, National University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30365 Sarkar, N. N. Legally induced abortion in India. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 16, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 142-50 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"The objective of this study was to reevaluate...legally induced abortion (LIA) in [India]....The cases of LIA increased...during 1980-88. A large proportion of the acceptors were in their twenties. About 35-50 per cent LIA cases were performed because of failure of contraceptive methods....Acceptance of LIA by a large number of younger women has shown that the concept of a small family is gaining importance."
Correspondence: N. N. Sarkar, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Reproductive Biology, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 100 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30366 Segers, Mary C.; Byrnes, Timothy A. Abortion politics in American states. ISBN 1-56324-449-7. LC 94-27735. 1995. viii, 279 pp. M. E. Sharpe: Armonk, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of 13 invited papers on aspects of abortion politics in the United States at the state level. Following an introductory chapter on the history of the abortion controversy in modern America, a selection of papers examines abortion politics in a representative selection of states. Two papers examine the pro-life and pro-choice movements at the national level, and a concluding chapter concerns the future of abortion politics.
Correspondence: M. E. Sharpe, 80 Business Park Drive, Armonk, NY 10504. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30367 Skjeldestad, Finn E. Induced abortion: timetrends and determinants. ISBN 82-519-1415-9. 1995. 66, [46] pp. University of Trondheim, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology: Trondheim, Norway; TAPIR: Trondheim, Norway. In Eng.
This doctoral thesis analyzes time trends in induced abortion in Norway from the adoption of abortion on demand in 1979 up to 1990. The report includes six published papers on aspects of abortion in Norway including the influence of age, marital status, and parity; the impact of demographic and social factors; repeat abortion; and the effect of contraception.
Correspondence: University of Trondheim, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 7006 Trondheim, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30368 Skjeldestad, Finn E. The incidence of repeat induced abortion: a prospective cohort study. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 73, No. 9, 1994. 706-10 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
The cumulative incidence of first and second repeat induced abortion in Norway is analyzed using data on 2,925 women who had abortions in Trondheim between 1987 and 1991. The author concludes that some level of repeat abortion is inevitable, and that "the incidence of repeat induced abortions doubled from the second to the third abortion, indicating that the moral threshold for choosing an abortion after recognition of an unplanned pregnancy is the first induced abortion."
Correspondence: F. E Skjeldestad, University Hospital of Trondheim, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 7006 Trondheim, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30369 Westley, Sidney B. Evidence mounts for sex-selective abortion in Asia. Asia-Pacific Population and Policy, No. 34, May-Jun 1995. 4 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
This report examines the evidence for the growth of sex-selective induced abortion in Asia, concentrating on topics discussed at a symposium held in South Korea in November 1994. "Participants discussed indicators of son preference, the incidence of sex-selective abortion, and policy responses in Asian countries."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

