Volume 61 - Number 2 - Summer 1995

N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models

Studies concerned with demographic methods and with methods from other disciplines that have been applied to demographic data as a whole. Includes mathematical demography and studies on methods of estimation and indirect estimation. Methodological studies and models concerned with one demographic variable, such as migration, are coded under the category concerned with that topic and cross-referenced to this heading. Studies on models used to investigate relationships between demographic variables and for the analysis of empirical data are also coded under this heading.

61:20787 Akkerman, Abraham. Sameness of age cohorts in the mathematics of population growth. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 45, 1994. 679-91 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Considering age groups as part of cohorts, implicit in LLM [a Leslie-Lotka finitist model], causes difficulty, manifested by the extensionality paradox. The proposition made here was that cohorts are empirical temporal entities, while age groups are theoretical entities, references only. Cohort is a multitude of persons born at the same time interval, throughout the totality of their lives. Age group, on the other hand, is a concept only, constituted by the notion of the age interval....A model of household and population growth based on the household composition matrix yields results that are inherently different from these of LLM."
Correspondence: A. Akkerman, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Geography, 283C Arts Building, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0W0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20788 Bah, Sulaiman. A technical note on problems encountered in using SPSS/Pc+ to extract information from DHS data files: the case of "children ever born" and "children dead" Population Studies Program Demographic Working Paper, No. DWP/005/95, [1995]. 12 pp. University of Zimbabwe, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Program: Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
"This paper aims to highlight some of the problems encountered in using SPSS/Pc+ to extract information from DHS data on 'children ever born'...by women of reproductive ages (15-49) and the 'sons dead'...and 'daughters dead'...among those children." The data used are from the 1988 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey. The author proposes an alternative way to extract this information for use in estimating levels of infant and child mortality.
Correspondence: University of Zimbabwe, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Program, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20789 Courgeau, Daniel; Najim, Jamal. Analysis of incomplete event histories. [Analyse de biographies fragmentaires.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 149-68 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Some sources of longitudinal data...contain fragmentary demographic information. This article describes methods for analysing such biographies and discusses what assumptions are required to give correct estimations. The validity of these assumptions is tested using complete retrospective data from [a French] survey on family, professional and migratory data artificially fragmented in the same way as observed in incomplete sources. This opens up the possibility of using fragmentary data to estimate the correct lengths of residence, particularly in the field of geographic and professional mobility."
Correspondence: D. Courgeau, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20790 Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero. Statistical association and standardization. [Associazione statistica e standardizzazione.] Fonti e Strumenti, No. 3, 1994. 105 pp. Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This report introduces the statistical methodologies of both direct and indirect standardization and their application to data analysis. Chapters are also included on log-linear models and standardization, and on differences in distribution. The work concludes with examples of the application of standardization to the analysis of mortality data for Italy and Norway, and of fertility data for a number of developing countries.
Correspondence: Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20791 Das Gupta, Prithwis. Recomputation of age-adjusted death rates and age-sex-adjusted birth rates for the United States, 1940-1990. Genus, Vol. 49, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 165-76 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Many authors have examined whether the National Center for Health Statistics should continue to use the 1940 U.S. population as the standard for the computation of age-sex-adjusted birth rates and age-adjusted death rates, or replace it by a more recent population. It is shown that standardization by using a single population as the standard leads to internally inconsistent results. The standardization technique suggested in this paper not only generates internally consistent rates, but also puts an end to the continuing debate as to which one of the actual populations should be used as the standard. The technique is applied to the U.S. data to recompute the adjusted birth and death rates for the years 1940-1990."
Correspondence: P. Das Gupta, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20792 Das Gupta, Prithwis. Standardization and decomposition of rates from cross-classified data. Genus, Vol. 50, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 171-96 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Social scientists have traditionally used the technique of direct standardization to eliminate the compositional effects from the overall rates. The technique of decomposition deals with finding the additive contributions of the effects of the differences in the compositional or rate factors in two populations to the difference in their overall rates. The subjects of standardization and decomposition are strictly linked. The paper provides explicit expressions for the standardized rates and the effects of the factors involved, when the rates are calculated from cross-classified data. The techniques are illustrated by numerical examples, and a general program is provided for data up to six factors."
Correspondence: P. Das Gupta, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20793 Ogaz Pierce, Hector. The Gompertz-Makeham function in the description and projection of demographic phenomena. [La funcion de Gompertz-Makeham en la descripcion y proyeccion de fenomenos demograficos.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1991. 485-520, 779 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The main aim of this article is to examine the application of [the Gompertz-Makeham mathematical function] in detail, and more specifically, its mathematical formulation and development. Another objective is to test an iterative method for obtaining parameters, by which one may obtain an optimal function best describing the behavior of a population in the face of demographic phenomena. This study was conducted with [Mexican data on] population growth and...structures by age of fertility and the labor force."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20794 Openshaw, S.; Rao, L. Algorithms for reengineering 1991 census geography. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 27, No. 3, Mar 1995. 425-46 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The availability of GIS [geographic information systems] technology and digital boundaries of census output areas now makes it possible for users to design their own census geography. Three algorithms are described that can be used for this purpose. An Arc/Info implementation is briefly outlined and case studies presented to demonstrate some of the results of explicitly designing zoning systems for use with 1991 [U.K.] census data."
Correspondence: S. Openshaw, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20795 Oskamp, Anton. LOCSIM: a microsimulation approach to household and housing market modelling. PDOD Paper, No. 29, Mar 1995. 21 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper deals with a simulation model (LOCSIM-local simulation) of the housing market which operates at local levels and on short terms." The emphasis is on the feedback between population dynamics and the housing market, and particularly how migration and changes in household structure over the life cycle affect the demand for housing. The geographical focus is on the Netherlands.
Correspondence: A. Oskamp, University of Amsterdam, Department of Planning and Demography, Amsterdam Study Centre for the Metropolitan Environment, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20796 Otani, Kenji. Fitting some curves to cohort-marriage-age distribution. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 14, May 1991. 67-73 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author examines methodological issues concerning the analysis of cohort-marriage-age distributions.
Correspondence: K. Otani, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho 3-chome, Suita-shi, Osaka 564, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

61:20797 Sardon, Jean-Paul. Coale indexes, comparative indexes, mean generation, fluctuation indicators, and components. [Indices de Coale, Indices comparatifs, generation moyenne, indicateur conjoncturel et composantes.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 170-6 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines how the Coale fertility indexes and other indexes developed at Princeton can be applied to the study of various historical demographic issues.
Correspondence: J.-P. Sardon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20798 Suzuki, Toru. Graph of marriage chains: mathematical basis of Hirosima's model. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 15, May 1992. 63-8 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author discusses the mathematical concepts on which the marriage model developed by Kiyosi Hirosima is based.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

61:20799 Williamson, P.; Rees, P.; Birkin, M. Indexing the census: a by-product of the simulation of whole populations by means of SAS and SAR data. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 27, No. 3, Mar 1995. 413-24 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Amongst the new output formats adopted for the 1991 [U.K.] census were the Small Area and Local Base Statistics tables and the Samples of Anonymised Records. During an attempt to combine these data sources to estimate whole populations, a need was recognised for a computer algorithm to aggregate SAR data flexibly into LBS and SAS table look-alikes. This paper is a report on progress in the development of such an algorithm, including the concomitant development of a meta-database of census tables and variables required as an input to the algorithm. Out of this work a user-friendly, freely disseminable version of the census meta-database has been created, of interest to all census users."
Correspondence: P. Williamson, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).


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