61:30370 Benefo, Kofi D. The determinants of the duration of postpartum sexual abstinence in West Africa: a multilevel analysis. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 2, May 1995. 139-57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The question of how postpartum sexual abstinence responds to social change in West Africa is important because declines in the practice could increase fertility levels and worsen child and maternal health. This study uses data from the late 1970s in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Cameroon to examine effects of modernization and women's status on the length of abstinence. The results show that modernization and female status should be associated with declines in abstinence, which could lead to an increase in fertility and deterioration in maternal and child health."
Correspondence: K. D. Benefo, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30371 Bohler, Erik; Bergstrom, Staffan. Premature weaning in East Bhutan: only if mother is pregnant again. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jul 1995. 253-65 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The relationship between breast-feeding and subsequent pregnancy in East Bhutan is examined, against the background of local attitudes to family planning. Ninety-eight mothers who had given birth 30-36 months earlier were interviewed....There was a significant association between the occurrence of a subsequent pregnancy and early termination of breast-feeding. The relationships between breast-feeding pattern and pregnancy interval are complex, and their relative influence changes with time. During the first year postpartum, infertility during lactational amenorrhoea is important. During the second year there is a strong negative effect on lactation from the next pregnancy. The only important reason for ceasing to breast-feed within 2 years seems to be a new pregnancy."
Correspondence: E. Bohler, Ullevaal Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, 0407 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30372 Gnoth, C.; Frank-Herrmann, P.; Freundl, G.; Kunert, J.; Godehardt, E. Sexual behavior of natural family planning users in Germany and its changes over time. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 11, No. 2, Jun 1995. 173-85 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"For 10 years, a prospective study has been taking place in Germany to examine the use of natural family planning (NFP)....We performed an analysis of the sexual behavior of NFP users....Nearly half of all the women systematically combine the fertility awareness part of NFP with other family planning methods....We could confirm the existence of three groups of NFP users, which differ significantly in their use of NFP as a family planning method. Despite these differences the low pregnancy rates indicate the conscious and risk-related sexual behavior of the group members."
Correspondence: C. Gnoth, Heinrich-Heine University of Dusseldorf, NFP Study Group, Universitatstrasse 1, 4000 Dusseldorf, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30373 James, William H. Coital rates and sex ratios in the South Pacific. Social Biology, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1994. 278-9 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
The author critically examines papers by A. A. Brewis and J. H. Underwood concerning the relationship between sex ratio and coital rates in Micronesia.
For the studies by Brewis and Underwood, both published in 1993, see 60:20520 and 20537, respectively.
Correspondence: W. H. James, University College London, Galton Laboratory, Wolfson House, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30374 Rao, K. V.; Demaris, Alfred. Coital frequency among married and cohabiting couples in the United States. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 2, Apr 1995. 135-50 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Coital frequency is studied among [U.S.] couples as a function of marital or cohabiting status, relationship duration, number of children, religious affiliation, income, education, fertility intentions, age, race, self-assessed health, time spent in work, and perceived relationship quality. Data are from the 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households. Predictors of coital frequency that were stable across several analyses were male and female's ages, the duration of the relationship, and the male partner's self-assessed health. When the discrepancy in partners' reports was adjusted, cohabitation status, number of children, future fertility intentions, religious affiliation, and relationship quality as assessed by the female partner were significant. The results suggest a substantial idiosyncratic component to the determination of coital frequency in relationships."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30375 Rutenberg, Naomi; Blanc, Ann K.; Kapiga, Saidi. Sexual behaviour, social change, and family planning among men and women in Tanzania. Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, Suppl., 1994. 173-96 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"There is significant variation in sexual behaviour among different population subgroups in Tanzania. This study documents differences in sexual behaviour patterns between men and women, residents of urban and rural areas, by level of education, and between condom users and users of other methods of family planning and non-users. The results also suggest that marital status as conventionally defined in demographic surveys is an inadequate proxy for exposure to sexual intercourse and the likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour."
Correspondence: N. Rutenberg, Futures Group International, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30376 Singh, K. K.; Suchindran, C. M.; Singh, R. S. Smoothed breastfeeding durations and waiting time to conception. Social Biology, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1994. 229-39 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Breastfeeding beyond the resumption of mother's menstruation plays a significant role in the proximate determinants of fertility. Breastfeeding and postpartum amenorrhoea data collected from retrospective surveys usually exhibit digit preferences. Here, these heaping errors were smoothed by B-spline and used in multivariate models of risk of conception to investigate the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding. The data used come from a 1987 Indian survey. Results show that lactation, after mother's menses resume, reduces the risk of conception. Heaping in breastfeeding data attenuates this relationship. When adjustment is made, breastfeeding reduced the rate of conception by 47 per cent; the reduction, with adjusted data, was 63 per cent."
Correspondence: K. K. Singh, Banaras Hindu University, Centre of Population Studies, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30377 Wang, Pair Dong; Lin, Ruey S. Sexual activity of women in Taiwan. Social Biology, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1994. 143-9 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper, we calculate a base line of statistical data on the frequency of sexual activity at various ages of Taiwanese women. A cross-sectional study using questionnaires administered during personal interviews was conducted on more than seventeen thousand women who attended family planning clinics in the Taipei metropolitan area in 1991 and 1992. Of the women surveyed, 2.8 per cent were sexually inactive in the previous month, 83.67 per cent had intercourse one to nine times in the previous month, and 13.56 per cent had intercourse ten times or more....Increased sexual frequency was associated with the following factors: young age, unmarried, lower educational level, fewer years of marriage and being on the pill. When logistic regression was used to control for confounding variables, we found that a woman's age is the most significant factor in predicting her sexual frequency."
Correspondence: P. D. Wang, Taipei Wanhwa District Health Center, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

61:30378 Da Molin, Giovanna. Foundlings and wet nurses in Italy, sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. [Torvatelli e balie in Italia, secc. XVI-XIX.] Saggi e Ricerche, No. 6, 1994. 665 pp. Cacucci Editore: Bari, Italy. In Ita.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Bari, May 20-21, 1993, on the abandonment and subsequent fostering of children in Italy in times past. The first part contains 11 papers in which regional case studies are presented illustrating the demographic and social characteristics of the treatment of foundlings; the second part has 7 papers devoted to the archival and literary sources of data available. Topics covered include causes of infant abandonment, where foundlings settled, changing attitudes toward children, changing demographic trends, and variations in fertility rates.
Correspondence: Cacucci Editore, Via Cairoli 140, 70122 Bari, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30379 Murray, Charles. Does welfare bring more babies. Public Interest, No. 115, Spring 1994. 17-30 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author develops the hypothesis that white illegitimacy is becoming a major social problem in the United States and "that the ensuing social deterioration in lower-class communities may be as devastating for whites in the 1990s as it was for blacks in the 1960s. The centerpiece of my solution [is] to abolish all federal support for single women with children." The focus is on the relationship between welfare and illegitimacy.
Correspondence: C. Murray, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1150 17th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

61:30380 Ventura, Stephanie J. Births to unmarried mothers: United States, 1980-92. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 21: Data on Natality, Marriage, and Divorce, No. 53, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 95-1931. ISBN 0-8406-0507-2. LC 95-17424. Jun 1995. iv, 55 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"Trends and variations in births to unmarried women for 1980-92 [in the United States] are presented by demographic characteristics including age, race, Hispanic origin, and educational attainment of mother, and live-birth order. Health aspects of nonmarital childbearing are discussed, including prenatal care, smoking, maternal weight gain, and infant birthweight. Social and behavioral factors affecting the incidence of nonmarital births are described."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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